Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Iiaioaoueei Eaii?ae Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 947.084 (477) : 323.1

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ? eoeueoo?i?

i?ioeane a Oe?a?i? o eiioaeno?

iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae

(20-a? — na?aaeeia 30-o ??. XX no.)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a —1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?

Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie Eo?an
?aai Oaaei?iae/, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eoeue/eoeueeee Noai?neaa
Aeaaeeneaaiae/, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI
Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eyo ?iiai Aeaieeiae/, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Aeiiaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?-

aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, eaoaae?a iie?oe/ieo

iaoe

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 22 ethoiai 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.20 a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?-

neoao? ?i. O.Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252033, i. Ee?a, aoe.

Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, aoae. 349

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. O.Oaa/aiea (i. Ee?a, aoe.

Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 21 n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, Aiaeei 0.1.

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie

aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?? ianya noaiiaeoue 376 noi??iie. ?iaioa neeaaea?-

oueny c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, i?ei?oie (950 iine-

eaiue), nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e (46 noi??iie,

446 iaca).

Anooi. Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oi?iaeiaae aeanyoee?oue

?noi?e/ia iaoea aea/aea i?aai?caoe?eii-iie?oe/i? oa nioe?aeueii-

aeiiii?/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy nioe?ae?noe/ii? aea?aeaae, cina?a-

aeaeoth/enue aieiaiei /eiii ia ?? ia?aaaaao ? aeinyaiaiiyo, iaooo-

th/e noia?a/eeaeie i?iaeaiaie, iaiaeiicia/ieie aioo??oi?ie

yaeuaie oa caeiiii??iinoyie ?? ?icaeoeo. Iaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeii-

neie a Oe?a?i? 1920-o — na?aaeeie 1930-o ??. aena?oethaaeeny ca

onoaeaiith a ?noi??ia?ao?? noaiith: e?eoeea oe?a?inueeiai ao?aeo-

aciiai iaoe?iiae?cio, ?icaeoie i?ieaoa?nueeiai ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?c-

io, ae?oaeaa ia?iae?a, i?ae?anioae?eainuee? noinoiee o ??cieo aaeo-

cyo, aeooiaia ?aei?noue eoeueoo? oiui. Noia?a/eea? ieoaiiy aea?-

aeaaiiai ? iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa aeine?aeaeoaaeeny

aac iaeaaeiiai e?eoe/iiai aiae?co eiie?aoii? ?noi?e/ii? neooa-

oe?? a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? oiai ia??iaeo, a a?aeoae iaaoea

iaoeiai? aeooaeueiino? ? i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy oaia nioe?aeueii-

aeiiii?/iiai ? eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ON?? a eiioaeno? iaoe?i-

iaeueii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae, aeyaeaiiy ?o i?e/eiii-

iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a.

?aoi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo a?ae-

iinei a Oe?a?i?, ui o?eaa? oi?iaeiaae 1990-o ??., aeiaaa? iao-

eiaiai i?iaiicoaaiiy nioe?aeueieo iane?aee?a, aecia/aiiy iaoe?i-

iaeueieo i??i?eoao?a iinooiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. O

ca’yceo c oeei i?aeoe/ii iaiao?aeiei ? aeeaiea aea/aiiy oa
oca-aaeueiaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, a?aooaaiiy

eiai iiceoeaieo ? iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e.

Noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaae, ye ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue ?noi??y

ethaenueei? oeea?e?caoe?? — aeiaaio?eaaeee ? noia?a/eeaee i?ioean aeai?o
iioeiaeueieo oi?i nioe?aeueii? ??aiiaaae. Eiaeia c aea?-

aeaaieo iaoe?e iaea aeaniee oeyo ?icaeoeo, ae??ciyth/enue c ii-

i?ae ?ioeo iniaeeainoyie aeooiaiiai ? eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy, oe-

iii aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ii?aeueii-aoe/ieie oa iiaooiaeie

oe?iiinoyie, cana?ae/oth/e o oaeee niin?a naith aoiiiie?oe/io na-

iiaooi?noue.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?-

aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny iaiao?aei?noth ? aeioe?euei?noth iaoia?aaeaeaii-

ai aea/aiiy aeineoue aaaeeeai? iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii? oa eiie?ao-

ii-?noi?e/ii? i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa eoeueoo?ii-

ai ?icaeoeo ON?? ia??iaeo 1920-o — na?aaeeie 1930-o ??. o eii-

oaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae.

Ca’ycie aeina?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie,

ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? ca’ycie c iao-

eiaith oaiith “?noi?e/i? oa aoi?/i? canaaee ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?

iaoe?? o XX noie?oo?” (aea?aeaaiee ?a?no?aoe?eiee iiia? 97173),

yea ?ic?iaey?oueny ia ?noi?e/iiio oaeoeueoao? Ee?anueeiai oi?-

aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oe?a?inueea ?aaeyinueea aea?aeaaa ia-

??iaeo 1920-o — na?aaeeie 1930-o ??., ?? i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a,

iniiai? ?inoeoooe aeaaee, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia oa eoeueoo?ia

iie?oeea.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee oa eoeue-oo?iee
?icaeoie Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee

a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o??: iie?oeei-i?aaia? canaaee ?aaeyinueei?
aea?-aeaae, aecia/aiiy ?? noaoono, ae?yeuei?noue ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaii?
ii-iaieeaoo?e, ?ieue ? i?noea ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe, oeyoe ? oi?ie

aeiiii?/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai aoae?aieoeoaa a ON??, cai?iaa-aeaeaiiy
oe?a?i?caoe??, ?? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy, i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy
caaaeueiinithciiai ainiiaea?nueeiai i?inoi?o, iniaeeaino? oi?a-ae?iiy
i?iieneia?noth a ?iee ci?oeiaiiy oioae?oa?iiai eaaeo, ei-eaeoea?caoe?y
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ye can?a ?oeioaaiiy iniia “oe?a?inueeiai
naia?aoecio”, nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? oa iaoe?i-aeuei? iane?aeee
nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe??, iaoe?iiaeueiee an- iaeo o?einio??
“eoeueoo?iiai no?eaea”, oi?o?eaoe?y iaoe?iiaeueieo

eoeueoo? ye niin?a aeinyaiaiiy “?aeiino?” aeooiaiiai aeeooy ia?i-

ae?a N?N? oa ON??, aeeneon?ei? ieoaiiy i?i iioiaeaeaiiy “nioe?a-

e?noe/ii?” ?ioae?aaioe??.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aneththoue aeeeth/ii

oa?eoi??th Oe?a?inueei? N?? ia??iaeo 1920-o — na?aaeeie 1930-o

??. o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai iiae?eo.

Aeei?enoaiiy o ?iaio? iacae “Oe?a?ia” ia iioe?th?oueny ia ??

aaiiie?oe/iee i?ino?? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, a noino?oueny

eeoa oa?eoi??? ON??, o oiio /ene? Iieaeaanueei? AN??, yea aoi-

aeeea oiae? aei neeaaeo oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae 1921 —

na?aaeeie 1930-o ?ie?a, oi?iaeiaae yeiai a?aeaoeiny cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaio (1921—1927), noai?aiiy N?N?, neanoaai- iy iiaiai
aeiiii?/iiai eo?no, i?iaieioaiiy oa cae?eniaiiy ni-

oe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa (1928—

1936), ooaa?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eii-

iie?oe/ieo iniia oioae?oa?ii? aea?aeaae, yea inoaoi/ii oi?o?eo-

aaea noni?euei? i?ioeane, e?ea?aeoaaea aaaaoioeeaaei?noue aeiiii?-

ee, c?oeioaaea onoaeai? ii?ie aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? a?iiaaeyi.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aiae?c iniaeeainoae

nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ON?? o eii-

oaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae 1920-o — na-

?aaeeie 1930-o ??., c’ynoaaiiy eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeaaeei ?noi??i-

a?ao?? i?iaeaie. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith aeena?oaio noaaeoue o

?iaio? ianooii? iaoeia? caaaeaiiy:

— aecia/eoe ??aaiue iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai iiaioaaiiy

i?iaeaie, aeyaeoe eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee ca?oa?aeii?, ?aaeyinue-

ei? oa no/anii? oe?a?inueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? noiniaii ia?aii? oaie;

— aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? oi?ie

aea?aeaaiino? a Oe?a?i?, ?? i?aai?caoe?ei? oa iie?oeei-i?aaia? i?ae-

aaeeie, nioe?aeueiee oa iaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaii?

iiiaieeaoo?e, ?? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e ??aaiue oa ooieoe?iiaeuei?

iciaee;

— aena?oeeoe ci?no “oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy” a ?iee iaio,

i?iaiae?coaaoe aaiethoe?th nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo

oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa;

— c’ynoaaoe iniiai? aoaie oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeiiai ia?iaeii-

ainiiaea?nueeiai i?inoi?o a iaaeao oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae;

— aeaoe ioe?ieo oai?aoeei-na?oiaeyaeiei iniiaai aeeneon?e

1920-o ?ie?a, i?iaiae?coaaoe iiaeeea? aeueoa?iaoeai? oeyoe

aeiiii?/iiai e eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie;

— aeine?aeeoe iaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo a?eueoiaeoeueei? aeieo?e-

ie nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe??, ?? nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? oa

iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i? iane?aeee;

— iieacaoe nioe?aeuei? iniiae iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino?

oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa, ?aeaeii-iie?oe/i? i?e/eie ?o ?oeioaai-

iy oioae?oa?iei eaaeii;

— aea/eoe i?aai?caoe?eii-na?oiaeyaei? oaiaeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeue-

ii-eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, c’ynoaaoe

oaeoeei-no?aoaa?/io nooue a?eueoiaeoeueeiai caaeoio “eoeueoo?iiai

no?eaea”, oi?ie ?aeaeii? ai?ioueae “ia o?iio? eoeueoo?e”, aeyae-

oe iniaeeaino? ?ai?aneaii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae ye aeiiii?aeiiai

caniao oi?ioaaiiy “aeooiaii? ?aeiino?” iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?.

Iaoeiao iiaecio aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a? iaoa, i?aaeiao ? ca-

aaeaiiy naiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei oa

nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii?

iie?oeee aea?aeaae, ni?iaa e?eoe/iiai ia?ainieneaiiy iecee

noia?a/eeaeo ieoaiue ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie, ?noi?eei-oai?aoe-

/iee aiae?c iiae?e, oaeo?a, yaeu. Aaoi? a?ae?eoia a?ae o?aaeeoe?e-

iiai aena?oeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai oa nioe?aeueii-aeiii-

i?/iiai ?icaeoeo ON?? 1920—1930-o ??., eiee eiaeia c ie?an-

eaieo i?iaeai ?icaeyaeaeany ie?aii, a?aene?aeeiaoth/e o oaeee

niin?a i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaee aca?iica’ycie nioe?aeueiiai ? iaoe?-

iiaeueiiai, aeiiii?/iiai ? iie?oe/iiai, iaoa??aeueiiai ? aeooia-

iiai o aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? noni?euenoaa.

Noia?a/eea? noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? yaeua aeine?aeaeothoueny ne-

noaiii: i?inoaaeo?oueny aieea iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei?

aea?aeaae ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? i?ioeane

a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, a oaeiae ?oiy aca?iicoiiaeai?noue.

A aeena?oaoe?? iiaeeaeaii ?icaeyiooi iaeiaeine?aeaeai? ieoai-

iy oaie, ye? ia ciaeoee aena?oeaiiy a ?noi??ia?ao?? aai o?eaaeee

/an caiia/oaaeeny /e oaeueneo?eoaaeeny ?aaeyinueeith ?noi?e/iith

iaoeith. Eaeaoueny ia?aaeon?i i?i ni?aaaei? iie?oeei-i?aai?caoe?ei?

i?aeaaeeie oa ?oo?ei? neee oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaaiino?,

iaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee oa a?eueoiaeoeue-

ei? aeieo?eie nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe??, iie?oeee “eoeueoo?ii-

ai no?eaea” ia??iaeo oi?niaaiiai “nioe?ae?noe/iiai ianooio”, ca-

i?iaaaeaeaiiy oeaio?ae?cio, oi?o?eaoe?? oa i?aaethaaiiy iaoe?iiaeue-

ieo eoeueoo? c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy “?aeiino?” aeooiaiiai aeeooy ia?i-

ae?a, i?i ?ai?an?? i?ioe ?ioae?aaioe??, noai?aiiy a noni?euenoa? aoiin-

oa?e nioe?aeueiiai iaaaoea?cio, no?aoo aa aiao??.

Cie?aia, ia iniia? caaaeueieo ia?aien?a ianaeaiiy 1920 —

1930-o ??., aea??eiaeo ia?aien?a i?ioan?eii-ia?o?eiiai neeaaeo

ianaeaiiy oa onoaiia, noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo oa iaiioae?eiaaieo

a?o?aieo aeaea?ae i?inoaaeothoueny nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? oa ia-

oe?iiaeuei? ci?ie na?aae ?ia?oiee?a, naeyi, ?ioae?aaioe??, a?iiaaenue-

eeo i?aai?caoe?e oa ia?o?e.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cia/iith i??ith aeeiiaia ia a?o?aieo aeieoiai-

oao, ?ai?oa iaaeinooiieo iaoeiaoeyi aai ae ia aeei?enoaieo ieie

c nooi ?aeaieia?/ieo i??eoaaiue. Canoiniaaiee o aeena?oaoe?? ii??aiy-

eueiee aiae?c aiaei-i?iaoeueei? oa oe?a?inueei? ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo-

?e aeicaieea aeyaeoe aeaye? iniaeeaino? oa caeiiii??iino? ?icaeo-

eo naiiai ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai i?ioeano.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?eioeeie ?noi?ec-

io oa ia’?eoeaiino?. I?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii ia-

oiaee iaoeiaiai aiae?co: i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee, ii??aiyeue-

ii-?noi?e/iee, no?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiee, noaoenoeei-aiae?oe/iee.

Canoiniaaii oaeiae aeaye? iaoiaeeee noaoenoeei-nioe?ieia?/ieo

ianoaaeaiue iieaciee?a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ye? ca-

i?iaaaeaeoaaeeny oi?iaeiaae 20-o ??. iaoeiaoeyie ? aea?aeaaieie

noaoenoe/ieie onoaiiaaie Oe?a?ie.

