Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee

ssEOAA Eaoa?eia Iee?aia

OAeE 631.158:658.3.014-055.2

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy

? aeei?enoaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.09.01 – aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea i?aoe?,

nioe?aeueia aeiiii?ea ? iie?oeea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 199929

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai??

aa?a?ieo iaoe.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

NOAOAIEI Aaeaioeia
Na?a??aia,

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI
Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii
aeaiia?ao?? ?

a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AIIAeA? ?ioa?ia
Ean’yi?aia,

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee
aeiiii?/iee

?inoeooo I?i?noa?noaa
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo
i?iaeai i?aoe?, iie?oeee

aeioiae?a ?
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?

IAAEIANUeEA Iaae?y
Ieaenaiae??aia,

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee
aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo i?aoe?

oa caeiyoino?
ianaeaiiy I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe?

oa nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee Oe?a?ie ? IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo
i?iaeai ca?ia?oii? ieaoe

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI
Oe?a?ie

IE?IAEEIA Na?a?e
?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo
oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei

i?e ?aae?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie

Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y – Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

(eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa), i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.150.02 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a (eaiaeeaeaoa) iaoe
a ?inoeooo? aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252011, Ee?a — 11, aoe.
Iaiana Ie?iiai, 26.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 22 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A.i. a/aiiai nae?aoa?y

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I?ieiia ?.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaaoooy Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino? ?
a?aeiia?aeii caii/aoeoaaiiy i?ioeano noai?aiiy naiiaeinoaoiueiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa ?icaeoie aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noai?ththoue iioaioe?eii
iiceoeai? ia?aaeoiiae aeey aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa,
aoiaiiiai noaaeaiiy aei ethaeae, iie?auaiiy oiia ?o o?oaeiai?
ae?yeueiino?, i?aeaeuaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy oa iie?ioaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
noaiiaeua eiaeiiai eiai /eaia. Iniaeeai aaeee? iaae?? ia iie?ioaiiy
naiai nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua iathoue n?euenuee? ae?iee, cie?aia caeiyo?
a aa?a?i?e noa??.

Iaeiae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia e?eca, ui ioiieea an? noa?e
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae, i?ecaaea aei aeeaieeo nioe?aeueieo c?ooaiue
o noni?euenoa?, ?oeiaoe?? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ciaioaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? a oe?e aaeoc?,
cieaeaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy naeyi, caaino?aiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii? e?ece ia
nae? ? caoaeaiiy i?e?iaeii? iniiae oa iia??oaiiy ye?nieo ia?aiao??a
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, iniaeeai ae?ii/eo, a caaaeii – aei nioe?aeueiiai
caiaiaaeo oe?a?inueeiai naea.

Iniiaieie i?e/eiaie oaeiai noaiiaeua ? a?aenooi?noue iioeiaeueiiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ? iiaeaeueoa ?oeiaoe?y neeaaeiaeo aeiiii?/iiai
iioaioe?aeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa iaaeiioe?iea eiai iniiaiiai
aeaiaioo ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a. Oiio ?aoi?ioaaiiy ae?iaie/i-o?oaeiaeo
a?aeiinei o oe?e ? iia’ycaieo c iath aaeocyo ia a?aeiia?aeathoue
niiae?aaiiyi naeyi. Aeaiiioeyoe?y, ui c 1979 ?. ioiieea n?euenueeo
i?noeaa?noue Oe?a?ie, c eiaeiei ?ieii iaaoaa? ana caa?iceea?oiai
oa?aeoa?o, o?ainoi?ioth/enue a iaeno?aoi?oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia yaeua
aeey iaoiai naeyinoaa aeie?aiiy oe?a?inueeiai naea. No/aniee ??aaiue
ia?iaeaeoaaiino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy iaeieae/ee ca aanue ia??iae
?nioaaiiy Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae na?aae e?a?i eieeoiueiai ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco. Iei? naeyiea ca aanue ae?oi?iaeiee ia??iae iiaea ia?iaeeoe eeoa
1,6 aeeoeie, ia?iaeaeoaai?noue o n?euenueeeo aaeiia?aoe?yo ia caaacia/o?
iaa?oue i?inoiai a?aeoai?aiiy ethaeiino?. Caaaeuei? eiao?oe??ioe
ia?iaeaeoaaiino? ooo aei 1989 ?. aoee ieae/?, i?ae o i?noao, a
nia?oiino? ? ca?ac aeu?. Aeaaeae? /ano?oeie noathoue iaeiiae?oi?noue ?
aacae?oi?noue n?iae, ca?eueoo?oueny /enei iicaoethaieo ae?oae.
A?aeaoaa?oueny ?ioaineaia noa??iiy naeyi. Aeaiiioeyoe?y o n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? c ?ieo a ??e iineeth?oueny. Eeoa ca inoaii? i’youe ?ie?a
i?e?iaeiee oaooie ianaeaiiy c??n iaeaea aaeai?. ??aaiue nia?oiino?
oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa iaeaeuee na?aae e?a?i No?aeii? ?a?iie.

Ia ?aae?niei aa/eoueny ? iaeaooi? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea e aa?a?ii?
noa?e. ?o i?e?iaeia iniiaa n?euenueea ianaeaiiy aoaea ? aeae?
e?euee?nii ciaiooaaoenue. I?e/iio oea ciaioaiiy a?aeaoaaoeiaoueny,
aieiaiei /eiii, a ?acoeueoao? nei?i/aiiy /enaeueiino? in?a
aeii?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo. E?eciaa aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? coiiaeea ia eeoa caoaeaia a?aeoai?aiiy naeyinoaa, a e
iia??oaiiy ye?nieo ia?aiao??a n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ? o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a naea oa aa?a?ii? noa?e. I? iie?ioaiiy oiia i?aoe?, i? ??
aoiai?caoe?? ?aaeueii ia a?aeaoaa?oueny. E?ecia? yaeua a aeaiia?ao?/i?e
neooaoe?? ia nae? ? ?acoeueoaoii oyaeeiai nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua naeyi,
iniaeeai ae?iie aa?a?ii? noa?e. O?aa?ci ?o noaiiaeua iieyaa? a
iacaaeia?eueiiio noai? caei?ia’y, a ia?aae/aniiio noa??ii? aiane?aeie
ae?iaie/iai ? nioe?aeueiiai ia?aaaioaaeaiiy, a aeaoi?ioaaii?
aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?aeaaeo n?i’? o iai?yi? iaaei??iiai ciaioaiiy aaaeaii?
e?eueeino? ae?oae.

?ica’ycaiith i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue oi?ioaaiiy ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, iie?ioaiiy noaiiaeua ae?iee ia
?eieo i?aoe? i?enay/ai? ?iaioe aaaaoueio a/aieo. O aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie, ?ic?iaeo oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo, i?eeeaaeieo ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aniaeo?a o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? a aa?a?iiio naeoi??
aeiiii?ee aaaiiee aianie c?iaeee oe?a?inuee? a/ai?: N.?. Aaiaeo?,
Ae.I. Aiaeiy, ?.E. Aiiaea?, I.A. Aoaooeueeee, I.O. Aaeiae/aiei,
A.N. Ae??nia?ia, I.?. Aeieeoi?e, N.?. Aei?iaoioeia, I.?. Caei?iaoeia,
N.I. Ceoiei, TH.?. E?aniia, A.?. Eoiaeiaa, A.I. E?aaiiaa,
A.?. Eeoeeaiei, ?.?. Eioioeueeee, ?.?. Eoe?iia, I.?. Ieaei?e,
E.A. Iieaeiaai, A.A. Ii?e??iei, I.I.Iaaeianueea, E.N. Ianoaaa?,
N.?. Ie?iaeeia, A.I. I?neoiia, ?.A. I?ieiia, A.A. ?aae/aiei,
I.O. Naaeoe, ?.O. Noaiaiaiei, A.N. Noaoaiei, A.N. Ooiiia I.A. Oaeaiei,
E.I. Oaiioueei, A.A. Oaaoeue, ?.?. Oiaeae?anueeee, I.?. Oii?a,
A.A. TH?/eoei oa ?io?, a oaeiae a/ai? aeecueeiai oa aeaeaeiai
ca?oa?aeaey: A.A. Aoaianue?a, A. Aeoia?a, E.?. Aieueae?i, N. Ea?ioo?i,
A.A. Einoaeia, A.N. Eioey?, A.O. Iaoaieia, A.I. Iicaeiyeia,
A.?. ?iiaithe, A. ?innao, ?.N. ?onaiia, A.N. No?oiee?i, I.ss. Nii?i,
A. O?eue?ica, A.ss. *o?aeia, ss.?. *a?eanueeee, A.?. Oiaeueia oa ?io?.

Aeine?aeaeaiith i?noey ae?iee a noni?euenoa? oa ?? o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei o
nenoai? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?eieo i?aoe? aaaaoi oaaae i?eae?eeee
?.A. Aaa?iaa, N. Aiaoa?, AE. AEaee?, O.A. Iaoeea, N.I. Aaneeaiei,
E.A. Eiaaiiaa, E. Iaee?, A.A. ?aae/aiei, A.?. ?iiaithe, I.I. Naoa?iaa,
E.I. Niiey?, A.N. Noaoaiei, A. Ntheea?i, A.I.Oeoa?aiei, E.A.*oeei,
I.A. Oeoeai oa ?io?.

Iaeiae o i?aoeyo a?eueoino? a/aieo ae?iee a iniiaiiio ?icaeyaeaeenue
eeoa ye iin?? ?iai/i? neee ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aaeocae
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ia??aeei aac iaeaaeii? oa’ycee ?o o?oaeiaeo
a?aeiinei ii noai?aiith niiaeeaieo aa?oinoae, cania?a aei aeeooy c
iaoa?einoaii ? aeoiaaiiyi i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy oa ioe?iee ?o
nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua a noni?euenoa?. Ui ae aei ae?iie, caeiyoeo a
aa?a?iiio naeoi??, oi ?o iaaeaenieoaoaoe?y a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?
? iaethaenuee? oiiae i?iaeeaaiiy a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? a noa?aioei?
noaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa aei naeyiee, iniaeeai eieainiieoe?, ni?eeiaeenue
ye ii?iaeueia yaeua ? iaeaea ia aeine?aeaeoaaeenue, iacaaaeath/e ia
aeooaeuei?noue cacia/aieo i?iaeai. O e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?aeao, a
io?oe?eieo aeieoiaioao ? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo caeiyo? a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? naeyiee yeui e ?icaeyaeaeenue, oi eeoa ye iin?? ?iai/i?
neee, c iaoith ?o a?eueoiai caeo/aiiy aei noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa aeey
aaciieaoii? aai iecueeiiiea/oaaii? i?aoe?.

Iaiao?aei?noue eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy ?
aeei?enoaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e a noni?eueiiio
ae?iaieoeoa? ? n?iaeii-iiaooia?e noa??, aeeth/ath/e aeaiia?ao?/iee
aniaeo, ?ic?iaea i?iiiceoe?e uiaei iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua
naeyiee coiiaeee aea?? oaie ? no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. A iniiao
aeena?oaoe?? iieeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a,
i?iaaaeaieo a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI (1969-1997 ??.).
Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeenue ca?aeii c oaiaoe/ieie ieaiaie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ? aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c aeeiiaiiyi
iaeeiaaeoeyoe aea?aeaaieo ? aaeocaaeo i?ia?ai, o oiio /ene? a inoaii?
?iee: i?iaeaia 06. “Nioe?aeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie naea ia
1991-1995 ??. (oeo? oaie ?0194E017602); i?iaeaia 01.03. “?ic?iaeoe
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ? ineoieia?/i? iniiae ?icaeoeo aa?a?ii? iie?oeee”
1997-2000 ??. (oeo? oaie ?0197U013876).

E??i oiai, aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeenue ca?aeii c aeeiiaiiyi
caaaeaiue-caiiaeaiue I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie, o
oiio /ene? ainiaeiaiai?o ? 1606 a?ae 15 aa?aciy 1990 ?. “?ic?iaeoe
eiioeaioe?th iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia i?aoe? ? iiaooo
ae?iie, caeiyoeo a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? AIE O?N?”; ainiaeiaiai?o c
Ee?anueeei iaeaeeiieiiii (c i?iaeai o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea);
Ee?aieiaeiiai/ainiii (uiaei caeo/aiiy ?iai/i? neee a i?ei?nuee? aa?a?i?
i?aei?e?inoaa), a oaeiae c Aea?aeaaiei Eii?oaoii iaoee ? oaoi?ee
(eiieo?nia oaia “A?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e).
O/anoue caeiaoaa/a o aeeiiaii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o aea?aeaaii?,
ainiaeiaia??ii? oa ?ioi? oaiaoeee a?aeia?aaeaia o iaoeiaeo ca?oao.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
?ic?iaea iaoeiai-iaoiaeieia?/ieo, eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae ? i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei oi?ioaaiiy oa aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy nenoaie
i?aai?caoe?eieo, aeiiii?/ieo ? i?aaiaeo oi?i ? iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy
o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? aeey icaei?iaeaiiy ooo
aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? oa oaei? aeoea?caoe?? iie?oeee oi?ioaaiiy
ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy a
noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? ? n?iaeii-iiaooia?e noa??, yea a aeiei??iii
iie?iooaaea nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua naeyiee a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Iinoaaeaia iaoa aeiaaaea ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

· ae?iaeoe a?eueo aeeaiea ?icoi?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???
“o?oaeia? ?ano?ne”;

· iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a oa iniaeeainoae i?aoe? ae?iie o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?;

· ?icaeyiooe ?noi?e/i? aniaeoe nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua ae?iie o
eiioaeno? o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei ? i?noey ae?ii/i? i?aoe? a noeoii?e i?aoe?
naeyi;

· aeine?aeeoe eiei ieoaiue, ui ?ice?eaathoue nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i?
ia?aaeoiiae a?aeoai?aiiy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ? eiai o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a oa aecia/eoe i?noea ? ?ieue ae?iie o oeeo i?ioeanao;

· cae?enieoe aiae?c i?e?iaeiiai ? iaoai?/iiai ?ooo n?euenueeeo ae?iie
oa ?o aianeo o oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ?
aa?a?ii? noa?e;

· aeaoe ioe?ieo aeeiai?ee /enaeueiino? n?euenueeeo ae?iie, ?o a?eiai?
no?oeoo?e oa aieeao oeeo oaeoi??a ia aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeuei? i?ioeane a
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ? oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e;

· aea/eoe aeaiia?ao?/iee ?aeaae n?euenueei? ae?iee uiaei aaaeaii?
e?eueeino? ae?oae a n?i’?, eiai aeeiai?eo, ?aae?caoe?th ? aianie o
oi?ioaaiiy n?euenueei? ?iaeeie oa aei??yoe aieea
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia aeaiia?ao?/io iiaaae?ieo
n?euenueeeo ae?iie;

· iaa?oiooaaoe caaaeueiiiaoiaee/i? oa aaiaea?iee i?aeoiaee aei aea/aiiy
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, aecia/eoe ?o aaniethoio
aaee/eio, aeeiai?eo ? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie;

· ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio ye?nieo iieaciee?a o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy ? aa?a?ii? noa?e oa aea/eoe ?o no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino?;

· aei??yoe caeiyo?noue ae?iie o eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao ? iniaenoiio i?aeniaiiio ainiiaea?noa? oa aecia/eoe ?o
noia?ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ii ae?iaieoeoao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe??;

· aeine?aeeoe oa aeaoe ioe?ieo oiiaai i?aoe? ae?iie o n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?;

· aea/eoe o?oaeiao ae?yeuei?noue o athaeaeao? /ano ae?iie aa?a?ii?
noa?e oa aecia/eoe ?o noeoiia noni?eueii iaiao?aeia a no/anieo oiiaao
iaaaioaaeaiiy o ae?iaie/?e ? n?iaeii-iiaooia?e noa?ao;

· ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee oi?ioaaiiy a?eueo ni?eyoeeaeo oiia
a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ? caeiyoino?
ae?iie o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?;

· ?ic?iaeoe ?aa?iiaeuei? aaeaine o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy ia ia??iae aei 2005 ?ieo;

· ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaioe?th iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia i?aoe?
? iiaooo ae?iie, caeiyoeo a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? oa eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe??
uiaei ?? ?aae?caoe??.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o?oaeia? a?aeiineie ae?iie, caeiyoeo o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio, ia ??ai?
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ieo cii ? iaeanoae, n?euenueeeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo
?aeii?a, aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa oa ?o ae?iaie/eo i?ae?icae?e?a,
aeine?aeaeoaai? a eiiieaen? c aeaiia?ao?/iei aniaeoii – i?noeai naeyiee
o a?aeoai?aii? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea ?
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – ae?ii/? o?oaeia? ?ano?ne aa?a?ii? noa?e ye
neeaaeiaa o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iieiaeaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, e?eoe/ia inieneaiiy, aiae?c oa neioac eiioeaioe?e
iaea?eueo aecia/ieo oe?e no/anii? aeiiii?/ii? iaoee uiaei o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a, o oiio /ene? ae?ii/eo, a?aeiia?aei? i?aoe? a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a
? nioe?ieia?a, caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, o?yaeia? ??oaiiy ? iinoaiiae,
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ??cieo ??ai?a oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie
a aa?a?i?e noa??. Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith – ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae i?ciaiiy
aca?iicoiiaeaieo i?ioean?a, ui aecia/athoue ?ieue ? i?noea naeyiee o
a?aeoai?aii? i?e?iaeii? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea ?
aa?a?ii? noa?e oa o noai?aii? iath niiaeeaieo aa?oinoae o n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eniaia ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy i?iaeai caaaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ? aeiiii?ee
aa?a?ii? i?aoe?, ui coiiaeei caeo/aiiy aei aiae?co oai??? aeiiii?/ieo ?
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei, a?aeiinei aeaniino?,
aeei?enoaiiy eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiae?a oe?a?inueeeo ? ca?oa?aeieo
a/aieo uiaei nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai ae?iie, nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei aiae?co ?o nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua oa iaoai?ci?a eiai
aeiei??iiiai iie?ioaiiy.

I?e i?aeaioiaoe? aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue no/ani?
caaaeueiiiaoeia? oa niaoeeo?/i? iaoiaee: ii??aiyeueii-aeiiii?/iee,
aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iee (a?oioaaiiy, aiae?c ?yae?a aeeiai?ee, ?iaeaene,
ni?anoaaeaiiy iieaciee?a, aeno?aiieyoe?y, aea??ea oa ?i.),
nioe?ieia?/iee aiae?c, aano?aeoii-eia?/iee, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee,
aenia?oieo ioe?iie oa ?i.

