OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

INOAIAIEI AeIEO?I IEAENAIAe?IAE*

OAeE 947(477):368.4

NIOe?AEUeIA NO?AOOAAIIss

I?IIENEIAEO ?IA?OIEE?A OE?A?IE

(NA?AAeEIA O?O no. — ETHOEE 1917 ?.)

07.00.01- ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia caaaeueiioi?aa?neoaonuee?e eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Eae?i?/aiei Aieiaeeie? A?eoi?iae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

O?O-ii/.OO no.

?inoeoooo ?noi??? IAI Oe?a?ie

Na?aae A?oae?e A?eai?iae/

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

i?ia?aeiee ni?a?ia?oiee

Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo

aioo??oi?o ni?aa AIN Oe?a?ie

Eieii??oeue Oaoyia Aanee?aia

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «21» n?/iy 1999 ?. i 15.00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.10 a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? (aae?ana: 310077, i.Oa?e?a, ie.Naiaiaee, 4, aoae.?V-65).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (310077, i.Oa?e?a,
ie.Naiaiaee,4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «__»_________1998?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
?.I. Ioaa/

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

Nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy — eiiieaen caoiae?a, ye? canoiniaothoueny
aea?aeaaith, ??cieie onoaiiaaie oa i?aai?caoe?yie aeey a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
iniaai iaeiaii? i?aoe?, a oaeiae /eaiai ?o ?iaeei ca?ia?oeo, ao?a/aiiai
aiane?aeie oai?iae, iauaniiai aeiaaeeo, ?iaae?aeiino?, noa?ino?, nia?o?
aiaeoaaeueieea ?iaeeie, aaa?oiino?, aac?ia?ooy. Oiiae nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy oi?io?oueny ca ?aooiie a?ioiaeo aiane?a i?aoethth/eo.

Nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy — oeie iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae o ?aieao
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy. Iiaea aooe o aeaeyae? oei/aniai? aai ?aciai?
a?ioiai? aeieaoe, iain??, aaceiooiaiiai e?eoaaiiy, ??ciiiai?oieo i?euea
oiui.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Neanoaaiiy e??iaoeoaa a ?in?? oa iiaeaeueo?
?aoi?ie aeaee iiooiao ao?oeeaiio ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee o ae?oa?e iieiaei?
O?O no. O oeae ia??iae iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ?iaeono??aeueieo ?aeii?a
noa? Oe?a?ia. Aeiiaan oa I?eaei?i?ia’y noathoue caaaeueii?in?enueeei
oeaio?ii ?icaeoeo aaaeei? i?iieneiaino?. O e?ninoaiiaeo ?aeiiao
I?aaiaa?aaeii? e E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aaeeeiai ?icaeoeo iaaoea oeoe?iaa
i?iieneia?noue. Caaaeueia /enaeuei?noue oaa?ee oa caaiae?a a
oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?yo ia i?ioyc? 60-90-o ??. ca?eueoeeanue c aeaio aei
ainueie oeny/.

A?aeiia?aeii oaeeie oaeaeeeie oaiiaie a?aeaoaaany ? c??no /enaeueiino?
i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a. Iai?ee?ioe? ieioeiai noie?ooy oey nioe?aeueia
aa?noaa a Oe?a?i? ia?aoiaoaaea o nai?o eaaao iiiaae i?eueeii /ieia?e,
a?eueoa /anoeia yeeo (aeecueei 70%) aoea caeiyoa ia iaaaee/eeo
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao.

Oaeaeeee ??no /enaeueiino? ?ia?oie/iai eeano oa eiai no?aeeiaa ai?ioueaa
i?eca?ee aei aeieeiaiiy iecee niaoeeo?/ii iia’ycaieo c iath i?iaeai, ye?
aoa ciooaiee ae??ooaaoe o?yae oea?nueei? ?in??. Iaeaaaeeea?oeie aoee —
?aaoethaaiiy o?eaaeino? ?iai/iai aeiy, iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy aeeoy/i?
oa ae?ii/i? i?aoe?, ii?yaeie ?ica’ycaiiy ni??ieo ieoaiue i?ae
i?iieneiaoeyie oa iaeiaieie ?ia?oieeaie, oiui. Na?aae oeeo i?iaeai ia ia
inoaiiueiio i?noe? noiyei ? nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a.

Iaiao?aei?noue a?oioiaiiai aea/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy o
aei?aaeyinueeee ia??iae ye ia caeiiiaeaa/iio ??ai?, oae ? eiai
canoinoaaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? aeieea? naia oaia?, eiee Oe?a?ia iiaa?ioea ia
?eieiaee oeyo ?icaeoeo. sse iieaco? i?aeoeea, noinoiee i?ae
i?aoeaaeaaoeyie oa iaeiaieie ?ia?oieeaie /anoi iaaoaathoue eiioe?eoieo
neooaoe?e. Iaei??th c i?e/ei eiioe?eo?a aenooia? e oe?ae iaaeinoaoi?
nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy o?oaeyueo o aeiaaeeao ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino?.
Ioaea, ia no/aniiio aoai? ne?ae noai?thaaoe aoaeoeaii ae?th/o nenoaio
aea?aeaaiiai nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, i?e oeueiio iaiao?aeii a?aooaaoe
aeina?ae ieioeeo iieie?iue.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe ? ae?yeuei?noue onoaiia, ui
aeeiioaaee ooieoe?? nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a
Oe?a?ie na?aaeeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.

?iaioa ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiai? i?ia?aie
caaaeueiioi?aa?neoaonueei? eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy — a?ae na?aaeeie O?O no. aei Ethoiaai?
?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee ?iaioe iaiaaeothoueny oa?eoi???th Oe?a?ie, ui
aoiaeeea ia oie /an aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia???. A
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio a?aeiioaii? ?? neeaaeaee oae? aoaa?i?? — Aieeinueea,
Ee?anueea, Iiae?euenueea, *a?i?a?anueea, Oa?e?anueea, Iieoaanueea,
Eaoa?eiineaanueea, Oa?niinueea, Oaa??enueea.

Aaoi? noaaeoue ia iao? aea/eoe oae? ieoaiiy:

oiiae i?aoe? ?ia?oiee?a o i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, a a?aeoae
iaia’yceia?noue nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy iioa?i?eeo;

oaa?e/io iaaeeoeeio ye iaeio ?c ??ciiaeae?a nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy
o?oaeyueo oiai /ano;

?aii? oi?ie caaacia/aiiy iioa?i?eeo ia ae?iaieoeoa? — aeiiiiiaa
i?iieneiaoe?a a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ii?yaeeo, noai?aiiy ieie
niaoe?aeueieo onoaiia, i?eaaoia oa aca?iia no?aooaaiiy;

iane?aeee ae?? caeiio 1903 ?. i?i ?iaeea?aeoaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
i?iieneiaoe?a ca iauani? aeiaaeee c ?o ?ia?oieeaie;

o?ae no?aoiai? eaiiai?? ia Oe?a?i? o 1912-1914 ??., ?? ?acoeueoaoe;

oa?aeoa?enoeea a?aee?eoeo ia Oe?a?i? e?ea?iyieo ean; aoaeoeai?noue ?o
?iaioe o ?iee a?eie, ni?iae ia’?aeiaiiy ean;

ie?oaei? no?aoia? oiaa?enoaa i?iieneiaoe?a o 1912 — 1916 ??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa a
?noi??ia?ao?? noai?aii ia?oo ocaaaeueithth/o i?aoeth c ?noi???
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a Oe?a?ie o ia??iae a?ae
na?aaeeie O?O no. aei ethoiai 1917 ?.

Cie?aia, c’yniaaia ?ieue oaa?e/ii? iaaeeoeeie o nioe?aeueiiio
no?aooaaii?. Aeine?aeaeaia ae?yeuei?noue onoaiia, noai?aieo
a??ie/ii?iieneiaoeyie aeey caaacia/aiiy iioa?i?eeo ia ae?iaieoeoa?,
aecia/aii ianooaae oa iaaeie?ee i?eaaoiiai no?aooaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a.
Aeacaii ia iane?aeee ae?? caeiio 1903 ?. o i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie.
Anoaiiaeaia nooi?iue o/ano? ?ia?oiee?a o no?aoia?e eaiiai?? 1912-1914
??. Aeaii caaaeueio ioe?ieo ae?th/eo o i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie e?ea?iyieo
ean o 1913 — ethoiio 1917 ??. oa i?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino?
ean ii an?e oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie o ia??iae Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie.
Aeine?aeaeaia ae?yeuei?noue Ie?oaeieo no?aoiaeo oiaa?enoa c iiiaioo ?o
aeieeiaiiy aei Ethoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? iaoeiaoeyie o
iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, i?iaeai nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy, a oaeiae i?e i?aeaioiaoe? caaaeueieo eo?n?a c a?o/eciyii?
?noi???, eo?niaeo oa aeeieiiieo ?ia?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «OO noie?ooy — noie?ooy
?aaiethoe?e» (i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997 ?.) oa eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e
75-??//th Eoaainueeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo
(i.Eoaainuee, 1997 ?.). Oaeno aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaany ia can?aeaiiyo
caaaeueiioi?aa?neoaonueei? eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe i?aeii?yaeeiaaia iao? oa iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y aoea ?ic?iaeaia ca i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iei
i?eioeeiii: anooi, /ioe?e ?icae?ee, aeniiaee oa nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e. ?icae?ee, a?aeiia?aeii aei i?iaeai, ui
?icaeyaeathoueny, ae?eyoueny ia ia?aa?aoe. Ianya oaenoo — 156 noi??iie.
Nienie aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e neeaaea?oueny c 181 iacae ia 14 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aaaeeea?noue oa aeooaeuei?noue aea/aiiy i?iaeaie,
aeaii o?iiieia?/i? oa oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee ?aaioe, aecia/aii ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii eiai iaoo, ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia
oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee aeaii? oaie, iiaea?oueny
?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ?? ai?iaaoe?th.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca» aea?oueny
oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee aeaiiai ieoaiiy oa aeaea?aeueii? aace.

?noi??th ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a
Oe?a?ie o aeiaeiaoiaaee ia??iae aaaeei a?aeianoe aei oeo i?iaeai, ye?
i?eaa?oaee aei naaa oaaao iaoeiaoe?a. ?nio? eeoa iaaaeeea e?euee?noue
?ia?o, aaciina?aaeiuei i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
o?oaeyueo o aei?aaeyinueeee ia??iae. Oiio aiae?c iaoeiaeo i?aoeue,
aaoi?e yeeo aena?oethaaee iaoo i?iaeaio, aoei cae?eniaii ca oaeeie
i?eioeeiaie: 1)aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/ai? eiie?aoii nioe?aeueiiio
no?aooaaiith; 2)?iaioe c ?ioeo oai, aaoi?e eio?eo oae /e ?iaeoa
oi?eaeeny i?iaeai nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ?ia?oiee?a.