Aea/aiiy ia?aii? ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/ii? ? nioe?aeueii-eoeue-

oo?ii? i?iaeaie niiioeaei aei aiae?co oe?ieiai eiea i?aoeue c

aeiiii?ee, o?einio??, ina?oe, eoeueoo?e, i?aaa, ?noi??? ? oai???

aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

Iaoeiaa ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? ?a-

coeueoaoe, iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee ?iaioe iaaiai?ai? ia /ioe?ueio

anaoe?a?inueeeo oa o?ueio i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo,

i?ioiaeeee ?aoeaicoaaiiy ia ?noi?e/iiio oaeoeueoao? Ee?anueeiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. O.Oaa/aiea, o a?aeae?e? ?noi??? eoeueoo?e oe?a?i-

nueeiai ia?iaeo ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, caeo/aiee aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao,

aeniiaee ? oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeai? o

aeaio ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iiiia?ao?yo, a oaeiae a?ioo?ao oa ?ioeo

iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo caaaeueiei ianyaii 38 ae?oe. a?e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?? inii-

ai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, aeaea?aeueia aaca iiaeooue aooe aeei?e-

noai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? niaoe?aeueieo ? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c nioe?-

aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa eoeueoo?e, i?e i?aeaioiaoe?

ii?iaoeaieo ? niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a aeey nooaeaio?a aoc?a, aeey eae-

oe?eii? ?iaioe na?aae a?iiaaenueeino?, a ?iaio? aeaaeai?/ieo ? aaeo-

caaeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiia, ioca?a, e?a?ciaa/eo oa

eoeueoi?ieia?/ieo i?aai?caoe?e.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aea?aeaaiei

onoaiiaai, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?i caeeaaeai aeey ae?iaeaiiy caoi-

ae?a ii iioei?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?, a?aooaaiiy

?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo c iaoith oieeiaiiy iiieeie ? canoa?aaeaiiy

a?ae iaaaoeaieo yaeu.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi??ia?ao?y ? aeaea?aea” aeeeaaeaii ?a-coeueoaoe
aiae?co a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e, iacaaii
aeaea?aea, aeei?enoai? aeey aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaieo ca-aaeaiue.

Ieoaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?-iiai ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie a ?iee iaio ? “nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?o-eoe??”, cacia/a?oueny a
aeena?oaoe??, iaeaaeaee aei i??i?eoaoieo ia-i?yi?a ?aaeyinueei?
?noi?e/ii? iaoee. Iaae c’ynoaaiiyi noia?a/-eeaeo ieoaiue i?aoethaaee
?noi?eee, aeiiii?noe, o?einioe, i?aa-ieee, nioe?ieiae, aeaiia?aoe,
aoiia?aoe, ienoaoeoaiciaaoe?, ye? aeine?aeaeoaaee ie?ai? aniaeoe
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, aaiethoe?th oi?i aeaniino? ? noni?eueii?
na?aeiiino?, th?eaee/iee noaoon ?a- aeyinueeeo ?anioae?e,
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? ci?ie i?nueeiai ? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy,
iniaeeaino? aeooiaiiai aeeooy a ?aaeyinue-

e?e Oe?a?i? 1920-30-o ??. Iaoeia? aeaeaiiy ae??ciyeeny aeaea?a-

eueiith aacith, no?oeoo?ith oa ianyaaie, aea ?o ia’?aeioaaee ni?-

euei? iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee — ia?enenonueei-eai?inueea eiioeaioe?y

noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo c ?? oai???th eean?a ? eeaniai? ai?ioueae.

Aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie, ainiiaea?nuee? ca’ycee ?aaeyinueeeo ?an-ioae?e,
i?eioeeie nioe?ae?noe/ii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?n-oth,
ath?ie?aoeci aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo ? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? icia-ee
ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaii? iiiaieeaoo?e /anoeiai aena?oethaaeeny ae?oa?aoo??
1920-o ??. Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?niaeoea ?icaeo-eo aaaaoioeeaaeii?
aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?i? oa N?N? aeeeaaeaii a i?a-oeyo I.Iaea?iaa, I.*ayiiaa,
I.*ae?ioeaaa

Iaei??th c iniiaieo i?iaeai, yeith ia?aeiaeeny iaoeiaoe? ? iie?oeee,
aoea i?iaeaia aca?iia?aeiinei ?anioae?e c oeaio?ii.

Ia ii/aoeo 20-o ??. c’yaeeiny e?eueea oaiaoe/ieo ca??iee?a, o

yeeo eoeiny i?i iaoe?iiaeuei? iiiaioe noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai

aeeooy a Oe?a?i?.

I?iaeaie oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee, ye i?aai?caoe?eiiai oe?-

eiai, ?icaeyaeaee A.A?eiueei I.Aieiao?a. Ci?noii ? aeniiaea-

ie ?oi? i?aoe? aeoiaeeee ca eiioeaiooaeueii-oai?aoe/i? iaae? io?-

oe?eii? ?aeaieia?? oa aeiiii?/ii? iaoee. I.Aieiao?a, cie?aia, ii-

eacaa noia?a/eea? aca?ieie Oe?a?ie oa ?in??, ?anioae?eainueeeo

oa nithcieo ainiiaea?nueeeo ? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, nai???aei?noue ia-

oe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei? oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae, aecia/ea

iai?aeieii?aeueiee noaoon ON??, iae?aneea oeyoe “?ice??ia-

/aiiy oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee”.

Na?aae i?aoeue 1920-o ?ie?a, i?enay/aieo i?iaeaiai ?icaeo-

eo ina?oe, iaoee, eoeueoo?e aeae?eyeeny i?eeeaaeiei oa?aeoa?ii

noaoo? ? a?ioo?e I.Ne?eiieea, Ae.Eaaaaey, A.Caoiinueeiai,

ss.?yiii, A.A?eiueea, A.I?eoiaeueea E?oa?aoo?ia aeeooy ?aaeyi-

nueei? Oe?a?ie a?aeia?aaeaia a eiec? A.Eaeoana ? I.ssoaea “Aea-

nyoue ?ie?a oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e (1917—1927)”, yea aoea iioa-

e?eiaaia ca ?aaeaeoe??th N.Ieeeiaiea. Caaaeuei? ieoaiiy ?noi???

oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ?icaeyaeaa A.Eica/aiei o eiec? “Oe?a?inue-

ea eoeueoo?a, ?? ieioaoeia ? no/ani?noue” (Oa?e?a, 1931).

I?ioyaii 1920-o ?ie?a i?iaeiaaeoaaeiny oi?ioaaiiy eiioea-

iooaeueieo i?aeaaeei ?noi??ia?ao?? ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeiai aa-

ooieo, caii/aoeiaaieo i?aoeyie I.Iie?ianueeiai, I.ssai?nueeiai.

Inoaii?e iaiaaaany aee?eoe oai??th “oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiae?cio”

i?i iaoe?iiaeueia naiiaecia/aiiy. Eiai aeiiia?aeue ia ananithci?e

eiioa?aioe?? ?noi?ee?a-ia?eneno?a, o ye?e a?i caeeeeaa aei ai?ioueae

“?aeeiei o?iioii” c ?aooeaie ao?aeoacii? oa ae??aiiao?aeoacii?

?noi?e/ii? iaoee a Oe?a?i?, caii/aoeoaaea ni?aaaei?e ianooi i?i-

oe eiie?aoieo ?noi?ee?a oa ?oi?o iaoeiaeo iiaeyae?a.

A ?noi?e/i?e, iniaeeai ?noi?eei-ia?o?ei?e e?oa?aoo?? 30-o

?ie?a caiaioaaea oaia ai?ioueae c “oe?a?inueeei iaoe?iiae?c-

iii”, oiaoi a?aeaoaaeiny aeoeaia cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aei iaoeiaiai

ia?ao ?aeaieia?/ieo aeiai, ui iinooiiai noaaaee iaoiaeieia?/-

iith iniiaith ?aaeyinueei? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee. E?oa?aoo?a oiai ia-

??iaeo ?yni?ea aaneaie i?i “oe?aeieoeoai”, “ao?aeoaciee iaoe?iia-

e?ci”, “eiio??aaiethoe?th” oiui.

O 40—80-o ?ieao iaooeeueii c?inoaea e?euee?noue i?aoeue c ?noi-

??? aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa, iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, ?icaeoeo

eoeueoo?e oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo ci?i a ON?? ia?aiiai ia??iaeo

(A.Eeoieaoa, A.*e?ea, A.Aaa?y, A.Oaa/oea, I.Aieea, ?.Eyoa).

Ii/eiath/e c 50-o ??., i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ? aea?aeaa-

iiai aoae?aieoeoaa a ON?? noaee i??i?eoaoiith ni?aaith ia?aaaae-

ii ?noi?eei-ia?o?eii? iaoee. sseui iiai?iia oe?a?inueea ?aaeyinue-

ea ?noi??ia?ao?y aeey aecia/aiiy noia?a/eeaeo ieoaiue iaoe?iiaeue-

ieo a?aeiinei aeoaea /anoi ei?enooaaeany aieiaie/ei oa?i?iii

“ao?aeoaciee iaoe?iiae?ci”, oi iai?ee?ioe? 1970-o — ii/aoeo 80-o

??. iaaoa iioe?aiiy ?ioee— “i?ieaoa?nueeee ?ioa?iaoe?iia-

e?ci”. Eiai ?noi?e/i? ei?ai? oa iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaai-

iy ?ice?eaa?oueny a iiiia?ao?/ieo i?aoeyo ?.Eo?ana, yeee

i?iaiae?coaaa i?iaeaio a eiioaeno? ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo iie?-

oe/ieo ia?o?e.

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo ?aaeueiiai ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano oae-

oe/ii “aeiaa” c iiey ci?o ?noi?ee?a, ui aeine?aeaeoaaee i?iaea-

ie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?inue-

ei? ?N? 1920-30-o ??.

Noia?a/eea? ieoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa,

eoeueoo?iiai oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo

Oe?a?ie aeine?aeaeoaaee ? iaoeiaoe? Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, NOA, Eaiaaee

oa ?ioeo e?a?i. Ca?oa?aeia ?noi??ia?ao?y i?aaenoaaeaia aieiaiei

/eiii i?aoeyie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo oeaio??a oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii?

ai?a?aoe??, aeayeeie iiiia?ao?yie cao?aeieo iie?oieia?a oa ?noi?e-

e?a. A ?noi??ia?ao?/iiio ieai? iaienaii ie?ai? i?aoe? Ae.Aei?i-

oaiea, A.E?oiieoeueeiai, I.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei, I.Iaeiaeeia,

I.Ooeuea?ia, TH.Aieea.

O 1965 ?. iiaa/eea na?o ??oioiaia ?iaioa E.Eiiiiaiea,

i?enay/aia aea/aiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?aeaaeei oe?a?i-

nueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?. Oi?iaeiaae 1960-o ?ie?a c’yaeeiny e?eue-

ea i?aoeue ?.Iaeno?aiea, a yeeo aeine?aeaeoaaeeny aeoiee oe?a?inue-

eiai eiioi?cio, iniiai? aoaie eiai ?icaeoeo, iaoe?iiaeueia ii-

e?oeea eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??.

Iaeia?aeii? ieoaiiy e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy ?aaeyinueei?

Oe?a?ie aena?oeea TH.Eaa?eiaiei o neeaaeai?e iei e?oa?aoo?i?e aioieia??.
Iniaeeaino? e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano a ON?? 1917—

1934 ??. — oaia eieae A.Eooeueeiai.

Cao?aeii-i?iaoeuee? ?noi?eee oa aeiiii?noe, ii/eiath/e c 30-o

??., aeoeaii aea/aee noai n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. Caniiaie-

eii oeueiai iai?yieo o cao?aeiii?iaoeuee?e iie?oieia?? iiaeia aaa-

aeaoe I.O?eea?a, yeee oi?iaeiaae 1930 — 60-o ??. iaienaa aaaa-

oi i?aoeue c ieoaiue eieaeoea?caoe?? a Oe?a?i?.

?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? ?noi??ia?ao??, ?? iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/-

i? oaiaeaioe?? o?eaaeee /an aeine?aeaeothoue A.Ethaeaiaii oa Ae.Iieue.

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aiaeiiiaii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e,

i?enay/aii? ia?ai?e oai?, noino?oueny iie?oe/ieo i?iaeai.

Oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy — iniiaia oaia i?aoeue a?aeiiiai aia-

?eeainueeiai iie?oieiaa Ae.A?ino?iiaa. Eiai iiiia?ao?y “Oe?a-

?inueeee iaoe?iiae?ci” aeo?eiaea e?eueea aeaeaiue. Iie?oeeo ?a-

aeyinueei? aeaaee a Oe?a?i? i?iaiae?coaaa ?.Naee?aai, yeee o nai-

?e eiec? aena?oeea ae?yeuei?noue Oe?a?inueei? eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??,

yeo aaaaeaa ia?o??th ia a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ni?yioaaiiy, iieacaa

i?ioenoiyiiy ia?o?? oa ?ioae?aaioe?? a Oe?a?i?. Oi?ioaaiiy “ia-

oe?iiae-eiioi?cio”, ?icaeoie eiai oai??? ? i?aeoeee iinoa? a iiiia?ao??
aia?eeainueeiai aeine?aeieea oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? 1920

— 30-o ??. Ae.Iaena.

Iniiai? canaaee aeooiaiiai aeeooy a N?N? 30-o ??., aaieth-

oe?y aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae, noaiiaeua ?ioae?aaioe?? ciaeoee a?aei-

a?aaeaiiy a eieaao A.Aeaioai, E.Iaii?iaa.

Ci?noiaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?iaeai ?noi??? Oe?a?ie a iiii-

a?ao?y A.E?aa/aiea “Nioe?aeuei? ci?ie ? iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue a

Oe?a?i? XX no.”, aia?oa iioae?eiaaia aiae?enueeith iiaith o

1985 ?. ? ia?aaeaeaia oe?a?inueeith iiaith a Ee?a? o 1997 ?. sse

aecia? aaoi?, eieaa ienaeany ia iniia? a?ae?ioa/ieo oiiae?a.

Iaeiae oea ia caaaaeeei eiio a?oioiaii i?inoaaeeoe aieea nioe?-

aeueieo ? iie?oe/ieo ci?i a Oe?a?i? ia ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii?

na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a o XX no., caeaaei?noue oeueiai i?ioeano a?ae o?-

aai?caoe??, i?a?aoe?? ianaeaiiy oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo /eiiee?a.

Noia?a/eea? aca?ieie naeyi c ?aaeyinueeith aea?aeaaith,

ca?iei? iianoaiiy oa ?io? oi?ie ?ooo iii?o a oe?a?inueeiio na-

e? iinoathoue o eiec? ?oae?enueeiai ?noi?eea ? aeaea?aeiciaaoey

A.A?aoe?ic? “Aaeeea aioenaeyinueea a?eia. A?eueoiaeee e naeyie,

1917-1933 ??.”, yea iauiaeaaii aeeoea ae?oeii o NOA.