?ioi?iaoe?eia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaoaaee iia?aoeaia ? ??/ia ca?oi?noue
aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa on?o oi?i aeaniino?, iaoa??aee
nioe?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy iiiaae

60,5 oen. i?aoe?aiee?a 136 oeiiaeo eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa aeaa’yoe n?euenueeeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a ??cieo
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ieo cii ? iaeanoae Oe?a?ie, i?iaaaeaiiai a?aeae?eii
nioe?aeueii? oa aa?a?ii? iie?oeee ?inoeoooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI ca
i?ia?aiith oa aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth caeiaoaa/a, iaoa??aee aieaoiiai
ianoaaeaiiy caeiaoaa/ai 1516 n?euenueeeo ae?iie aeanyoe iaeanoae an?o
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ieo cii Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae caeiiiaeaa/? ? ii?iaoeai?
aeoe, ui i?eeiaeenue Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie, I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie,
Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, iaoa??aee Aea?aeeiinoaoo Oe?a?ie,
I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, I?iAIE Oe?a?ie, I?aeia?iaeii? i?aai?caoe??
i?aoe?, ?ioeo i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiia
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii? oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia oi?ioaaiiy
aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio icaei?iaeaiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe??,
?aaoethaaiiy oa iioei?caoe?? a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, o oiio
/ene? ae?ii/eo, a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? oa a aa?a?i?e noa?? AIE
Oe?a?ie, i?aaiaeo canaae oa i?aai?caoe?eiiai ?ino?oiaioa??th
caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa oa ?ioa?an?a naeyi ? i?aoe?aiee?a n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa noeoiiino? i?aeoe/ieo i?iiiceoe?e ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ui
ni?eyoeiooue a?aeoai?aiith iiaiioe?iiiai aeeoo?aiai na?aaeiaeua
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, iie?auaiith oiia i?aoe? ? iiaooo
ae?iie-i?aoe?aieoeue aa?a?ii? noa?e oa aeiei??iiiio iie?ioaiith ?o
nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua o ia?ao?aeiee aei ?eieo ia??iae. Iaea?eueo
aaaii? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iiaeciith, ?ice?eaathoue eia?eo oa iniiaio eiioeaioe?th aeena?oaoe??,
iieyaathoue o ianooiiiio:

· io?eiaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie o?aeooaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo
eaoaai??? “o?oaeia? ?ano?ne” c iiceoe?? a?aooaaiiy ?o aeaiia?ao?/ii?
neeaaeiai? oa aieeao noaio caei?ia’y ? ina?oe ae?iie ia e?euee?nio ?
ye?nio no?oeoo?o o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a;

· ?icaeyiooi nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ? aeaiia?ao?/i? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy
? aeei?enoaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e; ia iniia?
aaiaea?iiai i?aeoiaeo iaa?oioiaaii iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae ae?ii/i? i?aoe? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?;

· cae?eniaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?e/ieo ei?ai?a no/aniiai nioe?aeueiiai
noaiiaeua ae?iie o eiioaeno? o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei ? nioe?ieia?? ae?ii/i?
i?aoe?;

· aea/aii nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? ia?aaeoiiae a?aeoai?aiiy
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ye i?e?iaeii? iniiae o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii?
noa?e oa aecia/aii ?ieue ? i?noea ae?iee a aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueieo
i?ioeanao ? oi?ioaaii? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa;

· aeaii ioe?ieo aieeao aeeiai?ee /enaeueiino? n?euenueeeo ae?iie, ?o
a?eiaiai neeaaeo, i?e?iaeiiai ? iaoai?/iiai ?ooo naeyiie oa caeiyoeo a
aa?a?i?e noa?? ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ye?noue o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa;

· aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii aeaiia?ao?/iee ?aeaae ae?iee-i?aoe?aieoe?
aa?a?iiai naeoi?a, eiai ci?ie, ?aae?caoe?th oa aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy
n?euenueei? ?iaeeie; o oeueiio eiioaeno? ?icaeyiooi aieea
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, cie?aia iiaaae?iee /ieia?e?a o
n?i’?, ia aeaiia?ao?/io iiaaae?ieo n?euenueeeo ae?iie ? caa?aaeaiiy
?iaeeie;

· ia iniia? aaiaea?iiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a
aecia/aii /enaeuei?noue, aeeiai?eo oa no?oeoo?o o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea,
aa?a?ii? noa?e a oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i? ? iaeanoyo ca 1970-1997 ??.;

· ?ic?iaeaii nenoaio ye?nieo iieaciee?a o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ? aa?a?i?e noa?? oa iieaciee?a aeei?enoaiiy
?ano?n?a aeeai? i?aoe? a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?;

· aecia/aii /enaeuei?noue ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? a oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i?, ii eiaei?e i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i?e cii?
? iaeano? ca 1970-1997 ??.;

· cae?eniaii ioe?ieo yeino? ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e
ca ia?aiao?aie nioe?aeueiiai neeaaeo, ??aiy ina?oe, a?eiaiai oa
i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai neeaaeo a oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i?, ii eiaei?e
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i?e cii?, a ?anioae?oe? E?ei ? eiaei?e iaeano? ca
1970-1997 ??.;

· aia?oa aei??yii caeiyo?noue ae?iie o a?iiaaenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ? iniaenoiio
i?aeniaiiio ainiiaea?noa? naeyi ii ae?iaieoeoao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, oiaoi noia?ia ae?iaie/a
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?aoe?aieoe? aa?a?iiai naeoi?a;

· ia iniia? iiaeeaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? ae?iie o
noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? cae?eniaii ioe?ieo oiia ?o i?aoe? a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? oa aieeao oeeo oiia ia caei?ia’y ?
ae?oi?iaeio ae?yeuei?noue, ia oi?ioaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy ae?ii/eo
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa cae??ieaiiy iieiae? ia
nae? ? a aa?a?i?e noa??;

· aia?oa aei??yii noeoiia iaaaioaaeaiiy ae?iie, caeiyoeo a aa?a?i?e
noa??, uiaei cao?ao ?o i?aoe? o ae?iaie/?e ? n?iaeii-iiaooia?e noa?ao,
aecia/aia no?oeoo?a ?o aeiaiaiai athaeaeaoo /ano;

· ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee iie?ioaiiy a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a naea ? aa?a?ii? noa?e, o oiio /ene? ae?ii/eo, oa iioei?caoe??
caeiyoino? ae?iie o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?;

· ?ic?iaeaii ?aa?iiaeuei? aaeaine o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueei?
i?noeaaino? a oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i?, ?anioae?oe? E?ei oa ii eiaei?e iaeano?
ia ia??iae aei 2005 ?ieo;

· ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia
i?aoe? ? iiaooo ae?iie, caeiyoeo a aa?a?iiio naeoi??, a ye?e
iaa?oioiaaii iniiai? iai?yie iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua naeyiee
oa ae?iie-i?aoe?aieoeue aa?a?ii? noa?e ? caoiaee uiaei aeiei??iiiai
iie?auaiiy oiia ?o o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?
aaciina?aaeiuei ia ?iai/eo i?noeyo, a iniaenoiio i?aeniaiiio
ainiiaea?noa? oa n?iaeii-iiaooia?e noa??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ?o
aaciina?aaeiueiio ca’yceo c iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieie ?ic?iaeaie no?aoaa??
? oaeoeee aa?a?ii? iie?oeee uiaei aeaiia?ao?/iiai icaei?iaeaiiy ?
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai naea, a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a
aa?a?ii? noa?e oa iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua ae?iie. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, aeiaaaeai? aei ??aiy
iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie oa eiie?aoieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ui ai?iaaaeaeai? a
i?aeoeeo ainiiaea?thaaiiy. ?yae ?ic?iaie aeei?enoaii i?e ii?aoethaaii?
i?ia?ai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, aeey i?aeaioiaee
i?iaeo?a caeiiiaeaa/eo ? ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a c ieoaiue iie?ioaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo naeyi, ?ic?iaee iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo
iai?yi?a nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee uiaei naeyi oa caaacia/aiiy naea
o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie ia ia??iae aei 2005 ?. Cai?iiiiiaai? a ?iaio?
?aea?, iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee, iaoiaee/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e
canoiniaoaaeenue aeey i?aeaioiaee aeueie aeeiiaa/eie ? caeiiiaeaa/eie
i?aaiaie aeieoiaio?a aiae?oe/iiai, i?iaiinoe/iiai, i?ia?aiiiai,
ii?iaoeaiiai caeiiiaeaa/iai oa?aeoa?o, ni?yiiaaieo ia ae??oaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai naea.

Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieyaa? oaeiae a iaa?oiooaaii? iaiao?aeiino? ?icoe?aiiy i?e?iaeii?
iniiae oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ae?iie aa?a?ii? noa?e, ciaioaiiy ?o
o?oaeiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy o ae?iaie/?e ? n?iaeii-iiaooia?e noa?ao,
iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? ae?iie o noni?eueiiio
ae?iaieoeoa? c iaoa?einoaii ? aeoiaaiiyi i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy,
aeiei??iiiai iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua naeyiie a oiiaao
?eieiai? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??, cae?eniaiiy i?aeoe/ieo e?ie?a uiaei
noai?aiiy a aea?aeaa? aaaaoi??aiaai? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii
iie?ioaiiy a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea, o oiio /ene? ae?ii/eo,
?ic?iaee caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a uiaei iie?ioaiiy oiia i?aoe? ae?iie o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? ? i?aeaeuaiiy nioe?aeueiiai noaoono naeyiee.

Oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee ? ocaaaeueiaiiy, i?iiiceoe?? oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
oi?ioaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ae?iie aa?a?ii? noa?e ye
neeaaeiai? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea iieeaaeai? a iniiao aai aeei?enoai?
i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iiiaae 25 i?aai?caoe?eii-?icii?yae/eo ? ?aaeaiaioieo
aeieoiaio?a i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai ? ainiiaea?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy, o oiio
/ene? a 1997-1998  ??., a naia:

· iaoeiai? aeiiia?ae? “Nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua n?euenueei? ae?iee a
Oe?a?i?”, ia?aaeaii? I?iaa?ii?iio Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noao Oe?a?ie o
ni?aaao n?i’? oa iieiae?, Aieia? aa?a?ii? ia?o?? Oe?a?ie, 1997 ?.;

· i?iiiceoe?e uiaei iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua n?euenueei?
ae?iee a Oe?a?i?, iai?aaeaieo I?aceaeaioo Oe?a?ie, Aieia? Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noao i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie,
I?iaa?ii?iio Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noao Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao n?i’? oa iieiae?,
1998 ?.;

· ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ia?aae ??cieo ??ai?a, i?aeia?iaeieo nai?ia??a,
i?aeia?iaeieo oi?oi?a ae?eiaeo ae?iie Oe?a?ie, e?oaeeo noie?a, aenooi?a
ii oaeaaa/aiith oa ?i. i?ioyaii 1969-1998 ??. c i?iaeai aeaiia?ao?/ii?
neooaoe?? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e,
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo naea oa nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua n?euenueei?
ae?iee a Oe?a?i?.

Noi?ioeueiaai? a ?iaio? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee ?
i?iiiceoe?? aeiaaaeai? aei i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e (10 aeieoiaio?a),
iniiai? c yeeo aeeiiai? a 1993-1995 ??.:

· ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii nioe?aeueiiio ?icaeoeo naea a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, 1993 ?.;

· Iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee uiaei ?ic?iaee ia?niaeoeaieo ?aa?iiaeueieo
aaeain?a o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea, ui aeei?enoai? aeey neeaaeaiiy oaeeo
aaeain?a a oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i?, ii ?anioae?oe? E?ei ? eiaei?e iaeano? ia
ia??iae 1998-2000 ? 2001-2005 ??., ye? aa?eoee a i?iaeo Iaoe?iiaeueii?
i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? nioe?aeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy naea ia 1996-2005 ?iee, 1995 ?.

Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ca o/anoth aaoi?a aa?eoee aei
neeaaeo iiiaae aeanyoe iniiaieo i?ia?ai, o oiio /ene? aei “I?iaeoo
Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ?
nioe?aeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy naea ia 1996-2005 ?iee”, ?icae?ee: 2.3.1.
“I?iaiic iio?aae AIE ? nioe?aeueii? noa?e naea a o?oaeiaeo ?ano?nao”,
2.3.2. “?ic?iaea ?aa?iiaeueieo aaeain?a o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea”,
ia?aaeai? ea??aiei i?aaiai Oe?a?ie.

Ia aeooaeuei? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?o o ae?iaieoeoai ?
aeniiaee oa a?aeaoee aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie,
I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa Oe?a?ie o
ni?aaao n?i’? oa iieiae?, ?aaee ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?anueeiai iaeaeeiieiio, ie?aieo ?aeiiieo aa?ii?iieneiaeo
ia’?aeiaiue ? ainiiaea?noa, a oaeiae aeueo o/aiaeo caeeaae?a aa?a?iiai
i?io?eth, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

E??i oiai, aaoi?ii i?aeaioiaeaii ? iniaenoi ia?aaeaii caeiiiaeaa/ei
i?aaiai ?yae i?iiiceoe?e, iniiai? c yeeo ca 1990-1998 ??.:

16.10.90 ia nan?th Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ae?oaiai neeeeaiiy
“I?iiiceoe?? aei i?iaeoo caeiio “I?i i??i?eoaoi?noue nioe?aeueiiai
?icaeoeo naea ? aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?
Oe?a?ie”, a yeeo iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue i?eeiyooy caeiio uiaei
i?eueaiaeo oiia aeoiaeo ia iain?th ca a?eii ae?iie, ui i?aoeththoue o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. I?iiiceoe?? caeiiiaeaa/i ?aae?ciaai?
noiniaii aeiy?ie oa iia?aoi??a-naeia?ie, a oaeiae iaoai?caoi??a (noaooy
13 Caeiio Oe?a?ie i?i iain?eia caaacia/aiiy, 1992 ?.);

29.01.92 a Eii?n?th Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo AIE
ia?aaeaia aeiiia?aeia caienea “Iai?yie iie?ioaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia i?aoe? ? iiaooo ae?iie, caeiyoeo o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?”, aea iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue
i?eeiyooy caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia iieaaoaiiy i?aoe? ae?iie,
ia noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey ii?aeiaiiy ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?
naeyiie a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? c iaoa?einoaii ? aeoiaaiiyi
i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy, a oaeiae ia aeiei??iia iie?ioaiiy iiaooiaeo
oiia aeeooy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy.

?io? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee. Anueiai ea??aiei i?aaiai, a oaeiae iaeaniei ?
?aeiiiei oi?aae?iiyi n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa aa?a?iei
i?aei?e?inoaai ia?aaeaii iiiaae 300 iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie c i?iaeai
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, o oiio /ene? ae?ii/eo, ye
aaaeeeai? ?o neeaaeiai?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie uiaei
ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e ye noiniaii aeaiia?ao?/ieo
i?iaeai naea ? eiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, oae ? aeei?enoaiiy ae?ii/i? i?aoe? a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? oa nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua naeyiee a Oe?a?i?
i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo iaea?aeai? aeena?oaioii iniaenoi.

Aeinoia??i?noue oa iaa?oioiaai?noue iieiaeaiue, ?acoeueoao?a ?
i?eeeaaeieo i?iiiceoe?e aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny ?o
ocaiaeaeai?noth c oai?aoe/ieie, iaoiaeieia?/ieie ia?aaeoiiaaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, a?aeiia?aei?noth iaoeiaei
?ic?iaeai ? aeiiii?/iei a/aiiyi, aeei?enoaiiyi io?oe?eii? noaoenoe/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ? iaoa??ae?a nioe?ieia?/ieo ianoaaeaiue n?euenueeeo ae?iie,
a oaeiae aaaaoi?aciaith ia?aa??eith io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a o i?aeoeoe?
ieaioaaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
oa iaaiai?aiiyi o iaoeiaeo onoaiiaao, aea?aeaaieo i?aaiao oi?aae?iiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ? ii?eethaeiai? ia a?eueo ye 100
i?aeia?iaeieo, ananithcieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiaeo ?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, neiiic?oiao, ia?aaeao, nai?ia?ao,
e?oaeeo noieao, ?ioeo iaoeiaeo c?a?aiiyo, o oiio /ene? a 1993-1998 ??.:

· iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i?”,
i?aai?ciaai?e Eii?n??th Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue caei?ia’y
ethaeeie, a?aeae?eaiiyi aeiiii?ee AI Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaii ioi?iie
caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooii aeiiii?ee IAIO oa ?i., Ee?a, 1993 ?.;

· iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?aaiaa nenoaia Oe?a?ie: oai??y ?
i?aeoeea”, i?aai?ciaai?e I?aceae??th Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooii
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai AI Oe?a?ie, Aeaaeai??th i?aaiaeo
iaoe Oe?a?ie oa Ni?eeith th?eno?a Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1993 ?.;

· iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo nioe?ieia?? ia
no/aniiio aoai?” (oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? ieoaiiy) oa iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iieiaea n?i’y o e?eciaiio nioe?oi?”, i?aai?ciaai?e
Oe?a?inueeei iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei ?inoeoooii i?iaeai iieiae? oa
?inoeoooii nioe?ieia?? AI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1993 ?.;

· i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? aeiiii?no?a-aa?a?iee?a “Aa?a?i? ?aoi?ie a
e?a?iao NIAe, Oeaio?aeuei?e ? No?aei?e ?a?ii? i?e ia?aoiae? aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei”, i?aai?ciaaiiio I?in?eueainii?iaeii Oe?a?ie, OAAI, ?inoeoooii
aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee oa ?i., Ee?a, 1993 ?.;

· iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ?ioi?iaoecaoe??
aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei”,
i?aai?ciaai?e I?in?eueainii?iaeii Oe?a?ie, OAAI, ?inoeoooii aa?a?ii?
aeiiii?ee OAAI, OIOOe “Aa?ii?iinenoaia”, anioe?aoe??th
“Oe?aa?iiaoena?a?n”, Ee?a, 1995 ?.;

· iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Naei ia iao?e Oe?a?i? ? ae?iea a
i?i”, i?aai?ciaai?e Iaeaniith ni?eeith ae?iie, Anioe?aoe??th
ae?iie-oa?ia??a oa iaeaniith i?ioni?eeiaith i?aai?caoe??th i?aoe?aiee?a
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? i?e i?aeo?eioe?
I?ia?aie ?icaeoeo III a Oe?a?i?, Oa?e?a, 1996 ?.;

· iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ioi?iia iaoa?einoaa ? aeeoeinoaa a
Oe?a?i?. I?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae”, i?aai?ciaai?e EI Oe?a?ie, IIC Oe?a?ie,
o ni?ai?aoe? c Aea?aeeiinoaoii Oe?a?ie oa IAI Oe?a?ie ca ni?eyiiy c
THI?NAO, I?III, AIIC oa na?oiaiai aaieo, Ee?a, 1998 ?.;

· oino?e Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie
aaciaee oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? ia ii?ic? OO? noi??//y”, i?aai?ciaai?e
I?i?noa?noaii iai?iie Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe Oe?a?ie, Aea?aeaaiei
Eii?oaoii Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao iaoe?iiaeueiinoae oa i?a?aoe??, ?inoeoooii
ineoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie oa ?i., Ee?a, 1998 ?.;

· ??? I?aeia?iaeiiio Eiia?an? ae?iie, Ee?a, 1998 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaea?eueo nooo?a? oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoiaeieia?/i? ? iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee, aeniiaee ?
i?iiiceoe?? aaoi?a a?aeia?aaeai? a 222 ioae?eaoe?yo ianyaii iiiaae 210
ae?oe. a?e., o oiio /ene? a 25 eieaao ? iiiia?ao?yo, c ieo 2-o
iaeiiin?aieo (27,0 ae?oe. a?e.), 9 a?ioo?ao, c ieo 7 iaeiiin?aieo, 5
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo, 13 iaoiaeeeao ? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo, c ieo 5
iaeiiin?aieo, 2 eiioeaioe?yo, c ieo 1 iaeiiin?aia, 3 ii?iaoeaao, 73
iaeiiin?aieo noaooyo, a o/aiaiio iin?aieeo aeey nooaeaio?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaoi?eoi?a aeiiii?/iiai i?io?eth (13,8
ae?. a?e.), o/aiai-iaoiaee/iiio iin?aieeo aeey nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. O.A. Oaa/aiea
(4,6 ae?oe. a?e.), o/aiai-iaoiaee/iiio iin?aieeo aeey nooaeaio?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaoi?eoi?a aeiiii?/iiai i?io?eth (4,0
ae?oe. a?e.), a iaoa??aeao nai?ia??a ? ia?aae, oacao eiioa?aioe?e,
?ioeo ioae?eaoe?yo.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a
iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, caoaa?aeaeaieo AAE Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 276
iaeiaioaaiue ? aeeth/a? 84 oaaeeoe?, 4 ?enoiee, 51 aeiaeaoie. Iiaiee
ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 497 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, c ieo
oaaeeoe? caeiathoue 84 noi??iee, ?enoiee 4, nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae 21, aeiaeaoee 75, a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe?? – 31 noi??ieo.

Neeaaeia? /anoeie ?iaioe:

ANOOI

?icae?e 1. OAI?AOEEI-IAOIAeE*I? INIIAE AeINE?AeAEAIIss O?OAeIAEO
?ANO?N?A N?EUeNUeEIAI IANAEAIIss. 1.1. Nooi?noue, oa?aeoa? oa ci?no
i?iaeaie o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy; 1.2. Iaoiaee/i?
canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a oa iniaeeainoae
ae?ii/i? i?aoe? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?; 1.3. ?noi?e/i? ei?ai?
nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua ae?iie o eiioaeno? o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei;
Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 1.

?icae?e 2. AeAIIA?AO?*IA INIIAA OI?IOAAIIss AE?II*EO O?OAeIAEO
?ANO?N?A. 2.1. Nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? ia?aaeoiiae a?aeoai?aiiy
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e; 2.2.
I?e?iaeiee ? iaoai?/iee ?oo n?euenueeeo ae?iie oa ?o aianie o
oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa; 2.3.
Aeeiai?ea /enaeueiino? oa a?eiaiai neeaaeo n?euenueeeo ae?iie, ?o
aieea ia caaaeueiee ? niaoe?aeueiee eiao?oe??ioe ia?iaeaeoaaiino?; 2.4.
Aeaiia?ao?/iee ?aeaae n?euenueei? ae?iee, eiai ?aae?caoe?y oa aianie o
oi?ioaaiiy n?euenueei? n?i’?; 2.5. Aieea nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
oaeoi??a ia aeaiia?ao?/io iiaaae?ieo n?euenueeeo ae?iie; Aeniiaee aei
?icae?eo 2.

?icae?e 3. AE?II*? O?OAeIA? ?ANO?NE A NENOAI? O?OAeIAEO ?ANO?N?A NAEA
? AA?A?II? NOA?E. 3.1. O?oaeia? ?ano?ne n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy:
iaoiaeeea ?o aecia/aiiy, aaee/eia, aeeiai?ea oa no?oeoo?i? ci?ie; 3.2.
sse?noue o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ? aa?a?ii? noa?e;
3.3. No?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea ? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa; Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 3.

?icae?e 4. AEEI?ENOAIIss AE?II*EO O?OAeIAEO ?ANO?N?A A AA?A?I?E NOA??.
4.1. O?oaeiaa ae?yeuei?noue ae?iie o eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao; 4.2. Oiiae i?aoe? ae?iie o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?; 4.3. Aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? ae?iie a iniaenoiio
i?aeniaiiio ainiiaea?noa?; 4.4. O?oaeiaa ae?yeuei?noue o athaeaeao? /ano
naeyiee; Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 4.

?icae?e 5. EIIOeAIOOAEUeI? CANAAeE CAAACIA*AIIss NAEA O?OAeIAEIE
?ANO?NAIE OA IIE?IOAIIss NIOe?AEUeIIAI NOAIIAEUA AE?IIE AA?A?II? NOA?E.
5.1. ?aa?iiaeuei? aaeaine o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?:
iaoiaeeea ?ic?iaee oa i?iaiic ia ia??iae aei 2005 ?ieo; 5.2. Eiioeaioe?y
iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia i?aoe? ? iiaooo ae?iie,
caeiyoeo a aa?a?i?e noa??; 5.3. ?aae?? oa a?iioace iie?ioaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua naeyiie oa oiia i?aoe? ae?iie aa?a?ii? noa?e;
Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 5.

AENIIAEE.

NIENIE AEEI?ENOAIEO AeAEA?AE.

AeIAeAOEE.

A?AeIIINO? I?I AI?IAAAeAEAIIss INIIAIEO IIEIAEAIUe AeENA?OAOe??.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi nooi?noue, oa?aeoa? oa ci?no eaoaai???
“o?oaeia? ?ano?ne”, iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?ii/eo
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ? iniaeeainoae ae?ii/i? i?aoe? oa ?noi?e/i? aniaeoe
nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua ae?iie o eiioaeno? ?o o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei ii
noai?aiith niiaeeaieo aa?oinoae, cania?a aei aeeooy. O?oaeia? ?ano?ne
?icaeyaeathoueny o aeaio aniaeoao: nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?
iae?eiai-noaoenoe/iiio. sse nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y, o?oaeia?
?ano?ne, a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii?, – oea /anoeia ianaeaiiy, ui caeaoia aei
naiia?aeoai?aiiy ? noai?aiiy cania?a aei aeeooy. O aocueeiio
?icoi?ii? /anoeia ianaeaiiy, ui caeaoia noai?thaaoe a i?ioean?
ae?iaieoeoaa o?eueee niiaeeai? aa?oino?, caniae aei aeeooy. Iin?yie
oe??? ae??caeaoii? neee ? ie?ai? aeea? ?iaeea?aee aai ?o noeoii?noue c
iaiao?aeieie o?ce/ieie ? aeooiaieie cae?aiinoyie, c a?aeiia?aeiith
caaaeueiiina?oiueith ? i?ioan?eiith i?aeaioiaeith, ciaiiyie, iaae/eaie ?
caeaoi?noth aei o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?.

Caeaaeii a?ae iinoaaeaiiai caaaeaiiy o?oaeia? ?ano?ne iiaeooue
?icaeyaeaoeny a aeaiia?ao?/iiio, oa?eoi??aeueii-aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio
(?aa?iiaeueiiio), aaeocaaiio oa ?ioeo aniaeoao. Ca?aeii c
iaoiaeieia?/ieie i?aeoiaeaie aei aecia/aiiy oeueiai iiiyooy ye
eaoaai??? aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, a aeena?oaoe?? o?oaeia? ?ano?ne
?icaeyaeathoueny noiniaii n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy (naea) oa aa?a?ii?
noa?e a oe?ieiio ? aocueeiio ?icoi?ii?. A oe?ieiio
(aeaii-aeiiii?/iiio) ?icoi?ii? oea iiiyooy icia/a? /anoeio
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy (i?aoe?aiee?a aa?a?ii? noa?e), caeaoio aei
naiia?aeoai?aiiy ? noai?aiiy niiaeeaieo aa?oinoae, cania?a aei aeeooy.
O aocueeiio ?icoi?ii? oea /anoeia n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy
(i?aoe?aiee?a aa?a?ii? noa?e), caeaoia aei noai?aiiy a i?ioean?
ae?iaieoeoaa niiaeeaieo aa?oinoae, cania?a aei aeeooy. Aiaeia?/ii
?icaeyaeathoueny nooi?noue, oa?aeoa? oa ci?no ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e. sse nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y “ae?ii/?
o?oaeia? ?ano?ne aa?a?ii? noa?e”, a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii?, oea /anoeia
iayaieo i?aoe?aieoeue aa?a?ii? noa?e, caeaoia aei a?aeoai?aiiy
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e oa noai?aiiy
niiaeeaieo aa?oinoae, cania?a aei aeeooy. O aocueeiio ?icoi?ii? oea
/anoeia iayaieo i?aoe?aieoeue aa?a?ii? noa?e, caeaoia o?eueee aei
noai?aiiy niiaeeaieo aa?oinoae, cania?a aei aeeooy o aeaeyae?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? oa iaaeaiiy iineoa. sse
iae?eiai-noaoenoe/ia eaoaai??y, o?oaeia? ?ano?ne naea, a oe?ieiio
?icoi?ii?, oea noeoii?noue n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo,
ui iiaea ?aae?coaaoe naith caeaoi?noue aei i?aoe? a on?o noa?ao aeeooy,
aeeth/ath/e aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeuei? i?ioeane. Eiai aaee/eia caeaaeeoue
a?ae /enaeueiino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, eiai noaoaai-a?eiaiai
neeaaeo oa ??aiy caeiyoino? ? nia?oiino?. O?oaeia? ?ano?ne aa?a?ii?
noa?e, o oiio /ene? ae?iie oea iayaia noeoii?noue i?aoe?aiee?a,
caeaoieo aei naiia?aeoai?aiiy ? noai?aiiy niiaeeaieo aa?oinoae. O
aocueeiio ?icoi?ii?, o?oaeia? ?ano?ne naea (aa?a?ii? noa?e), o oiio
/ene? ae?iie (ye iae?eiai-noaoenoe/ia eaoaai??y), oea noeoii?noue naeyi
(iayaieo i?aoe?aiee?a aa?a?ii? noa?e), caeaoieo o i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa
noai?thaaoe niiaeeai? aa?oino?, caniae aei aeeooy.

E?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea aecia/athoueny iayaiith
/enaeuei?noth i?aoe?aiee?a on?o i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e, ui
?icoaoiaai? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, a oaeiae e?euee?noth naeyi, ye?
c iaaieo i?e/ei ia caeiyo? o i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa, aea aieiae?thoue
caeaoi?noth aei i?aoe? ? i?e aaaeaii? oa noai?aii? a?aeiia?aeieo oiia
iiaeooue ?aae?coaaoe oeth caeaoi?noue aeey noai?aiiy iaoa??aeueieo,
aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae aai iaaeaiiy noni?eueii ei?enieo iineoa. Ioaea,
a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo o?oaeia? ?ano?ne aeeth/athoue a naaa i?aoe?aiee?a
eieaeoeaieo aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa, iniaenoeo (naeyinueeeo)
ainiiaea?noa, oa?ia??a, i?aoe?aiee?a i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa,
o?ainii?oo, eai?oaeueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa oa ?ioeo n?euenueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa noa?e iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aoe?aiee?a
nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e naea (caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e, NIOO,
na?aaei?o niaoe?aeueieo o/aiaeo caeeaae?a, iaaee/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo,
nii?oeaieo onoaiia oa ?i.), a oaeiae oei/aniai iai?aoethth/eo o
i?aoeacaeaoiiio a?oe?.

Iniiaieie ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aenooiathoue:
noai caei?ia’y iin??a ?iai/i? neee, ?o nioe?aeueiee ? noaoaai-a?eiaee
neeaae, caaaeueiiina?oiee oa i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiee ??aaiue,
oa?eoi??aeueia ? nioe?aeueia iia?euei?noue oa ?io?.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y “?iai/a neea” oea caeaoi?noue ie?aii?
iniae, a?oie ethaeae, eieaeoeao /e noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio noai?thaaoe
niiaeeai? aa?oino?, caniae aei aeeooy o aeaeyae? iaoa??aeueieo ?
aeooiaieo aeaa, a oaeiae a?aeoai?thaaoe ethaenueea noni?euenoai. ??
oaeiae aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe a oe?ieiio ? aocueeiio ?icoi?ii?. O
ia?oiio aeiaaeeo eaeaoueny i?i caeaoi?noue noeoiiino? ethaeae a i?ioean?
ae?iaieoeoaa noai?thaaoe niiaeeai? aa?oino?, a oaeiae a?aeoai?thaaoe
naieo naaa. O ae?oaiio – i?i iiaeeea?noue ethaeae noai?thaaoe caniae aei
aeeooy o aeaeyae? iaoa??aeueieo ? aeooiaieo aeaa.

O?oaeia? ?ano?ne ? ?iai/a neea, ia aeoieo caeiaoaa/a, oea iniiai?
aeaiaioe oaei? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai??? ye “o?oaeiaee
iioaioe?ae”. Oiio a i?eeeaaeieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo iiaeeeaa ?icoi?iiy
“o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo” a?aeiinii eiie?aoiiai ia’?eoa aea/aiiy:
?aa?iio, aaeoc? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ? o. ae., ine?eueee a?i
aenooia? aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo oeueiai
ia’?eoa. C iaeyaeo ia oea iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue oae? iiiyooy “ye
o?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae naea”, “o?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae aa?a?ii? noa?e”,
“o?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae ae?iie” oa ?i. O?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae naea iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ye noai?thaaeueio neeo n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy a on?o noa?ao
eiai aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, oiaoi a?i ?aeaioe/iee iiiyooth “o?oaeiaee
iioaioe?ae n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy”; “o?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae aa?a?ii?
noa?e” ye noai?thaaeueio neeo iayaieo i?aoe?aiee?a n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa; “o?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae ae?iie aa?a?ii? noa?e” ye
noai?thaaeueio neeo iayaieo i?aoe?aieoeue aa?a?ii? noa?e.

Eiaeio c oeeo eaoaai??e iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe a oe?ieiio ? aocueeiio
?icoi?ii? ?o nooiino?. A oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? ye noai?thaaeueio neeo aeey
naiia?aeoai?aiiy ? noai?aiiy niiaeeaieo aa?oinoae, o aocueeiio ye
noai?thaaeueio neeo ae?iaeyoe eeoa niiaeeai? aa?oino?, oiaoi aac
o?aooaaiiy aeaiia?ao?/iiai aniaeoa. Caeaaeii a?ae oiai, a yeiio
?icoi?ii? (oe?ieiio /e aocueeiio) ?icaeyaeathoueny eiai neeaaeia?, a?i
iiaea iaoe iaiaeiaeia? e?euee?ni? ? ye?ni? ia?aiao?e.

O?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae aenooia? neeaaeiaith aeeoo?aiai iioaioe?aeo
ianaeaiiy, oiio aei??th?oueny ethaeeii-?ieaie. Iaeiae o i?aeoeoe?
ieaioaaiiy, iae?eo ? noaoenoeee, a i?eeeaaeieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, ia
aeoieo caeiaoaa/a, iiaea aei??thaaoenue iaoo?aeueiei aei??ieeii.
Iaeaeeae/ith ca nai?th nooi?noth iaoo?aeueiith iaeeieoeath aei??o
o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo a o?aaeeoe?ei?e aeaiia?ao??, a i?aeoeoe?
noaoenoeee ? iae?eo, a oaeiae a aeiiii?/iiio aiae?c?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo yaeu ? i?ioean?a, iia’ycaieo ?c o?oaeiaeie
a?aeiineiaie, iiaea aooe /enaeuei?noue iaaieo a?oi ethaeae, ui
aenooiathoue iin?yie noai?thaaeueii? neee. Oea iaei?ino?oee eiai
aei??iee aaca?aeiinii aei o?eaaeino? aeeooy ? oiiaeo ?iai/iai /ano.

Iaoiaee/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a oa
iniaeeainoae ae?ii/i? i?aoe? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
a?oioothoueny ia ?icoi?ii? nooiino?, oa?aeoa?o oa ci?noo o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a ye nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oaiiiaio, a oe?ieiio ?o ?icoi?ii?;
ia ae?aeaeoeoe? eiai ?nioaaiiy, ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo c o?aooaaiiyi
“ae?ii/eo i?iaeai”; ia ae?aeaeoe/iiio iaoiae? i?ciaiiy aca?iicoiiaeaieo
i?ioean?a, ui aecia/athoue ?ieue ? i?noea n?euenueeeo ae?iie o
a?aeoai?aii? i?e?iaeii? iniiae o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea ? aa?a?ii? noa?e
oa o noai?aii? ieie niiaeeaieo aa?oinoae, cania?a aei aeeooy a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?; ia nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae? aei aiae?co
nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua naeyiie oa ?ic?iaeaii? iaoai?ci?a eiai
iie?ioaiiy. Oe? iaoiaee/i? canaaee aeieeaathoue c oiai, ui: ?icoi?iiy
ethaeeie, cie?aia ae?iee ye noa’?eoa noni?eueii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?,
aeeeoo? iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo aniaeo?a o eiiieaen? c
aeaiia?ao?/ieie, nioe?ieia?/ieie, ineoieia?/ieie, iaaee/ieie,
iaaeaaia?/ieie oa ?ioeie aniaeoaie oi?ioaaiiy, ?iciiae?eo ? aeei?enoaiiy
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ae?iie aa?a?ii? noa?e o noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?;
o?oaeia? ?ano?ne ae?iie aa?a?ii? noa?e aenooiathoue neeaaeiaith
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa; a iniia? aiae?co ae?ii/eo
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a eaaeeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei o
eiie?aoieo oiiaao i?noey ? /ano (1970-1997 ??.); o?oaeia? a?aeiineie
ae?iie aeine?aeaeothoueny o aca?iica’yceo c aeaiia?ao?/iei aniaeoii, c
o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? ae?iie o n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? a eiioaeno? nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua naeyiee.