Ii/aoie aeine?aeaeaiue ia?oi? a?oie aoei iieeaaeaii o 1896 ?., eiee o
Ieaeiueiio Iiaai?iae? aoa neeeeaiee caaaeueii?in?enueeee
oi?aiai-i?iieneiaee c’?cae. O aeaeaieo i?aoeyo c’?caeo aeyaeeinue aaaaoi
noaoae ?c aiae?cii oiai/anieo oi?i nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy o ??cieo
?aeiiao ?in??. Aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaieie c oaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeyaeeenue noaoo? A.O.Oea?aiiaa oa I.I.I?eoe?ia. O ia?o?e eaea iiaa i?i
ae?yeuei?noue aeiiii?aeieo ean, noai?aieo aaei?i?no?aoe?yie i?aei?e?inoa
aeey caaacia/aiiy o?aaiiaaieo ia ae?iaieoeoa? ?ia?oiee?a. Na?aae
inoaii?o caaaeothoueny i?aai?caoe??, noai?ai? aeanieeaie cae?ci?oaeieo
eiiaeaiue o E?eaiio ?ic? oa eaiaiy?aiue Iaeane. A.O.Oea?aiia iiieeeiai
a?aeiinea ?o aei ?ia?oie/eo ean, ia aaa/ath/e oiai oaeoo, ui any
ae?yeuei?noue ea?oaaeanue aeeeth/ii i?iieneiaoeyie, ?ia?oieee ae eeoa
niea/oaaee aianee. Noaooy I.I.I?eoe?ia aoea i?enay/aia ?icaeoeia?
i?eaaoiiai no?aooaaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao Iaeane. sse cacia/aa aaoi?,
iioe?thaaoeny aiii o oeueiio i?no? ii/eia? c ii/aoeo 90-o ??. I?e
oeueiio a?eueoa no?aooaaee nai?o ?ia?oiee?a ae??ai? i?iieneiaoe?.
Aeanieee aaeeeeo i?iieneiaeo caeeaae?a aaciina?aaeiuei niea/oaaee
eiiiainaoe?? iioa?i?eei ia ae?iaieoeoa?.

*a?ac aeae?eueea ?ie?a i?iaeiaaeeea oaio i?eaaoiiai no?aooaaiiy
?ia?oiee?a iaaaeeea ?iaioa A.A.I?anna. Oi/a ?? aaoi? ? ia ?iaeoue i?yeeo
iaaieo aeniiae?a, oe?eaaa aiia ianaiia?aae aaeeeei noaoenoe/iei
iaoa??aeii, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny o ?iaio?: iaaiaeyoueny aeai? i?i
e?euee?noue cano?aoiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a ii aoaa?i?yi, aeo?aoe ia
no?aooaaiiy i?iieneiaoe?a, i?eaooee no?aoiaeo eaiiai?e.

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. o Iaoa?ao?c? aeayeee /an aeoiaeea niaoe?ae?ciaaiee
aeo?iae «I?iiuoeaiiinoue e caei?iauea», a yeiio aaaaoi i?noey
a?aeaiaeeeinue i?iaeaiai nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy iaeiaieo ?ia?oiee?a.
Oae, o noaoo? E.Aa?oainiia ?icaeyaeaeiny noaiiaeua ?c no?aooaaiiyi
oaooa??a o Aeiiaan?. ?iaioa N.Oaoeuaaa aoea i?enay/aia ?ia?oie/ei
oiaa?enoaai aeiiiiiae, o oiio /ene? ae?th/ei a Oe?a?i?. Iaea?eueo
oe?eaaith aeyaeeanue noaooy I.E?e?ia, aea eoea iiaa i?i aeieeiaiiy oa
?icaeoie «Oiaa?enoaa aeiiiiiae a??ie/ei ?ia?oieeai I?aaeiy ?in??».
Aeine?aeiee aaaaeaa, ui i?e/eiith noai?aiiy i?aei?e?ioeyie iiae?aii?
i?aai?caoe?? aeyaeeenue «… ia aano?aeoi? i?eioeeie ni?aaaaeeeaino?, ia
o?eaio?ii?y, a aeania ei?enoue». Inoaiiy iieyaaea, ia?aaeon?i, o
iaiao?aeiino? iinoa/aiiy aoa?eueieo oaoo ?iai/ith neeith oa
iaiao?aeiino? oi/a a i?i?iaeueii caaacia/eoe /eneaiieo o?aaiiaaieo o
oe?e aaeoc?.

?iaioe i?i nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy c’yaeythoueny ? a ?ioeo ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiiyo oiai /ano. Iaei??th c ieo aeyaeeanue noaooy Eiaaeueiaa i?i
iane?aeee ae?? caeiio 1903 ?. o a??ie/?e oa a??ie/icaaiaenuee?e
i?iieneiaino? I?aaeiy. Iaaaaeai? o ?iaio? aeai? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
aeoieo i?i iaaoaeoeai?noue caeiio 1903 ?. o aeiaaeeo iacia/ieo
ae?iaie/eo o?aai. E?euee?noue io?oe?eii cana?ae/aieo oaiae ii oaeei
aeiaaeeai aeyaeyeanue i?ca?iith.

O ia?oiio aeanyoee?oo? OO no. o ia??iaee/i?e i?an? aoei ai?uaii ieceo
noaoae I.Eoioea c ?ia?oie/iai ieoaiiy, /anoeio c yeeo a?i i?enayoea
aiae?co no/aniiai eiio noaio nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy. Aeaye? c oeeo
?ia?o oa?eoee aei ca??ieea eiai i?aoeue, ui aoa aeaeaiee aaea i?ney
nia?o? aaoi?a. I.Eoioe cacia/aa, ui i?e/eiith cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?iieneiaoeyie nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy aeyaeany aenieee ??aaiue
i?iieneiaiai o?aaiaoecio. A?i i?aee?anethaaa iaaeinoaoi?noue i?eaaoiiai
no?aooaaiiy, iecueeo ye?noue iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a. Caeii
1903 ?. aaaaeaa i?e an?o eiai iaaeie?eao oe?ae iaiao?aeiei oa ei?eniei
aeey caeiyoeo o i?iieneiaino?.

Ia ii/aoeo ae?oaiai aeanyoe??//y OO no. c ae?oeo ii/eiathoue aeoiaeeoe
aaea e aaeee? i?aoe? caaaeueii?in?enueeiai oa?aeoa?o, ui noinothoueny
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy. Ii/aoie ?i iieeaea iiiia?ao?y ?.*enoyeiaa
«No?aooaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a ?in??», a ye?e ?icaeyaea?oueny, aieiaiei /eiii,
?ic?iaea no?aoiaeo caeiiii?iaeo?a a o?yaeiaeo eieao. Aaoi? cacia/a?, ui
iaei??th c i?e/ei, ye? niiioeaee aei oeeo ae?e o?yaeiaoe?a, aoee
?ia?oie/? caai?ooaiiy.

A oeae aea ia??iae c’yaeythoueny e ?iaioe I.A.A?aaei?/eea, a?aeiiiai
aeine?aeieea c i?iaeai nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ?ia?oiee?a. O 1913 ?.
aoea iioae?eiaaia eiai iniiaia i?aoey «Nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy». A i?e
?icaeyaeathoueny e ioe?iththoueny c oi/ee ci?o ei?eniino? aeey
i?aoethth/eo ??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy a ?in??
iaia?aaeiaei? caeii?a 1912 ?., a oaeiae iie?oeea ea??aieoeoaa e?a?ie
uiaei oe??? i?iaeaie. Aaoi? i?aee?aneth?, ui nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy
?ia?oiee?a ?in?? ciaoiaeeoueny ia ae?ae iecueeiio ??ai?.

Ae?yeuei?noue e?ea?iyieo ean Eaoa?eiineaaa o 1914 oa 1915 ??.
aiae?co?oueny a?aeiia?aeii o ?iaioao ?.Iai??ia oa aiii?iiiai aaoi?a. A
iaio i?aoeyo cacia/athoueny a?aei?iiino? o ooieoe?iioaaii? ae??aieo ean
oa oeo, ui ae?yee i?e ?icoaoiaaieo ooo i?aei?e?inoaao aaaeei?
?iaeono???. ?iaio? e?ea?iyieo ean Iaeane o 1914-1915 ??. oaeiae
i?enay/aia iaaaee/ea i?aoey I.A.Naoieoeueeiai.

Ioaea, o ?iaioao aei?aaeyinueeiai /ano aena?oethaaeenue eeoa iiiaeeiie?
iiiaioe, iia’ycai? c ?noi???th nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a
Oe?a?ie. I?ney AEiaoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? oey oaia ii/eia? a iniiaiiio
?icaeyaeaoenue aeine?aeieeaie ia ye nooi nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia, a ye
ianaiia?aae iie?oe/ia. Oaanue i?ioean nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy
ii/eiathoue aena?oethaaoe o?eueee /a?ac i?ecio eeaniai? ai?ioueae.
Ii/aoie oe??? oaiaeaioe?? iieeaea noaooy A.Aeiieo?iaa, o ye?e eoea iiaa
i?i ?nioaaiiy ??cieo oaeoee o no?aoia?e eaiiai?? i?ae a?eueoiaeeaie oa
iaioiaeeaie. Ia?o? aenooiaee ca ia?aoai?aiiy e?ea?iyieo ean a aeaea?aei
?aaiethoe?eii? i?iiaaaiaee, ae?oa? ?icaeyaeaee ?o eeoa ye i?aai?caoe??,
ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo iiaeia iie?aueoe noaiiaeua ?ia?oiee?a.

O na?aaeei? 20-o ??., o ca’yceo c aeanyoe??//yi no?aoiai? eaiiai?? a
e?a?i?, c ae?oeo aeeoia niaoe?aeueii i?enay/aiee oe?e iiae?? ca??iee
noaoae. Cie?aia, o ?iaio? A.?.I?aaeeaeueia iaaieiooaaeinue ia
iaiaaeaiino? on?o caeiiii?iaeo?a o?yaeo ii no?aoiaiio ieoaiith.
A.A.Aeainueeee o nai?o noaooyo, o naith /a?ao, cayaeya, ui an? ae??
o?yaeo a no?aoia?e eaiiai?? aoee iai?aaeai? ia no?eioaaiiy ?i?oe?aoeae
?ia?oiee?a. O oie aea /an a?i aeciaaaa iayai?noue na?aae inoaii?o
neeueieo aieeioenonueeeo iano?i?a.

I?ney oeueiai ca??ieea aae aei na?aaeeie 50-o ??. aeine?aeaeaiiy ii
?noi??? nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ia i?iaiaeeeenue.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiiaeeenue o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 50-o ?ie?a, i?e oeueiio
iniiaiith oaiith, ui oe?eaaeea iaoeiaoe?a, aeyaeeanue iie?oe/ia
ai?ioueaa o ?ia?oie/iio na?aaeiaeu? i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy no?aoiai?
eaiiai?? ia Oe?a?i?. Naia oe?e i?iaeai? i?enay/ai? ?iaioe E.?.Aieyniiai
oa A.A.Oa?aoooae?iiaa. Iaeaeaa aaoi?e caiaaeoi ia?aa?eueoothoue nooi?iue
i?aai?ciaaiino? ?ia?oiee?a Oe?a?ie oa aieea a?eueoiaee?a ia i?iaaaeaiiy
no?aoiai? eaiiai??.

Iai?ee?ioe? 60-o ??. aei oeo aea aeniiae?a noiniaii no?aoiai? eaiiai??
?ia?oiee?a Oe?a?ie i?eeoia I.?.I?eeiaiei. Eiio ae iaeaaeeoue ? ie?aia
iiiia?ao?y i?i eaaaeuei? i?aai?caoe?? ?ia?oiee?a I?aaeiy ?in??, na?aae
yeeo caaaeothoueny ? no?aoia? onoaiiae. Oa o i?e oaeiae aeine?aeiee
caeaa?eueoiai aena?oeth? iie?oe/io ai?ioueao a oeeo ?ia?oie/eo
i?aai?caoe?yo, aeacoth/e, ui aiie «…aeyaeeenue iai?/ieie o ae??oaii?
iniiaieo ieoaiue nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy».