I?ioyaii 1997—1998 ??. ia Caoiae? c’yaeeiny e?eueea ??oi-

oiaieo i?aoeue i?i iaeiaeine?aeaeai? iiae?? 1920—30-o ??. a Oe?a?-

i?. Cie?aia, a iiiia?ao?? O. A?aioa aena?oeaii iniaeeaino? ae-

ieeiaiiy aeiiii?/ii? e?ece 1927 — 28 ??., ae?yeuei?noue iie?oe/-

ii? iiiceoe??, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy eieaeoea?caoe??, c’yniaaii i?e/eie
aieiaeo 1931—1933 ??. Ca ?aaeaeoe??th O.Ieaaaaiai?aa iiaa/ea

na?o ca??iee noaoae i?ae iacaith “Noae?i?ci. Iia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?

eiioeaioe??”, ?o aaoi?e i?iaiae?coaaee i?iaeaie eieaeoea?caoe??

oa aieiaeo a Oe?a?i?, iane?aeee ianiaeo ?ai?an?e i?ioe ?ioae?aai-

oe??, c’ynoaaee nooue ? iioiaeaeaiiy noae?i?cio, iniaeeaino? iaio,

?ooo iii?o naeyi oiui.

Ia ii/aoeo 1990-o ??. oaeoieia?/iee i?aeo?ae ia?aaaaeaa a

?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, a c na?aaeeie 90-o ??. neooaoe?y aeaui

ci?ith?oueny: /ano?oa c’yaeythoueny oai?aoe/i? i?aoe?, aeine?aeaeaiiy

c ?noi??ia?ao?? eeth/iaeo i?iaeai ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

I??i?eoaoiith noaea i?iaeaia iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai

oa eoeueoo?ii-aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie XX no. I?ioyaii 90-

o ??. iioae?eiaaii aeanyoee eieaeoeaieo oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo

i?aoeue, oaiaoe/ieo ca??iee?a noaoae, o yeeo aena?oethaaeeny oai-

?aoe/i? oa ?noi?e/i? ieoaiiy aea?aeaaioai?aiiy. Aiie na?ae/eee

i?i oi?ioaaiiy ie?aiiai iai?yio a ?noi??ia?ao?? — iie?oiei-

a?/iiai aiae?co i?iaeai aea?aeaaiiai ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo

oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

1920—30-o ??. aena?oeththoueny o ?yae? eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?e.

?noi?eei-iie?oe/iee aniaeo i?iaeaie aena?oethaaee O.Aoi/ae,

E.Aeia?, ye? ?icaeyaeaee i?iaeaio aea?aeaaiino? a eiioaeno? ii-

e?oeei-?noi??ia?ao?/iiai aiae?co. ?noi?eei-i?aaie/? oa ?noi-

?eei-eoeueoo?i? aniaeoe aena?oeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa

a Oe?a?i? oaeiae ? oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith no/aniiai ?noi??ia?a-

o?/iiai i?ioeano.

Iaei??th c oeaio?aeueieo oai ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue 90-o ??.

noaee iania? ?ai?an?? noae?inueeiai oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio, ?o iaoe?-

iiaeuei? oa nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? iane?aeee a Oe?a?i?. Oey i?iaea-

ia aena?oeaia o i?aoeyo ?.Ie?iaa, TH.Oaiiaaea, A.I?enoaeea.

Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieie ocaaaeueiaiiyie ? iiooeii eiioeaioe?? ?noi-

?e/iiai i?ioeano oae caaiiai ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ae??ciythoueny

iiiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy N.Eoeue/eoeueeiai.

O 90-o? ?iee aeoea?coaaeany ?iaioa ii aea/aiith ?noi?eei-

eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie, i?iaeai ?? caa?aaeaiiy, a?aeiiaeaiiy ?noi-

?e/ii? iai’yo? ia?iaeo. Cie?aia, a iiiia?ao? I.Ianooe? aiae?-

cothoueny iniiai? aoaie oa iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaii? nen-

oaie ioi?iie iai’yoie Oe?a?ie c 1917-ai ii 1941 ?., iieacaii

aieea iaoe?iiaeueii? oa aoa?noe/ii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae

ia noai ioi?iie iai’yoie, iniaeeai eoeueoiaiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Aiae?c iia?oiuei? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeai iaoe?i-

iaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?-

i? 20—30-o ??. aeicaieea aeyaeoe aeaye? iniaeeaino? naiiai ?noi-

??ia?ao?/iiai i?ioeano. Ii-ia?oa, oea ye?nii iiaee aoai iaa?i-

iaaeaeaiiy ciaiue i?i iaeia?aeii? ? noia?a/eea? ieoaiiy ieioa-oeie.
Ii-ae?oaa, oi?ioaaiiy eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeaaeei no/an-

ii? oe?a?inueei? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee a?aeaoaa?oueny aaiethoe?eii: oey-

oii iiaeieaiiy aeiaiaoe/ieo noai, aena?oeaiiy noia?a/eeaeo ?n-

oi?e/ieo iiae?e ? yaeu, onoiaiiy i?o?a, iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/ieo

noa?aioei?a noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, ia?ainieneaiiy oai?aoe/ieo

iniia ?noi?e/iiai i?ciaiiy. Ii-o?ao?, iieaciaei ? iiaeeea?noue

aeie?aieaiiy ?c caaaeueiiai i?ioeano iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy i?aoeue

iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy, eiioeaiooaeueii-na?oiaeyae-

iiai oa ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai cia/aiiy.

Ioaea, ie?ai? aniaeoe oaie aoee i?aaeiaoii ??oioiaiiai

aeine?aeaeaiiy, aea iei? ? iia? no/ani? aeiiae ?noi?e/ii? iaoee oa

nioe?aeueii? i?aeoeee. A?aeaeath/e iaeaaeia aaoi?ai, ye? aea/aee

oeth i?iaeaiaoeeo, iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe, ui nueiaiaei? aeaye? c

i?aoeue, ?o aeniiaee, oaeoieia?/ia aaca aeiaaathoue nooo?aiai

ooi/iaiiy. A oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ? aeioaia? nenoaiii ? ana-

a?/ii ia aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa

eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa a eiioaeno? ia-

oe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae. A oie aea /an aea/aiiy

?aaeueieo iiae?e 20— 30-o ??., niaoeeo?ee nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei

(aea aeiyoeiai a ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo) caaacia/o?, ia iao ii-

aeyae, c’ynoaaiiy aaaeeeai? iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueii? i?iaeaie: ??a-

iy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? aioiaiino? ? caeaoiino? oe?a?inueeiai no-

ni?euenoaa aei noai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaae, a oaeiae eiai noaaeai-

iy aei ?aea? oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae oioae?oa?iiai oeio.

Ia?ainienethth/e eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee oe?a?inueei? oa ca-

?oa?aeii? ?noi??ia?ao??, aaoi? i?aaioa aeyaeoe noia?a/eea? ie-

oaiiy aea?aeaaiiai, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeue-

oo?iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa 1920-o— 30-o ??.,

iaiaaath/enue aena?oeeoe iiae?? ? oaeoe aac aieiaie/iai oa aii?-

?e/iiai e?eoeoeecio.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue ianaiia?aae a?o?a-

i? iaoa??aee oa ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy (aacaoe, aeo?iaee, atheaoai?

aea?aeaaieo oa a?iiaaenueeeo onoaiia). Aaaaoiieaiiaee niaeo?
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo ? oaeoieia?/ieo ieoaiue, ye? ?icaeyaeaeeny

a aeena?oaoe??, aeiaaaa e?eoe/iiai aiae?co iioae?eiaaieo aeieo-

iaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a, noaoenoe/ieo aeia?aeeiaeo aeaeaiue, iaioa?ii?

e?oa?aoo?e.

Iniiaia a?oia a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?i-

aeaie caa??aa?oueny o Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeueo

i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie. Aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a An-

aoe?a?inueeiai oeaio?aeueiiai aeeiiaa/iai eii?oaoo — AOOeAE

(O. 1) oa ?aaee ia?iaeieo eii?na??a ON?? (O. 2) aeicaieeei i?ino-

aaeeoe caeiiioai?/ee i?ioean a Oe?a?i? noiniaii oi?ioaaiiy

oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae, aeyaeoe noia?a/eea? noinoiee

?anioae?eainueeeo oa nithcieo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Iaoeiai-

?ioi?iaoe?eio oe?ii?noue iathoue i?ioieiee can?aeaiue AOOeAE’o oa

?IE ON??, ?oi? iinoaiiae, iaeace, oee?eoey?i? eenoe, noaii-

a?aie, o yeeo aena?oeththoueny iniiai? aoaie aea?aeaaiiai aoae?a-

ieoeoaa oa noia?a/eea? ieoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei. Iae-

a?eueoa eieaeoe?y aeieoiaio?a c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?ii-ina?o-

iueiai aeeooy iaoeiaioei cina?aaeaeaia a a?o?aiiio oiiae? Oeai-

o?aeueii? eii?n?? iaoeiaioei i?e AOOeAE’o (O. 413).

Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ?anioae?eainueeiai athaeaeaoo, ni-

oe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo 1920—30-o ??., i?aai?caoe?eii-

ainiiaea?nueeee noai i?iieneiaino? oa n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa

i?inoaaeo?oueny ca a?o?aieie iaoa??aeaie Aeui? ?aaee ia?iaeii-

ai ainiiaea?noaa — A?IA (O. 34), Aea?aeaaiiai ieaiiaiai eii?-

oaoo — Aea?aeieaio ON?? (O. 337), Oeaio?aeueiiai noaoenoe/-

iiai oi?aae?iiy (O. 582), Ia?iaeiiai eii?na??aoo o?iain?a —

Ia?eiio?io ON?? (O. CI), Oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?/ii? ia?aaee i?e

?IE ON?? (O. 3040), ca Iniaenoei oiiaeii aieiae ?aaeia?-

eiio Oe?a?ie A.ss.*oaa?y (O. 4402). ?ioi?iaoeaio oe?ii?noue

noaiiaeyoue ianaiia?aae ??/i? ca?oe o?yaeo oa eiai i?ae?icae?e?a,

eenooaaiiy c aeiiii?/ieo ieoaiue, i?ioieiee oa noaiia?aie

can?aeaiue eeth/iaeo ia?eiiao?a, aeiiia?aei? caienee, noaoenoeei-

aeiiii?/i? ca?oe.

Aaaeeeao ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i oe?a?i?caoe?th, noaiiaeua eieai-

ae?oeoaaiiy, i?i ?icaeoie oe?e ??ciiai ??aiy, iioe?aiiy iiae,

ae?yeuei?noue eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a i?noyoue iaoa??aee a?o?a-

iiai oiiaeo Ia?iaeiiai eii?na??aoo ina?oe ON?? (O. 166), Aea?-

aeaaiiai aeaeaaieoeoaa Oe?a?ie (O. 177). I?iaeaie nioe?aeueii-

eoeueoo?iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aeine?aeaeoaaeeny ia aac?

aeieoiaio?a Anaoe?a?inueei? oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee i?ioni?eie (O.

2605), Ia?iaeiiai eii?na??aoo ?ia?oie/i-naeyinueei? ?iniaeoe??

(O. 539). Aeei?enoaii aeoe eiio?ieueii-?aa?c?eieo ianoaaeaiue

ainiiaea?nueeeo ? aea?aeaaieo onoaiia, aiae?oe/i? aeia?aeee, i?ioi-

eiee, noaoenoe/i? a?aeiiino? aea??eiaiai ia?aieno ianaeaiiy ca

iaoe?iiaeueieie oa i?ioan?iiaeueii-nioe?aeueieie iciaeaie.

I?ea?iaeuei? aeieoiaioe i?i noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy a

Oe?a?i? caa??aathoueny o oiiaeao Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?-

ao a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie. Aeaea?aeiciaa/a oa iaoeiai-

i?ciaaaeueia cia/aiiy iathoue i?ioieiee iie?oath?i OeE EI(a)O

oa iaoa??aee aei ieo (O. ?, i. 6), a oaeiae iaoa??aee i?aath?i OeE

EI(a)O (O. ?, i. 20). Iiae?aia a?oia aeieoiaio?a, a naia noaii-

a?aie ieaioi?a OeE EI(a)O oa AEI(a), cina?aaeaeai? a ?in?enue-

eiio oeaio?? caa?aaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a iia?oiuei? ?noi???

(O. 17). ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie ON?? iathoue

oiiaee Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? (O. 7446).

*anoeiai aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaii-

ai a?o?ao-iocath e?oa?aoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie.

Oe?iiei aeaea?aeii ? iioae?eiaai? noaiia?ao?/i? ca?oe oa

ie?ai? iinoaiiae ? ?aciethoe?? c’?cae?a, ieaioi?a OeE ? eiioa?aioe?e

?EI(a) ? EI(a)O, c’?cae?a ?aae oa nan?e AOeAE, OeAE N?N?,

AOOeAE, a oaeiae ?ioi?iaoeai? iaoa??aee c iacaaieo a?o?a?a ?i-

n?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??, OeAeAEI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooo ?oeiien?a Ia-

oe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee ?i. A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai oa ?i. O aeena?oaoe??

aeei?enoaii iiiaae 20 a?o?aieo oiiae?a ??cieo onoaiia: ia?o?e-

ieo, aea?aeaaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo, eiiia?aoeaieo, eoeueoo?ii-ina?o-

i?o.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iaoa??aee Anaoe-

?a?inueeeo c’?cae?a ?aae, ca?oe o?yaeo i?i nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee

?icaeoie ?anioae?ee. Iniaeeao iaoeiai-?ioi?iaoeaio oe?i-

i?noue iathoue iaoa??aee VII Anaoe?a?inueeiai c’?caeo ?aae, ui a?aeao-

any 10—14 a?oaeiy 1922 ?. Noaiia?aia aeiiia?ae? I.O?oica i?i

ooai?aiiy ON?? oa i?iiia aeaeaaao?a c?caeo (I.Ne?eiieea,

A.Iao?ianueeiai, I.Etha/aiea, A.Ii?aeea) aeathoue a?aeiia?aeue ia

noia?a/eea? ieoaiiy aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa, iaoe?iiaeueii-

eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i?.

Aaeeeo a?oio aeaea?ae, aeei?enoaieo o aeena?oaoe??, ?ai?acai-

oothoue iinoaiiae, iaeace, aeae?aoe AOOeAEo oa ?IE ON??, ye? ae-

oiaeeee ae?oeii o 1920—30-o ??. o “Ca??ieeo ocaeiiaiue oa ?icii-

?yaeaeaiue ?ia?oie/i-naeyinueeiai o?yaeo Oe?a?ie”. Ia?aaaaeia a?eue-

o?noue aea?aeaaieo aeo?a oi?eaeany i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeeo

ieoaiue i?iieneiaino?, n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, eiiia?aoe??, aea

cia/ia /anoeia noinoaaeany iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo

?anioae?ee, iniaeeai oe?a?i?caoe?? (iinoaiiae oa caeiie i?i iiao,

i?i oe?a?i?caoe?th aea?aeaaieo onoaiia oiui).