I?e ?icaeyae? iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a oa iniaeeainoae ae?ii/i? i?aoe? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
iaaieioo?oueny ia iaiao?aeiino? ?ic??ciyoe oae? iiiyooy ye “ae?ii/a
i?aoey” ? “i?aoey ae?iie”. Iiiyooy “ae?ii/a i?aoey” aaeeaa?oueny, eiee
eaeaoueny i?i o?oaeiao ae?yeuei?noue ae?iie c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee ?o
?iai/i? neee, coiiaeaii? o?ce/ieie ? ineoio?c?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie
ae?ii/iai i?aai?cio. Eaoaai??y “i?aoey ae?iie” oa?aeoa?eco? i?aoeth, ui
oaeoe/ii aeeiiothoue ae?iee.

A ?iaio? iieacai? ?noi?e/i? ei?ai? aeene?ei?iaoe?? ae?iie o ae?iaie/?e ?
n?iaeii-iiaooia?e noa?ao, ae?ii/iai ?ooo oa noai?aiiy i?aeia?iaeieo
ae?ii/eo i?aai?caoe?e uiaei caoenoo i?aa ae?iie, iaoa?einoaa ?
aeeoeinoaa. Aeaia ioe?iea ae?yeueiino? ae?ii/eo i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith aeaiia?ao?/ieo aniaeo?a
oi?ioaaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ?
aa?a?i?e noa??. E?euee?noue n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ca 1913-1997 ??. o
no/anieo oa?eoi??aeueieo iaaeao ciaioeeany ia 12 iei. /ieia?e, aai
iaeaea o 2 ?ace ? noaiiaeea a 1997 ?. 16,4 iei. A 1960-1980 ??. iniiaiei
oaeoi?ii ciaioaiiy aoa ?ioaineaiee i?a?aoe?eiee a?aeieea n?euenueei?
iieiae? a i?noa. Iniaeeai ?ioaineaii i?a?oaaee ae?iee iieiaeeo a?eiaeo
a?oi, ui i?ae??aaei aeaiia?ao?/io iniiao a?aeoai?aiiy n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy a ianooii? ia??iaee. Aiaeii/an iineethaaeinue noa??iiy oa
c?inoaea nia?oi?noue naeyi, a ?acoeueoao? /iai ii/eiath/e c 1979 ?.
n?euenueeo i?noeaa?noue ioiieea aeaiiioeyoe?y, ui coiiaeea i?yi? ao?aoe
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy i?ioyaii 1979-1997 ??. o e?eueeino? 1050 oen.
/ieia?e.

A 1980-1997 ??. o ?acoeueoao? ia?inoaiiy oaii?a aeaiiioeyoe?? aiia noaea
iniiaiei oaeoi?ii ciaioaiiy /enaeueiino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy oa
iia??oaiiy eiai yeino?. Ca 1970-1997 ??. /anoea in?a aeii?aoeacaeaoiiai
a?eo ciaioeeany ia 8,4 i?ioeaioiiai ioieoo ? noaiiaeea a 1997 ?. eeoa
21,9%, iain?iia?ii noaa eiaeiee o?ao?e naeyiei, a eiao?oe??io noa??iiy
“caa?oo” ca?eueoeany aei 0,287, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iineeaiiy ia?aaeoiia
i?ioeano aeie?aiiy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. Aiaeii/an nei?i/o?oueny
na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue aeeooy i?e ia?iaeaeaii?. Ca 1970-1997 ??. aiia
ciaioeeany: o /ieia?e?a ia 4,8 ?ieo, o ae?iie ia 1,4 ?ieo. Iaeieae/ee
??aaiue ?? aoa o 1995 ?.: o /ieia?e?a 61,0, o ae?iie 72,6 ?ieo.

?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui i?ioyaii 1970-1997 ??. i?e c?inoaii? caaaeueiiai
aeaiia?ao?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia 14,2%, c aieo ae?oae aiii ciaioeeinue
ia 10 i?ioeaioieo ioieo?a, a c aieo ethaeae iioeeiai a?eo c?inei a 1,7
?aca. Ciaioaiiy /enaeueiino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue
?ioaineaiei nei?i/aiiyi e?eueeino? ae?iie, iniaeeai i?aoeacaeaoiiai
a?eo. sseui ca 1970-1997 ??. caaaeueia e?euee?noue naeyiie ciaioeeany ia
2660,0 oen. /ie. aai ia 23,1%, oi ae?iie i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo
a?aeiia?aeii ia 1666,7 oen. ? 31,0%. Iaeii/anii cieaeo?oueny ye?noue
ae?ii/iai ianaeaiiy. Iaea?eueoa ae?iie o a?eia?e a?oi? 50 ?ie?a ? noa?oa
(63,2%), a a iieie?ii? aaouee?a in?a ae?ii/i? noao? eeoa 49,2%. Ua iaioa
?o o iaeaeoeai?o?e ae?oi?iaei?e /anoei? naeyinoaa (20-29 ?ie?a) 48,0%.
E?euee?noue ia?iaeaeaiue o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? Oe?a?ie a 1997 ?.
ii??aiyii c 1970 ?. ciaioeeanue ia 116,7 oen. /ie., aai a 1,5 ?aca, a
e?euee?noue iiia?eeo c?inea ia 139,4 oen., aai a 1,8 ?aca.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui iniiaiei /eiieeii oaei? neooaoe?? aenooia?
?ioaineaiee i?a?aoe?eiee a?aeieea ?c naea ae?iie iieiaeiai ae?oi?iaeiiai
a?eo, iniaeeai o 60-80 ?iee. Oea i?ae??aaei aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueiee
iioaioe?ae a?eiai? no?oeoo?e n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, ni?e/eieei
aeoea?caoe?th nioe?aeueii iaaaoeaieo i?ioean?a oa caoooaiiy nioe?aeueii
iiceoeaieo yaeu, ui coiiaeei e?eciao aeaiia?ao?/io neooaoe?th a
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?. Cieaeaiiy caaaeueiiai eiao?oe??ioa
ia?iaeaeoaaiino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy i?ioyaii 1970-1995 ??.
Coiiaeaia, aieiaiei /eiii, nei?i/aiiyi a ?acoeueoao? i?a?aoe?? /anoee
ae?iie ae?oi?iaeiiai a?eo. Caeeoath/enue aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii cieaeaiiy
ia?iaeaeoaaiino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy i?a?aoe?eiee a?aeieea ae?iie
14-49 ?ie?a o 1996-1997 ??. a?aeaoaaany ia oe? cieaeaiiy ae?oi?iaeii?
aeoeaiino? ae?iie oeueiai a?eo. Ciaioaiiy caaaeueiiai iieacieea
ia?iaeaeoaaiino? naeyi o 1996-1997 ??. Coiiaeaii, a iniiaiiio, oeei
/eiieeii. Cieaeaiiy ae?oi?iaeii? aeoeaiino? ae?iie noaei ?acoeueoaoii
iaae?iiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy naeyi oa aeaoi?ioaaiiy o ca’yceo c oeei
aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?aeaaeo n?euenueei? ae?iee a iai?yi? ciaioaiiy aaaeaii?
e?eueeino? ae?oae a n?i’? oa cieaeaiiy oaeoe/iiai ??aiy eiai
?aae?caoe??.

?acoeueoaoe aieaoiiai ianoaaeaiiy 1516 naeyiie ??cieo nioe?aeueieo ?
a?eiaeo a?oi iieacaee, ui ae?oi?iaeia iiaaae?iea i?aeoe/ii an?o (96,7%)
naeyiie ni?yiiaaia ia n?i’th c ae?oueie. Iaeiae iaeaea aea? o?aoeie
ae?iie (59,7%) ieaioaaee iaoe ia a?eueoa aeaio ae?oae, eeoa eiaeia
/aoaa?oa (25,6%) o?ueio, a ia /ioe?ueio ? a?eueoa ae?oae ?ic?aoiaoaaea
o?eueee eiaeia aeanyoa naeyiea. Ae?oi?iaeia onoaiiaea iaea?eueoi?
/anoeie n?euenueeeo ae?iie (54,8%) aoea ni?yiiaaia ia aeaio ae?oae. Eeoa
iacia/ia /anoeia ae?iie (4,9%) ieaioaaea iaoe iaeio aeeoeio. Oaeoe/ii
iniiaia ?o /anoeia (67,9 %) iaee 2-3 ae?oio n?i’th, a oie /an, ye
/anoea ae?iie c onoaiiaeith ia oaeo e?euee?noue ae?oae noaiiaeea 80,4%.
Oaeei /eiii, 12,5% naeyiie, ui ieaioaaee iaoe 2-3 ae?oio n?i’th, ia
?aae?coaaee nai?o iai???a. I?e oeueiio o?ainoi?iaoe?y oeeo iai???a o
an?o ae?iie ?aae?coaaeanue o iai?yi? ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ae?oae. Oae,
iioaioe?ei? iai??e ae?iie ia ia?iaeaeaiiy o?ueio ae?oae aoee
?aae?ciaai? ia 79,4%, ieoiia aaaa naeyiie c i’youeia ? a?eueoa ae?oueie
aeyaeeanue a 3,8 ?aca iaioith, i?ae aoei ae?iie c oaeith onoaiiaeith. A
oie aea /an ae?iie c iaei??th aeeoeiith aoei a 3,6 ?aca a?eueoa
ii??aiyii c /anoeith ae?iie c iai??aie iaoe iaeio aeeoeio. Iaeaea o o?e
?ace a?eueoith aoea /anoea aacae?oieo ae?iie (9,4%).

Aia?oa aoa aei??yiee aieea nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia
aeaiia?ao?/io iiaaae?ieo n?euenueeeo ae?iie. Aeyaeaiee i?yiee
aca?iica’ycie i?ae iiaaae?ieith /ieia?ea a n?i’? ? caa?aaeaiiyi
n?euenueei? ?iaeeie oa e?euee?noth ae?oae o n?i’?. A?i i?eoaiaiiee aeey
an?o nioe?aeueieo ? a?eiaeo a?oi naeyiie, aea iaeae?aci?oa i?iyaey?oueny
na?aae iieiae? oa niaoe?ae?no?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, i?aoe?aiee?a
ina?oe, eoeueoo?e ? ioi?iie caei?ia’y.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny ae?ii/? o?oaeia? ?ano?ne ye
neeaaeiaa o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ? aa?a?ii? noa?e.
Aeeeaaeaia iaoiaeeea ?o aecia/aiiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaaia ?o e?euee?noue,
oa?eoi??aeueii-aaia?ao?/ia ?ici?uaiiy, aeeiai?ea, ye?noue oa no?oeoo?i?
c?ooaiiy i?ioyaii 1970-1997 ??. (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1. AE?ii/? o?oaeia? ?ano?ne a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? Oe?a?ie

a 1970-1997 ??.

I?e?iaeii-aeiii-Oen. /ie.1997 ?. a % aeii?/i?
ciie1970198019901997197019801990Noai1308,21239,41113,41001,776,680,890,0
E?ninoai2050,41717,61325,81078,452,662,881,3Iie?nny1041,2923,6700,9522,7
50,256,674,6Ea?iaoe372,9377,2351,9332,689,288,294,5Oe?a?ia4772,74257,834
92,02935,461,568,984,1

E?euee?noue ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ca
oeae ia??iae ciaioeeany ia 1837,3 oen. /ie., aai ia 38,5%. ?o ieoiia
aaaa a o?oaeiaeo ?ano?nao naea nei?ioeeany c 54,7% a 1970 ?. aei 45,1%
a 1997 ?. Iniiaieie /eiieeaie, ui coiiaeee ?? nei?i/aiiy, aenooiathoue
oae? iaaaoeai? yaeua ye noa??iiy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy oa
?ioaineaiee i?a?aoe?eiee a?aeieea n?euenueei? iieiae?. Aiie iaaoee
iino?eii ae?th/iai oa?aeoa?o. E??i oeueiai, o 90-o ?ieao ia i?enei?aiiy
oaii?a nei?i/aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aieeioea aaa??y ia
*i?iiaeeuenuee?e AAN. ?? i?yiei ?acoeueoaoii noaei ciaioaiiy
/enaeueiino? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o 1986-1997 ??. ia 182,0 oen./ie.
Iniaeeai ?? iaaaoeaiee aieea a?ae/oea *a?i?a?aueia. O?oaeia? ?ano?ne
ooo o 1997 ?. ii??aiyii c 1970 ?. ciaioeeeny a 3,9 ?aca ? noaee
iaeiaioeie na?aae on?o iaeanoae Oe?a?ie.

Iniiaia /anoeia i?aoe?aiee?a aa?a?ii? noa?e caeiyoa a eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao (ENI), eiaeiee o?ao?e – a
iniaenoiio i?aeniaiiio ainiiaea?noa? (IIA), a a iiaeo (oa?ia?nueeeo)
ainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiiyo, ia?iaeaeaieo ?eieiaeie a?aeiineiaie,
caeiyoi eeoa 0,5% o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. Na?aae i?aoe?aiee?a n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa ae?iee caeiathoue 47,3%, o oiio /ene? a ENI 46,6, a
naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noaao 45,3, a a iniaenoeo
i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noaao 48,6% (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2. O?oaeia? ?ano?ne aa?a?ii? noa?e AIE Oe?a?ie a 1997 ?.

Eaoaai??? ainiiaea?noaOen. /ie.*anoea o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a,
%/ieia?eeae?ieeiaeaea?

noao?/ieia?eeae?ieeiaeaea?

noao?Eieaeoeai? n?euenueeiain-iiaea?nuee?
i?aei?e?inoaa2216,01932,44148,465,663,864,8Naeyinuee?
(oa?ia?nuee?)ainiiaea?noaa19,316,035,30,60,50,5Iniaeno? i?aeniai?
ain-iiaea?noaa1141,11079,12220,233,835,734,7Anueiai3376,43027,56403,9100
,0100,0100,0

Iia??oothoueny ye?ni? ia?aiao?e ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea oa
aa?a?ii? noa?e, ianaiia?aae – noai caei?ia’y naeyiie. Ca aeaieie
aieaoiiai ianoaaeaiiy, eeoa 10,9% i?aoe?aieoeue eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ii/oaathoue naaa caei?iaeie.
Iieiaeia c ieo aaaaea? nai? caei?ia’y caaeia?eueiei, a eiaeia /aoaa?oa
i?aoe?aieoey aa?a?iiai naeoi?a – oai?a. Aeyaeaiee i?yiee aca?iica’ycie
i?ae caei?ia’yi aa?a?ieo i?aoe?aieoeue ? oiiaaie ?o i?aoe? a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? (oaae.3).

?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy 60,5 oen. i?aoe?aiee?a aa?a?ieo
i?aei?e?inoa 9 aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a, ?icoaoiaaieo o ??cieo
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ieo ciiao ? iaeanoyo, iieacaee, ui ?o iniiaia /anoeia
(70,5%) ia? a?e a?ae 30 aei 55 (59) ?ie?a. Eeoa eiaeiee i’yoee ?c
caeiyoeo o noni?eueiiio naeoi?? aa?a?ii? noa?e ciaoiaeeoueny a
aeaiia?ao?/ii iieiaeiio ? nioe?aeueii aeoeaiiio a?oe? (aei 30 ?ie?a).
Na?aae aa?a?ieo i?aoe?aiee?a iaea?eueoo /anoeio (14,8%) noaiiaeyoue
iniae ia?aaeiain?eiiai a?eo; iaeaea eiaeiee i’yoee i?a-

Oaaeeoey 3. Ioe?iea ae?ieaie-aa?a??yie oiia i?aoe? a n?euenueeiio

ainiiaea?noa? ? noaio naiai caei?ia’y a 1994-1995 ??., %

IieacieeeAnueiaiC ieo ioe?iththoue nai?
caei?ia’yae?iieaeia?eicaaeia?eueieiIiaaieicaaaaaeeny a?aeiia?noeAnueiai
ae?iie100,010,951,825,411,9c ieo ioe?iththoue oiiae
i?aoe?:aeia?eie100,024,350,919,55,3ii?iaeueieie100,012,254,722,210,9iaca
aeia?eueieie100,07,047,731,014,3

oe?aiee (18,8%) iain?iia? ca a?eii. Oea na?ae/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy
noa??iiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. A a Eaaa?eeoeueeiio ? Noaaeuainueeiio
?aeiiao Ee?anueei? iaeano? oa a I?uainueeiio A?iieoeueei? iaeano?
i?ioa?ie i?aoe?aiee?a-iain?iia??a ia?aaeuo? 20%. Oaeei /eiii, o
ia?aaeiain?eiiio oa iain?eiiio a?oe? ciaoiaeeoueny 33,6% o?oae?aiee?a
aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa ianoaaeaieo ?aeii?a. O oie aea /an in?a aei 20
?ie?a eeoa 3,0%, a 20-24 ?ie?a 6,9 %. *enaeuei?noue i?aoethth/eo
iain?iia??a o?eueee ia 50% eiiiaino?oueny e?euee?noth iieiae?, ui
ii/eia? i?aoeacaeaoia aeeooy. O ?ineeiieoeoa? 52,3% i?aoe?aieee
ia?aaeiain?eiiai ? iain?eiiai a?eo, a oiio /ene? na?aae ae?iie eiaeia
o?aoy iain?iia?ea. Iiiiaiaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?iiai naeoi?a ca
?aooiie iieiae? noaiiaeoue eeoa 0,5-0,6% ca ??e. O ?ineeiieoeoa? a 70,6%
ianoaaeaieo ainiiaea?noa oa a oaa?eiieoeoa? a 42,0% ENI iaia? aeiaeii?
ae?iee a?eii aei 20 ?ie?a. A ie?aieo ianaeaieo ioieoao (naea Ie?ii?aea
oa Eoeoee I?uainueeiai, Aioii?aea oa E?anee?aea Noaaeuainueeiai ?aeii?a
oa ?i.) cian?i iaia? ethaeae iieiaeiai a?eo. Ioaea, a?eiaee neeaae
i?aoe?aiee?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ianoaaeaieo ?aeii?a e?eciaee.
Iaaiith i??ith a?i i?aaenoaaey? a?eiao no?oeoo?o o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a
aa?a?iiai naeoi?a an??? Oe?a?ie.