Aeae?eueea ??ciiieaiiaeo iaaaee/eeo ca ianyaii ?ia?o a?aeiinii
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ?ia?oiee?a Oe?a?ie oa ?in?? c’yaeythoueny o
60-o — ia ii/aoeo 70-o ??. Na?aae inoaii?o ne?ae aeae?eeoe ?iaioe
E.I.?aaiiaa, a yeeo aac yaiiai ?aeaieia?/iiai i?aeoaenoo ?icaeyiooi
caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe?? ?noi??? no?aooaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a oea?nueei? ?in??.

?iaioaie oeueiai aaoi?a, oaeoe/ii, ae/a?iothoueny a?eueo-iaio na?eici?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?oi? a?oie, ye? aoee aeei?enoai? o aeena?oaoe??.

I?aoe?, ui iiaeia a?aeianoe aei ae?oai? a?oie, oaeiae ii/eiathoue
c’yaeyoeny aaea iai?ee?ioe? O?O no.

Oae, naia o oeae ia??iae c’yaeythoueny ia?o? ?iaioe ii ?noi??? a??ie/i?
i?iieneiaino? Aeiiaano oa I?eaei?i?ia’y, aea ie??i ?ioiai caaaeo?oueny
ae?yeuei?noue caaiaenueeeo oa ?oaeie/ieo iaaee/ieo caeeaae?a.

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. N.I.I?ieiiiae/ noai?ea i?aoeth i?i eiiia?aoeaiee ?oo
na?aae ?ia?oiee?a ?in??, a ye?e eoea iiaa ? i?i eane aca?iiaeiiiiiae. Ca
aeaieie aaoi?a iiae?ai? onoaiiae a Oe?a?i? aoee ae?ae ia/enaeuei? e
a?eueoa ?o /anoeia iaea iaiaaeai? o?iainia? iiaeeeaino?.

I?ae /an a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie o aeaeaieo i?aoeyo Ee?anueeiai
aoaa?inueeiai noaoenoe/iiai ath?i aeyaeeanue ai?uaiith ?iaioa
A.I.*i?iiai «Iaoa??aee ii ?ia?oie/iio ieoaiith oa i?iieneiaino? i. Ee?aa
(1914-1917 ??.)». Niaoe?aeueiee ?icae?e «Iaoa??ae?a…» i?eae?eyany aeey
?icaeyaeo ae?th/eo o Ee?a? e?ea?iyieo ean ia iniia? ?o ca?o?a ca ?iee
a?eie. Aaoi? i?aee?aneth? aaaeeeao ?ieue e?ea?iyieo ean o nioe?aeueiiio
no?aooaaii?, cacia/a? ia oo?oaeiaiiy ?o ?iaioe o ai?iiee /an.

O 20-o ?ieao ieoaiiy nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy iia?/ii aena?oethaaeenue
o aeine?aeaeaiiyo I.Aaeaaaiiaa oa E.A.Iaaeeoiiaa, iia’ycaieo c
caaaeueieie i?iaeaiaie noaiiaeua ?ia?oiee?a o aeiaeiaoiaaee ia??iae.
Iaeaeaa aaoi?e cacia/athoue, ui ae??oaiiyi i?iaeai nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy a o?yaeiaeo eieao ii/eiathoue caeiaoeny ua c na?aaeeie O?O
no.

I?i noai?aiiy oa ae?yeuei?noue «Oiaa?enoaa aeiiiiiae a??ie/ei ?ia?oieeai
I?aaeiy ?in??» eaeaoueny o ae?oaiio oii? «?noi??? a??ie/i? oa
a??ie/icaaiaenueei? i?iieneiaino? I?aaeiy ?in??», iaienaii? I.?.Oii?iei.
I.?.Oii?i aaaaea? «Oiaa?enoai…» /enoi o?eaio?ii?/iith onoaiiaith, yea
i?eiineea iacia/io ei?enoue ?ia?oieeai.

I?ney 20-o ??. aeayeee /an ieoaiiy nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a
o aeine?aeaeaiiyo ia ?icaeyaeaeeny. Ciiao ii/eiathoue i?eaa?oaoe aiie
oaaao iaoeiaoe?a c e?ioey 40-o ??. Naia o oeae /an aeeoea c ae?oeo ia?oa
/anoeia aaeeei? i?aoe? ?.?.Oaeeiaa?ia, yea noinoaaeanue ?icaeoeo
caeiiiaeaanoaa c ?ia?oie/iai ieoaiiy o ?in?? o 1861-1917 ??., o oiio
/eneu ii i?iaeaiai nioeuaeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ?iauoieeua.

Noiaeeie ca oaiaoeeith ?ia?o ?.?.Oae?iaa?ia aeyaeeenue o a?eueo i?ci?e
ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiiy A.ss.Eaaa?e/aaa, A.O.Aia/eea, A.ss.Aa?aoa.

Ieoaiiy nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a o iaai?e i??? ii?oooaaeenue
? a ?yae? aeine?aeaeaiue ii ?noi??? ?ia?oie/iai eeano Oe?a?ie ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. Cie?aia, O.?.Einue o nai?e ?iaio?,
aiae?coth/e ?ici??e oa ii?yaeie iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae o?aaiiaaiei
?ia?oieeai c aieo i?aei?e?ioe?a aei 1904 ?., i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo,
ui inoaii? «…cian?i ia aeyaeyee oo?aioe noiniaii iioa?i?eeo, caeeoay
?o iai?ecaieyua».

Iiiia?ao?y I.A.Ia?anoiueei, ui ioiiethaaea ia??iae 60-90-o ??. O?O no.,
i?noeea a nia? ei?ioe? iia?aeiieaiiy e?eoe/iiai ci?noo ii «Oiaa?enoao
aeiiiiiae a??ie/ei ?ia?oieeai I?aaeiy ?in??» oa i?eaaoiiio no?aooaaiith.
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe caaiaenueeeo e?ea?aiue aaoi? oaeiae ciaeueiao?
iaaaoeaii, iia?oth/e aeaieie ca?o?a oaa?e/ieo ?iniaeoi??a na?aaeeie 80-o
??. O?O no.

Iaaaoeaii ioe?ith?oueny noai ?c nioe?aeueiei caaacia/aiiyi ?ia?oiee?a o
aeiaeiaoiaaee /an o aeine?aeaeaiiyo TH.I.Eaa?iaa oa TH.?.Ee?’yiiaa oa o
ia?oiio oii? «?noi??? ?ia?oie/iai eeano Oe?a?inueei? ?N?».

Oaeei /eiii, i?aeaiaey/e i?aenoiie aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e ii nioe?aeueiiio
no?aooaaiith ?ia?oiee?a Oe?a?ie aeiaeiaoiaaiai ia??iaeo, ne?ae aeciaoe
a?aenooi?noue caaaeueieo ?ia?o ii oe?e oai?. A ?nioth/eo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
?icaeyaeaeeny eeoa ie?ai? aniaeoe nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy. ?yae oeeo
ieoaiue iio?aao? aeiaeaoeiaiai aea/aiiy. O oiio /ene?, ?noi??y onoaiia,
noai?aieo i?iieneiaoeyie aeey nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ?ia?oiee?a,
no?aoiaa eaiiai?y 1912 — 1914 ??., ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?ea?iyieo ean o
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie a ia??iae Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie.

O naith /a?ao aaaaoi i?iaeai oaeoe/ii cian?i aeiaaeaei c iiey ci?o
iaoeiaoe?a. Na?aae ieo caaaeueiee ?icaeyae ?inoeoooo oaa?e/ii?
iaaeeoeeie, iane?aeee ae?? caeiio 1903 ?., ?iaioa «Oiaa?enoaa aeiiiiiae
?ia?oieeai eai’yiieiiaiue Iaeane», ae?yeuei?noue Ie?oaeieo no?aoiaeo
oiaa?enoa. Ana oea o eiiieaen? aeiaaa? i?iaaaeaiiy a?oioiaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aeai?e oai?.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/a? ??ciiiai?oi? aeaee aeieoiaio?a
? iaoa??ae?a.

1. Aaaeeeaa aeaea?aei aeey aea/aiiy ?noi??? nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy —
caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe oa iaoa??aee aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee. Caeiie oa iinoaiiae
o?yaeo i?noyoueny o aaaaoioiiiiio ca??ieeo caeii?a ?in?enueei? ?iia???.
Aeiyoeii ? oaeno caeii?a 1912 ?., yeee aoa aeei?enoaiee c aeiaeaoeiaiai
aeaeaiiy. Oe? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe ?aaoethaaee aeieeiaiiy oa ni?yioaaiiy
?iaioe onoaiia, ye? caeiaeeny nioe?aeueiei no?aooaaiiyi ?ia?oiee?a.
Noaiia?ao?/i? ca?oe ??? Aea?aeaaii? Aeoie, aea iaaiai?thaaeenue no?aoia?
caeiiii?iaeoe, ae?oeoaaeeny iaeii/anii c ae?yeuei?noth oeueiai i?aaio
iai?ee?ioe? 1900-o — ii/aoeo 1910 ??. Caaaeyee ca?oai iiaeia e?aua
c?icoi?oe nooue no?aoiaeo caeii?a 1912 ?., aeae?eeoe iiceoe?? oa
a?aeiioaiiy aei oeeo aea?aeaaieo aeo?a ye ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee, oae ?
??cieo eean?a noni?euenoaa.

2. Ae?oao a?oio neeaaeathoue, a iniiaiiio, aeaeai? ca??ieee oa
aeieoiaioe ii ?noi??? ?ia?oie/iai ?ooo ia Oe?a?i? oa ?in??. Ai?uai? o
ieo aeaye? a?aeiiino? ciaeueiaothoue, uii?aaaea, eeoa o iaaaoeaiiio
ieai?, ae?yeuei?noue caaiaenueeeo e?ea?aiue oa onoaiia nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy, iiaeathoue aeai? i?i aeiiae ?ia?oiee?a uiaei iie?ioaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, aeacai? i?ae /an caai?ooaiue e o eeno?aeao
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a.

3. Oe?iiei aeaea?aeii ? noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee. Oae, aeai? i?i iiyao oa
ae?yeuei?noue oaa?e/ieo e?ea?aiue e ?ia?oie/eo oiaa?enoa aca?iiaeiiiiiae
ia Oe?a?i? aoiaeyoue aei ca??ieea «Aeaaiae?ei? i?aai?caoe?? ?in?enueei?
?iia???».

Aaeeea cia/aiiy iathoue aeiouai? oaa?e/iith ?iniaeoe??th o 1897?. oa
1907?. noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee a?aeiinii e?ea?iyii? aeiiiiiae ?ia?oieeai
ia i?aei?e?inoaao, ui i?aeiaaeaee i?ae ?? iaaeyae. A ieo aeaoaeueii
c’yniao?oueny ii aoaa?i?yi e?euee?noue i?aoethth/eo a caeaaeiino? a?ae
ianooaa?a i?iieneiaiai caeeaaeo, oi?ia iaaeaiiy ia eiaeiiio iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae oa ?? ye?noue, aeo?aoe i?iieneiaoe?a.