*anoeio aeaea?ae aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue

noaoenoe/i? ca??ieee, o yeeo ai?uai? iieacieee nioe?aeueii-aei-

iii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ON??, i?inoaaeo?oueny eiai aeeiai?ea oa

ieoiia aaaa a aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo N?N?. Iaiao?aeii aeie-?aieoe
aeaeaiiy noaoenoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a i?i iaoe?iiaeueiee

neeaae ?ia?oiee?a ? neoaeaiaoe?a Oe?a?ie ca iane?aeeaie niaoe?aeue-

iiai ianoaaeaiiy, i?iaaaeaiiai Anaoe?a?inueeith ?aaeith i?ioa-

n?eieo ni?eie Oe?a?ie a aeiaoi?— eenoiiaae? 1929 ?. Aeey

aea/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei aoee aeei?enoai? oaeiae noaoe-

noe/i? iieacieee c? ca??ieea iaoa??ae?a i?i iaoeiaioeie a

Oe?a?i?, i?aeaioiaeaiiai AOOeAE’ii. Noaoenoe/i? ca??ieee,

iioae?eiaai? ai?iaeiaae 20-o ??., aeineoue ia’?eoeaii a?aeoai?thaa-

ee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie ?anioae?ee.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae noaiiaeyoue iaoa??aee

ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue: aacao “I?aaaea”, “Ecaanoey”, “A?no? AOOeAE”,

“Eiioi?no”, “I?iiuoeaiiinoue e oi?aiaey Oe?aeiu”, “Oi?aiai-

i?iiuoeaiiay aacaoa”, “A?no? AOOeAE”, a oaeiae aeo?iae?a: “Iea-

iiaia oicyenoai”, “Oicyenoai Oe?aeiu”, “Oicyenoai e oi?aaea-

iea”, “A?eueoiaee Oe?a?ie” oa ?i. A iaoeiai-ioae?oeenoe/iiio

aeo?iae? «Enoi?e/aneee a?oea», ui iei? aeoiaeeoue o Iinea? ca

ni?eyiiy Aea?aeaaii? a?o?aii? neoaeae ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??, aeya-

eaii a?o?ai? iaoa??aee ? aeieoiaioe i?i iniaeeaino? ?iceo?eoeai-

iy a Oe?a?i?, i?i iania? aeaii?oaoe?? oe?a?inueeeo naeyi ca O?ae, aei

Nea??o. Aca?ieie Noae?ia c iie?oe/ieie ? aea?aeaaieie iniaaie

Oe?a?ie iiaeia i?inoaaeeoe ca iioae?eiaaieie a “Enoi?e/aneii

a?oeaa” ?a?no?ii-nieneii a?aea?aeoaa/?a eiai e?aie?anueeiai eaa?ia-

oo (1994 ?., ?6; 1995 ?., ? 1—3).

O ?icae?e? ae?oaiio “Iie?oeei-i?aai?caoe?ei? iniaeeaino?

noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaaiino?” aena?oeththoue-

ny oa?aeoa?i? ?ene oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae, iniiai? i?eioeeie ?? a?eue-

oiaeoeueei? iiaeae?, i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? i?aeaaeeie ooieoe?iio-aaiiy
ON??, iieacaii ?? oaeoe/iee noaoon o neeaae? N?N?, aeya-

eaii noia?a/eea? i?iaeaie o aca?ieiao ?anioae?eainueeiai ? ni-

thciiai o?yae?a, aeie?aieaii iiceoe?th O.?aeianueeiai noiniaii

iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, aeine?aeaeo?oueny ia-

oe?iiaeueiee neeaae oa nioe?aeueii-eeania? iciaee ia?o?eii-aea?aeaa-

ii? iiiaieeaoo?e.

O ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny c iiaeo iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo ii-

ceoe?e ?aeaeii-iie?oe/i? oa i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? iniiae ooieoe?-

iioaaiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? nioe?ae?noe/ii? aea?aeaae, yeo oini-

aethaaa N?N?, cae?eniaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iiceoe?e oa iiaey-

ae?a a?eueoiaeoeueeeo e?aea??a (A.Eai?ia, E.O?ioeueeiai, E.Noae?ia,

O.?aeianueeiai, I.O?oica) noiniaii i?iaeai iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?-

aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

Oa?i?i “oe?a?inueea ?aaeyinueea aea?aeaaa”, ui aeiee ia ii-

/aoeo 1920-o ??., ?noi?eee iaeaea ia aeei?enoiaoaaee, a iaoi-

i?noue an?eyei iioe?thaaee ?ioa aecia/aiiy: “nithcia aaaaoiia-

oe?iiaeueia aea?aeaaa”. Ca?oa?aei? aeine?aeieee aaaaeaee, ui ca “?i-

oa?iaoe?iiaeueiei” ci?noii nioe?ae?noe/ii? aea?aeaaiino? a?eueoi-

aeee iaiaaaeeny i?eoiaaoe ? aiaeii/an «i?ioeniooe» ?aeath “?aee-

ii? ? iaiiae?eueii? ?in??”. ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee i?aeo?ae aei i?iaea-

ie noaiiaeaiiy oa ae?yeueiino? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae a Oe?a?i? a

eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee aeicaieea aeyaeoe ni?aaaei?e

noaoon ON??, ?? i?aaa, iiaiiaaaeaiiy oa iaia’ycee. Aeine?aeieee

oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae, iaaieioo?oueny a aeena?oaoe??, caa?oaee

oaaao ia?aaaaeii ia iiceoeai? noi?iie, iaiaaaeeny iieacaoe

eeoa ia?aaaae ?aaeyinueei? ca oi?iith oa nioe?ae?noe/ii? ca ci?n-

oii aea?aeaae, iaoooth/e aeyaeaiiyi aioo??oi?o noia?a/eeaeo

i?iaeai oa caeiiii??iinoae ?? ?icaeoeo.

Iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy, yea iaaoei iniaeeai? aaae oi?i-

aeiaae ia?oi? iieiaeie 20-o ??., ni?aiaei c ia??iaeii oi?ioaai-

iy iiaiai oeio aea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei ia aeiaaeeiai. ?aeay nioe?ae?n-

oe/ii? aea?aeaae — eia?/iee iane?aeie ?icaeoeo a?eueoiaeoeueei?

aeieo?eie nioe?ae?cio. Naia aiia, iaaieioo?oueny a aeena?oaoe??,
niiioeaea aei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiiiia?o?eii? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie

aeaaee, aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? ia caniae ae?iaieoeoaa, aei aea?aeaa-

ii? iiiiiie?? ia iniiai? aaeoc? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a a?ae-

oae coiiaeea e ooai?aiiy oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae oioae?oa?iiai oe-

io.

O ?iaio? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui noaaeaiiy a?eueoiaee?a aei

iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy caeaaeaei a?ae ?noi?e/ieo ianoaaei, a na-

io i?iaeaio i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei aiie ?icaeyaeaee a eii-

oaeno? aeanii? iie?oe/ii? aeieo?eie. Iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy a i?e

iin?aeaei ae?oai?yaeia i?noea ? caaaeaee aenooiaei caniaii aeey aei-

nyaiaiiy iie?oe/ieo caaaeaiue: ci?oeiaiiy nai?? aeaaee. A?eueo?noue

ianaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ?anioae?e, a oiio /ene? e Oe?a?ie, noa-

iiaeei naeyinoai. Oeyoii cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai? aeiiii?/ii?

iie?oeee ? /anoeiaiai iaiaaeaiiy oeaio?ae?caoi?nueeeo ooieoe?e

?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae, /anoeiaiai caaeiaieaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-

eoeueoo?ieo iio?aa “naeyinueeeo” ?anioae?e a?eueoiaeee i?aaio-

ee ci?oeieoe na?e eaae.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e ianoaaeie ooai?aiiy N?N? ye oi?oa?ii?

aea?aeaae, aeena?oaio ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui i?ioenoiyiiy, yea

niinoa??aaeiny i?ae a?eueoiaeoeueeeie aiaeaeyie noiniaii i?e?ae-

iaiiy /e ia’?aeiaiiy ?anioae?e, oi?eaeiny ia?aaaaeii aeai?o

i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i, aea iaiioeoiith caeeoaeany ?aeay naia

oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae. Aiia iaoa??ae?coaaeany ia oiio, ui oeueiai,

iai?eeeaae, oio?ee Noae?i /e Eai?i, a oiio, ui a?aeiia?aeaea in-

iiaiei i?eioeeiai a?eueoiaeoeueei? aeieo?eie nioe?ae?cio. Iiii-

ia?o?eia nenoaia iie?oe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? noni?eueiiai aeeooy iao-

iiaeea aaeaeaaoio oi?io aea?aeaaii? i?aai?caoe??, oiniaeaiiyi

yei? noaa N?N?.

?icaeyae iniaeeainoae noaiiaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy

oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie,

ui a?ae /ano i?iaieioaiiy ON?? ?? aea?aeaaiee noaa?ai?oao aoa

o?eoeaiei. I?ney aeiaiai?o 28 a?oaeiy 1920 ?. i?ae ?NO?? ?

ON??, a caiaeii oaeoe/iiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ?aaeyinueeith ?in?-

?th eeth/iaeo ia?eiiao?a oe?a?inueea ?aaeyinueea aea?aeaai?noue caa-
?aaea eeoa oi?io, ciai?oi? ao?eaooe, ye? aei oiai ae iaee ni?eue-

io c ?NO?? nioe?ae?noe/io neiaie?eo. Ooai?aiiy N?N? ua a?eue-

oa iaiaaeeei oi?iaeueii i?iaeaeea?iaai? i?aaa nithcieo ?anio-

ae?e.

Oi?iaeiaae aeanyoee?oue i?iaeaia noaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei?

aeaaee a Oe?a?i? iaeaaeaea aei i??i?eoaoii? oaiaoeee ?noi?eei-

iie?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. ?noi?eee aea?aeaae ? i?aaa aeie?ai-

ethaaee eeaniao i?e?iaeo nioe?ae?noe/ii? aea?aeaae, caoeuath/e ??

ia?aaaae ia?aae ?ioeie oi?iaie noni?eueii? naiii?aai?caoe?? eth-

aeae, aea ia caa?oaee oaaae ia ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa nioe?aeueii-aei-

iii?/i? canaaee c oi/ee ci?o ni?aaaei?o iaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeain-

oae ?icaeoeo ia?iae?a eieeoiuei? ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

Aiae?c ianoaaei ooai?aiiy nithcii? aea?aeaae iieacaa oea-

i? noi?iie noae?inueei? ia??iaeecaoe?? ia’?aeiaa/iai ?ooo, yea, oi/ ?

iaea no?oieo eia?/io oa o?iiieia?/io caaa?oai?noue, iaeiae ia

a?aeiia?aeaea ?noi?e/iei iiae?yi a Oe?a?i?. Ia?oa oaca, ca aecia-

/aiiyi Noae?ia, o?eaaea oi?iaeiaae 19181921 ??. ? caaa?oeea-

ny oeeaaeaiiyi “ai?iiiai nithco ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e”, a i?ioy-

aii ae?oai?, ui o?eaaea c e?ioey 1921-ai aei ii/aoeo 1922 ?., a?ae-

aoeiny “aeeieiiaoe/ia ia’?aeiaiiy ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e”. Inia-

eea?noth o?aouei? oace, yea i?eiaaeaea ia 1922 ?., aoei “ainiiaea?-

nueea ia’?aeiaiiy”. A Oe?a?i?, iniaeeai i?ioyaii 1918—1919 ??.,

a?aeaoaaeeny aeaui ?io? i?ioeane, a nai ia’?aeiaa/ee ?oo ia aoa

ni?aaaei?i aieaaeyaeaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. A?enueeiai-aee-

ieiiaoe/iee oa ainiiaea?nueeee nithc ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e, ye

i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaa ?inoeoooe?y, aeiee iaeaea iaeii/anii. Ci-

e?aia, ci?no aeae?aoo AOeAE a?ae 1 /a?aiy 1919 ?. i?i ia’?aeiaiiy

a?i??, a?enueeiaeo onoaiia, o?ainii?oo, o?iainiai? nenoaie, ?aae

ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ni?inoiao? noae?inueeo ia??iaeecaoe?th

iinooiiaiai oeeaaeaiiy nithco oa oeoia/aiiy iei naiiai

“ia’?aeiaa/iai ?ooo”.

?aeay cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae aec??ea a Iinea?, a

oae caaiee “ia’?aeiaa/ee ?oo” aoa iani?aaae? i?ioeanii aeniaae- eeaiai
i?e?aeiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ?anioae?e aei ananeeueiiai

oeaio?o, yeee cina?aaeaeoaaa aac?icae?eueio e aaniethoio aeaaeo iaae

ieie. A?aeaoaaeiny iinooiiaa “a?aeuaieaiiy” a?enueeiai-aeeiei-

iaoe/ieo oa ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/ieo i?aa ?anioae?e, iaia-

aeaiiy oa aeeeth/aiiy iiaeeeainoae ?o naiiaooiueiai iaoe?iiaeue-

ii-eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo. Oeeaaeaiiy nithciiai aeiaiai?o i?ae

?NO?? oa ON?? 28 a?oaeiy 1920 ?., iaaieioo?oueny a aeena?oaoe??,

th?eaee/ia caoaa?aeeei oaeo iicaaaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ?aaoeyoeaii-

oi?aae?inueeeo i?aa noiniaii ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino?, n?euenueei-

ai ainiiaea?noaa, oi?ioaaiiy aeaniiai athaeaeaoo, noai?aiiy na-

iiae?yeueieo ia?eiiao?a i?eioeeiiaiai cia/aiiy, ye? a na?ae/eee

ianaiia?aae i?i ?? aeiiii?/iee noaa?ai?oao. Noinoiee i?ae ?i-

n??th oa Oe?a?iith oi?iaeueii aaaaeaeeny i?aeaea?aeaaieie, a

iani?aaae? ia aeoiaeeee ca iaae? aioo??a?aeii/eo ainiiaea?nueei-

aeiiii?/ieo aca?iei ia ??ai? ia’?aeiaieo ia?eiiao?a. ?anioae?-

eainuee? ia?eiiaoe, ca aeeeth/aiiyi Ia?eiiino, iaee noaoon

iaeanieo o?e?e nithcieo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee a Oe?a?i?.