Caaaeueiiina?oi?e ??aaiue ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e
aeineoue aenieee iniiaia /anoeia ae?iie (72,8%) ia? na?aaeith ina?oo,
ui na?ae/eoue i?i aenie? iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? inaithaaoe iaaeaaiiy
IOI o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. Iaeiae ?aae?coaaoe ?o caaaaea?
iaaeinoaoi?e i?ioan?eiee ??aaiue i?aoe?aieoeue aa?a?iiai naeoi?a:
na?aaeith niaoe?aeueio ina?oo iathoue eeoa 14% ae?iie, a aeuo 4,9%. Ca
noa?aie o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? iniiaia /anoeia ae?iie (66,9%) caeiyoa
a iniiaieo aaeocyo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa
?ineeiieoeoa? ? oaa?eiieoeoa?. Iiei/ia oaa?eiieoeoai ? naeia?noai ENI
o?eia?oueny aeeeth/ii ia ae?ii/eo ?oeao. Iniiaio /anoeio i?aoe?aieoeue
oeeo aaeocae noaiiaeyoue ae?iee ia?aaeiain?eiiai oa iain?eiiai a?eo. A
iaeaeeae/? 5-7 ?ie?a aac iaeaaeiiai ??aiy iaoai?caoe?? ae?iaie/eo
i?ioean?a oe? aaeoc? ia aoaeooue caaacia/ai? aeinoaoiueith i??ith
?ano?naie aeeai? i?aoe?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui oai, aea iaio? ?o/ia iecueeii?iaeoeoeaia, ?,
ye iane?aeie, iecueeiiiea/oaaia i?aoey, ia?aaaaeathoue ae?iee. Oaea
aeene?ei?iaoe?y n?euenueei? ae?iee ii/eia?oueny ua ia ??ai?
aaciina?aaeiueiai ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??,
i?e/iio ?c c?inoaiiyi eiai ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeene?ei?iaoe?y naeyiie
iineeth?oueny. O na?aaei?e eaioe? oi?aae?iiy n?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii
ae?iie eeoa 22,3%. A oie /an, ye na?aae niaoe?ae?no?a n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa ae?iee noaiiaeyoue iaeaea 50%, o?aoeio ae?iaie/eo
i?ae?icae?e?a i/ieththoue /ieia?ee-i?aeoeee. Ua iaioa ae?iie na?aae
ea??aiee?a aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa iaioa 5 %.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aia?oa aeine?aeaeaia o?ainoi?iaoe?y noa?aioeio
ieneaiiy naeyiie uiaei naiai nioe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy o noni?euenoa?,
aea/aia o?oaeiaa ae?yeuei?noue oa oiiae i?aoe? ae?iie o eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao, aeei?enoaiiy ?o i?aoe? a
iniaenoiio i?aeniaiiio ainiiaea?noa? oa a n?iaeii-iiaooia?e noa??.
Aei??yia o?oaeiaa neeaaeiaa ae?yeueiino? naeyiee a aeiaiaiio athaeaeao?
/ano. ?acoeueoaoe aieaoiiai ianoaaeaiiy ae?iie, i?iaaaeaiiai
caeiaoaa/ai, iieacaee, ui o?ainoi?iaoe?y noa?aioeio ieneaiiy n?euenueeeo
ae?iie uiaei naiai nioe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy o noni?euenoa?
a?aeaoaa?oueny o iai?yi? aeeaoiai ona?aeiieaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
cia/ouino? ?o ?ie? a aeaiia?aeoai?aii?, oi?ioaaii? oa caa?aaeaii?
n?i’?, aeoiaaii? i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy. AE?ieai aeaaeae? aeeae/ei
noa? aeeiiaiiy ooieoe?e, yeeie iaae?eeea ?o i?e?iaea (oaae. 4).

Oaaeeoey 4. ?iciiae?e n?euenueeeo ae?iie ??cieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi ca

aaaeaiiyi caeiaoenue o?eueee aeiiaoiueith i?aoeath oa aeoiaaiiyi
ae?oae

ca noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia, % 1)

A?eia? a?oie, ?ie?aNioe?aeuei? a?oieaei 25 26-30 31-40 41-50 51-60
noa?oa 60 ?aciiI?aoe?aieoe? ENI

62,0

61,1

58,0

46,8

37,2

15,1

48,8I?aoe?aieoe? aea?aeaini?a

39,4

51,2

41,8

40,0

23,7

25,0

38,0Neoaeaiaoe?57,943,865,442,437,5-45,7?acii57,756,552,644,933,617,145,
9___________________

1) Ca aeaieie aieaoiiai ianoaaeaiiy n?euenueeeo ae?iie o 1994-1995 ??.

Ca oiia ?aoi?ioaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa
iia’ycaiiai c iei ?icia?ooy noa?e aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea
iniiaia iana naeyinoaa ia? ?icaeai?io noa?o aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? o
eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao ? a iniaenoiio
i?aeniaiiio ainiiaea?noa?. C iaeyaeo ia oea aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a ae?iie aa?a?ii? noa?e ?icaeyaea?oueny a ?iaio? o eiioaeno? c ?o
o?oaeiaeie a?aeiineiaie a oeeo noa?ao. Aeoiaey/e c ?aaeueii iiaeeeaiai
??/iiai oiiaeo ?iai/iai /ano 270 ?iai/eo aei?a aai 1840 aiaeei, iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe: a oe?eiio ii e?a?i? oa o eiaei?e ??
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i?e cii? (ca aeiyoeii ciie Ea?iao) oaeoe/i? iieacieee
cao?ao i?aoe? ae?iie a ENI cia/ii aeu? a?ae ii?iaoeaieo (oaae. 5).

Oaaeeoey 5. E?euee?noue a?aei?aoeueiaaieo ethaeeii-aei?a iaei??th

i?aoeacaeaoiith ae?ieith ca ??e o eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo

i?aei?e?inoaao a 1960-1997 ??.

I?e?iaeii-

aeiiii?/i?A?aei?aoeueiaaii ethaeeii-aei?a iaei??th ae?ieith ca ??e1997
?. a % aeiciie1960 ?.1970 ?.1980 ?.1990 ?.1997 ?.1960 ?.1970 ?.1980
?.1990
?.Noai203216256272290142,9134,3113,3106,6E?ninoai160179228256272170,0152
,0119,3106,3Iie?nny153174219254269175,8154,6122,8105,9Ea?iaoe12012918622
0235195,8182,2126,3106,8Oe?a?ia166184231258285171,7154,9123,4110,5

Iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? ae?iie (ia iniia? nioe?ieia?/ieo
ianoaaeaiue i?aoe?aiee?a ENI) iieacaei, ui o?eueee caeiyo? ia
e?iii-?o/ieo ?iaioao a ?ineeiieoeoa?, aea i?eoaiaiia aeniea naciii?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa, iaaeiaeei?enoiaothoue ??/iee oiiae ?iai/iai /ano. Ui
noino?oueny i?aoe? ae?iie o oaa?eiieoeueeeo aaeocyo ENI, oi ?o o?oaeiaa
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia?aaeuo? o?c?ieia?/ii aeiionoei? ii?ie. Aeiy?ee,
oaeyoieoe?, ioaoieoe?, naeia?ee i?aeoe/ii ia iathoue aeo?aeieo ?
nayoeiaeo aei?a, ia caaaeaee aeei?enoiaothoue i?ioa?aeionoee. ?o
o?oaeiaa ia?aaaioaaeaiiy iaaoei noaa?eueiiai oa?aeoa?o i?ioyaii ?ieo
aiie i?aoeththoue ii 300 ? a?eueoa aei?a. O?oaeiaa ia?aaaioaaeaiiy
ae?iie o oe?e aaeoc? ia? iianthaeiee oa?aeoa?. Ieoiia aaaa o?oaeiaeo
aeeaaeaiue ae?iie a ENI i?ioyaii 1960-1997 ??. noaiiaeoue 50,7-42,3%, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai iaoi? aea?aeaae ia iiaei
? ia iiaea ooieoe?iioaaoe aac o?oaeiai? o/ano? a iueiio ae?iie.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eaia aea/aiith ??aiy iaoai?caoe?? oa oiia i?aoe?
ae?iie a ENI. Ca aeaieie io?oe?eii? noaoenoeee, ua a 1989 ?. o?e /aa?o?
ae?iie oaoiieia?/i? iia?aoe?? ?c ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe?? aeeiioaaee a?o/io. Iniaeeai iecueeee ??aaiue iaoai?caoe??
i?aoe? ae?iie caeeoeany o ?ineeiieoeoa? 3,1% i?e caaaeueiiio ??ai?
5,7%. Aeaui aeuee ??aaiue iaoai?caoe?? i?aoe? ae?iie o oaa?eiieoeoa?.
Ooo /anoea ae?iie, ui aeeiiothoue ?iaioo ca aeiiiiiaith iaoei ?
iaoai?ci?a, noaiiaeoue 48,9%. Ca inoaii? 6-7 ?ie?a nooo?aeo ci?i o
??ai? iaoai?caoe?? i?aoe? ae?iie ia a?aeaoeiny. Ca?aeii ?c
ia?niaeoeaieie oaoiieia?/ieie ea?oaie ia ae?iuoaaii? iai/aaeo
eoeueoo?, a 2000 ?. ?o/i? ?iaioe noaiiaeoeiooue 82,7%, ia
ae?iaieoeoa? aeiia?aaeo, ya?ae oa o?oeo?a 91-99%. Ine?eueee
aeeae/eie ?ieaie iaa?oue ia ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ?ic?iaea a?aeiia?aeiiai
eiiieaeno iaoei, i/?eoaaoe nooo?aiai nei?i/aiiy cao?ao ?o/ii? i?aoe? a
naae?aieoeoa?, aeiia?aaea?noa? oa ia ae?iuoaaii? ya?ae ia aeiaiaeeoueny.
Naia a oeeo aaeocyo ia?aaaaea? i?aoey ae?iie ? ??aaiue ?? iaoai?caoe?? a
iaeaeeae/? ?iee caeeoeoueny iecueeei.

Aaaaoi ?o/ieo ?ia?o (60-80%) caeeoa?oueny a oaa?eiieoeoa?. O?ce/ia
iaaaioaaeaiiy, iai?eeeaae, aeiy?ee ia aeeiiaii? o?eueee aeiiii?aeieo
?ia?o, iaa?oue ca iaoai?caoe?? ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a ia 90%, ca ci?io
nyaa? iaei??? oiiie, o?ce/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy naeia?ee, aeeiioth/i? an?
?iaioe a?o/io, ca ci?io noaiiaeoue 2,5-9,6 oiiie. Aeaeaei ia ae?ii/eie ?
iaaaioaaeoaaeueii-?icaaioaaeoaaeuei? ?iaioe a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?. Uia aeeiiaoe ci?iio ii?io ? ca?iaeoe 2-4 a?eai? ae?iea
iiaeiia i?aeiyoe 9-15 oiii. E?euee?noue naeyiie, caeiyoeo
iaeieaae?o?eiaaiith ?o/iith i?aoeath, a 3 ?ace ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/iee
iieaciee o /ieia?e?a.

Aeniea ieoiia aaaa ?o/ii? i?aoe? ae?iie o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? a
eiiieaen? c iacaaeia?eueieie oiiaaie o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? o oe?e
aaeoc? oi?iothoue o iieiae? ineoieia?th iaaaoeaiiai noaaeaiiy aei
caeiyoino? a aa?a?i?e noa??. Ii/aoie oaeiai oi?ioaaiiy e?e?oueny o
na?aeiiino? aaouee?a, ye? i???ioothoue nai?o ae?oae ia ia iane?aeoaaiiy
nai?? i?ioan?? /e ?ioi? caeiyoino? o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. Aieaoia
ianoaaeaiiy ae?iie iieacaei, ui eeoa 13,2 % aaouee?a aaaeathoue aa/eoe
nai?o ae?oae i?iaeiaaeoaa/aie nai?? i?ioan??. Iniiaia /anoeia ae?iie
(91,3%), caeiyoeo aaciina?aaeiuei o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio
ae?iaieoeoa?, ia aaaea?, uia ae?oe i?iaeiaaeoaaee ?o i?ioan?eio ni?aao.
Iniaeeai iaei oaeeo aaaeath/eo o ?ineeiieoeuee?e aaeoc? (6,3%). Ooo
i?aeoe/ii an? caeiyo? ia e?iii-?o/ieo ?iaioao ia aaaeathoue aa/eoe nai?o
ae?oae ia nai?o ?iai/eo i?noeyo. Iaeaea aiaeia?/ia neooaoe?y c
iaioae?oaoii uiaei “aa?a?iiai na?oiaeyaeo” ? na?aae i?aoe?aiee?a
oaa?eiieoeoaa. Eeoa 8,8% caeiyoeo o oe?e aaeoc? ia i?ioe iane?aeoaaiiy
nai?ie ae?oueie i?ioan?? aaouee?a. Ca?aene ii/eia?oueny i?ioan?eia
i???ioaoe?y n?euenueei? iieiae? oa ia?aiiy iath i?noey o?oaeiai?
ae?yeueiino?. Oaeei /eiii, aaaee? oiiae i?aoe? a aa?a?i?e noa??
noi?ioaaee iaaaoeaia ineoieia?/ia noaaeaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a aei ia?, yea
ia?a?inei a ?aeo?n nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoath/iai
iieie?iiy ia ia ei?enoue naea ? aa?a?ii? noa?e.

Iacaaeia?eueiee noai caei?ia’y i?aoe?aieoeue n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
oa aaaee? oiiaaie i?aoe? aiane?aeie iecueeiai ??aiy iaoai?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa coiiaeththoue ?o ia?aae/anio nioe?aeueio aoiiethaai?noue.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iniiaia /anoeia naeyiie 65,5%
i?aoe?aieoeue aea?aeaaieo ? 50,6% i?aoe?aieoeue ENI – aaaaea? ca
iaiao?aeia a no/aniiio caeiiiaeaanoa? i?i ae?ieo ia?aaeaa/eoe i?aai
naeyiie caeaaeii a?ae ae?iaie/iai noaaeo aeoiaeeoe ia iain?th o a?oe? 50
?ie?a. I?e/iio a ?aiaeiaaiiio ?yae? caoiae?a uiaei iaiao?aeieo ci?i o
no/aniiio caeiiiaeaanoa? i?i ae?ieo aaaeaiiy naeyiie aeoiaeeoe ia
iain?th o i’yoaeanyoe??/iiio a?oe? caeia? ia?oa i?noea (54,3%
?aniiiaeaioie). Ia ae?oaiio i?noe? (12,7%) i?iiiceoe?y i?i
iaiao?aei?noue nei?i/aiiy ?iai/iai aeiy a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?,
o?ao? i?noea (10,6% ?aniiiaeaioie) caeia? aaaeaiiy ae?iie o
caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo ci?oeieoe nioe?aeueio caoeuai?noue naeyiie.

“Ae?oaith ci?iith” o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? ae?iie aa?a?ii? noa?e aenooia?
iniaenoa i?aeniaia ainiiaea?noai. Uiaeaii? cao?aoe ?o i?aoe? ia
naeyinueeiio iiaea??’? noaiiaeyoue iiiaae o?e aiaeeie. Caeaaeii a?ae
?aa?iiaeueieo i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia aaaeaiiy n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ?ici??o i?enaaeeaieo ae?eyiie, ?icaeoeo oaa?eiieoeoaa
cao?aoe i?aoe? ae?iie i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo a IIA eieeaathoueny a iaaeao
a?ae 1,8 aei 4 aiaeei ia aeiao. A ?acoeueoao? noia?ia ae?iaie/a
iaaaioaaeaiiy n?euenueei? ae?iee, oiaoi cao?aoe ?? i?aoe? a
a?iiaaenueeiio ? i?eaaoiiio naeoi??, a na?aaeiueiio ii Oe?a?i?
noaiiaeoue 400 naieaiaeeiieo aai 360 ainueieaiaeeiieo ?iai/eo aei?a ia
??e. Na?aae ?anioae?e eieeoiueiai ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco a Oe?a?i? aiii
iaea?eueoa: ii??aiyii c A?ei?on??th ? Eeoaith ia 10 %, ii??aiyii c
?anioae?eaie Caeaaeaccy oa Na?aaeiuei? Ac?? iaeaea a 2 ?ace.

E??i oiai, ?ioaa?oth/e a nia? i?aoe?aieea noni?eueiiai naeoi?a,
ainiiaeei?, ae?oaeeie, iaoa?? ? aeoiaaoaey (ianoaaieea) ae?oae
n?euenueea ae?iea aeo?a/a? aaaaoi aeeoo?aeo nee ia aeiiaoith i?aoeth, ia
ae?oi?iaeio ae?yeuei?noue ? aeoiaaiiy ae?oae, ia aeiaeyae ca oai?eie ?
e?oi?ie /eaiaie n?i’?. Uiaeaii? cao?aoe ?? /ano ia aeiiaoith i?aoeth a
?iai/? aei? noaiiaeyoue 3 aiae. 45 oa., a a aeo?aei? aei? iaeaea 6
aiaeei. Ii??aiyii c /ieia?eaie oe? cao?aoe a 3-5 ?ac?a a?eueo?.
O?oaeii?noe?noue aaaeaiiy aeiiaoiueiai ainiiaea?noaa n?euenueeeie
ae?ieaie ? ?acoeueoaoii iecueeiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e naea ? a, ia?oo /a?ao, — a?aenooiino? nooe?eueii?
aaceo?eaoe?? n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui ?ici?? noeoiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
n?euenueei? ae?iee, oiaoi cao?aoe ?? i?aoe? a a?iiaaenueeiio, iniaenoiio
i?aeniaiiio e aeiiaoiueiio ainiiaea?noaao a na?aaeiueiio ii Oe?a?i? a
?iai/ee aeaiue noaiiaeoue 15 aiae. 24 oa., oiaoi ia?aaeuo? o?c?ieia?/ii
aeiionoei? ii?ie (?en.1). Iaa?oue o aeo?aeiee aeaiue caeiyo?noue naeyiee
a IIA ? aeiiaoiueiio ainiiaea?noa? noaiiaeoue 12 aiae. 14 oa. sseui
a?aooaaoe cao?aoe aeeoo?aeo nee ia ae?oi?iaeio ae?yeuei?noue, aeiaeyae
oa aeoiaaiiy ae?oae aeiey n?euenueei? ae?iee a Oe?a?i? o?aa?/ia.