?icaeoie aaaeei? i?iieneiaino? ia Oe?a?i? o?enothoue noaoenoe/i?
aeia?aeieee ?aaee c’?cae?a a??ie/ii?iieneiaoe?a I?aaeiy ?in??. Na?aae
iaaaaeaieo aeaieo ? a?aeiiino? i?i ianooaae i?eaaoiiai no?aooaaiiy ia
i?aei?e?inoaao eai’yiiaoa?eueii? oa iaoaeo?a?eii? i?iieneiaino?, /enei
?ia?oiee?a, ioiieaieo oaeei oeiii nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, noie
aiane?a i?aei?e?ioe?a aei no?aoiaeo eaiiai?e. Oaeiae o aeia?aeieeao
ai?uai? iaoa??aee uiaei ae?yeueiino? ?oaeie/ieo oa caaiaenueeeo
e?ea?aiue.

O aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae aoee aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee c? «Ca??ieea
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo ii Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e aoaa?i?? ca 1886 ?.», aea
caaaeothoueny oiiae i?aoe? ia ae?iaieoeoa? o aaaee?e i?iieneiaino? e
ae?yeuei?noue ?icoaoiaaieo oai iaaee/ieo caeeaae?a.

Aecia/eoe caaaeueiee ??aaiue o?aaiaoecio ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao
Oe?a?ie e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. aeiiii?a ?yae niaoe?aeueieo
ca??iee?a ii noaoenoeoe? iauanieo aeiaaee?a o oaa?e/i?e oa
a??ie/icaaiaenuee?e i?iieneiaino?.

4. Aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy
iathoue ca?oe onoaiia, ye? aeeiioaaee ooieoe?? nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy ?ia?oiee?a.

Ca?oe ?yaeo e?ea?iyieo ean oa Ie?oaeieo no?aoiaeo oiaa?enoa aeathoue
ciiao ooai?eoe ?aaeueio ea?oeio ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ia Oe?a?i? o ?iee Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie. Ia
iniia? aiae?co iiae?aieo aeieoiaio?a iiaeeeai aeyaeoe iniiai? iaaeie?ee
oa iiceoeai? iiiaioe o ae?yeueiino? oeeo onoaiia.

Ie?aii o?aaa aeae?eeoe ca?oe Oiaa?enoa aca?iiaeiiiiiae, noai?aieo
aeania ?ia?oieeaie iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no. Ca ?o aeaieo
aecia/athoueny ianooaai?noue iiae?aieo oiaa?enoa, ?o o?iainia?
iiaeeeaino?, ia?ae?e aeiaaee?a ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino?, ca yeei
iaaeaaaeanue aeiiiiiaa ?o /eaiai.

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. o i?aoeyo c’?cae?a a??ie/ii?iieneiaoe?a I?aaeiy ?in??
ii/aee ae?oeoaaoeny ui??/i? ca?oe «Oiaa?enoaa aeiiiiiae a??ie/ei
?ia?oieeai I?aaeiy ?in??» c iaaaaeaiiyi aeaieo ca iiia?aaei? ?iee
ae?yeueiino?. Aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo iaoa??ae?a aea? ni?iiiaei?noue
a?aeoai?eoe neooaoe?th uiaei ei?eno? o ?? ?nioaaii? aeey iioa?i?eeo ia
ae?iaieoeoa? ?ia?oiee?a. Aei oe??? ae a?oie a?aeiinyoueny oaeiae ca?oe
io?oe?eieo onoaiia — oaa?e/ii? ?iniaeoe?? oa a??ie/iai iaaeyaeo. Ai?uai?
a ieo iaoa??aee oi?eathoueny aaaaoueio iiiaio?a, iia’ycaieo ? c
nioe?aeueiei no?aooaaiiyi, ? c caaaeueiei noaiiaeuai i?ieaoa??aoo
Oe?a?ie.

5. Na?aae iioae?eiaaieo iaoa??ae?a c’?cae?a ??cieo noni?eueieo
i?aai?caoe?e ianaiia?aae ne?ae aeae?eeoe i?aoe? /eneaiieo c’?cae?a
a??ie/ii?iieneiaoe?a I?aaeiy ?in??. Oe?ii?noue ?o iieyaa? aieiaiei /eiii
o oiio, ui aiie ? iniiaiei aeaea?aeii aeey aena?oeaiiy ?noi???
«Oiaa?enoaa aeiiiiiae a??ie/ei ?ia?oieeai I?aaeiy ?in??». I?aoe?
c’?cae?a aeicaieythoue c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy «Oiaa?enoaa…»,
ni?iae i?iieneiaoe?a eiai ?aoi?ioaaoe, oiiae oa aoaeoeai?noue eiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Iaai? iia?aeiieaiiy i?i ?iaioo caaiaenueeeo e?ea?iyieo caeeaae?a ia
I?aaei? i?noyoueny o aeaeaieo i?aoeyo c’?cae?a a??ie/icaaiaenueeeo
oaa?e/ieo oa ?oaeie/ieo e?ea??a.

6. *?eueia i?noea o aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? caeiathoue aeei?enoai?
a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe, a iniiaiiio c ?in?enueeiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai
a?o?ao o Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c?. Oae, iaoa??aee, ye? a?aeiinyoueny aei
oaa?e/ii? i?iieneiaino?, caa??aathoueny o oiiae? I?i?noa?noaa Oi?a?ae?
oa i?iieneiaino? (o.23). Iaea?eueoo oaaao aeeeeeathoue a?aeiiino? i?i
o?ae a?aee?eooy e?ea?iyieo ean ii aoaa?i?yo o i?iieneiaino? ca
1913-1916??.(ii.16. ni?.96), ?aii?oe c i?noeue oaa?e/ieo ?iniaeoi??a i?i
o?ae no?aoiai? eaiiai?? 1912-1914 ??., o/anoue o i?e ?ia?oiee?a (ii.16.
ni?.108, 311; ii.29. ni?.46, 49, 58, 70), iaoa??aee ia?aa??ee
ae?yeueiino? Ie?oaeieo no?aoiaeo oiaa?enoa (ii.29. ni?.87), ?iaioe
e?ea?iyieo ean (ii.29. ni?.58). O naith /a?ao aeieoiaioe, c?a?ai? ii
a??ie/?e oa a??ie/icaaiaenuee?e i?iieneiaino?, ciaoiaeyoueny o oiiae?
A??ie/iai Aeaia?oaiaioo I?i?noa?noaa Oi?a?ae? oa I?iieneiaino? (o.37).
Na?aae ieo o ?iaio? aoee aeei?enoai? a?aeiiino? c aaeeei? ca ianyaii
?iaioe o?yaeiai? eii?n?? A.Ooioa, iai?aaeaii? iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. aeey
ianoaaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoa I?aaeiy (ii.58. ni?.299). O oeueiio aeieoiaio?
ciaoiaeyoueny iia?aeiieaiiy i?i ae?yeuei?noue caaiaenueeeo iaaee/ieo
caeeaae?a oa i?i caaacia/aiiy iioa?i?eeo ia ae?iaieoeoa? c aieo
i?aei?e?ioe?a. Oaeiae o oeueiio oiiae? i?noyoueny iaoa??aee oa ca?oe
Oiaa?enoa, ye? noai?thaaee i?iieneiaoe? aeey nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
?ia?oiee?a (ii.58. ni?.4, 25, 78, 379, 552).

Ie?ai? aeai? aoee aeei?enoai? c oiiae?a Oa?e?anueeiai (o.749, 923) oa
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai (o.11) iaeanieo aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a.

7. Aeaeaiiy ia??iaee/ii? i?ane i?aaenoaaeai? aieiaiei /eiii
niaoe?ae?ciaaieie no?aoiaeie aeo?iaeaie. Iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO
no. uii?ny/ii aeoiaeea aeo?iae «No?aoiaia iaic?aiea», ui aoa i?enay/aiee
caaaeueiei no?aoiaei ieoaiiyi o ?in?? oa ca ?? iaaeaie. C na?aaeeie
1900-o ??. a?i ?aaoey?ii ii/aa ae?oeoaaoe iaoa??aee, ye? a?aeiineeenue
aei ae?yeueiino? Oiaa?enoa aca?iiiai no?aooaaiiy i?iieneiaoe?a ii
iauanieo aeiaaeeao c ?o ?ia?oieeaie. «Aii?inu no?aoiaaiey» oa
«No?aoiaaiea ?aai/eo» aeaeaaaeenue o 1913-1917 ??. a?aeiia?aeii
a?eueoiaeoeueeei oa iaioiaeoeueeei oa?oioaaiiyie ?NAe?I. Iaeaeaa
aeo?iaee aena?oethaaee aieiaiei /eiii iiae?? no?aoiai? eaiiai?? oa
iiiaioe iianyeaeaiii? ?iaioe e?ea?iyieo ean. Caaaeyee oeei aeaeaiiyi ?
ciiaa c’ynoaaoe iiceoe?th ?ia?oiee?a o no?aoia?e eaiiai??, ?o o/anoue o
?iaio? e?ea?iyieo ean, aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe inoaii?o, oiui.

Oaeiae i?ae /an no?aoiai? eaiiai?? 1912-1914 ??. ii/aee aeoiaeeoe
«Ecaanoey Niaaoa ii aeaeai no?aoiaaiey ?aai/eo», ye? i?noeee a nia?
io?oe?ei? ?ic’yniaiiy, ?ino?oeoe??, aeiiiaiaiiy aei no?aoiaeo caeii?a
1912 ?.

Aeiiii?aeiee oa?aeoa? uiaei a?aeiioaiiy ?ia?oiee?a Oe?a?ie aei caeii?a
1912 ?. iathoue iia?aeiieaiiy, ui ciaoiaeeeenue a ?ioeo aeaeaiiyo [83,
87].

Oaeei /eiii, aeaea?aeueia aaca aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aeinoaoiueith ? aeinoia??iith, ui aeicaieeei aena?oeeoe ?noi??th
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a Oe?a?ie o aeiaeiaoiaaee
ia??iae.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? — «Ia?a?ni? oi?ie caaacia/aiiy ?ia?oiee?a»-
neeaaea?oueny c 6 ia?aa?ao?a.

O ia?oiio c ieo — «Oiiae i?aoe? o i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie» — aiae?co?oueny
nooi?iue oe?aeeeaino? oa iaaaciaee ae?iaieoeoaa aeey caei?ia’y oa aeeooy
iaeiaiiai ?ia?oieea. Ia iniia? o ia?oo /a?ao aeaieo oaa?e/ii?
?iniaeoe??, a??ie/iai iaaeyaeo, cainueeeo noaoenoee?a c’yniao?oueny, ui
??aaiue o?aaiaoecio o i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ii/aoeo OO
no. aoa aenieei. E?euee?noue iauanieo aeiaaee?a ii i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoaao oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?e eeoa ca ia??iae 1904-1906 ??.
neeaea aaee/acia /enei o 200 oeny/, c yeeo 85% i?eiaaeaei ia
iaoaeo?a?eio oa aeaeiaoaio aaeoc?. sseui ni?anoaaeoe oe? aeai? c
caaaeueiei /eneii caeiyoeo o i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie o cacia/aiee oa?i?i,
oi aeyaey?oueny, ui ae?iaie/? o?aaie ui??/ii caaaeaaaee oeiaee
caei?ia’th eiaeiiio o?aoueiio ?ia?oieeia?. Oaeei /eiii, uia oaea aaeeea
e?euee?noue iioa?i?eeo, ui ao?aoeee aai iiai?noth, aai /anoeiai caniae
?nioaaiiy, ia i?ecaiaeeea aei nioe?aeueieo caai?ooaiue, ? ia?aae
o?yaeii, ? ia?aae i?iieneiaoeyie aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? — «?ic?iaea ia?oeo no?aoiaeo caeiiii?iaeo?a» —
?icaeyaeathoueny ??ciiiai?oi? aa??aioe caeiiii?iaeo?a ii no?aoiaiio
ieoaiith, ye? ?nioaaee a o?yaeiaeo eieao o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no.
A?aecia/a?oueny, ui eeoa i?ae oeneii c?inoath/i? oaee? ?ia?oie/eo
caai?ooaiue o?yae ni?ii?any aeaeaoe o 1903 ?. caeii, ca yeei aaiaeeeanue
?iaeea?aeoaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?iieneiaoe?a ca iauani? aeiaaeee
c ?o ?ia?oieeaie. Ae?y caeiio iioe?thaaeanue ia an? i?aei?e?inoaa
oaa?e/ii?, a??ie/i? oa a??ie/icaaiaenueei? i?iieneiaino?.