Iaeiiii?oiei, aea aeineoue aaaeeeaei aeey ?icoi?iiy i?i-

oeano noaiiaeaiiy nithcii? aea?aeaae ? oie oaeo, ui ON?? ia aoea

?i?oe?aoi?ii ?? ooai?aiiy. Aiae?c aeieoiaio?a ?IE ON?? oa

AOOeAE uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeii? aea?aeaae na?ae/eoue i?i ni?iae

aaeineiiaeaiiy i?eioeei?a aca?iei i?ae ?? noa’?eoaie ia aeiaia??-

ieo canaaeao.

O ?icae?e? cacia/a?oueny, ui iayai?noue a Oe?a?i? iie?oe/ieo

ia?o?e (OEI oa ?i.) ? oa/?e, iniaeeai ca oiia aaaaoioeeaaeiino?

aeiiii?ee iai?anueeiai ia??iaeo, yeui ? ia caa?iaeoaaea o?ce/iei

onoiaiiyi ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, oi noaiiaeea cia/io ?aeaeii-oai?a-

oe/io ? iie?oe/io ia?aoeiaeo a?eueoiaeeai ia oeyoo oi?ioaai-

iy oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae. C ?ioiai aieo, aea/aiiy i?ia?ai ? naii?

ae?yeueiino? aeayeeo oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, o oiio /ene? e

EI(a)O, na?ae/eoue i?i noia?a/eeao aaiethoe?th ?icaeoeo ?o aean-

ieo eiioeaioe?e aea?aeaaioai?aiiy: a?ae noaaeaiiy ?aea? oaaea?aoe?? aei

aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeiino? naiino?eii? iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae, a?ae

iiia?o?/iiai aei ?anioae?eainueeiai ono?ith, a?ae
iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? aei oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae. sse
a?aeiii,

i?iaieioaiiy N?N? a?aeaoeiny iai?ee?ioe? a?oaeiy 1922 ?., a

ocaiaeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo iniia ooieoe?iioaaiiy ni-

thcii? aea?aeaae o?eaaei ai?iaeiaae 1923 ?. Oeae i?ioean aeyaeany

aeineoue noia?a/eeaei ? iaiaeiicia/iei, iniaeeai c ieoaiue iaoe?-

iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ?anioae?e, aecia/aiiy ?oi?o

i?aa ? iiaiiaaaeaiue.

Iaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae oa nioe?aeueii-eeania? iciaee ia?o?e-

ii-aea?aeaaii? iiiaieeaoo?e, cacia/a?oueny a aeena?oaoe??, iaei-

aeine?aeaeaia i?iaeaia, oi/a a ?noi??ia?ao?? ? aeae?eueea i?aoeue, ye?

ae??ciythoueny na?oiaeyaeieie, oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieie i?ei-

oeeiaie oa aeaea?aeueiith aacith. O ?icae?e? i?aee?aneth?oueny oie

oaeo, ui eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy noni?-

eueii-aea?aeaaieie i?ioeanaie aeiaaaea a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy

neoaeaiaoe?a. Iaeaieiai?oeie iciaeaie ?o i?aeai?o aoee: ia?-

o?ei?noue, nioe?aeueia iioiaeaeaiiy, ?aaiethoe?eiee noaae, ina?oa ?

oao. Aea/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo eeth/iaeo ia?eiiao?a,

i?iieneiaeo o?ano?a oa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e a

Oe?a?i? iieacaei, ui a ieo ia?aaaaeaee iaoe?a?ioe?. Aaniethoe-

caoe?y iie?oe/ii? aeaaee oa ?? cina?aaeaeaiiy iica Oe?a?iith,

iaaaeeea /anoea oe?a?ioe?a a EI(a)O ? a iniiaieo ia?eiiaoao,

ia?o?eii-eeania? e?eoa??? i?aeai?o oa i?ecia/aiiy ea??aiiai

neeaaeo aee?aeoi?nueeiai ei?iono i?iieneiaino?, n?euenueeiainii-

aea?nueeeo onoaiia, nae?aoa??a eii?oao?a ia?o?? na?ae/eee i?i ca-

eaaeiee noaoon ON?? a neeaae? oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae.

Noia?a/eea? i?aai?caoe?eii-iie?oe/i? i?eioeeie noaiia-

eaiiy ? ae?yeueiino? nithcii? aea?aeaae coiiaeee ?? a?aeiia?aeia noaa-

eaiiy aei ia?niaeoea iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?-

ie, iniaeeai iiae, e?oa?aoo?e, ienoaoeoa: a?ae caia?a/aiiy ?o

i?aaa ia ?nioaaiiy aei aeciaiiy iaiao?aeiino? ?aooaaoeny c ie-

ie, a?ae ?aii?oaaiiy ? ia?ane?aeoaaiiy ?ioae?aaioe?? aei ?? caeo/aiiy

a ?ioa?anao ci?oeiaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaaiino? a Oe?a?i?.

?icae?e o?ao?e “Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?aeaaeeie iaoe?iiaeue-

iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a ?iee iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee” i?enay/a- iee
c’ynoaaiith eo?no iie?oe/iiai ea??aieoeoaa, oaiaeaioe?e aei-

iii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, aecia/aiith caeiiii??iinoae aeo-

oiaiiai aeeooy, ?ie? e i?noey a iueiio ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe, nioe?-

aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? ?aeaioe/iino? oa iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino?

oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Aiae?coth/e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ia-

eaie ni?eueii c aeooiaieie, aaoi? i?aaioa ia’?eoeai?oa i?ae?eoe

aei aecia/aiiy iniaeeaiai ? niaoeeo?/iiai, ni?eueiiai ? a?aei?iii-

ai, naiiaooiueiai ? oeiiaiai a ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?eueno-

aa ia??iaeo ni?a?nioaaiiy ??cieo aeiiii?/ieo oeeaae?a, ?icia?ooy

oi?i aeooiaiiai, eoeueoo?ii^ienoaoeueeiai aeeooy a Oe?a?i?.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e oaeoeei-no?aoaa?/io nooue iiai? aeiiii?/ii?

iie?oeee a?eueoiaee?a, aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui iai ia aoa

caeiiii??i?noth nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie ca

oiia ?aaeyinueeiai eaaeo. A?i aeiee ye can?a aeinyaiaiiy eiie?ao-

ieo ainiiaea?nueeeo oa iie?oeei-aeiiii?/ieo caaaeaiue. Caa?aaeai-

iy iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? i?ney aeniaaeeeai? a?iiaaeyinueei?

a?eie, ci?oeiaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai nithco i?iieneiaeo

?ia?oiee?a c naeyiaie caaacia/oaaee a?eueoiaeeai “ia?aii/e-

iie” aeey /a?aiaiai ianooaaiiai aenia?eiaioo ? iaiaa?o. Oiio

? a?aeaoeany ci?ia eo?no a aeiiii?/i?e ? iaoe?iiaeuei?e iie?oeoe?.

Iiaa aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea — aeineoue aaaaoiieaiiaa iao-

eiai-oai?aoe/ia i?iaeaia, yea caeeoa?oueny iaeiaeine?aeaeaiith.

iacaaaeath/e ia cia/io ieceo i?aoeue, o yeeo ? aa?aa?aoo?a iai.

C’ynoaaiiy noo?, iaoe ? caaaeaiiy iiaiai aeiiii?/iiai eo?no

a?eueoiaee?a, iaaieioo?oueny a aeena?oaoe??, ni?eyoeia i?aaeeue-

iiio oeoia/aiith aaaaoueio ?ioeo ieoaiue. Aacia?a/ii, ui i?i-

noa ci?ia i?iae?iceeaaeee i?iaeiiaeaoeii aeaeaea a?ae nooi?nii? oa-

?aeoa?enoeee iaio, ioe?iee ?? iioea?a oa caaaeaiue. A aeena?oaoe??

cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaiiee aiae?c oe??? iaiaeiicia/ii? i?iaeaie.

Oaeoeei-no?aoaa?/io nooue iaio aeineoue ae/a?iii iieacaa

I.Aooa??i. E?aa?ae?caoe?y ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, aeica?e ? /anoeiaa

i?aeo?eiea aea?aeaaith i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o aeiiii?ee, a?ae?i-

aeaeaiiy eiiia?aoe?? — ana oea neieeoioei i?aei?e?iieoeueeo ?i?oe?a-

oeao ae??aieo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a, a?aeaie?eei naeyinoai a?ae iie?-oe/ieo
ieoaiue, noeioethaaei iaaiei /eiii ?icoe?aia a?aeoai-

?aiiy, a a?aeoae ni?eyei ci?oeiaiith aeiiii?/ieo iniia ?aaeyinue-

eiai eaaeo. Iai, ye cacia/a?oueny a aeena?oaoe??, noaa caniaii aeiny-

aiaiiy eiie?aoieo ainiiaea?nueeeo oa iie?oeei-aeiiii?/ieo ca-

aaeaiue. Eiai i?ee?ioeaaith iaoith aoei ci?oeiaiiy nioe?ae?noe/ieo

oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa onoiaiiy eai?oae?noe/ieo, aea aeiii-

i?/ieie iaoiaeaie.

O aeena?oaoe?? eaeaoueny i?i aaciina?aaei?e ca’ycie iaio c oi?-

ioaaiiyi ?aeeii? nithcii? aea?aeaae. Caa?aaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? noa-

a?eueiino? oa nioe?aeueiiai ie?o i?ney aeniaaeeeai? a?iiaaeyinueei?

a?eie ? ?oei?aieo iane?aee?a iie?oeee “ai?iiiai eiioi?cio”, ia-

eaaiaeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aca?iei i?ae i?iieneia?noth oa n?euenue-

eei ainiiaea?noaii caaacia/oaaee ia eeoa “ia?aii/eiie” iaia-

?aaeiaei? /a?aiaiai a?eueoiaeoeueeiai aenia?eiaioo, a oaeiae noai-

?thaaee oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo iiaiai oeio a?aeiinei i?ae

noa’?eoaie nithcii? aea?aeaae. Aaaaoioeeaaei?noue aeiiii?/iiai

aeeooy ii?iaeeea ?ethc?th i?i aeaiie?aoecaoe?th noni?eueiiai ?icae-

oeo, ??aiii?aai?noue iaoe?e oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo a?oi ia oeyoo

?oiueiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy. ?icaeoie oe?a?i?caoe?? iieacaa aeaui

?io? iai??e a?eueoiaee?a. Aiie oi?noaaee ?? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy, aea

iaiaaeeee ?aae?caoe?th noa?ith eoeueoo?e, iiae, e?oa?aoo?e, ina?-

oe, caai?iieaoe cae?eniaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ia?aoai?aiue a aaeoc?

iie?oeee oa aeiiii?ee.

C’yniao?oueny i?noea ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe a “iiaiio eo?n?”.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ia’?eoeai? ianoaaeie, iaiao?aei?noue a?aeao-

aeiae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ia canaaeao iaio cioneee a?eueoi-

aee?a a?aeiiaeoeny oei/aniai a?ae iaeiicia/ii iaaaoeaiiai noaa-

eaiiy aei ?ioae?aaioe??. Ia aeia??yth/e ?e, aeaaea ciooaia aoea i?oe

ia ni?ai?aoeth c iath, caeo/ath/e aei nioe?ae?noe/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

Iaeii/anii ?icai?ioany i?ioean noai?aiiy iiai? ca nioe?aeueieie

aeaea?aeaie oi?ioaaiiy, nenoaiith na?oiaeyaeieo oe?iiinoae ?ioa-

e?aaioe??, yea a caoeuaea ?ioa?ane ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae ? aoea a?ae-
aeaia ?e. Iaeiae ye “iiaa”, oae ? “noa?a” ?ioae?aaioe?y aoea ia’?e-

oii aieeao eeaniai? iie?oeee. Iaaeia??a aei ia? caeeoaeany.

I?e ?icaeyae? oeyo?a ? oi?i aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?-

ie, iaaieioaii ia c’ynoaaii? aoaeoeaiino? iaio, aca?ieiao ?an-

ioae?eainueei? oa nithcii? i?iieneiaino?, c’ynoaaii? ?o ?ie? ? i?n-

oey a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie. I?aee?aneaii, ui aeiii-

i?ea Oe?a?ie ca oiia ?? i?aeeaaeiai noaiiaeua noaea ia no?eueee

iaoa??aeueiith aacith nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inue-

eiai ia?iaeo, ne?eueee iniiaith ci?oeiaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-ainii-

aea?nueeeo i?aeaaeei nithcii? aea?aeaae. Aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie

Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii 20-o ??. noi?iaiaeaeoaaany e?eciaeie yaeua-

ie, coiiaeaieie ia eeoa ia’?eoeaieie i?e/eiaie, a ianaiia-

?aae noa’?eoeaieie: nooe?eueiith ? oaeaeeith iaoe?iiae?caoe??th i?i-

ieneiaino?, ?oeiaoe??th onoaeaiiai ?ieaie niiniao ae?iaieoeo-

aa, cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi aaca?ioiaiai ia?ao oa ?aii?oaaiiy ?eieo

oiui.

A aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeththoueny ??ci? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy

— i?eaaoia, aea?aeaaia, aeoe?iia?ia ? eiiia?aoeaia. Cacia/a?oue-

ny, ui i?eaaoiee naeoi? iaa iii?oiee aieea o oi?a?ae? oa aea-

yeeo aaeocyo i?iieneiaino? (eaaea, eonoa?ia, oa?/iaa). Eiioea-

n?? a Oe?a?i? ia iaee iioe?aiiy. ?aaeyinueea aea?aeaaa, aeiioneath-

/e oei/aniaee oa?aeoa? i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o, ?aaoethaaea eiai

ae?yeuei?noue oeyoii iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee oa ?ioeo aaei?i?no?aoea-

ieo caoiae?a. ?anioae?eainueea aeiiii?ea ia noaea iaoa??aeueiith

aacith aeey oe?ieiianooaaiiai eiioeaio?iaaiiai iaoe?iiaeueii-

eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo, ai iniiai? aaaeae? ?? ?aaoethaaiiy cina-

?aaeaeoaaeeny o oeaio?aeueieo nithcieo i?aaiao aeaaee (oi?ioaai-

iy athaeaeaoo, o?iainiai-e?aaeeoia iie?oeea, aeeo/aiiy i?eaooeo

oiui).