O?aa?ci noaiiaeua oe?a?inueei? naeyiee iieyaa? o ?? ia?aae/aniiio
noa??ii? ? caoooaii? aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueii? ooieoe??. Oae, cao?aoe /ano
ia caaeiaieaiiy o?c?ieia?/ieo iio?aa (nii, i?eeiaiiy ?ae?, aeiaeyae ca
niaith oiui) o n?euenueeeo ae?iie iaio?, i?ae o /ieia?e?a. Ae?oeo
naeyiee iaaeineiathoue. O?oaeii?noe?noue iniaenoiai i?aeniaiiai e
aeiiaoiueiai ainiiaea?noaa oa iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e ni?e/eiythoue noni?eueii iaaei?aaaeaii iaeee /an ia
aeiaeyae ca ae?oueie. A ?iai/ee aeaiue ia aeeiiaiiy oe??? nioe?aeueii
aaaeeeai? ooieoe?? naeyiea aeo?a/a? eeoa 13 oaeeei, o aeo?aeiee aeaiue
31 oaeeeio, oiaoi /a?ac ae?iaie/a ia?aaaioaaeaiiy aiia iicaaaeaia
iiaeeeaino? iaeaaeiei /eiii aeeiioaaoe na?e aieiaiee iaia’ycie
iaoa?einoaa e aeoiaaoaey i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy. Noni?eueii
iaaei?aaaeaii ei?ioeee /an ia aeiaeyae oa aeoiaaiiy ae?oae
ae?ieith-iao??’th iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ?? caei?ia’y oa ineoieia?/iee
noai, o?ainoi?io? aeaiia?ao?/iee ?aeaae n?i’?, oyaeeei a?aeeoiiyi
a?aeaeaa?oueny ia aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioeanao o n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? oa oi?ioaaii? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea ? aa?a?ii? noa?e.

?acoeueoaoii ae?iaie/iai oa nioe?aeueiiai ia?aaaioaaeaiiy naeyiee ?
iaiaeue a?eueiiai /ano (?en. 2). AE?iea, ui i?aoeth? a ENI, a?eueiiai
/ano ia? a 2 ?ace iaioa i?ae /ieia?e ? a 1,5 ?aca iaioa ii??aiyii c
ae?ieith, ui i?aoeth?

a i?iieneiaino?. Ae?iaie/a oa nioe?aeueia ia?aiaoyaeai?noue naeyiee ?
ia?oii?e/eiith e?eciai? aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe??, ui neeaeanue o
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? Oe?a?ie, aeie?aiiy e nioe?aeueiiai caiaiaaeo
oe?a?inueeiai naea. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy inoaiiueiai iaiiaeeeaa aac ae??oaiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai n?euenueei? ?iaeeie ye iniiaiiai ina?aaeea
aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioean?a o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, a oaeiae
i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaiai, i?ioan?eiiai, ae?iaie/iai e
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai iioaioe?ae?a naea ? aa?a?iiai naeoi?a.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeai? ?aa?iiaeuei? aaeaine o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a
naea ia iae?i??aiyo: aea?aeaaa, Aaoiiiiia ?anioae?ea E?ei, iaeano? ia
ia??iae aei 2005 ?ieo. sse iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aaeain?a caeiaoaa/ai
cai?iiiiiaaiee i?eioeei caaeainiaaiino? aaniethoiiai ?ici??o iayaieo
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy c iio?aaith a ieo an?o
i?aei?e?inoa (i?aai?caoe?e), ainiiaea?noa, ui ?icoaoiaai? a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino?, aeeth/ath/e nioe?aeueio ?io?ano?oeoo?o (oaae. 6).

Aaniethoiee ?ici?? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea i?ioyaii 1995-2005 ??.
ciaioeoueny ia 651,1 oen. /ieia?e, aai ia 9,8%. Iniiaia ciaioaiiy
(77,7%) eiai a?aeaoaeaoueny i?ioyaii 1995-2000 ??. aiane?aeie ae??
iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e o aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioeanao, ye? ia
iii’yeoaoueny aei 2000 ?ieo ia??iaeo ?ioaineaiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? aecia/aiino?
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy uiaei noa?e i?eeeaaeaiiy i?aoe? a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino?.

Oaaeeoey 6. *enaeuei?noue o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?

Oe?a?ie ia ia??iae aei 2005 ?ieo

I?e?iaeii-Oen. /ie.2001-2005 ??. a % aeiAeiiii?/i?

ciie1995 —

1997 ??.1998 –2000 ??.2001-

2005 ??.1995-

1997 ??.1998 —

2000 ??.
Noai2156,22063,82073,796,2100,5E?ninoai2473,62200,62099,284,995,4Iie?nny
1314,71186,11131,686,195,4Ea?iaoe684,3672,1673,298,4100,2Oe?a?ia6628,861
22,65977,790,297,6

Ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaieo caeiaoaa/ai iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei
ia/eneaiiy caaaeueii? iio?aae o cao?aoao aeeai? i?aoe? o an?o noa?ao
noni?eueii ei?enii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeae, ui iaoeathoue o n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino?, aecia/aia na?aaeiuei??/ia ? “i?eiaa” iio?aae naea a
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?nao. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoai? ii?iaoeaiee, ?iaeaeniee,
aeno?aiieyoe?eiee iaoiae, eia?/ii? ioe?iee oa ?io? (oaae. 7).

Oaaeeoey 7. Iio?aaa naea o o?oaeiaeo ?ano?nao a Oe?a?i? ia ia??iae

aei 2005 ?ieo

Noa?e aeei?enoaiiy

o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naeaOen. /ie.2001–2005 ??.

a % aei1995-

1997 ??.1998-

2000 ??.2001-

2005 ??.1995-

2000 ??.1998-2000 ??.A na?aaeiueiio ca ??eN?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai5458,05326,15174,094,897,1Ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? aaeoc?

952,4

1000,0

1050,0

110,2

105,0Iaae?iaie/a noa?a
naea1086,91379,61721,2158,4124,8?acii7497,37705,77945,9106,0103,1Ia
ia??iae «i?e»N?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai5991,05797,65646,294,297,4Ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? aaeoc?

952,4

1000,0

1050,0

110,2

105,0Iaae?iaie/a noa?a
naea1086,91379,61721,2158,4124,8?acii8030,38177,28417,4104,8102,9

Iio?aaa naea o ?ano?nao aeeai? i?aoe? i?ioyaii 1995-2005 ??. a oe?eiio
ii Oe?a?i? ca?eueoeoueny ia 448,6 oen. /ieia?e, aai eeoa ia 6,0%, o oiio
/ene? a iniaenoiio i?aeniaiiio ? oa?ia?nueeiio ainiiaea?noa? – ia 19,8%,
a ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aaeocyo – ia 10,2% oa a iaae?iaie/?e
noa?? naea –a 1,6 ?aca i?e iaeii/aniiio nei?i/aii? a ENI ia 537,7
oen. /ieia?e, aai ia 12,9%, aea ia?aaeaa/a?oueny cieaeaiiy
o?oaeii?noeino? ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa ? oaa?eiieoeoaa
ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy iaoai?caoe?? ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy iai?/aieo ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? a ENI, iniaenoiio i?aeniaiiio
ainiiaea?noa? naeyi oa oa?ia??a, ?icoe?aiiy ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
aaeocae noa?e iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? oa
nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e naea (eeoa ia ??ai? i?noa a 1995 ?.) a
oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i? a?aeoaaoeia o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a na?aaeiueiio ca ??e:
a 1998-2000 ??. 1583,1 oen., a 2001-2005 ??. 1968,2 oen. /ieia?e, aai
20,5 ? 24,8%, a a ia??iae “i?e” a?aeiia?aeii 2054,6 ? 2439,7 oen.
/ieia?e, aai 25,1 ? 29,0%.

?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioe?y iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia i?aoe? ?
iiaooo ae?iie, ui caeiyo? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? AIE, aea aeeeaaeai? ?
iniiai? caoiaee-i?iiiceoe??:

a) aeey iie?ioaiiy oiia i?aoe? ? iiaooo naeyiie, ui i?aoeththoue o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?:

· iie?aueoe oiiae i?aoe?, iniaeeai ae?iie, o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
oeyoii i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy iaoai?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo ? ae?iaie/eo
i?ioean?a oa aeiei??iiiai iie?ioaiiy ae?iaie/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e ?
iaeaoooaaiiy ?iai/eo i?noeue;

· o oa?i?iiaiio ii?yaeeo ca aeinooiieie oe?iaie caaacia/eoe n?euenueea
ianaeaiiy iaeiaaaa?eoiith oaoi?eith aeey iaoai?caoe?? ?ia?o a iniaenoiio
i?aeniaiiio ainiiaea?noa?;

· ia?aaeyiooe «Nienie ae?iaieoeoa, i?ioan?e ? ?ia?o c oyaeeeie ?
oe?aeeeaeie oiiaaie i?aoe? ae?iie» o iai?yi? ciaioaiiy ii?i a?aie/ii
aeiionoeieo iaaaioaaeaiue i?e i?aeiyoo? ? ia?ai?uaii? aaaeeeo i?aaeiao?a
a?o/io c o?aooaaiiyi i?aeia?iaeii? i?aeoeee ? noaiaea?o?a;

· ?ic?iaeoe aeey ae?iie ii?ie ae?ia?oeo ? ?icoe?iee ia an? aeaee
e?iii-?o/ieo ?ia?o o ?ineeiieoeoa?, oaa?eiieoeoa? e ?ioeo aaeocyo
aa?a?ii? noa?e AIE, ui a?oioothoueny ia o?c?ieia?/ii iaa?oioiaaieo
ii?iaoeaao ? a?aie/ii aeiionoeieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo aeey ae?iie. I?e
oeueiio «ae?ii/?» ii?ie ae?ia?oeo iiaeii? aooe ieae/eie a?ae
«/ieia?/eo», aea oa?eoiee ?ic?yae ? ?o ?icoe?iee iiaeii? aooe ia ??ai?
aiaeia?/ieo «/ieia?/eo» ?ic?yae?a ? ?icoe?iie;

· caaacia/oaaoe i?aoe?aiee?a oaa?eiieoeoaa, ? a ia?oo /a?ao ae?iie,
niaoeiaeyaii ? i?aaeiaoaie ia?oi? ae?iaie/i? iaiao?aeiino?;

· i?aoe?aiee?a ?ineeiieoeoaa, o oiio /ene? ae?iie, o aaniyiee ia??iae
ia i?iiiethaaeueieo ?iaioao oa ainaie ia cae?aii? o?iaeath
aaciina?aaeiuei ia ?iai/eo i?noeyo caaacia/oaaoe aa?y/ei oa?/oaaiiyi;

· aeey ae?iie, ye? i?aoeththoue o ?ineeiieoeoa? ? oaa?eiieoeoa? ENI ?
ye? i?ioyaii 20 ? a?eueoa ?ie?a aaciina?aaeiuei ia ae?iaieoeoa?
aeeiiothoue ii?ie ae?ia?oeo, anoaiiaeoe i?eueaiaee ?aaeei aeoiaeo ia
iain?th ca a?eii, ciaioeaoe a?eiaee oeaic ia 3-5 ?ie?a;

· o ia?oi/a?aiaiio ii?yaeeo caaacia/oaaoe ae?iie, ye? i?aoeththoue o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, iiaooiaith oaoi?eith ca iioiaeie oe?iaie.

a) aeey icaei?iaeaiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino?:

· iacaeaaeii a?ae aeaea?ae o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy ia aeiioneaoe
nei?i/aiiy o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? e?ea?aiue, iie?ee?i?e, OAI?a,
aeooa?nueeeo ioieo?a, ?ioeo caeeaae?a iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?
ioi?iie caei?ia’y n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy;

· i?e eiaei?e n?euenuee?e ?aae?, a aea iiaeeeai o eiaeiiio ianaeaiiio
ioieo? i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee iiaeii? iaoe noaoe?iia?iee o?ainii?o (ii
oeio oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae) aeey caaacia/aiiy ae?ciiai iaaee/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy a iaaeao ?aeiio ? iaeano?;

· aaa?oieo ae?iie, ui i?aoeththoue o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, ca
?aooiie aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa caaacia/oaaoe iiaiioe?iieie i?iaeoeoaie
oa?/oaaiiy ca i?eueaiaeie oe?iaie;

· ca ?aooiie i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a aaceiooiaii caaacia/oaaoe aaa?oieo
ae?iie a?oai?iaie, a oeo, ui no?aaeaeathoue aiai?yie a?oai?iaie ?
iaaeeeaiaioaie;

· ia aeiioneaoe nei?i/aiiy a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? aeioe?eueieo
aeeoy/eo caeeaae?a oa caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e; ca ?aooiie i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao?a oa aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?ie aeaniino?
caaacia/oaaoe ae?oae aa?y/ei oa?/oaaiiyi, noeioethaaoe aeei?enoaiiy
iao?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a aeioe?eueiiai aeoiaaiiy n?euenueeeo ae?oae;

· cae?enithaaoe caoiaee uiaei iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e
naea, ni?yiiaai? ia cae??ieaiiy iieiae?, iniaeeai ae?iie, a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? oa aa?a?i?e noa??; ?icoe?eoe i?eueaiaa e?aaeeooaaiiy
aeeoea, iaoa??aeueio aeiiiiiao e?eciaei iieiaeei n?i’yi.

AENIIAEE

A?aenoaaaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie a?ae aa?a?iiai naeoi?a
aeniei?icaeiaieo eai?oae?noe/ieo e?a?i ? ?acoeueoaoii iaaeiioe?iee
ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a, iecueeiai ??aiy ?iaeono??ae?caoe?? oe??? aaeoc? oa
iaaoiaiii? aa?a?ii? iie?oeee uiaei aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? naeyi.

A oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee /a?ac iaaeinoaoith
nioe?aeueio ni?yiiaai?noue aa?a?ieo ?aoi?i, iniaeeai uiaei nioe?aeueiiai
noaiiaeua n?euenueei? ae?iee, ?o oaeoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue ia a?aeiia?aea?
i/?eoaaiei niiae?aaiiyi. Oiio a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? Oe?a?ie
aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y iia??oo?oueny, o?oaeia? ?ano?ne naea ? aa?a?ii?
noa?e noa??thoue, nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua naeyiee i?iaeiaaeo? caeeoaoenue
aaaeeei. Iiaeieaiiy oeeo iaaaoeaieo aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo yaeu
iio?aao? ?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? i?iiiceoe?e uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e ca oaeeie iai?yiaie:

1. O oai?aoe/iiio ieai? oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo canaae
aeine?aeaeaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a:

· o?oaeia? ?ano?ne aeioe?eueii aeine?aeaeoaaoe o aeaio aniaeoao:
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ? iae?eiai-noaoenoe/iiio. sse
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y “o?oaeia? ?ano?ne” a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii?
oea /anoeia ianaeaiiy, ui caeaoia aei naiia?aeoai?aiiy ? noai?aiiy
niiaeeaieo aa?oinoae, o aocueeiio aei noai?aiiy cania?a aei aeeooy;
ia oaeiio ?icoi?ii? oe??? eaoaai??? iiaeiii a?oiooaaoenue aecia/aiiy
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy (naea), o oiio /ene? ae?iie
aa?a?ii? noa?e; ye iae?eiai-noaoenoe/ia eaoaai??y “o?oaeia? ?ano?ne”
naea (aa?a?ii? noa?e, o oiio /ene? ae?iie) a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? oea
iayaia /enaeuei?noue n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy (i?aoe?aiee?a aa?a?ieo
oi?ioaaiue, o oiio /ene? ae?iie), yea iiaea ?aae?coaaoe naith
caeaoi?noue aei i?aoe? a on?o noa?ao aeeooy, aeeth/ath/e
aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeuei? i?ioeane, o aocueeiio ae?iaeyoe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th aai iaaeaaaoe iineoae;

· o?oaeia? ?ano?ne naea oa aa?a?ii? noa?e aeioe?eueii aeine?aeaeoaaoe c
iaeyaeo aaiaea?iiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?o aecia/aiiy c ?ic??ciaiiyi oaeeo
eaoaai??e ye “i?aoey ae?iie” ? “ae?ii/a i?aoey” oa a?aooaaiiyi
iniaeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? ae?iie o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e aeioe?eueii
cae?enithaaoe o eiioaeno? ?o ?ie? o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio
ae?iaieoeoa?. Aiie iiaeii? aacoaaoenue ia ?icoi?ii? ae?iee ye
a?inioe?aeueii? ?noioe c o?aooaaiiyi nioe?ieia?/ieo aniaeo?a ae?ii/i?
i?aoe? a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?;

· aeei?enoaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe a
eiioaeno? o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei a on?o noa?ao ?o ae?yeueiino?, aeeth/ath/e
aeeiiaiiy ooieoe?e iaoa?einoaa, aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy,
i?aai?caoe?? ? caaacia/aiiy aeiiaoiueiai iiaooo;

· iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy ?
aeei?enoaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e iiaeii?
a?oiooaaoenue ia iaoa??ae?noe/iiio ?icoi?ii? ae?aeaeoeee ?ooo o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a ye nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oaiiiaia oa ia iniaeeainoyo
ae?ii/i? ?iai/i? neee ? i?aoe? ae?iie a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?.