O?ao?e ia?aa?ao — «Aeieeiaiiy oaa?e/ii? iaaeeoeeie» — i?enay/aiee
?noi??? iiyae oa ?icaeoeia? caeeaae?a caaiaenueei? iaaeeoeeie o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O no. Oe? caeeaaee aeyaeeenue oaeoe/ii ia?oeie onoaiiaaie
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a. A iaia’ycee caeeaae?a
oaa?e/ii? iaaeeoeeie aoiaeeei iaaeaiiy aaceiooiaii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae
o?aaiiaaiei oa oai?ei ?ia?oieeai. Aeieeaoe e?ea?i? ii/eiathoue c
na?aaeeie O?Ono. nii/aoeo ca ?i?oe?aoeae i?iieneiaoe?a, aea caiaeii c
90-o ??. o?yae aeaeaa ?ino?oeoe?? uiaei ii?i iaaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
?ia?oiee?a. Iai?ee?ioe? noie?ooy iaaee/iei ianeoaiaoaaiiyi aoei ioiieaii
a?eueo?noue i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a, a iniiaiiio caeiyoeo ia aaeeeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao. Iaeiae ye?noue iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy aoea iecueeith.

*aoaa?oee ia?aa?ao — «No?aoia? i?aai?caoe?? i?iieneiaoe?a» — aena?oeth?
ae?yeuei?noue caeeaae?a, niaoe?aeueii noai?aieo i?aei?e?ioeyie aeey
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy iioa?i?eeo ia ae?iaieoeoa?. Iiae?ai? caeeaaee
aeieeee o aeaeiaoaieo aaeocyo, aea e?euee?noue o?aaiiaaieo iinoaaaea
iaea?eueoith. Na?aae ieo aoee: «Oiaa?enoai aeiiiiiae a??ie/ei ?ia?oieeai
I?aaeiy ?in??» (aeieeei o 1884 ?.), «Oiaa?enoai aeiiiiiae ?ia?oieeai
eai’yiieiiaiue Iaeane» (1886 ?.) oa «Eane aeiiiiiae ?ia?oieeai caaiae?a
e?eai??cueeeo cae?ci?oaeieo eiiaeaiue» (1890 ?.).

Iaea?eueo cia/iith c oeeo onoaiia aoea, aacia?a/ii, ia?oa, yea
ia’?aeioaaea o nai?o eaaao a?eueo?noue oaooiaeaniee?a Aeiiaano, yea
ae?yea a 1884 — 1917 ?. Iaeiae aeiiiiiaa iioa?i?eei iaaeaaaeanue aeaeaei
ia o eiaeiiio aeiaaeeo eae?oeoaa ia ae?iaieoeoa?, ii?yaeie oa ?ici??e ??
iaea?aeaiiy caeaaeaee aeeeth/ii a?ae i?aae?iiy oiaa?enoaa.

O i’yoiio ia?aa?ao? — «I?eaaoia no?aooaaiiy oa o?yaeiaa aeiiiiiaa
?ia?oieeai» — c’yniao?oueny ?ieue inoaii?o o nioe?aeueiiio no?aooaaii?
?ia?oiee?a e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.

Nooue i?eaaoiiai no?aooaaiiy iieyaaea o oiio, ui aeaniee i?iieneiaiai
caeeaaeo a?ae?aoiaoaaa iaaio noio a?ioae i?eaaoi?e no?aoia?e eaiiai?? e
oaeei /eiii ia?aeeaaeaa c naaa ia no?aoiaee caeeaae a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ca aeiaai?iaeo iioa?i?eeo ia ae?iaieoeoa?, inoaii? oaia? aaea aenoaaee
iicia ia aei i?aei?e?ioey, a aei no?aoiai? eaiiai??.

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. aeecueei 22% i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a aoee cano?aoiaai?
o i?eaaoieo no?aoiaeo eaiiai?yo. ?ici??e eiiiainaoe?e iioa?i?eei c aieo
no?aoiaeo eaiiai?e ??aeei eiee ia?aaeuoaaee aeae?eueea aeanyoe?a
ea?aiaaioe?a.

Oaea noaaeaiiy no?aoiaeo eaiiai?e aei iioa?i?eeo iiynith?oueny aeineoue
eaaei. Inoaii? yaeyee niaith /enoi eiia?oe?ei? onoaiiae, ye? i?aoethaaee
aieiaiei /eiii ca?aaee aeaniiai i?eaooeo, nei?i/oth/e i?e eiaei?e
iaaiae? aeo?aoe, iia’ycai? c eiiiainaoe?yie ?ia?oieeai.

?ia?oieee i?iieneiaeo caeeaae?a ei?enooaaeeny oaeiae i?aaii io?eiaiiy
aeiiiiiae c? oo?aoiiai eai?oaeo oa caaaeueii?iia?nueeiai oiiaeo, aea
?ici??e ?? aoee i?i?iaeueieie.

O oinoiio ia?aa?ao? — «?ia?oie/? eane aca?iiaeiiiiiae» — aeiaiaeeoueny
ui oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia Oe?a?i? oiaa?enoaa aca?iiaeiiiiiae ia
io?eiaee. Ia caaiae? noaee aeaa nooo?a? /eiieee. Ianaiia?aae, iecueea
i?aai?ciaai?noue oa na?aeii?noue ?ia?oiee?a oiai /ano. Iino?ei? eaae?e
iaeiaieo ?ia?oiee?a o?eueee neeaaeaeeny. O?yae oaeiae ia iini?oaa
caioi/oaaoe i?aoethth/eo ia i?iieneiaeo caeeaaeao noai?thaaoe iiae?ai?
oiaa?enoaa, iioaioe?eii aeaa/ath/e o eiaei?e oae?e onoaiia? aeaea?aei
?aaiethoe?eii? aa?oaoe??.

Oiio ia ii/aoie OO no. a oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?yo ae?yei eeoa 11, a
iniiaiiio iaaaee/eeo, ?ia?oie/eo ean aca?iiaeiiiiiae.

O?ao?e ?icae?e — «Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ?ia?oiee?a (1905-1914 ??.)» — i?noeoue /ioe?e
ia?aa?aoe.

O ia?oiio c ieo — «Aaaaeaiiy o ae?th caeiio i?i ?iaeea?aeoaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?iieneiaoe?a ca iauani? aeiaaeee c ?o ?ia?oieeaie»
— iaaieioo?oueny, ui caeii 1903 ?., i?eeiyoee i?ae oeneii ?ia?oie/iai
?ooo, ia?aoo? iieeaa e?ae ?ic??ciaiei oa iaeiaoaeoeaiei caoiaeai ii
nioe?aeueiiio no?aooaaii? ?ia?oiee?a. A?i caii/aoeoaaa noai?aiiy ?aeeii?
nenoaie oa caaaeueieo i?aaee uiaei iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
iioa?i?eeo ia ae?iaieoeoa?.

Aaea ca ia?o? ?iee ae?? caeiio iii?/a?oueny ca?eueoaiiy o?iainiaeo
aeo?ao i?aei?e?ioe?a Oe?a?ie aeey nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy o?aaiiaaieo
ia ae?iaieoeoa?, iniaeeai oea noinoaaeinue a??ie/i? oa iaoaeo?a?eii?
i?iieneiaino?. Caaaeuei? aeieaoe inoaii?o eeoa ca ia??iae 1904-1906 ??.
noaiiaeee (?acii c aeieaoaie no?aoiaeo eaiiai?e, yeui ?ia?oieee oai aoee
cano?aoiaai?, oa ?icoiaeaie ia e?eoaaiiy o?aaiiaaieo) aeecueei 7,5 iei.
e?a., ii oaa?e/ii-caaiaenuee?e — 1 iei. e?a. Oaea ??cieoey o aeieaoao
iiynithaaeanue ??ciei ??aiai o?aaiaoecio. ?acii c oei o aeiaaeeao
iacia/ieo o?aaiaoe/ieo iioeiaeaeaiue caeii ia i?aeoeoe? aeyaeany
iaaoaeoeaiei ? ?ia?oieee o oaeeo aeiaaeeao ia iaea?aeoaaee iaeaaeii?
eiiiainaoe??.

I?ae aieeaii caeiio aeaye? a?oie i?iieneiaoe?a Oe?a?ie ia’?aeioaaeenue o
Oiaa?enoaa aca?iiiai no?aooaaiiy a?ae iauanieo aeiaaee?a. Oaeei /eiii
aiie iicaaaeyee naaa ?eceeo nieaoe ?aciaeo cia/ieo noi iieae?/aiei ia
ae?iaieoeoa?, cai?ithth/e ?o iaaenieeie iino?eieie aianeaie o
Oiaa?enoai. A Oe?a?i? aea? iacaai? i?aai?caoe?? ae?yee o Ee?a?, iaeia a
Iaean?. Caaaeii, ia ii/aoeo 1910-o ??. ia oe? onoaiiae i?eiaaeaei
aeecueei o?aoeie on?o io?oe?eii ca?a?no?iaaieo aeo?ao i?iieneiaoe?a ii
caaacia/aiith o?aaiiaaieo o oaa?e/ii-caaiaenuee?e i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? — «Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy
ia ae?iaieoeoa?» — iaaieioo?oueny ia iioe?aii? o na?aaeiaeu?
i?iieneiaoe?a i?ae aieeaii ?aaiethoe?? 1905-1907 ??. i?aeoeee nieaoe
/anoeie ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ?ia?oieeia? i?ae /an oai?iae.

Oaeiae o ii??aiyii? c e?ioeai O?O no. o cacia/aiee ia??iae aeaui
i?aeaeueany a?aenioie (c 71% aei 83%) i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a, ui iaee
ciiao ei?enooaaoeny iineoaaie oaa?e/ii? iaaeeoeeie. Inoaiiy
i?iaeiaaeoaaea ?nioaaoe aeeeth/ii i?ae oi?aae?iiyi i?iieneiaoe?a e ia ?o
eiooe. Uiaei yeino? iaaee/ieo iineoa, oi aiia ?noioii ia ci?ieeanue.
Eeoa aeecueei iieiaeie ?ia?oiee?a o oaa?e/ii-caaiaenuee?e i?iieneiaino?
i?aoethaaee ia i?aei?e?inoaao, aea ?nioaaee aeanii e?ea?i?, a ia
aiaoeaoi??? oa i?eeiaeuei? iiei?. Aeaui e?auei iaaee/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy
?ia?oiee?a aeaeyaeaei o aaeocyo aaaeei? i?iieneiaino?.

O?ao?e ia?aa?ao — «I?eeiyooy caeii?a aea?aeaaiiai no?aooaaiiy
?ia?oiee?a» — i?enay/aiee i?ioeaaeo?? ?ic?iaee oa aiae?co no?aoiaeo
caeii?a 1912 ?.