Iniaeeao oaaao a aeena?oaoe?? cina?aaeaeaii ia c’ynoaaii? ni-

oe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?aeaaeei naiiaooiino? naeyinoaa. Oi?i-

aeiaae aaaaoueio aeanyoee?oue ?noi?e/ia iaoea ia oi?eaeany oaie

aeyaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-nioe?aeueii? ?aeaioe/iino?, iaioaeueiino? oa
caaaeii ainiiaea?nueei-iiaooiai? ie?ai?oiino? oe?a?inueeeo

naeyi, a oaeiae ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo a?oi ia-

naeaiiy Oe?a?ie. Aea/aiiy naiiaooiino? naeyi — oea ianaiia-

?aae c’ynoaaiiy niaoeeo?ee ?oiueiai oeeaaeo aeeooy, a ia iiooe yee-

oinue iniaeeaeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iciae, ye? a ae??ciyee ?o c-iii?ae

?ioeo. Iaoe?iiaeueia iaioaeuei?noue, ye na?ae/eoue aiae?c nioe?aeueii-

aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai naea 20-o ??., caeaaeaea a?ae

a?oie oaeoi??a: i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeiai noaiiaeua eii-

e?aoiiai naeyinueeiai aeai?o, oi?i naiia?yaeoaaiiy, caa?aaeaiiy

?noi?e/ieo o?aaeeoe?e, aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe??, n?iaeiiai aeoi-

aaiiy oiui.

O ?icae?e? eaeaoueny i?i aeaye? a?aei?iiino? i?ae iiiyooyi “na-

eyinueeee aea??” ? “naeyinueea ainiiaea?noai”. Ia?oa cana?ae/oaaei

i?aai?caoe?ei? iniiae naiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, coiiaethaaei iaa-

iei /eiii noni?eueii-i?aaiaee noaoon oa a?iiaaenueei-iiaooi-

aee ?i?aeae naeyieia. Iieacaii iniiae naeyinueeiai naiia?yaeo-

aaiiy, oi?ie caieaaieiae?iiy. Naeyinueea ainiiaea?noai ?acii c

aeai?ii, ye nai???aeiee aacen ? iaaeaoaeiaa, aa?iii?eii aeiiiaith-

aaee iaeia iaeiiai, ui caaacia/oaaei oi?iaeiaae aaaaoueio noie?oue

naiiaooi?noue naeyinueeiai oeeaaeo aeeooy. Ii-iiaiio aena?oeth?-

oueny i?iaeaia iaeiiai? ia??aiino? ? nioe?aeueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??

naeyi, a a?aeoae i?aeaea?oueny noii?ao ? ni?inooaaiith iiae?e ?o ia

a?oie ca ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/ieie iciaeaie. Aiae?coth/e

eiie?aoi? i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nuee? i?aeaaeeie aeeoo?ae?yeueii-

no? oe?a?inueeeo naeyi 1920-— 30-o ?ie?a, iniaeeaino? ?o nioe?i-

eoeueoo?iiai oa iiaooiaiai aeeooy, aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue i?aaii??-

i?noue iioe?aii? a ?noi??ia?ao?? aeoiee i?i naeyinoai ye nioe?aeue-

io aaco iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino?.

sse iaeei ?c cania?a aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iiai ioi?ieaiiy Ni-

thco ?N? oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaio ?icaeyaea?oueny iie?oeea oe?a?i?-

caoe??. ?ice?eaath/e ci?no oa?i?io “oe?a?i?caoe?y” a?aeiia?aeii aei

eiaeiiai eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo, aaoi? aeaoaeueii aiae?-

co? oe? i?ioeane a 20-o? ?iee, iieaco? ?o iane?aeee. Oe?a?i?caoe?y,

cacia/a?oueny a aeena?oaoe??, aeeoea aeaeaei ca ?? i?ia?aiiaai? no- oi
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeuee? iaae?. ?yae iaeaino??oeo i?iaeai

?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e noaee i?aaeiaoii oe?ieeo iao-

eiaeo aeeneon?e. A ?o iniia? — oeyoe ? iai?yie eoeueoo?ieo ia-

?aoai?aiue, i???ioaoe?ei? oe?iiino?, noaaeaiiy aei ?a?iiaenueei?

eoeueoo?e. ?aae?caoe?y eo?no ia oe?a?i?caoe?th caaaeii iineea oa-

?aeoa? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Aeoeaio ?ieue a oeeo i?ioea-

nao a?ae?a?aaaea iaoe?iiaeueia ?ioae?aaioe?y oa oe?a?inueea naeyino-

ai.

C ?ioiai aieo, oe?a?i?caoe?y ? /eneaii? aeeneon?? c i?iaeai

?icaeoeo ina?oe, iaoee, e?oa?aoo?e, ienoaoeoaa neoaoaaee naiai

?iaeo i?ee?eooyi aeey iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy a?eueoiaeoeueeeo nee, ae?i-

aeaiiy ? ai?iaaoe?? iniiaieo aaaeae?a oeaio?ae?caoe?? ? iaeaooiuei?

aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ine?eueee “no?aoaa?/i? ae-

nioe” caeeoaeeny ca ?in?enueeith iiaith ? eoeueoo?ith.

?icae?e /aoaa?oee “Iaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo a?eueoiaeoeueei? aei-

eo?eie nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe??” i?enay/aiee aena?oeaiith

iniaeeainoae ?aeiino?oeoeaiiai ia??iaeo a Oe?a?i?: o?ainoi?-

iaoe?? iaio, noaiiaeaiith eiiaiaeieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy aeiii-

i?eith, i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ?anioae?eainueei? i?iieneiaino? ca-

aaeueiinithciith, aeyaeaiith iaoa??aeueieo oa nioe?aeueii-aeaiia-

?ao?/ieo iane?aee?a ia?aoai?aiue, i?aai?caoe?eieo ? eaae?iaeo in-

iia ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae, ?? iiaii-

aaaeaiue ii ?aaoethaaiith aeiiii?/ieo ieoaiue, c’ynoaaiith aeue-

oa?iaoea ?iaeono??ae?caoe?? oa eieaeoea?caoe??.

Aena?oeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai aniaeoo nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiin-

o?oeoe?? ia?aaeaa/a? nenoaiiee aiae?c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ii-

e?oeee ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, aeyaeaiiy oeiiaeo ? a?ae-

i?iieo ?en naii? aeieo?eie, ni?anoaaeaiiy ?? neeaaeiaeo /anoei c

iaoeiaeie oai??yie a/aieo 1920-o ??.

Noaiiaeaiiy iiaiai oeio aeiiii?/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eii-

ooieoe?iiaeueieo aca?iei oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae ?c ana-

nithcieie aeaaeieie no?oeoo?aie ?icaeyaea?oueny a eiioaeno?

?icaeoeo caaaeueiinithciiai “ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai” i?inoi-

?o. Aiae?cothoueny iiaeyaee aea?aeaaieo ae?y/?a oa iaoeiaoe?a 20-30-o
??. uiaei i?noey ? ?ie? Oe?a?ie a aeiiii?oe? N?N?, i?eioeeie ?

i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ii neeaaeaiith ? ?aae?-

caoe?? ia?oeo i’yoe??/ieo ieai?a. Ocaaaeueiaiiy eiie?aoii-?noi-

?e/ieo aeaieo, noaoenoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a uiaei o?iainiai-i?iie-

neiaeo oa i?aai?caoe?eieo i?aeaaeei caaaeueiinithciiai “ia?iae-

iiainiiaea?nueeiai” i?inoi?o na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui eiai oi?io-

aaiiy a?aeaoaaeiny ia oeyoii ia?a?iciiae?eo i?e?iaeii-aaia?a-

o?/ieo cii /e aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo ei?aeii?a, a oey-

oii cina?aaeaeaiiy athaeaeaoo oa iniiaieo aaeocae o nithcieo ia?-

eiiaoao.

Iaeia c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iniaeeainoae noaiiaeaiiy caaaeue-

iinithciiai ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno iieyaaea o ia?a?iciiae?-

e? i?aa, iaia’yce?a oa iiaiiaaaeaiue i?ae nithciith, ?anioae?eai-

nueeith oa i?noeaaith i?iieneia?noth, iniaeeai iai?iiiiai cia-

/aiiy, yea aeiyoeiai iaeaaeaea nithciei a?aeiinoaai ? ?ici?uo-

aaeany ia?aaaaeii a oeaio?aeueieo ?aeiiao ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco.

sseui a N?N? oi?iaeiaae ia?oi? i’yoe??/ee nii?oaeeee 1,5 oen.

iiaeo oaa?ee ? caaiae?a, oi a ON?? — 386, oiaoi 25,7%, oi/a ie-

oiia aaaa oe?a?inueei? i?iieneiaino? a caaaeueiinithci?e na?aae

aaaaoueio aaeocae ia ii/aoeo ?aeiino?oeoe?? aoea ae??oaeueiith.

Oi?ioaaiiy “ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai” eiiieaeno a ON??

aeyaeeiny aeineoue noia?a/eeaei i?ioeanii noaiiaeaiiy iiaiai

oeio aeiiii?/ieo oa ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei. Ca e?eueea ?ie?a ?a-

eiino?oeoe??, yea noi?iaiaeaeoaaeany ia eeoa oaoi?/iei ia?a-

iniauaiiyi caaiae?a, a, ianaiia?aae, cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ?aeeieo

i?eioeei?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie,

cieeea aaaaoioeeaaei?noue aeiiii?ee e?a?ie. O ca’yceo c oeei

ao?aoeei nai? ia?a?nia cia/aiiy iiiyooy “ia?iaeia ainiiaea?no-

ai”, a iaoii?noue iinoaei ?ioa — “caaaeueiiaea?aeaaia”. I?i eiei-

i?aeueiee noaoon oe?a?inueei? i?iieneiaino? ienaa I.Aieiao?a,

yeee o?nii iia’ycoaaa aeiiii?eo c iacaeaaeiei iaoe?iiaeueii-

eoeueoo?iei ?icaeoeii noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eoi iniaeeaino? oi?aae?iiy i?iienei-

a?noth Oe?a?ie, iieacaii ii??, aeyaeaiee o ?anioae?oe? o ca’yceo c

iineeaiiyi i?aeeaaeino? ?anioae?eainueei? i?iieneiaino? nithc-

iei ia?eiiaoai ? a?aeiinoaai. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eaia aena?-

oeaiith iane?aee?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth, ca-

ii/aoeiaaiiai iinoaiiaith OeE AEI(a) “I?i ?ai?aai?caoe?th

oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth” a?ae 5 a?oaeiy 1929 ?ieo, ci?iai o ni-

oe?aeueiiio ? iaoe?iiaeueiiio neeaae? oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a. C?inea

caaaeueia e?euee?noue aee?aeoi?nueeiai ei?iono i?iieneiaeo i?ae-

i?e?inoa, ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo, aeaui ca?eueoeeany

ieoiia aaaa oe?a?ioe?a na?aae iniiaieo i?ioan?iiaeueieo a?oi

?ia?oiee?a, aea ciaioeeiny /enei niaoe?ae?no?a c aeuith

ina?oith, iniaeeai aee?aeoi??a oa aieiaieo ?iaeaia??a. Iaei??th c

i?e/ei, iaaieioo?oueny a aeena?oaoe??, ui i?ecaaea aei oaeiai ea-

ae?iaiai noaio, aoee iania? ?ai?an??, “aenoaainoai” ia ea??ai?

iinaaee iaeieaae?o?eiaaieo ? iaaeinoaoiuei i?aeaioiaeaieo oao?a-

oe?a.

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiy oi?aae?inueei? ?aoi?ie oe?a?inueea

?anioae?eainueea i?iieneia?noue cia/iith i??ith ao?aoeea na?e

iiooaeiee iioaioe?ae. Oa?eoi??aeueii a?i caeeoeany a Oe?a?i? ?

iaa?oue iiiiaithaaany iiaeie i?aei?e?inoaaie, aea oi?aae?iiy

ieie ana a?eueoa cina?aaeaeoaaeiny a nithcieo ia?eiiaoao. Oe?a-

?inueea ?anioae?eainueea i?iieneia?noue a?ae?aoiaoaaea aei ?aeeii-

ai athaeaeaoo cia/ii a?eueoa eioo?a, i?ae iaea?aeoaaea. A Oe?a?i?

30-o ??. i?aeoe/ii ia ?nioaaei iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeiii? /anoeie

oi?aae?inueeiai ia?niiaeo. ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueia i?e?iaea oi?io-

aaiiy oi?aae?iiy oa iiiiia?o?eia iie?oe/ia nenoaia ia ni?ee-

iaee i?yeeo i??i?eoao?a, e??i aaeeeiaea?aeaaieoeueeeo. Oaeei /e-

iii, naia i?ioyaii nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?anioae?ea in-

oaoi/ii ao?aoeea iciaee ainiiaea?nueeiai oe?eiai.

Iaeii/ania cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoi?ie oi?aae?iiy i?iienei-

a?noth oa aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai iiae?eo a Oe?a?i? ia

ii/aoeo 30-o ??. i?ecaaee aei cia/ieo iaoa??aeueieo ao?ao,
?ai?-aai?caoe?? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith ?anioae?ee, aeeo/aiiy

c ?? i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy iniiaieo aaeocae.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eaa?oueny i?ioean ?oeioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-

ainiiaea?nueeeo iniia “oe?a?inueeiai naia?aoecio” oeyoii eiea-

eoea?caoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, iaioaaiiy eiiaiaeii-?ai?a-

neaii? nenoaie aeceneo, oioaeueiiai oa?i?o i?ioe ?ioae?aaioe??,

ianeeueieoeueei? iie?oeee “?iceo?eoeaiiy”, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?iae-

?iceeaaeee ii-noae?inueeiio c ?? noiiica?nieie oe?aicaaio?aaeue-

ieie eaiiai?yie. Cacia/a?oueny, ui nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee

?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai naea i?ioyaii 20-o ??. ae??ciyany aaaa-

oioeeaaei?noth, niaoe?ae?caoe??th ae?iaieoeoaa, naiiaooi?noth oeea-

aeo aeeooy naeyi, iayai?noth i?eaaoii-ainiiaea?nueeeo oa eiiia?a-

oeaieo oi?i, eiina?aaoeciii onoaeaiiai a?eaie niiniao aeeo-

o?ae?yeueiino?, aieaethai?noth, i?aoeacaeaoi?noth ? aaaaoi/enaeuei?n-

oth oe?ai?ianueeiai ianaeaiiy, c?inoaiiyi ieoiii? aaae naeyi-

nueeeo ainiiaea?noa o oi?ioaaii? ?eieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?

i?iaeoeoe?? oa ne?iaeie. Naiiaooi?noue naeyinueeiai aeai?o aecia-

/aee ia nooi ciai?oi? eoeueoo?ii-iiaooia? ao?eaooe /e na?aae-

iueinoaoenoe/i? iieacieee nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?icaeoeo

oe?a?inueeiai naea, a ia?aaeon?i oi?ie caieaei?enooaaiiy, i?-

aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nuee? iniiae ae??aiioiaa?iiai ae?iaieoeo-

aa, aeinoaoiuei ?icaeiaia ii/oooy aeaniino?, ?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe??,

iniaeeaino? n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy oa a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee.