2. O i?aeoe/iiio ieai?:

a) oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo canaae aeey icaei?iaeaiiy
aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?:

· ?ic?iaeoe ? ?aae?coaaoe caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia noaa?e?caoe?th
aaniethoii? /enaeueiino? naeyi oa caaacia/aiiy iaeaaeii? i?e?iaeii?
iniiae aeey a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea ? aa?a?ii? noa?e oeyoii
i?aeaeuaiiy ia?iaeaeoaaiino?, cieaeaiiy nia?oiino? n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy, ?aaoethaaiiy i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ? cae??ieaiiy iieiae? a
n?euenueeeo iinaeaiiyo oa aa?a?i?e noa??, aeiei??iiiai iie?ioaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua naeyiee;

· ?ic?iaeoe oa i?eeiyoe iaeao caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
?aoe?iiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy iaoa?einoaa c o?oaeiaith ae?yeuei?noth
n?euenueeeo ae?iie o noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?, ?icoe?aiiy i?aa ?
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iaoa?? ? aeeoeie oa aeiei??iia iie?ioaiiy oiia
aeey a?eueo iiaii? ?aae?caoe?? ae?oi?iaeii? ooieoe?? ? aeoiaaiiy
i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy oeyoii ?aae?caoe?? caoiae?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo a
eiioeaioe?? uiaei iie?ioaiiy oiia i?aoe? ? iiaooo ae?iie aa?a?ii? noa?e;

· noeioethaaoe cae??ieaiiy iieiae?, iniaeeai ae?a/ao, o n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? oa a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? oeyoii i?ioan?eii? i???ioaoe?? o/i?a
n?euenueeeo caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?ioan??,
i?aei?e?iieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue, ?icoe?aiiy i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a
NIOO oa ia eo?nao;

a) oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo canaae aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a ae?iie aa?a?ii? noa?e oa iie?ioaiiy ?o nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua:

· ciaioeoe ae?iaie/a iaaaioaaeaiiy i?aoe?aieoeue n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa cao?aoe i?aoe? a a?iiaaenueeiio ? iniaenoiio i?aeniaiiio
ainiiaea?noa? – ia iniia? aeiei??iiiai iie?ioaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii?
aace aaeoc? oa i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy iaoai?caoe?? ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a;

· ia?aaeyiooe “Nienie ae?iaieoeoa, i?ioan?e ? ?ia?o c aaaeeeie ?
oe?aeeeaeie oiiaaie i?aoe? ae?iie” o iai?yi? ciaioaiiy ii?i a?aie/ii
aeiionoeieo iaaaioaaeaiue; ?ic?iaeoe “ae?ii/?” ii?ie ae?ia?oeo ?
?icoe?iee ia an? aeaee ?ia?o o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?; aeey ae?iie,
ui i?ioyaii 20 ? a?eueoa ?ie?a i?aoeththoue o ?ineeiieoeoa? ?
oaa?eiieoeoa?, anoaiiaeoe i?eueaia? oiiae aeoiaeo ia iain?th, ciaioeaoe
a?eiaee oeaic ia 3-5 ?ie?a; ca aeinooiieie oe?iaie caaacia/oaaoe
iniaenoa i?aeniaia ainiiaea?noai naeyi iaeiaaaa?eoiith oaoi?eith;

· aeiei??iii iie?ioeoe oiiae i?aoe? ae?iie o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
oeyoii i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?o caaacia/aiiy ia’?eoaie nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e o ae?iaie/?e noa??, niaoeiaeyaii ? i?aaeiaoaie ia?oi?
ae?iaie/i? iaiao?aeiino?; a ia?oi/a?aiaiio ii?yaeeo caaacia/oaaoe
i?aoe?aieoeue aa?a?ii? noa?e iiaooiaith oaoi?eith ca iioiaeie oe?iaie;

· ciaioeoe nioe?aeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy i?aoe?aieoeue aa?a?iiai naeoi?a
oeyoii iie?ioaiiy aeeoeiaeo oiia, o?ainii?oiiai, aei?iaeiueiai,
iaaee/iiai, oi?aiaaeueiiai, eoeueoo?iiai ? iiaooiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ia
aac? aeiei??iiiai iie?auaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e naea;

· aeey oi?aae?iiy aeaiia?ao?/ieie ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie
a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie naea ? aa?a?ii? noa?e, o
oiio /ene? ae?ii/eie, iaiao?aeii iie?ioeoe noaoenoe/io ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
/enaeuei?noue n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy (Oi?ia ? 9”N”) oa aooaaeoa?nueeo
ca?oi?noue aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa i?i /enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a aa?a?ii?
noa?e, a oiio /ene? ae?iie. ?ic?iaeyoe ca?oi? oa ia?niaeoeai? aaeaine
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea ? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ca i?eioeeiii
ni?anoaaeaiiy iayaiino? ? iio?aae a ?ano?nao aeeai? i?aoe?;

· aacith aeey oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanaie a?aeoai?aiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e ye neeaaeiai? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea iiaeii?
noaoe ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaiinioe?aeueieo
? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai n?euenueeeo ae?iie, ?o nioe?aeueiiai
noaiiaeua a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy ?
aeei?enoaiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e iathoue aooe
aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith aea?aeaaii? aeaiia?ao?/ii? iie?oeee, o oiio /ene?
?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a aeaiia?aeoai?aiiy a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?,
iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua naeyiee, caaacia/aiiy n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie oa iie?auaiiy ?o yeino?.

Cienie iniiaieo iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iiiia?ao??

1. sseoaa E.?. AE?iee a o?oaeiaiio iioaioe?ae? naea. – E.: Aa?a?ia
iaoea, 1998. – 280 n. (20,5 ae?. a?e.) [Iiiia?ao?? i?enoaeaeaia i?ai?y
Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe “Ca aeaeaoi? aeinyaiaiiy a aa?a?i?e
iaooe?” 1999 ?ieo; iinoaiiaa I?aceae?? OAAI a?ae 10 aa?aciy 1999 ?.,
i?ioieie ? 6].

2. sseoaa E.?. Iie?ioaiiy aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea. – E.:
O?iaeae, 1989. – 104 n. (5,5 ae?. a?e.).

?icae?ee a eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?yo

3. sseoaa A.E. Eciaiaiea nioeeaeueii-i?ioanneiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u
?aaioieeia naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Cae?aieaiea eaae?ia naea //
Eiiieaeniay i?ia?aiia iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna ia 1976-2000 aa. ii
Oe?aeineie NN?. ?acaeae 10. Ioaaonoaaiiue ca ?acaeae – aeaaeaiee AI ONN?
E.E. Eoeeiia. – E.: AI ONN?, 1979. – 118n. (eieeaeoeaiay eieaa), a o./.
aaoi?a. – N.54-72.

4. sseoaa A.E. Oi?ie?iaaiea e caiyoinoue o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia naeueneiai
oicyenoaa Oe?aeineie NN? ia ia?eiae aei 2005 aiaea // Eiiieaeniay
i?ia?aiia iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna NNN? ia 1986-2005 aa. ?acaeae
4.14. *anoue ?. – I.: AI NNN?, 1983 (eieeaeoeaiay eieaa, 28 i.e.), a
o./. aaoi?a – 1 i.e. (aini?iecaiaenoai o?oaeiaiai iioaioeeaea naeueneiai
oicyenoaa).

5. sseoaa A.E. O?oaeiaie iioaioeeae e aai eniieueciaaiea //
Yooaeoeaiinoue e eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. ?acaeae V. – I.: Eiein, 1984. – 288 n., (eieeaeoeaiay
iiiia?aoey, 15,1 i.e.), a o./. aaoi?a. – N.169-244.

6. sseoaa A.E. Iioeiecaoeey niaieoiiie caiyoinoe aeaiuei – aaaeiue
oaeoi? iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai o?oaea //
Iooe iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a naeueneii oicyenoaa.
Eaoaeeneay n.-o. aeaaeaiey. Aui.225., O?oaeu ENOA. – Aeaaaa, 1985. – 91
n. (eieeaeoeaiay iiiia?aoey, 5,5 i.e.), a o./. aaoi?a. – N.52-55.

7. sseoaa A.E. Ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey o?oaeiaiai iioaioeeaea naea e
aa?a?iiai ?aaioieea // ?acaeoea aa?a?iie yeiiiieee Oe?aeineie NN?.
?acaeae 3. – E.: O?iaeae, 1987. – 1,0 i.e.

8. sseoaa A.E., Naa/aiei E.A., Ooo?aa O.O. Aaeain o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia //
Ni?aai/iee ii ieaie?iaaieth a aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena. – E.: O?iaeae,
1991. – 424 n. (eieeaeoeaiay eieaa, 22,3 i.e.), a o./. aaoi?a. –
N.227-280 (ieaie?iaaiea aiaeiaiai e iany/iiai oiiaea ?aai/aai a?aiaie
e /eneaiiinoe iniiaiuo ?aaioieeia).

9. sseoaa A.E. O?oaeiaie iioaioeeae aa?a?iie noa?u // *aeiaae a aa?a?iie
noa?a. AI ONN?, Ei-o yeiiiieee. – E.: 1991.– n., (eieeaeoeaiay
iiiia?aoey, a o./. aaoi?a. – N.36-51).

10. sseoaa A.E. Ii?aaeaeaiea iio?aaiinoe a iaoaiecaoi?neeo eaae?ao //
Ni?aai/iee yeiiiienoa-aa?a?ieea. – E.: O?iaeae, 1991. – 520 n.
(eieeaeoeaiay eieaa, 27,3 i.e.), a o./. aaoi?a. – N.225-232
(eiyooeoeeaiou iii?aaie iaeanoiuo ii?iaoeaia a caaeneiinoe io a?oiiu
oicyenoaa).

11. sseoaa E.?. Nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? ia?aaeoiiae a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo naea. Iie?ioaiiy oiia i?aoe? oa iiaooo i?aoe?aiee?a
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. O?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa oaiaeaioe?? eiai oi?ioaaiiy. Caaacia/ai?noue
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie // Nioe?aeueia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie naea a ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.
– E.: O?iaeae, 1993. – 212 n. (eieaeoeaia iiiia?ao?y, 12,6 ae?.a?e.), a
o./. aaoi?a. – N.7-37, 63-68, 70-74.

12. sseoaa E.?. Nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? ia?aaeoiiae a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo naea // Nioe?aeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie naea a oiiaao
noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. ?icae?e ?. – E.: O?iaeae, 1993,
(eieaeoeaia iiiia?ao?y, 12,6 ae?.a?e.), a o./. aaoi?a. – N.7-38.

13. sseoaa E.?. Ioe?iea a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo. sse?noue
o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo // Nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae aa?a?ii?
aeiiii?ee. – E.: OIA Eiiieaen A?oa, 1996. – 229 n. (eieaeoeaia
iiiia?ao?y, 17,7 ae?.a?e.), a o./. aaoi?a. – N.84-89, 89-103.

14. sseoaa E.?. Aeaiia?ao?/ia iniiaa a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaiai
iioaioe?aeo. AE?iee oa ?o ?ieue a aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueiiio i?ioean?
n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? // Aa?a?ia i?aoey oa nioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie naea.
– E.: ?i-o aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI, 1996. – 302 n. (eieaeoeaia
iiiia?ao?y), a o./. aaoi?a. – N.129-135, 136-144.

15-29. Eieae, ci?no yeeo a?aeia?aaeaiee a aeena?oaoe??.

A?ioo?e, eiioeaioe??, iaoeia? aeiiia?ae?

30. sseoaa E.?. O?oaeia? ?ano?ne eieaini?a Oe?a?ie. – E.: Ciaiiy,
1973.

– 48 n. (a?ioo?a).

31. sseoaa E.?. O?oaeia? ?ano?ne oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy a eieainiao. –
E.:

Ciaiiy, 1975.- 16 n. (a?ioo?a).

32. sseoaa E.?. Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an ? i?a?aoe?y n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy. – E.: Ciaiiy, 1976. – 48 n. (a?ioo?a).

33. sseoaa A.E., Oo?iaiaoe A.A. O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu eieoicia e niaoicia
ONN? e iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eo eniieueciaaiey. – E.: Oe?IEEIOE,
1977. – 18 n., a o./. aaoi?a. – N.6-18 (iieacieee aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a eieaini?a ? ?aaeaini?a), (a?ioo?a).

34. sseoaa E.?. O?oaeia? ?ano?ne naea a oiiaao ?iaeono??ae?caoe??. – E.:
O?iaeae, 1978. – 80 n. (a?ioo?a).

35. sseoaa A.E. O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu naeueneiai oicyenoaa e iooe iiauoaiey
eo eniieueciaaiey. – E.: Ciaiiy, 1980. – 16 n. (a?ioo?a).

36. sseoaa E.?., Oeai A.E. Ea??aiee na?aaeiuei? eaiee ? ?aaeei aeiiii??.
– E.: O?iaeae, 1983. – 62 n., a o./. aaoi?a. – N.3-60 (a?eiaa ?
i?ioan?eia no?oeoo?a ea??aiee?a na?aaeiuei? eaiee oi?aae?iiy n?euenueeei
ainiiaea?noaii) (a?ioo?a).

37. sseoaa E.?. Aeaiia?ao?/ia iie?oeea a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?
Oe?a?ie. – E.: ?AA, 1999. – 75 n. (a?ioo?a).

38. sseoaa A.E. Eiioeaioeey oeo/oaiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee
o?oaea e auoa aeaiuei, caiyouo a aa?a?iii naeoi?a AIE. – E.: IO OIE
ONOA, 1992. – 24 n.

39. sseoaa A.E. Eniieueciaaiea o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia naeueneiai oicyenoaa
// Ia yeiiiie/aneii iieiaeaiee e ia?ao ii iiauoaieth aeioiaeiinoe
naeueneiai oicyenoaa Oe?aeineie NN?. ?acaeae ?V. (Iao/iue aeieeaae –
aiaeec e i?aaeeiaeaiey). – E.: Oe?IEEYINO ei.A.A.Oeeooa?a, 1975. – 411
n., a o./. aaoi?a. – N.68-81.

40. sseoaa A.E., Eeoeeaiei A.E. Ioeaiea e i?iaiic iaania/aiiinoe
naeueneiai oicyenoaa Oe?aeineie NN? o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie ia ia?eiae aei
2010 aiaea. (Iao/iue aeieeaae). – E.: Oe?IEEYINO, 1991. – 76 n., a o./.
aaoi?a. — N.3-51 (ioe?iea caaacia/aiino? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa O?N?
o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie, o?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae ? iio?aaa aa?a?ii? noa?e a
?ano?nao aeeai? i?aoe? ia ia??iae aei 2010 ?ieo a ?ic??c? i’yoe??/ie).

41. sseoaa E.?. Nioe?aeueiee noai naea // ?eiie i?iaeiaieuenoaa,
?io?ano?oeoo?a ? iaoai?ci ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei (aeiiia?aeue-aiae?c). – E.:
?AA OAAI, 1994. – 126 n., a o./. aaoi?a. – N.20-24.

42. sseoaa E.?. Nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua n?euenueei? ae?iee a Oe?a?i?.
(Iaoeiaa aeiiia?aeue-aiae?c). – E.: ?AA OAAI, 1997. – 9 n.

O/aia? oa o/aiai-iaoiaee/i? iin?aieee, iaoiaeeee, iaoiaee/i?

?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ii?iaoeae

43. sseoaa E.?. Ca??iee caaea/ ?c caaaeueii? oa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? noaoenoeee. – E.: O?iaeae, 1966. – 264 n.
(o/aiaee iin?aiee 13,8 ae?. a?e.).

44. sseoaa E.?. Caaaeueia oai??y noaoenoeee. – E.: Ee?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O.A. Oaa/aiea, 1967. – 110 n. (iaoiaee/iee
iin?aiee).

45. sseoaa E.?. I?ia?aiiaai? ea?oee. Caaaeueia oa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea noaoenoeea. – E.: Iai?oa?aa, 1968. – 98 n.
(o/aiai-iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee).

46. sseoaa E.?.Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii neeaaeaiith oa aiae?co
ca?oiiai aaeaino o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a eieaini?a aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ?aeiio.
– E.: INA Oe?a?ie, 1974. – 74 n.

47. sseoaa A.E. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aiaeeco o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia eieoica. – E.: Oe?IEEYINO ei.A.A. Oeeooa?a, 1977. – 52 n.

48. sseoaa A.E., Eeoeeaiei A.E. Ii?iaoeau iio?aaiinoe
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee Oe?aeineie NN? a iaoaiecaoi?neeo
eaae?ao ia 1981-1985 e 1986-1990 aa. – E.: INO ONN?, 1981. – 14 n., a
o./. aaoi?a. – N. 1-12 (anooi, iaoiaeeea, ii?iaoeau ia 1981-1985
aa.).

49. sseoaa A.E., Eeoeeaiei A.E. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
ii?aaeaeaieth iio?aaiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey a
iaoaiecaoi?ao. – E.: Oe?IEEYINO ei. A.A. Oeeooa?a, 1981. – 40 n., a o./.
aaoi?a. – N.1-22 (anooieaiea, iainiiaaiea ii?iaoeaia, oa?aeoa?enoeea
ii?iaoeaia, eiyooeoeeaiou ioeeiiaiee a caaeneiinoe io niaoeeaeecaoeee).

50. sseoaa A.E. I?iaiice?iaaiea ia?niaeoeaiie /eneaiiinoe naeueneiai
ianaeaiey, o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia e iaania/aiiinoe eie naeueneiai oicyenoaa
// Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?iaiice?iaaieth ?acaeoey e
?aciauaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa Oe?aeineie NN? ia ia?eiae aei 2005
aiaea. – E.: Oe?IEEYINO ei.A.A. Oeeooa?a, 1982. – 127 n., a o./. aaoi?a.
– N.81-91.

51. sseoaa A.E., Eeoeeaiei A.E. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
ninoaaeaieth ieaiiaiai aaeaina o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey. – E.: Oe?IEEC, 1987. – 22 n., a o./. aaoi?a. – N.1-15
(?an/ao o?oaeiaiai iioaioeeaea i?aaei?eyoey e iio?aaiinoe a ?aai/ae
neea).

52. sseoaa E.?. Nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? ia?aaeoiiae a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
naea // ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii nioe?aeueiiio ?icaeoeo naea a oiiaao
noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. ?icae?e ?. – E.: I?in?eueainii?iae
Oe?a?ie, ?AA, 1993. – 55 n., a o./. aaoi?a. – N.8-12.

53-66. Iaoiaeeee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? (uiaei
iia?aoeaiiai aiae?co o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, aeei?enoaiiy caeo/aii?
?iai/i? neee, aecia/aiiy iio?aae a o?oaeiaeo ?ano?nao oa ?i.),
a oaeiae i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua
n?euenueei? ae?iee a Oe?a?i?.

Iniiai? noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo

67. sseoaa A.E. AEaiueiu a o?oaeiaii iioaioeeaea naea // I?iaeaiu
yeiiiieee o?oaea, iaoa?eaeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey
naea. Iaoa?eaeu eii?aeeiaoeeiiiiai iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneiai niaauaiey. –
Aeia-Aoa, EacIEEYINO 10-12 ai?aey 1985 a., 1985. – 177 n. (eieeaeoeaiay
eieaa 11 i.e.), a o./. aaoi?a. – N.64-66.