Aeaco?oueny ia aieea aeieeiaiiy caeii?a ?aaiethoe?? 1905-1907??. I?ae
oeneii i?iieneiaoe?a o ci?no i?iaeo?a aoee aianai? iaai? ci?ie, ui
ciaiooaaee aeo?aoe i?aei?e?ioe?a ia no?aooaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a.

Ca?aeii c? ci?noii caeii?a o e?a?i?, o oiio /ene? ? a Oe?a?i?,
cai?iaaaeaeoaaeinue aea?aeaaia nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy i?iieneiaeo
?ia?oiee?a o aeiaaeeao ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino? a?ae o?aaie, oai?iae,
aaa?oiino?, nia?o?. Ia oa?eoi???, ui i?aeiaaeaea i?ae ae?th caeii?a,
iiaeiia aoea noai?eoeny ia?aaea ieciaeo no?aoiaeo onoaiia — e?ea?iyieo
ean, aea i?eeiaee o/anoue ? ?ia?oieee, oa aeeeth/ii i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo
Ie?oaeieo No?aoiaeo oiaa?enoa.

O /aoaa?oiio ia?aa?ao? — «No?aoiaa eaiiai?y a Oe?a?i?» — iieaco?oueny,
ye caaaeyee oeneo o?yaeiaeo onoaiia, aeieath/e ?ia?oi?noue, a ?ieiee e
ii?? ?ia?oiee?a, e?ea?iyi? eane iaia?aaeiaei? a?eie aeieeaee ia
a?eueoino? caeeaae?a oaa?e/ii-caaiaenueei? i?iieneiaino?. A?aee?eo?
e?ea?iyi? eane o oie ia??iae aeyaeeenue ?aeeieie ianiaeie eaaaeueieie
ina?aaeeaie i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a, oiio iaai? iie?oe/i? neee,
ianaiia?aae ?NAe?I, aeieeaaeaee on?o coneeue, aae i?aeei?eoe ?o nai?io
aieeaia?.

Iaia?aaeiaei? a?eie ?icii/aee naith ae?yeuei?noue e aeai? Ie?oaeieo
No?aoiaeo oiaa?enoa, Ee?anueea oa Iaeanueea, aei neeaaeo yeeo aoiaeeee
iaeaea an? oe?a?inuee? aoaa?i??, e??i Oa?e?anueei? oa
Eaoa?eiineaanueei?.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? — «Nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy o
?iee Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie» — iae?/o? o?e ia?aa?aoe.

Ia?oee — «Noai oaa?e/ii? iaaeeoeeie» — i?enay/aiee ?iaio? caaiaenueeeo
iaaee/ieo caeeaae?a o ai?iiee /an. Cacia/a?oueny, ui, ye ? ?ai?oa,
oaa?e/ia iaaeeoeeia ?nioaaea ca ?aooiie e i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aeaniee?a
i?iieneiaeo caeeaae?a. Caaaeueiee ??aaiue iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae o
cacia/aiee ia??iae aeaui iia??oeany, ine?eueee /anoeia e?aeie o
caaiaenueeeo e?ea?iyo aoea iaaeaia o ?icii?yaeaeaiiy a?i??. O naith
/a?ao iia?e?ciaaiith aeyaeeanue ? /anoeia caaiaenueeeo e?ea??a.

Aaeeeee ca ci?noii ae?oaee ia?aa?ao — «E?ea?iyi? eane o i?iieneiaino?
Oe?a?ie» — i?noeoue aeai? i?i oaiie a?aee?eooy e?ea?iyieo ean, ui
iaaeaaaee aeiiiiiao oai?ei oa o?aaiiaaiei ?ia?oieeai, i?ney ii/aoeo
a?eie cia/ii oiia?eueieeenue. Ia na?aaeeio 1916 ?. oe? iiaiooai?ai?
caeeaaee ae?yee ia ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? oaa?e/ii-caaiaenueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa, ye? i?aeiaaeaee i?ae ae?th no?aoiaeo caeii?a. A?aeiinii
a??ie/i? oa a??ie/icaaiaenueei? i?iieneiaino?, oi ooo eane ae?yee
caeaa?eueoiai eeoa i?e aaeeeeo iaoaeo?a?eieo caaiaeao.

A?eueo?noue e?ea?iyieo ean ia’?aeioaaee ?ia?oiee?a e?eueeio
i?aei?e?inoa, oiaoi aoee oae caaieie caaaeueieie. Na?aaei? /enei /eai?a
ean o i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie eieeaaeiny o iaaeao 400-600 /ieia?e.

E?ea?iyi? eane, ui aeieeee, o i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? c?oeioeeny c ?yaeii
na?eicieo i?iaeai, ye? cioooaaee ciaiooaaoe ?ici??e nioe?aeueii?
aeiiiiiae. Iaeaieiai?oith aeyaeeanue a?aenooi?noue iiia?aaeiueiai
aeina?aeo, o ca’yceo c /ei aaaaoi ean ia?o? ?iee nai?? ae?yeueiino?
caaa?ooaaee c aeao?oeeoii athaeaeaoo. Caaaaeaei iaeaaiaeaeaiith
ii?iaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ean e caaaeueia iia??oaiiy oiia aeeooy ? i?aoe?
o?oaeyueo o ai?iiee /an, aiane?aeie yeiai ca?eueooaaeinue /enei
caoai?thaaiue.

Iiceoeaiith oaiaeaioe??th o ae?yeueiino? e?ea?iyieo ean aeyaeeenue
ni?iae eii?aeeiaoe?? nai?o coneeue aeey ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a
nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae ?ia?oieeai oa /eaiai ?o ?iaeei. Iaea?eueo
caaa?oaiei oeae i?ioean aeyaeany o Eaoa?eiineaa?, aea iai?ee?ioe? 1916
?. iaeaea an? i?nuee? eane aeinyaee caiaee i?i ia’?aeiaiiy.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? — «Ie?oaei? no?aoia? oiaa?enoaa o ?iee a?eie» —
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ae?yeuei?noue i?noeaaeo oiaa?enoa ia Oe?a?i?.

Ii?o/ c ooai?aiei o 1915 ?. Oa?e?anueeei no?aoiaei oiaa?enoaii o ?iee
a?eie i?iaeiaaeoaaee ae?yoe oaeiae Iaeanueea oa Ee?anueea. O oeeo o?ueio
i?aai?caoe?yo iaia?aaeiaei? Ethoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?. i?eeiaee
o/anoue on? aeanieee i?iieneiaeo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie c /eneii i?aoethth/eo
a?ae 20 /ieia?e. A iaia’ycee oiaa?enoa aoiaeeei iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae
o?aaiiaaiei ia ae?iaieoeoa? i?ney o?eiaaeoeyoeoeaeiaaiai oa?i?io c
iiiaioo iioeiaeaeaiiy caei?ia’y.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oie oaeo, ui o ?icii?yaeaeaii? i?aae?iue oiaa?enoa
ciaoiaeeeenue cia/i? eiooe, ia nioe?aeueio aeiiiiiao ?ia?oieeai
i?eae?eyeinue caaaeii ia a?eueoa 30% on?o iaaeoiaeaeaiue. ?aooa a?ioae
eoea ia noai?aiiy iaia’yceiaeo ?aca?aieo oiiae?a oa i?aai?caoe?ei?
aeo?aoe. Aiane?aeie iaiaiaaeaieo o?iainiaeo iiaeeeainoae oa a?aenooiino?
o neeaae? i?aae?iue oiaa?enoa i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioa?an?a oeo, ui
iino?aaeaeaee, oe? no?aoia? onoaiiae /anoi a?aeiiaeyee ?ia?oieeai o
iaiao?aei?e ?i aeiiiiic?. «Caiuaaeaeai?» oaeei /eiii eiooe eoee aei
?aca?aiiai oiiaeo, aeath/e ciiao a iaeaooiueiio ciaioeoe aianee
i?iieneiaoe?a aei oiaa?enoa.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? o aeniiaeao. Aeacaii,
ui a ?noi??? ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a
Oe?a?ie na?aaeeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. (aei ethoiai 1917 ?.)
i?inoaaeo?oueny aeae?eueea aoai?a. Ca oeae /an ?nioaaee ??ciiiai?oi?
eiai oi?ie, ye? a?ae??ciyeenue i?ae niaith ii aeiaaeeai ao?aoe
i?aoeacaeaoiino?, ca yeeie iaaeaaaeanue a?ioiaa aeiiiiiaa (ae?iaie/a
o?aaia, oai?iaa, aaa?oi?noue, nia?oue); ii oa?aeoa?o i?aai?caoe??
(aeia?ia?eueia oa iaia’yceiaa); ii aioo??oi?e no?oeoo?? (aea?aeaaia,
aca?iia, i?eaaoia); ii oa?eoi??? ae?? (caaaeueia e i?noeaaa). Ie?aii
iinoa? ye iaeia c? niaoeeo?/ieo oi?i nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, aeanoeaa
eeoa aeey ?in?enueei? ?iia???, oaa?e/ia iaaeeoeeia.

Ia?oee aoai ?icii/aany c 40-o ??. O?O no. e iia’yco?oueny nii/aoeo c
aeieeiaiiyi e?ea?aiue i?e oeoe?iaeo caaiaeao. Aaciina?aaeiuei ?inoeooo
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ii/eia? neeaaeaoenue a Oe?a?i? c 80-o ??. O?O
no. sse ? oaa?e/ia iaaeeoeeia, a?i nii/aoeo ?icaeaa?oueny aieiaiei /eiii
ca ?aooiie i?iieneiaoe?a. Aeiiiiiaa ?ia?oieeai iaaeaaaeanue eeoa a
iaeiiio aeiaaeeo ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino? — ae?iaie/?e o?aai?, i?e ye?e
caaacia/aiiy iioa?i?eeo oe?eeii eia?/ii ? i?e?iaeii iiaeiii aoei a
iieeaaeaoeny ia aeanieea i?iieneiaiai caeeaaeo. I?yeeo o?yaeiaeo caeii?a
ia ia?oiio aoai? aei 1903 ?. ia ?nioaaei, oiio nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy
iineei oe?eeii aeia?ia?eueiee oa?aeoa? e ia aoei caaaeueiei. No?aooaaiiy
iioe?thaaeinue aeaeaei ia ia an?o ?ia?oiee?a ? eiiiainaoe?y iaaeaaaeanue
iaa?oue cano?aoiaaiei oaeiae aeaeaei ia o eiaeiiio aeiaaeeo o?aaie.
Iniaeeainoyie ia?oiai aoaio aoei ?nioaaiiy aeae?eueeio oi?i
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy. Ianaiia?aae i?iieneiaoe? a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio
ii?yaeeo niea/oaaee iieae?/aiei iaaaeee? noie a?ioae. Oaea i?aeoeea aoea
aeineoue iioe?aiith ii an?e i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie. O aeaeiaoaieo aaeocyo
?nioaaee niaoe?aeuei? onoaiiae ii caaacia/aiith iioa?i?eeo ia
ae?iaieoeoa?. Oe?ieiai iioe?aiiy iaaoei i?eaaoia no?aooaaiiy. Oaeeie
aeaeaie nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy aoei ioiieaii ia ii/aoie OO no. eeoa
125 oen. ?ia?oiee?a (30% a?ae ?o caaaeueii? /enaeueiino?). Iniiaia iana
caeiyoeo oi?iieneiaino? ia aoea caaacia/aia o aeiaaeeao o?aaie, oai?iae,
?iaae?aeiino? oiui.