Eieaeoea?caoe?y n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ye aeaeaeinyaeiee

oaeoeei-no?aoaa?/iee caaeoi Noae?ia, iaea iiaeieaoe iniiae “na-

ia?aoecio” oa ae??oeoe eiie?aoi? ainiiaea?nueei-iie?oe/i? ca-

aaeaiiy: ?ai?aai?caoe?th oi?i aeaniino? ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai

ae?iaieoeoaa, ianiaa noai?aiiy eieaini?a oa ?ica’ycaiiy o oa-

eee niin?a ca?iiai? i?iaeaie, ononi?eueiaiiy naeyinueeeo ainii-

aea?noa ? anoaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth iaae n?euenueeiainii-

aea?nueeei ae?iaieoeoaii, caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo

iniia oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio, ooaa?aeaeaiiy nioe?ae?noe/iiai ea- aeo a
aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee, e?ea?aeaoe?th “eai?oae?noe/ieo

aeaiaio?a” a oe?a?inueeiio nae?.

Aeine?aeaeothoueny oi?ie ? iaoiaee ianiaiai iii?o naeyi ?ai-

?aneaii-ea?aeueiei aeoe?yi ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae: eieaeoea?caoe??,

eiio?neaoe??, oe?aicaaio?aaeueiei eaiiai?yi, naaa?eeth ??cieo

oiiaiiaaaeaieo, ?iceo?eoeaiith. Ca?ieia ai?ioueaa naeyi a

oe?a?inueeiio nae? iaea yne?aai aecia/aio aioe?aaeyinueeo ni?y-

iiaai?noue. Iaaieioo?oueny oaeiae, ui oae caaia “ieeii?noue”,

oiaoi aeo?ae oe?ai?ia?a c eieaini?a aaniith 1930 ?., na?ae/eea i?i

ianiao aeaeieaeoea?caoe?th a Oe?a?i?. Nooe?eueia eieaeoea?caoe?y,

iie?oeea ?iceo?eoeaiiy, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy eieainiiiai eaaeo, ia-

nia? ?ai?an??, e??i iie?oeei-aeiiii?/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eii-ain-

iiaea?nueeeo caaaeaiue, iaee nooi eiio?neaoe?eia caaaeaiiy, aae ii-

iiaieoe oiiaee oo?eiaiiy eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie.

C ?ioiai aieo, ia?ae?/ai? caoiaee noaiiaeee iniaeeaee iaoa-

i?ci cai?iaaaeaeaiiy nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? a n?euenueeiio

ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie.

Aiae?coth/e oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo,

ui cai?iaaaeaeaiiy nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? a Oe?a?i? inoa-

oi/ii c?oeioaaei i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nuee? i?aeaaeeie aaaa-

oioeeaaeiino? aeiiii?ee, a a?aeoae — nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? oa aeooia-

ii? naiiaooiino? oe?a?inueei? iaoe??.

Oi?iaeiaae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo a?aeaoaaeiny oe?eani?y-

iiaaia aeei??iaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?aeaaeei oe?a?ino-

aa: onoiaiiy naiiae?yeueieo naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa oeyoii ei-

eaeoea?caoe??, noaiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iaeiioeiiino?, oe?eeiaeoa

i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy noni?euenoaa ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaiei ? neeiaei

no?oeoo?ai.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “Iniaeeaino? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo

a?aeiinei a ia??iae “nioe?ae?noe/iiai ianooio” ?icaeyaeathoueny in-

iiaiiieiaei? i?eioeeie, ia yeeo aoaeoaaeany iie?oeea eiioi?n-

oe/ii? ia?o?? ? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae o iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i?e

noa?? iai?ee?ioe? 1920-o-na?aaeei? 30-o ?ie?a. Iniiaia oaaaa
cina?aaeaeaia ia cynoaaii? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aniaeoo eiioeaioe??

“eoeueoo?iiai no?eaea”, aeyaeaii? oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae

?aeaeii? ai?ioueae a noa?? eoeueoo?e, ia aena?oeaii? oeaio?ae?ca-

oi?nueei? oa oi?o?eaoe?eii? iie?oeee ye caniao aeinyaiaiiy “?aeii-

no?” aeooiaiiai aeeooy ia?iae?a, i?aaethaaiiy eoeueoo? iaoe?iiaeue-

ieo iaioei.

O ?icae?e? aea?oueny ioe?iea iiiyooy “ianooi nioe?ae?cio ii

anueiio o?iioo”, i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui oi?niaaia cae?eniaiiy ?i-

aeono??ae?caoe??, ianeeueieoeueei? eieaeoea?caoe?? n?euenueeiai ainii-

aea?noaa niiioeaei aei i?enei?aiiy oaii?a “eoeueoo?ii? ?aaieth-

oe??”, oiaoi ianooaaii? ? aeiei??iii? ?aoi?iaoe?? a aaeoc? eoeueoo-

?e: i?enei?aiiy ai?ioueae ca eenueiaii?noue ? anaiao/, i?aeaioia-

eo niaoe?ae?no?a c /enea ?ia?oiee?a ? naeyi, ianooi ia “ao?aeoacio

?aeaieia?th” oa ?? iin??a, oi?o?eaoe?th e ?aeaieia?caoe?th noni?eueiiai

aeeooy, ooaa?aeaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeieo iaoiae?a oi?aa-

e?iiy eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?i aeeooyi.

I?ia?aioth/e caaino?aiiy eeaniai? ai?ioueae a e?a?i?,

a?eueoiaeee iniaeeai aeoeaiooaaee oaaao ia ?? iineeaii? a aaeoc?

eoeueoo?e. Iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith “aaeeeiai no?eaea” a on?e

e?a?i? ? ?? ?aa?iiao noaei anoaiiaeaiiy oioaeueiiai eiio?ieth

eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? ? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae ca aeooiaiei, eoeueoo-

?ii-ina?oi?i aeeooyi, a?enueeiai-aaei?i?no?aoeaia iia?e?caoe?y

oe?ieeo ian o?oaeyueo ia cae?eniaiiy eoeueoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue.

Aaaeeeaei aniaeoii o?einio?? “eoeueoo?iiai no?eaea” ao-

ea ai?ioueaa “ca e?ea?aeaoe?th oaeoe/ii? ia??aiino? iaoe?e ?aaeyinue-

ei? e?a?ie”, oi?niaaia oai?aiiy eoeueoo?e “iaoe?iiaeueii? ca

oi?iith ? nioe?ae?noe/ii? ca ci?noii”. Aieiaiei caeeoaeany

eeaniaa ni?yiiaai?noue.

Iniiaiee ci?no “eoeueoo?iiai no?eaea” aoa caaaeaiee oae-

oe/ii aei e?ea?aeaoe?? ianiai? iaienueiaiiino? ? iaeiienueiaiiino?,

cae?eniaiiy caaaeueii? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe, i?aeaioiaee iiai?, ?ia?-

oie/i-naeyinueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, a oaeiae iiaiiai ?aeaieia?/iiai ?

aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ia?o?? ? aea?aeaa? e?oa?aoo?-
ii-ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino?. Cae/aeii, aaaaoi a /iio oea aoee iice-

oeai? i?ioeane.

Iaeii/anii i?aaiaiiy noae?inueeiai ea??aieoeoaa i?enei?a-

ieie oaiiaie ia?aeoe aei nioe?ae?cio aaei aei aenoaineaiiai

oeyoo ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e, ui aacoaaany ia aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ei-

iaiaeieo iaoiaeao. Oaeei niiniaii ae??ooaaeeny i?eeeaaei? ca-

aaeaiiy, ye? iaiaaeoaaeeny e?euee?nieie iieacieeaie. Ooee?oa?-

ia o?aeooaaiiy eoeueoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue aaei aei aeoieiuaiiy c

ieo iniiaiiai — aeooiaiiai ci?noo, ui iniaeeai iaaaoeaii ii-

cia/eeiny ia iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?ao, ?oi?o o?aaeeoe?yo ? caeiaoo-

eao.

Iieacai? oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? ?aeaeii? ai?ioueae c

ieoaiue eoeueoo?e a ia??iae “ianooio nioe?ae?cio ii anueiio o?ii-

oo”, i?ioean oioaeueiiai ianooio ia eoeueoo?o, nooe?eueia ?aeaieia?-

caoe?y ?? ? o?ainoi?iaoe?y aoaeue-yeeo, iaa?oue iacia/ieo, aeeneon?e a

noa?o eeaniaiai i?ioenoiyiiy, ?aeaieia?/ieo ioe?iie oa ooaii?a

?, ye iane?aeie, canoinoaaiiy ianiaeo ?ai?an?e aei “oe?aeiee?a”,

“oieaoi?a”, “oaoeno?a”, “ao?aeoacieo iaoe?iiae?no?a”. Oaeei

/eiii, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oace Noae?ia i?i caaino?aiiy eeaniai?

ai?ioueae a oiae? nioe?ae?noe/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa i?ecaaei aei oiai,

ui ai?ioueaa aaeany ia c ?aeayie, a ?o iin?yie. ?aeaieia?/i?e ?aa?-

c?? aoee i?aeaeai? i?aeoe/ii an? eoeueoo?i? iaaeaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai

ia?iaeo.

E??cue i?ecio aeooiaiiai aeeooy ia?iaeo aena?oeth?oueny ai-

?ioueaa aeaio oaiaeaioe?e a ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i? 1920-o — 30-o ??. —

o?aaeeoe?eiiai ?in?enueeiai oeaio?ae?cio ? iacaeaaeiiai a?eueiiai

?icaeoeo ?anioae?ee ye oe?e?niiai i?aai?cio. ?ice?eaathoueny

i?e/eie ?oiueiai i?ioenoiyiiy, aiae?co?oueny i?ioean ooaa?aeaeai-

iy oi?o?eaoe?? ye caniao aeinyaiaiiy “?aeiino?” o aeooiaiiio aeeoo?.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui iniiaiei iin??i oeueiai aoea iaioth/a iie?-

oe/ia ia?o?y— oeaio?ae?ciaaia ?in?enueea (ananithcia) eiioi?n-

oe/ia ia?o?y, oeaio?ae?caoi?nueeee iioaioe?ae yei? iino?eii c?in-

oaa. Ia e?iaoeue 20-o ?ie?a o AEI(a) aoea oaeoe/ii e?ea?aeiaaia

iiiceoe?y, a ?anioae?eainueeeo eiiia?o?yo ?icai?ioeany iauaae- ia
ai?ioueaa c iaoe?iiae-iiiceoe?eieie ? aeaoeaio?ae?nonueeeie oa-

/?yie. A aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ye oi?ioaaeany oioaeueia nenoaia

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy eoeueoo?ith, ina?oith, iaoeith, e?oa?aoo?-

ii-ooaeiaei?i aeeooyi. Aiae?co?oueny iie?oeea ?aaeyinueei? aea?aea-

ae uiaei eoeueoo?e iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei a Oe?a?i?, noia?a/ee-

aee i?ioean ?o eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo. Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia

aena?oeaiith eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae, oi?i ? iaoiae?a i?aaethaaiiy

eoeueoo? iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

Aaei?i?no?aoeaii-?aeaieia?/ia ?aaeaiaioaoe?y nioe?aeueii-

eoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino?, ui anoaiiaeeany a e?a?i? ia na?aaeeio 30-o

?ie?a, i?aee?aneth?oueny a aeena?oaoe??, iineea oioaeueiee oa?aeoa?.

Aiia nooo?ai iaiaaeoaaea naiaiaeo ? oai?/? iiaeeeaino? ?ioae?aa-

ioe??, ca?aeithaaea aeooiaia aeeooy ia?iae?a N?N?, a oiio /ene?

oe?a?inueeiai. Oi?o?eaoe?y ? oeaio?ae?caoe?y ia iiaee cai?ieoe i?e-

?iaeiiai i?ioeano ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? eoeueoo?e ? anoaiiaeaiiy

aca?iieo oiea?aioieo a?aeiinei i?ae ?o iin?yie.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? ae?eoia aei

iaaieo aeniiae?a, iniiaiee ci?no yeeo aeiineoueny ia caoeno:

— oi?iaeiaae aeanyoee?oue i?iaeaia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai

? eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo 20-o — na?aaeeie 30-o ??. a Oe?a?i? iaea-

aeaea aei i??i?eoaoiiai iai?yio ?noi?eei-iie?oieia?/ieo aeine?-

aeaeaiue, yea aena?oethaaeany o eiioaeno? ia?enenonueei-eai?inueei?

iaoiaeieia?? noni?eueieo i?ioean?a. ?noi?eee, a oiio /ene? e ca?o-

a?aei?, aea/aee iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy a ON?? aac iaeaaeiiai aia-

e?co nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei oa niaoeeo?ee aeooiaiiai

aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;

— iiiiia?o?eia iie?oe/ia nenoaia, yeo aeaa?oeea

AEI(a), i?ecaaea aei aeieeiaiiy oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae oioae?oa?-

iiai oeio a Oe?a?i?, iniiai? i?eioeeie yei? a?aeiia?aeaee ci?noo

a?eueoiaeoeueei? iiaeae? nioe?ae?cio. Aiae?c aeieoiaio?a aeicaiey?

eiinoaooaaoe oi?iaeueiee ? o?eoeaiee noaoon iacaeaaeiiai aea?-

aeaaiiai ooai?aiiy, yeei aoea ON?? o neeaae? N?N?. Aeyaeaiiy

iaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo oa nioe?aeueii-eeaniaiai iioiaeaeaiiy ia?-

o?eii-aea?aeaaii? iiiaieeaoo?e a Oe?a?i? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iniiai?
ia?eiiaoe, iniaeeai ?o eeth/ia? i?ae?icae?ee, i/iethaaee

iaoe?a?ioe?. Oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth, yea cae?enithaaee caaaeue-

iinithci? ia?eiiaoe, cina?aaeaeoaaeiny a Oe?a?i? a ?oeao aee?ae-

oi?nueeiai ei?iono c /enea iaoe?a?ioe?a;

— iaeiiii?oiei, aea aaaaoicia/iei aeey ?icoi?iiy i?i-

oeano noaiiaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy N?N? ? oie oaeo, ui ON??

ia aoea ?i?oe?aoi?ii ooai?aiiy nithcii? aea?aeaae;

— oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy a ?iee iaio ia iaiaaeoaaeiny ca-

i?iaaaeaeaiiyi oe?a?i?caoe??, a oi?eaeiny ianaiia?aae ia?niaeoea

nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. Iaeii/ania cae?eniai-

iy iiaiai aeiiii?/iiai eo?no oa “ia’?aeiaa/iai ?ooo” ii ooai-

?aiith oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae oioae?oa?iiai oeio ae??ooaaei aea-

e?eueea i?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaeo aeey a?eueoiaee?a caaaeaiue: caaacia-