68. sseoaa A.E. *aeiaa/aneee oaeoi? AIE: nouiinoue e iniiaiua i?iaeaiu
// Yeiiiieea e i?aaiecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. ?ani.
iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiue oaiaoe/aneee iao/. na. – E.: O?iaeae, 1988. – 120 n.,
a o./. aaoi?a. – N.71-74.

69. sseoaa A.E. Nioeeaeueiua aniaeou aeaineiai o?oaea a naeueneii
oicyenoaa // Nioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea naea a iiauo oneiaeyo oicyenoaiaaiey.
Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia. – Eaieia?aae: IAANOIEE ii IC ?NON?, 1990. – 236
n., a o./. aaoi?a. – N.62-66.

70. sseoaa A.E. Nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu eniieueciaaiey aeaineiai o?oaea a
AIE // O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu e iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eo
eniieueciaaiey a oicyenoaao noaiiie ciiu ONN?. Nai?iee iao/. o?oaeia. –
Aeiai?iiao?iane, Aeiai?iiao?ianeee NOE, 1990. – 155 n. (eieeaeoeaiay
eieaa 9,1 ae?. a?e.), a o./. aaoi?a. – N.96-100.

71. sseoaa A.E. Aini?iecaiaenoai eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia AIE //
I?iaeaiu yeiiiieee o?oaea e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey naea. I-eu
Ananithciiai eii?aeeiaoeeiiiiai iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneiai niaauaiey. – E.:
AANOIEE, IEEYINO, 1991. – 520 n. a o./. aaoi?a. – N.-51-56.

72. sseoaa A.E. I?iaeaiu aeaineiai o?oaea a nenoaia ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee
// ?uii/iua i?aia?aciaaiey aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa: ?aoi?ie?iaaiea
ioiioaiee nianoaiiinoe, oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey e yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia
eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey: Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?. iao/. i?aeo. eiio. –
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1992. – N.143-145.

73. sseoaa E.?. Aeaiia?ao?/iee ?aeaae n?i’? a Oe?a?i? // Aeiiii?ea ?
i?aai?caoe?y n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. – E., 1992. – Aei. 90. I?iaeaie
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo naea. – N.101-107.

74. sseoaa E.?. Aei ieoaiiy i?i ?eiie i?aoe? // ?eiie ? ?eieia?
a?aeiineie a nenoai? aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie: iaoa??ae?
iaoe.eiio., 30-31 n?/iy 1991 ?. – E., 1992. – N.102-107.

75. sseoaa E.?. ?ieue ae?iee o oi?ioaaii? n?euenueei? n?i’? // Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeii? iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo nioe?ieia??
ia no/aniiio aoai? (oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? ieoaiiy)” – E.: Oe?IAe?
i?iaeai iieiae?, 1993. – 189 n., (eieaeoeaia eieaa), a o./. aaoi?a. –
N.124-126.

76. sseoaa E.?. sse?noue o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo aa?a?ii? noa?e AIE //
Aeiiii?ea AIE. – E., 1995. – ? 7. – N.70-76.

77. sseoaa E.?. I?iaeaie nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua naeyiee oa aaaeaia
e?euee?noue ae?oae a n?i’? // Aeaiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aei.19. –
E.: ?A IAI Oe?a?ie, 1997. – N.133-138.

78. sseoaa E.?. AE?iee ? a?aeoai?aiiy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy //
Aeiiii?ea AIE. – E., 1998. – ? 4. – N.79-85.

79. sseoaa E.?. N?euenueea ianaeaiiy oa eiai ?ieue a ?aoi?ioaaii?
aa?a?ii? noa?e // Aeiiii?ea AIE. – E., 1999. – ?3.

80. sseoaa E.?. AE?iea a oe?a?inueeiio nae?: nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
i?iaeaie // Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie. – E., 1999. – ?4. – N.54-60.

81-90. Iaoeia? noaoo? c i?iaeai o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea ?
nioe?aeueiiai

?icaeoeo naea.

Oace aeiiia?aeae, ci?no yeeo ia aeeeaaeaiee a ?ioeo ioae?eaoe?yo

91. sseoaa A.E. E iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy iaania/aiiinoe
naeueneiai oicyenoaa o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie ia ia?niaeoeao //
Aini?iecaiaenoai e ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ?aai/ae neeu a
ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa ?anioaeeee. – Oaeeei: EY Ynoiineie NN?, 1975. Oac.
iao/. eiio. – 131 n., a o./. aaoi?a. – N.70-73.

92. sseoaa A.E. ?ieue naeueneie iea?aoeee a nioeeaeueiii ?acaeoee naea
Oe?aeineie NN? // Oacenu aeieeaaeia ia ?V Anaie?iii eiia?anna naeueneeo
nioeeieiaia (Iieueoa, Oi?oiue 9-14 aaaonoa 1976 a.). – I.: Ei-o
nioeeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee AI NNN?, 1986. – 60 n., a o./. aaoi?a. –
N.32.

93. sseoaa A.E. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaiey o?oaeiaiai
iioaioeeaea naeueneiai oicyenoaa a oneiaeyo AIE // Iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey o?oaea a naeueneii oicyenoaa e nioeeaeueiia
?acaeoea naea. Oac.aeiee.?ani.iao/.-i?aeo.eiio. – E.: THI AANOIEE, 1983.
– 157 n., a o./. aaoi?a. – N.1-10.

94. sseoaa A.E. AEaiueiu a n?aaeiai caaia oi?aaeaiey naeueneei
oicyenoaii // Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey o?oaea a naeueneii
oicyenoaa e nioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea naea. Oac.aeiee.?ani.iao/.-i?aeo.eiio.
– E.: THI AANOIEE, 1983. – 157 n., a o./. aaoi?a. – N.123-125.

95. sseoaa A.E. Aic?anoaiea ?iee aeaiuei a oi?aaeaiee naeueneei
oicyenoaii // Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?aaeaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiui
i?iecaiaenoaii a nenoaia AIE: Oac.aeiee.?ani.iao/.-i?eo.eiio. – E.:
Oe?IEEYINO, 1984. – N. 114-116.

96. sseoaa A.E. Athaeaeao a?aiaie e?anoueyiee (ia i?eia?a Oe?aeineie
NN?) // Nioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea naea: i?ioeia, ianoiyuaa, aoaeouaa.
Oac.ananithci.iao/i.-i?aeo.eiio. – Iiaineae?ne, 1990. – N.96-98.

97. sseoaa E.?. Ioi?iia i?aoe? ae?iie o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? //
I?aaiaa nenoaia Oe?a?ie: oai??y ? i?aeoeea. Oac.aeiiia. ? iaoeia.
iia?aeiieaiue. – E.: ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa AI Oe?a?ie, 1993. – 552
n., a o./. aaoi?a. – N.328-331.

98. sseoaa E.?. I?iaeaie a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy // Aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i?. *anoeia3.
Iaoa??aee iaoe.eiio. – E.: A?aeae?eaiiy aeiiii?ee AI Oe?a?ie, 1993. –
115 n., a o./. aaoi?a. – N.26-31.

99. sseoaa E.?. Nioe?aeueiee noai naea // ?eiie i?iaeiaieuenoaa,
?io?ano?oeoo?a ? iaoai?ci ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei (aeiiia?aeue-aiae?c). – E.:
?AA OAAI, 1994. – N.20-24.

100-223. Iaoa??aee iaoeiaeo, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e,
ia?aae, neiiic?oi?a, ci?no yeeo a?aeia?aaeaiee a aeena?oaoe??
(aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y ia nae?, o?oaeia? ?ano?ne naea, ae?ii/?
o?oaeia? ?ano?ne aa?a?ii? noa?e, aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? ae?iie o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? oa oiiae ?o o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?, ?ieue
ae?iie o a?aeoai?aii? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a
aa?a?ii? noa?e).

A I I O A Oe ? ss

sseoaa E.?. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy
ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.09.01 – Aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea i?aoe?, nioe?aeueia
aeiiii?ea ? iie?oeea. – ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeeeaaeaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai
a?aeoai?aiiy ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ii? noa?e Oe?a?ie.
?ice?eoi iaoiaeieia?/i?, iaoiaee/i? oa i?aeoe/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeai aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ae?iie-aa?a???a o ae?iaie/?e ?
n?iaeii-iiaooia?e noa?ao. Aecia/aia ?o noeoiia iaaaioaaeaiiy, cae?eniaii
aiae?c aeeiai?ee ae?ii/eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea. Aeaii ioe?ieo
aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? oa ?ie? naeyiee o
a?aeoai?aii? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea ? aa?a?ii? noa?e. ?ic?iaeaii
eiioeaioe?th iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia i?aoe? ? iiaooo
ae?iie, caeiyoeo o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, ?aa?iiaeuei? aaeaine
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea ia ia??iae aei 2005 ?ieo. Iaa?oioiaaii
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua ae?iie aa?a?ii?
noa?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: n?euenueea ianaeaiiy, i?e?iaeiee ?oo ianaeaiiy,
i?a?aoe?y, o?oaeia? ?ano?ne, n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai, ae?iee aa?a?ii?
noa?e, ae?iaie/a iaaaioaaeaiiy, noni?eueia ae?iaieoeoai ? iaoa?einoai,
n?iaeii-iiaooiaa noa?a, aaeaine o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a.

AIIIOAOeEss

sseoaa A.E. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey e
eniieueciaaiey aeaineeo o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia aa?a?iie noa?u. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.09.01 – Aeaiia?aoey, yeiiiieea o?oaea, nioeeaeueiay
yeiiiieea e iieeoeea. – Einoeooo yeiiiieee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth i?iaeai aini?iecaiaenoaa aeaineeo
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia aa?a?iie noa?u a Oe?aeia. O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu
?anniao?eaathony a aeaoo aniaeoao: nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii e
o/aoii-noaoenoe/aneii. Eae nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey a oe?ieii
iiieiaiee – yoi /anoue ianaeaiey, niiniaiay e naiiaini?iecaiaenoao e
nicaeaieth n?aaenoa e aeecie. A oceii iiieiaiee /anoue ianaeaiey,
niiniaiay nicaeaaaoue oieueei iio?aaeoaeueiua noieiinoe, n?aaenoaa e
aeecie. Eae o/aoii-noaoenoe/aneay eaoaai?ey o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu
?anniao?eaathony eae niaieoiiinoue ianaeaiey, a oe?ieii iiieiaiee,
eioi?ay iiaeao ?aaeeciaaoue naith niiniaiinoue e o?oaeo ai anao noa?ao
aeecie, aeeth/ay aeaiia?aoe/aneee aniaeo, a oceii iiieiaiee – a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a. Iainiiauaaaony aiciiaeiinoue enneaaeiaaiey eo a
aeaiia?aoe/aneii, oa??eoi?eaeueii-aaeieieno?aoeaiii (?aaeiiaeueiii),
io?aneaaii e ae?oaeo aniaeoao. A niioaaonoaee n iaoiaeieiae/aneeie
iiaeoiaeaie e ii?aaeaeaieth yoiai iiiyoey eae eaoaai?ee yeiiiie/aneie
iaoee, o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu enneaaeothony ioiineoaeueii naeueneiai
ianaeaiey (naea) e aeaiuei aa?a?iie noa?u.

?ane?uou oai?aoe/aneea, iaoiaeieiae/aneea, iaoiaee/aneea e i?aeoe/aneea
iniiau (i?eioeeiu) ii?aaeaeaiey e aiaeeca caiyoinoe naeueneeo aeaiuei a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e naiaeii-auoiaie noa?ao, aeaia ioeaiea
aeaiia?aoe/aneie neooaoeee a naeueneie ianoiinoe e ?iee e?anoueyiee a
aini?iecaiaenoaa o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia naea, aa?a?iie noa?u. ?ac?aaioaia
eiioeaioeey oeo/oaiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee o?oaea e auoa
aeaiuei, caiyouo a naeueneii oicyenoaa, ?aaeiiaeueiua aaeainu o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia naea ia ia?eiae aei 2005 aiaea. Iainiiaaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
oeo/oaieth nioeeaeueiiai iieiaeaiey aeaiuei aa?a?iie noa?u.

?ac?aaioaiu oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea e iaoiaee/aneea iniiau
enneaaeiaaiey aeaineeo o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia aa?a?iie noa?u; ooi/iaia
nouiinoue oaeeo eaoaai?ee eae “o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu naea” e “o?oaeiaua
?ano?nu aa?a?iie noa?u”; ?anniio?aiu iaoiaeieiae/aneea iniiau
enneaaeiaaiey aeaineeo o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia e iniaaiiinoae aeaineiai
o?oaea a naeueneii oicyenoaa; ?anniio?aiu iaoiaee/aneea aniaeou
nioeeaeueiiai iieiaeaiey aeaiuei a eiioaenoa eo o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee ii
nicaeaieth iio?aaeoaeueiuo noieiinoae, n?aaenoa e aeecie; enneaaeiaaiu
nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneea i?aaeiinueee aini?iecaiaenoaa naeueneiai
ianaeaiey e o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia aa?a?iie noa?u; eco/aii anoanoaaiiia e
iaoaie/aneia aeaeaeaiea naeueneeo aeaiuei e aai aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia naeueneiai oicyenoaa; aeaia ioeaiea aeeiaieee
/eneaiiinoe naeueneeo aeaiuei, eo aic?anoiiai ninoaaa, a oaeaea
eciaiaiee a aa aeaiiaini?iecaiaenoaaiiii iioaioeeaea; eco/ai
aeaiia?aoe/aneee eaeaae naeueneie aeaiueiu, aai ?aaeecaoeey e ?ieue a
oi?ie?iaaiee naeueneie naiuee; enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia ia aeaiia?aoe/aneia iiaaaeaiea
naeueneeo aeaiuei; eceiaeaia iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey ?acia?a, aeeiaieee e
no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia naeueneiai ianaeaiey, a o./.
aeaineeo; aeaia ioeaiea ea/anoaa o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia naeueneiai ianaeaiey
e aa?a?iie noa?u; ecia?aia o?oaeiaay iaa?ocea aeaiuei a eieeaeoeaiuo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo e ioeaiaiu oneiaey eo o?oaea a
naeueneii oicyenoaa; ecia?aiu cao?aou o?oaea aeaiuei a ee/iii iiaeniaiii
e aeiiaoiai oicyenoaa; aeaia ioeaiea o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
e?anoueyiee a nooi/iii athaeaeaoa a?aiaie.

Enneaaeiaaieai auyaeaii eioaineaiia noa?aiea o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia naea e
aa?a?iie noa?u, iniaaiii aeaineeo, noaeaiea anoanoaaiiie iniiau eo
oi?ie?iaaiey, i?iecaiaenoaaiiay e nioeeaeueii-auoiaay ia?aa?ocea
aeaiuei-aa?a?eaa e aa iaaoaiia aeeyiea ia ea/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee
aeaineeo o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, ia aeaiia?aoe/aneia iiaaaeaiea
aeaiuei-e?anoueyiie. Iieacaii, /oi iniiaiay noa?a eniieueciaaiey
aeaineiai o?oaea a naeueneii oicyenoaa – eiiii-?o/iua ?aaiou a
?anoaieaaiaenoaa e aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, /oi ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yoeo io?aneae
ceaeaeeony ia ?o/iii o?oaea aeaiuei noa?oeo aic?anoiuo a?oii.
Enneaaeiaaiea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaee/ee aeene?eieiaoeee e?anoueyiie ia
anao o?iaiyo oi?aaeaiey naeueneei oicyenoaii no?aiu.

?acoeueoaou oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieueciaaiey aeaineeo
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia aa?a?iie noa?u iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny eae aaaeiay
ninoaaeythuay ?ac?aaioee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaiia?aoe/aneie iieeoeee,
aeeth/ay ?aoaiea aii?inia ?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeannia aeaiiaini?iecaiaenoaa
a naeueneii ianoiinoe, iaania/aiea naeueneiai oicyenoaa o?oaeiauie
?ano?naie e oeo/oaiea eo ea/anoaa. I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea ?aaiou
caeeth/aaony a ?ac?aaioaiiie nieneaoaeai eiioeaioeee oeo/oaiey oneiaee
o?oaea e auoa aeaiuei, caiyouo a naeueneii oicyenoaa, a i?aaeeiaeaieyo
ii oeo/oaieth nioeeaeueiiai iieiaeaiey e?anoueyiee e aeaiuei aa?a?iie
noa?u, a eniieueciaaiee a i?aeoeea oi?aaeaiey ?ac?aaioaiiuo aaoi?ii
?aaeiiaeueiuo aaeainia o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia naea ia ia?eiae aei 2005
aiaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naeueneia ianaeaiea, anoanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea ianaeaiey,
iea?aoeey, o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu, naeueneia oicyenoai, aeaiueiu aa?a?iie
noa?u, i?iecaiaenoaaiiay iaa?ocea, iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai e
iaoa?einoai, naiaeii-auoiaay noa?a, aaeainu o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

Summary

Jacuba K. I. Social and Economic Problems of Formation and Use of the
Female Labour Resources in Agrarian Sphere. – Manuscript.

Dissertation for the doctor degree in economics on speciality 08.09.01 –
Demography, Labour Economics, Social Economics and Policy. – Institute
of Economics, NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The main results of complex investigation of problems of reproduction of
the female labour resources in agrarian sphere of Ukraine are stated.
Theoretical, methodical and practical grounds of study of use of labour
resources of women-agrarians in production, domestic and family fields
are determined. Their aggregate load is defined, dynamics of the female
rural labour resources are analysed. Demographic situation and role of
the peasant-woman in reproduction of labour resources of rural areas and
agrarian sphere are appraised. Conception on improvement of social and
economic conditions of labour and family life of women employed in
agriculture are worked out. Regional balances of labour resources of
rural areas are elaborated. The proposals on improvement of social
status of the women of agrarian sphere are grounded.

Key words: rural population, natural population movement, migration,
labour resources, agriculture, women of agrarian sphere, production
load, social production and motherhood, domestic and family spheres,
balances of labour resources.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 03.08.1999.

Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai?? ionaoiee.

Ae?oe ionaoiee.

O?c. ae?oe. a?e. 2,5. Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 2,3

Iae?e. – aeae. a?e. 2,9

Oe?aae 150 i?ei. Cai. ?

__________________________________________________

A?aeae?oeiaaii a AeIAe ?inoeoooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI

252127, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a Iai?iie, 10

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