O 1903 ?. i?ae oeneii ?ia?oie/iai ?ooo o?yae ni?ii?any aeaeaoe ia?oee
caeii, yeee noinoaaany nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy e iicia/ea ii/aoie
ae?oaiai aoaio. Oeae aeo cai?iaaaeaeoaaa ?iaeea?aeoaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?iieneiaoe?a ca an? iauani? aeiaaeee c ?o
?ia?oieeaie. Ae?y oeueiai aeoo iioe?thaaeanue ia an? i?aei?e?inoaa c
/eneii i?aoethth/eo iiiaae 20 /ieia?e. Oaeei /eiii, eiei cano?aoiaaieo
cia/ii ?icoe?eeinue o ii??aiyii? c iiia?aaei?i /anii. Cai?noue ??cieo
oi?i nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy iieae?/aieo ?ia?oiee?a oaiaeeeanue iaeia
caaaeueia, yea iineea iaia’yceiaee oa?aeoa?. ?ioa?ane iioa?i?eeo oaia?
iiaeii? aoee caoeuaoe /eie oaa?e/ii? ?iniaeoe?? oa a??ie/iai iaaeyaeo.
Aiane?aeie cai?iaaaeaeaiiy caeiio o ae?th c 1 n?/iy 1904 ?. iii?/a?oueny
??cea ca?eueoaiiy aeieao ii nioe?aeueiiio no?aooaaiith on?o a?oi
i?iieneiaoe?a, iniaeeai o a??ie/eo oa a??ie/icaaiaenueeeo aaeocyo. Oaia?
iaeaea an? iieae?/ai? ia ae?iaieoeoa? iaee i?aai ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia
aeiiiiiao. Iaeiae, i?e i?aeoe/iiio cae?eniaii? caeiio aeyaeany e ?yae
eiai inoioieo iaaeie?e?a, ui cieaeoaaee aoaeoeai?noue oeueiai aeoo.
Iaena?eici?oei aoea eiai iaaoaeoeai?noue ii a?aeiioaiith aei ae??aieo
o?aai. Oaiaee i?i e?ea?aeaoe?th ?o iane?aee?a o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?
oeeaaeaeeny ie?aii i?ae iioa?i?eei oa i?iieneiaoeai, aac ao?o/aiiy
o?yaeiaeo onoaiia.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? i?iaeiaaeoaaa ?icaeaaoeny oaeiae ?inoeooo oaa?e/ii?
iaaeeoeeie. Iai?ee?ioe? ia?oi? aeanyoe??/ee OO no. iaaee/iei
ianeoaiaoaaiiyi aoea ioiieaia aaea ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue caeiyoeo o
i?iieneiaino?. Uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, oi ooo,
iacaaaeath/e ia ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao i?iieneiaoe?a, neooaoe?y caeeoaeanue
i?aeoe/ii aac ci?i. Ae?yeuei?noue oaa?e/ieo e?ea?aiue, aea iaaeaaaeanue
a?eueo-iaio caaeia?eueia aeiiiiiaa, ioiiethaaea eaaeaa iieiaeio an?o
i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a Oe?a?ie. Iaa?oue ia i?aei?e?inoaao, aea ??aaiue
iaaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy ?ia?oiee?a iinoaaaa cia/ii aeuei ca na?aaei?e,
eiio ua aoei aeaeaei aei iiaii? aeineiiaeino?.

C aaaaeaiiyi o ae?th caeii?a 1912 ?. a Oe?a?i? ii/aany o?ao?e aoai a
?noi??? nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy. I?eioeeiiaith eiai a?aei?ii?noth a?ae
iiia?aaei?o aeyaeeinue noai?aiiy o oeae /an nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a, yea cai?iaaaeaeoaaeanue ca
caeiiaie 1912 ?. Iioe?eany ia?ae?e aeiaaee?a ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino?
?ia?oieeii, ye? i?aeeyaaee no?aooaaiith. Caaacia/aiiy a?aeoaia? iiaeiii
aoei iaaeaaaoeny ia o?eueee o ?ac? ae?iaie/i? o?aaie, a oaeiae i?e
oai?ia?, aaa?oiino?, nia?o?. Eiei cano?aoiaaieo o ii??aiyii? c caeiiii
1903 ?. a iniiaiiio caeeoaeinue aac ci?i.

Caaacia/aiiy ?ia?oiee?a iiaeiii aoei i?iaiaeeoenue /a?ac niaoe?aeuei?
iiaiooai?ai? onoaiiae.

Oaeei /eiii, iaia?aaeiaei? Ethoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?. a Oe?a?i?
ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue oaa?e/ieo oa a??ie/icaaiaenueeeo ?ia?oiee?a aoea
ioiieaia aea?aeaaiei nioe?aeueiei no?aooaaiiyi ia aeiaaeie o?aaie,
oai?iae, aaa?oiino?, nia?o?. ?aooa caeiyoeo o oeeo aaeocyo, a oaeiae
i?aoethth/? o a??ie/?e i?iieneiaino? i?aeiaaeaee i?ae ae?th caeiio 1903
?. e iaee i?aai ia caaacia/aiiy eeoa o ?ac? eae?oeoaa ia ae?iaieoeoa?.

I?ae /an Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie e?ea?iyi? eane iieieeeny o iani?eyoeeaeo
oiiaao ae?yeueiino?. Aiie oaia? ianee aeiaeaoeia? aeaeaoee aiane?aeie
??ceiai i?aeaeuaiiy e?eueeino? oai?eo, c?inoaiiy ??aiy ae?iaie/iai
o?aaiaoecio.

Caaeey i?aeaeuaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo nai?o /eai?a i?aae?iiy ean o
aeayeeo aaeeeeo i?noao ii/aei eii?aeeioaaoe naith ?iaioo. Iae/?oe?oa oey
oaiaeaioe?y aeyaeeanue o Eaoa?eiineaa?, aea iaia?aaeiaei? Ethoiaai?
?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?. iaeaea on? i?nuee? eane ia’?aeiaeeny.

Noai?aiiy Ie?oaeieo no?aoiaeo oiaa?enoa oaeoe/ii ia iie?aueei
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy o?aaiiaaieo ia ae?iaieoeoa?. Aeiiiiiaa i?e
iacia/ieo o?aaiao aoea iieeaaeaia ia e?ea?iyi? eane. Oaeei /eiii,
oiaa?enoaa iaaeaaaee aeiiiiiao a iaiaaeai?e e?eueeino? aeiaaee?a
eae?oeoaa, ui i?ecaaei aei na?eicieo iane?aee?a aeey caei?ia’y oa aeeooy
?ia?oiee?a. Aeei?enoiaoth/e o nai?o aeanieo ?ioa?anao a?aenooi?noue
ae?aciee?a ?ioa?an?a iioa?i?eeo o neeaae? oiaa?enoa, i?aae?iiy oeeo
i?aai?caoe?e /anoi ciaiooaaee iaeaaeio ?ia?oieeai aeiiiiiao aai,
acaaae?, a?aeiiaeyee a i?e.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui caeiiai i?i nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy, ye? i?eeiaeeny
aei 1917 ?., aoa i?eoaiaiiee ? ?yae inoioieo iaaeie?e?a. Iaeaieiai?oei c
ieo aeyaeeanue iaaeinoaoiy o/anoue ?ia?oiee?a o no?aoiaeo onoaiiaao, yea
a aeaaaea ciiao i?aeaeueoe i?aaa oa iie?ioeoe nioe?aeueiee caoeno
ao?aoeaoeo i?aoeacaeaoi?noue. I?ioa, e i?e ?nioth/iio noai? ?a/ae
?ia?oieee aacoiiaii iaee ei?enoue e ciiao ?aaeueii ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia
iaoa??aeueio oa iaaee/io aeiiiiiao o cacia/aieo aeua aeiaaeeao. Caeiiaie
o?yaeo oa ?o cae?eniaiiyi ia i?aeoeoe? aoei caeeaaeaii iniiao, yea a
iaeaooiueiio iaea iiaeeea?noue o?ainoi?ioaaoenue a caaaeueio nenoaio
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy on?o in?a iaeiaii? i?aoe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?? AEEEAAeAIEE O OAEEO IOAE?EAOe?ssO AAOI?A:

Noai?aiiy oa ae?yeuei?noue «Oiaa?enoaa aeiiiiiae a??ie/ei ?ia?oieeai
I?aaeiy ?in??» // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — ?
401. — Aei.2. — O.: Iniiaa, 1998. — N.275-280.

?icaeoie oaa?e/ii-caaiaenueei? iaaeeoeeie a Oe?a?i? o 1900 — 1914 ?. //
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo: ?noi?e/i? iaoee. — Aei.1. — O.: Iniiaa, 1998. — N.115-121.

Ii/aoie ae?yeueiino? e?ea?iyieo ean o oaa?e/ii-caaiaenuee?e
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo: ?noi??y oa aaia?ao?y. — Aei.2.
— O.: Iniiaa, 1998. — N.82-88.

AIIOAOe?ss

Inoaiaiei Ae.I. Nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a Oe?a?ie
(na?aaeeia O?O no. — ethoee 1917 ?.).

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1998.

A aeena?oaoe?? anaa?/ii aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?noi??y nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a Oe?a?ie o aei?aaeyinueeee ia??iae. A
?iaio? aiae?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue ??ciiiai?oieo caeeaae?a oa oi?i
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ?ia?oiee?a. Aeacaii ia iinooiia?noue ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy a Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.
Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia aena?oeaiith cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy o 1912-1917 ??. C’yniaaii iaaeie?ee oa
iiceoeai? iiiaioe o ae?yeueiino? iiaeo no?aoiaeo onoaiia o oeae ia??iae.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy, nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy,
i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie, oaa?e/ia iaaeeoeeia, e?ea?iyi? eane.

AIIIOAOeEss

Inoaiaiei Ae.A. Nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aai/eo Oe?aeiu
(na?aaeeia O?O aaea — oaa?aeue 1917 a.).

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. — Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee ananoi?iiia enneaaeoaony enoi?ey nioeeaeueiiai
no?aoiaaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aai/eo Oe?aeiu a aeiniaaoneee ia?eiae. A
?aaioa aiaeece?oaony aeayoaeueiinoue ?acee/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee e oi?i
nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey ?aai/eo. Ioia/aaony iinooiaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?
nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey a Oe?aeia a eiioea O?O — ia/aea OO aaea.
Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony inaauaieth aiaae?aiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey a 1912 -1917 aiaeao.
Auyniaiu iaaeinoaoee e iiceoeaiua iiiaiou a aeayoaeueiinoe iiauo
no?aoiauo o/?aaeaeaiee a yoio ia?eiae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea, nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea,
i?iiuoeaiiinoue Oe?aeiu, oaa?e/iay iaaeeoeeia, aieueie/iua eannu.

SUMMARY

Ostapenko D.A. Social insurance the industrial workers of Ukraine (in
middle XIX century-February 1917).

Dissertation for the candidate on history science on specialities
07.00.01 — History of Ukraine. Kharkov State University, Kharkov, 1998.

This dissertation is all-round research of the history of social
insurance the industrial workers of Ukraine in the pre-socialist period.
The research is devoted to analysis of the activity various
establishment and the tupe of the social secyrity the workers. There are
the forward disposition of the social insurance in Ukraine in the end
of XIX — XX century. The lard attentin give the illumination of the
inculcate the State social insurance in 1912-1917 years. Elucidated lach
and positive moment in activity new insurance the institution in this
period.

Key words: social insurance, social securing, industry of Ukraine,
medicine of the factory, medical cach.