/aiiy a?aeiinii? nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino? oeyoii cai?iaaaeaeaiiy

i?eaaoieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, iaa?i-

iaaeaeaiiy o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo ?ano?n?a aeey ci?oeiaiiy iie?-

oe/ii? aeaaee, onoiaiiy iiiceoe??, iaeaaiaeaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo

a?aeiinei;

— iie?oeea ai?iiiai eiioi?cio, iai oa nioe?ae?noe/ia ?a-

eiino?oeoe?y, oi/ ? ae??ciyeeny iaoiaeaie ? oi?iaie ?aae?caoe??,

aoee nai???aeieie oacaie ?aeeiiai i?ioeano nioe?aeueii-

aeiiii?/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa;

— oi?ioaaiiy caaaeueiinithciiai ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai

i?inoi?o a?aeaoaaeiny ia oeyoii ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aecia/aiiy ?n-

ioth/eo i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ieo cii /e iaoai?/iiai aeie?ai-

eaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo iaae, a, ianaiia?aae — ca

?aooiie ia?a?iciiae?eo i?aa, iaia’yce?a, iiaiiaaaeaiue i?ae ?an-

ioae?eainueeeie oa nithcieie i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Oeae

i?ioean ca ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ?icii/aany ua o 1917 ?. ? a Oe?a?i?

o?eaaa i?ioyaii 1920-o — ia?oi? iieiaeie 30-o ??;

— aeeneon?? c ieoaiue e?oa?aoo?e, ienoaoeoaa, ina?oe ? iaoee,

ye? a?aeaoaaeeny ai?iaeiaae 20-o ??., ae??ciyeeny oi?iaie, aea

caeeoaeeny aac nooo?aeo ci?i iaoiaee nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?aae?cio;

— oe?a?i?caoe?y, ui iaea iaai? iiceoeai? iane?aeee, aoea

ea?iaaiei noni?eueii-iie?oe/iei i?ioeanii, caniaii ?ica’ycai-

iy eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue aeey oi?o?eaoe?? oa ?aeaieia?caoe?? aeooiaiiai

aeeooy a Oe?a?i? i?ney iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue oa ia-

i?anueeiai ieth?ae?cio;

— eoeueoo?ia ?aaiethoe?y, ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia nioe?ae?noe/-

iiai aoae?aieoeoaa, ia aeeiiaea an?o caaaeaiue (e?ea?aeaoe?? iaienue-

iaiiino?, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaceiooiaiiai iaa/aiiy), aea aeinya-

ea nai?? iie?oe/ii? iaoe: c?oeioaaea iniiae aeooiaiiai aeeooy,

ye? oi?ioaaeeny i?ioyaii noie?oue, cai?iaaaeeea eeania? oe?iiin-

o? nioe?ae?noe/ii? eoeueoo?e.

O aeniiaeao cacia/aii, ui aaaaoiieaiia?noue i?iaeaie

nioe?aeueiiai ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie aeiaaa? ?? ii-

aeaeueoiai aea/aiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy, a naia: c’ynoaaiiy iaoe?i-

iaeueii? naiiaooiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?-

/ieo oa aeooiaieo iniia eiai aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, aea/aiiy iaoa??-

aeueieo ao?ao Oe?a?ie ca ?iee ?nioaaiiy oioae?oa?iiai eaaeo

1920—1930-o ??., aeyaeaiiy oi?i, iaoiae?a oa ianooaa?a ?ooo

iii?o a oe?a?inueeiio nae? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o ioa-

e?eaoe?yo:

?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iiiia?ao??

1. I?iaeaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? eoeueoo?iiai ?ic-

aeoeo Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee (20-30-o? ??.

XX no.). — E.: Noeein, 1998. — 320 n.

2. Iaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo aeieo?eie “nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiin-

o?oeoe??” (ni?iaa ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iiai ia?ainieneaiiy). — E.:

?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, 1997. —110 n.

A?ioo?e, ?icae?ee a eieaeoeaieo i?aoeyo.

noaoo?, oace aeiiia?aeae

3. I.Aieiao?a ? “aieiao?aueia” (caaaaeeiaa ?noi??y iioi-

aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai “naia?aoecio”). — E.: ?inoeooo ?noi???

Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, 1997.—82 n.

4. Noaoaiianuee? o?aaeeoe?? nueiaiaei?. — E.: O-ai “Ciaiiy”

O?N?, 1985. — 48 n. (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.O.Iai?aoaeueeaneith).

5. Ina?oa, iaoea, eoeueoo?a // Ana i?i Oe?a?io: A 2 o.-E.:

Aeueoa?iaoeae, 1998 (oe?. ? aiae. iiaaie). —O. 2.—N. 243-

396 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.I.Aeaieeaieii).

6. Ae?yeuei?noue Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? ii ?icaeoeo ni?aae?oae-

iino? ?ia?oie/iai eeano a?aoi?o ?anioae?e N?N? (1926—1932

??.) // Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. — 1982. — ? 9. — N.

72-79.

7. Ceiiiie/aneia nio?oaeie/anoai Niaaoneie Oe?aeiue? n

a?aoneeie ?anioaeeeaie NNN? a aiaeue? nioeeaeenoe/aneie eiaeo-

no?eaeecaoeee // Enoi?e/nneea nayce e ae?oaeaa ia?iaeia NNN?.

— E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1983. — N. 160-165.

8. Aei 110-??//y c aeiy Ia?iaeaeaiiy I.O.Aeaaeeie?nueeiai//

Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. — 1984. — ?3.—N. 116—117.

9. A?o?ai? aeaea?aea i?i iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiee ? eoeueoo?-

iee ?icaeoie ON?? o 1920-1930-o? ?iee // A?o?ae Oe?a?ie. —

1997. — ? 1/6. — N. 46-53.

10. Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a a eiioaeno? ?aaeyinueei? iaoe?iiaeue-

ii? iie?oeee 20—30-o ?ie?a // Iai’yoee Oe?a?ie: ?noi??y oa

eoeueoo?a. — 1998.—? ?—N. 186—190.

11. Aeaye? ieoaiiy a?ae?ioa/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?

1917—1920-o ??. // A?o?aia oa a?ae?ioa/ia ni?aaa a Oe?a?i? aei-

ae aecaieueieo ciaaaiue (1917—1921 ??.): 36. iaoe. i?aoeue. — E.,

1998. — N. 88—92.

12. Eoeueoo?iee iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie ye /eiiee i?aeia?iaeii?

ae?yeueiino? // Aaiiie?oe/ia iaeaooi? Oe?a?ie: I?aeia?iaeia iao-

eiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y.—E., 1998.—-N. 109—112.

E??i oiai, ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?ei-

aaii ua 7 ?ia?o caaaeueiei ianyaii 5,2 ae?oe. a?e.

Iiaioaoueei E. I. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ? eoeueoo?i? i?i-

oeane a Oe?a?i? o eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei?

aea?aeaae (20-o? — na?aaeeia 30-o ??. XX no.) — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi-

?e/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01.-— ?noi??y Oe?a?ie.—

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

I?iaeaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeo-

eo ON?? 20-o — na?aaeeie 30-o ?ie?a aeine?aeaeothoueny o eiioaeno?

iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae. Aiae?co?oueny eiii-

eaen iaeaaaeeea?oeo ieoaiue oe??? aa?aoiieaiiai? oaie: noaiia-

eaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaaiino?, ?? iie?oeei-i?aaia?,

iiiaieeaoo?ii-ia?o?ei? aaaeae? oa eoeueoo?i? /eiieee, iaoe?i-

iaeueiee aniaeo iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee, ?ieue ? i?noea ?ioae?-

aaioe?? a “iiaiio eo?n?”, aeueoa?iaoeai? oeyoe aeiiii?/iiai ?

eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, ?noi?e/ia i?ecia/aiiy iie?oe-

ee oe?a?i?caoe??, i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeiiai “ia?iaeiiainiiaea?-

nueeiai i?inoi?o”, iniaeeaino? oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth

Oe?a?ie, eieaeoea?caoe?y n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ye can?a ?oe-

ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iniia “oe?a?inueeiai naia?aoec-

io”, nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? oa iaoe?iiaeuei? iane?aeee nioe?ae?n-

oe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe??, oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy o o?einio?? “eoeueoo?- iiai
no?eaea”, oeaio?ae?caoe?y oa oi?o?eaoe?y eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy,

i?ioean i?aaethaaiiy eoeueoo?e iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei. ?icaeyaea-

th/e iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiee, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ? eoeueoo?-

iee ?icaeoie ON?? a eiai noia?a/iinoyo, aaoi? aena?oeth? ?yae

aeeneon?eieo ieoaiue oa ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo i?iaeai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea, iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?-

aeaaia aoae?aieoeoai, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie, nioe?ae?n-

oe/ia ?aeiino?oeoe?y, eieaeoea?caoe?y n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa,

iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie, oe?a?i?caoe?y, iaoe?iiaeuei?

iaioeie, aeueoa?iaoeaiee oeyo ?icaeoeo.

Iiaioaoueei E.I. Nioeeaeueii-ceiiiie/aneea e eoeueoo?-

iue?a i?ioeannue? a Oe?aeia a eiioaenoa iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee

niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa ( 20-a — na?aaeeia 30-o aa. XX a.) — ?o-

eiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a enoi-

?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01. — Enoi?ey Oe?ae-

iu. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao ei. Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa,

1999.

I?iaeaiue? nioeeaeueii-ceiiiie/aneiai e eoeueoo?iiai ?ac-

aeoey ONN? 20-o — na?aaeeiue? 30-o aa. enneaaeothony a eiioaenoa

iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa. Aiaeece?oao-

ny eiiieaen iaeaieaa aaaeiue?o aii?inia coie iiiaiieaiiaie

oaiue?: noaiiaeaiea oe?aeineie niaaoneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, aa

iieeoeei-i?aaiaue?a, iiiaieeaoo?ii-ia?oeeiue?a ?ue?/aae e eoeue-

oo?iue?a oaeoi?ue?, iaoeeiiaeueiue?e aniaeo iiaie ceiiiie/aneie

iieeoeee, ?ieue e ianoi eioaeeeaaioeee a “iiaii eo?na”, aeueoa-

?iaoeaiue?a iooe ceiiiie/aneiai e eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey Oe?a-

eiue?, enoi?e/aneia i?aaeiacia/aiea iieeoeee oe?aeiecaoeee,

i?ioeana oi?ie?iaaiey ?aeeiiai “ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiai i?in-

o?ainoaa”, iniaaiiinoe oi?aaeaiey i?iiue?oeaiiinoueth Oe?ae-

iue?, eieeaeoeaecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa Oe?aeiue? eae n?aaeno-

ai ?ac?ooaiey nioeeaeueii-ceiiiie/aneeo iniia “oe?aeineiai

naia?aoecia”, nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneea e iaoeeiiaeueiue?a ii-
neaaenoaey nioeeaeenoe/?neie ??eiino?oeoeee, oe?aeineee aii-

?in a oeeinioee “eoeueoo?iiai nea/ea”, i?ioeana ieaaee?iaa-

iey eoeueoo?e iaoeeiiaeueiue?o iaiueoeinoa. ?anniao?eaay iaoeei-

eaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiia, nioeeaeueii-ceiiiie/aneia e eoeueoo?-

iia ?acaeoea ONN? a aai i?ioeai?a/eyo, aaoi? inaauaao ?yae

aeeneonneiiiue?o aii?inia e enoi?eia?aoe/aneeo i?iaeai.

Eeth/aaue?a neiaa: iaoeeiiaeueiay iieeoeea, iaoeeiiaeueii—

ainoaea?noaaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai, nioeeaeueii-ceiiiie/aneia ?ac-

aeoea, nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aeiino?oeoeey, eieeaeoeaecaoeey naeue-

neiai oicyenoaa, iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iia ?acaeoea, oe?aeieca-

oeey, iaoeeiiaeueiue?a iaiueoeinoaa, aeueoa?iaoeaiee iooue ?acae-

oey.

Novokhatko, L.M. Socio-Economic and Cultural Process in

Ukraine in the Context of the National Policy of the Soviet State in

the 1920’s — mid-30’s. —Manuscript.

A dissertation for a Doctor of Historical Science’s degree;

specialization 07.00.01 — History of Ukraine. — Kyiv Taras

Shevehenko University, Kyiv, 1998.

The problems of socio-economic and cultural development of

the Ukrainian SSR in the 20’s — mid-30’s are studied within the

context of national policy of the Soviet State. In the dissertation,

such most important problems of this many-sided topic are

analyzed as: the formation of the Ukrainian Soviet statehood; its

political-legal. Communist Party nomenklatura levers and cultural

factors; the national-ethnic aspect of the New Economic Policy; the

intelligentsia’s role and place in the «New Course»‘; alternative ways

of Ukraine’s economic and cultural development; a historic mission

of the policy of peculiarities of the industrial management in

Ukraine; collectivization of Ukraine’s agriculture as a tool of

distruction of socio-economic foundation of the «Ukrainian

socialism»; socio-demographic and ethic consequences of the

socialist reconstruction; the Ukrainian issue in the «Cultural Leap»

philosophy; the process of «cultural alignment» of the ethnic
minorities. While examining the contradictions of the national-

state, socio-economic and cultural development of the Ukrainian

SSR, the author sheds light upon a number of controversial issues.

Key terms: national policy, national-state development, socio-

economic development, socialist reconstruction, collectivization of

the agriculture, national-cultural development, Ukrainization,

national (ethnic) minorities, alternative way of development.

*ayiia A.A. Iniiaiia eaeae e oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaai-

iie eiiia?aoeee. Ecae-a 2-a, caiiai ia?aae, e aeie. — I.: Eieainithc,
1927; Ia-

ea?ia I.I. I?aaiecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. — I.: Ceiiiie/aneay
aeeciue,

1926; *aeeioeaa A. I. Aeeiaieea e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa (ii iaoa?eaeai
aee-

iaie/aneeo ia?aienae OeNO ca 1920—1926 aa.). — I.: Eieainithc, 1928.

Iaoe?iiaeuei? iiiaioe a ia?o?ei?i ? ?aaeyinuee?i aoae?aieoeoa?
(aeiiia?aeue E.Noae?ia ? i?iiiae oo. ?aeianueeiai. Ne?eiieea ? A?eiueea
ia XII c’?cae? ?.E.I. c ?aciethoe??th c’?caeo ii iaoe?iiaeueiiio
ieoaiith). — X.: Aeae-ai “Oeyo ina?oe”, 1923; Iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. 36. c ia?aaeiiaith X.?aeianueeiai. —X.: Aa?o, 1923.

A?eiueei A?. Ieaiiaia i?iaeaie oe?aeineie ceiiiieee // Ieaiiaia

oicyenoai. — 1926. — ?6. — N. 179—193.

Aieiao?a Ieo. Aei i?iaeaie oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee // A?eueoiaee Oe?a?-

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