Oea?aiia A.O. Eannu aeey ?aai/eo ia oaa?eeao e i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo // O?. Auni/aeoa o/?aaeaeaiiiai oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiiai
nuacaea a Ieaeiai Iiaai?iaea. — O.3. — Aui.5. — NIa., 1897. — N.329-372.

Ieeoeei A.A. No?aoiaaiea ?aai/eo ia oaa?eeao e caaiaeao Iaeanneiai
a?aaeiia/aeuenoaa // Oai aea. — N.102-109.

I?ann A.A. No?aoiaaiea ?aai/eo a ?innee. — NIa., 1900.

Aa?oainii E. Ii iiaiaeo /anoiiai no?aoiaaiey ?aai/eo // I?iiuoeaiiinoue
e caei?iauea. — 1903. — ?4. — N.1-9.

Oaoeuaa N. Iauanoaa acaeiiiiiiue a ?innee // Oai aea. — N.28-60.

Eeeei I. THaeiua ai?iii?iiuoeaiieee e eo oaa/aiiua ?aai/ea // Oai aea.
— 1904. — ?2. — N.1-23.

Eiaaeaa. I?aeoeea i?eiaiaiey e ai?iicaaiaeneei i?aaei?eyoeyi ca 3-eaoea
caeiia 2 ethiy 1903 a. // Ai?iue aeo?iae. — 1909. — O.1. — N.83-108.

Eoioe I.A. Caeii 1903 a. e aai i?eiaiaiea ia i?aeoeea // Na.noaoae. —
I., 1909. — N.222-247; Eoioe I.A. ?aai/ee aii?in e oaa?e/iia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai // Oai aea. — N.114-221.

*enoyeia E. No?aoiaaiea ?aai/eo a ?innee. — NIa., 1912.

Aeaaei?/ee I.A. Nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea. — NIa., 1913.

Iai?ei E. Aieueie/iua eannu a.Aeaoa?eiineaaa // No?aoiaaiea ?aai/eo. —
1915. — ?8-9. — N.20-27.

No.A. Aieueie/iua eannu a.Aeaoa?eiineaaa a 1915 aiaeo // No?aoiaaiea
?aai/eo. — 1916. — ?10. — N.17-23.

Naoieoeeee I.A. Aieueie/iua eannu e caaieaaaaiinoue ?aai/eo a.Iaeannu.
— Iaeanna, 1919.

Aeiieo?ia A.I. ?aai/aa no?aoiaia aeaeaeaiea // Ec yiioe «Caacaeu» e
«I?aaaeu». — I., 1921. — N.165-181.

I?aaeeaeuei A.E. Iuoa?noaa no?aoiauo caeiiia // Aei?aaiethoeeiiiay
no?aoiaay eiiiaiey. — I., 1925. — N.5-23.

Aeaineee A.A. Aaaaeaiea no?aoiaaiey ia neo/ae aieacie //
Aei?aaiethoeeiiiay no?aoiaay eiiiaiey. — I., 1925. — N.51-78; A?i aea.
— Aaaaeaiea no?aoiaaiey io ian/anoiuo neo/aaa // Aei?aaiethoeeiiiay
no?aoiaay eiiiaiey. — I.,1925. — N.79-111.

Aieyniue E.E. E aii?ino i no?aoiaie eaiiaiee a Aeaoa?eiineaaneie
aoaa?iee a 1912-1914 aa. // Iao/.cai.Aeiai?ii.ain.oi-oa. — O.42. —
Aui.2. — 1953. — N.64-84.

Oa?aoooae?iia A.E. No?aoiaa ?ia?oie/a eaiiai?y o 1912-1914 ??. — E.,
1958.

I?eeiaiei A.E. No?aoiaay eaiiaiey ?aai/eo Oe?aeiu a 1912-1914 aa. //
Iao/.eiioa?., iinayu.50-eaoeth AI ONN? (naeoeey eno. e oeeie. iaoe).
Aeiiaoee, 1970. — N.46-65; A?i aea. — Eaaaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee ?aai/eo
THaa ?innee a ia?eiae eiia?eaeecia. — E., 1977.

Ethaa?ia I.A. Ec enoi?ee no?aoiaaiey ?aai/eo a oea?neie ?innee // O?.
Iae. aeae?iiaoai?ieiae/. ei-oa. — Aui.26. — 1962. — N.17-35; Oeaeeiaa
AE.C. No?aoiaaiea ?aai/eo iaeaioia e a aiaeu ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu //
Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia. — I., 1966. — N.347-366; Iaethe A.I. Aei ieoaiiy
i?i no?aooaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a ia Aei?i?ianueeiio… // Ieoaiiy ?noi???
ia?iae?a N?N?. — Aei.9. — 1970. — N.121-126; Iaaee?ia A.N. Ec enoi?ee
oaa?e/iie iaaeeoeeiu ia Oe?aeia // Niaaoneia cae?aaiio?aiaiea. — 1971. —
?8. — N.68-73.

Eaaiia E.I. E aii?ino i no?aoiaaiee ?aai/eo a ?innee // Enneaaeiaaiey
ii nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee ?innee. — E., 1971. — N.327-351;
A?i aea. — Caeii 1903 a. i aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ?aai/eo e aai i?aeoe/aneia
i?eiaiaiea // ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea a ia?eiae eiia?eaeecia. — I., 1982. —
N.88-126; A?i aea. — No?aoiaie caeii 1912 a. e aai i?aeoe/aneia
i?eiaiaiea // Ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?ey. — 1995. — ?5. — N.73-87.

A?aiaeo A.O. Eiino?aiiua eaieoaeu a ?innee. — O.2. — NIa., 1899;
?aaicei A.E. AEaeaci e oaieue ia THaa ?innee. — NIa., 1895.

I?ieiiiae/ N.I. E ?aai/aio aii?ino a ?innee. — NIa., 1903.

*a?iue I.A. Iaoa?eaeu ii ?aai/aio aii?ino e i?iiuoeaiiinoe a.Eeaaa //
O?.Eeaane.aoa.noao.ath?i. — Aui.1. — E., 1919. — N.1-134.

Aaeaaaiia I. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee ?aai/aai eeanna a ?innee. — *.2. — E.,
1924; A?i aea. — I/a?ee ii enoi?ee ?aai/aai eeanna a ?innee. — *.3. —
I., 1926.

Iaaeeoiia E.A. Iieiaeaiea ?aai/aai eeanna a ?innee. — O.2. — E., 1924;
A?i aea. — Iieiaeaiea ?aai/aai eeanna a ?innee. — O.3. — E., 1924.

Oiiei I.E. Ai?iay e ai?iicaaiaeneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue THaa ?innee. — O.2.
— O., 1924.

Oaeuiaaei E.E. Oaa?e/ii-o?oaeiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a ?innee (2-y iie.
O?O aaea). — I., 1947; A?i aea. — Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i
oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneii o?oaea a ?innee. 1900-1917. — I., 1951.

Eaaa?u/aa A.ss. Oea?eci e ?aai/ee aii?in a ?innee. (1861-1917 aa.). —
I., 1971.

Aia/ee A.O. Iieeoeea oea?ecia ii ?aai/aio aii?ino a
i?aae?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?eiae (1895-1904). — Eueaia, 1964.

Aa?ao A.ss. Noieuiei e O?aouey Aeoia. — I., 1961.

Einue O.?. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?aai/aai eeanna ia Oe?aeia e aai
?aaiethoeeiiiay ai?ueaa (eiiaoe O?O no. — 1904 a.). — E., 1955.

Ia?anoiueei I.A. Iieiaeaiea e ai?ueaa ?aai/aai eeanna Oe?aeiu. (60-90-a
aiaeu O?O no.). — E., 1963.

Eaa?ia TH.I. Iaoaeeo?ae Oe?aeiu a aaaiaa?aea ?aaiethoeeiiiie ai?ueau. —
E., 1970.

Ee?ueyiia TH.E. ?aai/ea THaa ?innee (1914 — oaa?aeue 1917 a.). — I.,
1971.

?noi??y ?ia?oie/iai eeano Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. — O.1. — E., 1967.

Iieiia nia?aiea caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee. Nia?aiea 2-a. — O.37,
ioae.1; Iieiia nia?aiea caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee. Nia?aiea 3-a. — O.6;
12; 23, ioae.1

Iieiue oaeno no?aoiauo caeiiia 1912 a. // Oaenei E.E. *oi oaeia e eae
i?aaieciaaoue ainoaea?noaaiiia no?aoiaaiea ?aai/eo a ?innee. — NIa.,
1911. — I?eeiaeaiea.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia. Noaiia?aoe/aneea io/aou. Nicua 3. Nanney 1.
*anoue 3. — NIa., 1911; oai aea — Nanney 5. *anoue 1. — NIa., 1911; oai
aea — Nanney 5. *anoue 4. — NIa., 1912.

Anaiauay noa/ea ia THaa ?innee a 1903 aiaeo. — I., 1938; ?ia?oie/ee ?oo
ia Oe?a?i? (1861-1884). — E., 1986; ?ia?oie/ee ?oo ia Oe?a?i?
(1885-1894). — E., 1990; ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea a ?innee a O?O a. — O.3. —
*.1. — I., 1952.

Aeaaioai?eoaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey ?inneeneie eiia?ee. — O.2. — *.2. —
NIa., 1900.

A?a/aaiay iiiiuue oaa?e/iui ?aai/ei a 1897 a. — NIa., 1899.

A?a/aaiay iiiiuue oaa?e/iui ?aai/ei a 1907 a. — NIa., 1909.

AEaeaciay i?iiuoeaiiinoue THaeiie ?innee a 1902 a. — Aui.1. — O., 1903;
Eaiaiiioaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ?innee a 1901 a. — O., 1902; AEaeaciay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue THaeiie ?innee a 1900 a. — O., 1901 oa ?i.

Nai?iee noaoenoe/aneeo naaaeaiee ii Aeaoa?eiineaaneie aoaa?iee. —
Aui.2,3. — Aeaoa?eiineaa, 1886.

Nai?iee noaoenoe/aneeo naaaeaiee i ai?iicaaiaeneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
?innee a 1886 a. — NIa., 1888; oa ae — a 1890 a. — NIa, 1892; oa ae — a
1892 a. — NIa., 1895.; Noaoenoeea ian/anoiuo neo/aaa a ai?iie e
ai?iicaaiaeneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe THaa ?innee ca 1906, 1905 e 1904 aa. —
O., 1908; Noaoenoeea ian/anoiuo neo/aaa n ?aai/eie a i?iiuoeaiiuo
caaaaeaieyo, iiae/eiaiiuo iaaeci?o oaa?e/iie einiaeoeee ca 1901 a. —
NIa., 1903 oa ?i.

Aieueie/iay eanna i?e caaiaea AI ?onneie aeae.i?ii. — Io/ao ca 1915 a.
— Aeaoa?eiineaa, 1916; Aieueie/iay eanna i?e ?oaeieea Acianeie oaieueiie
eaiiaiee. — Io/ao ca 1915 a. — Aeaenaiae?iane-A?ooaaneee, 1916 oa ?i.

Aeaiaaeiue io/ao Eeaaneiai ie?oaeiiai no?aoiaiai oiaa?euanoaa ca 1915
a. — E., 1916; Io/ao i aeayoaeueiinoe Iaeanneiai ie?oaeiiai no?aoiaiai
oiaa?euanoaa ca 1915a. — Iaeanna, 1916; Io/ao i aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeaiey
Oa?ueeianeiai ie?oaeiiai no?aoiaiai oiaa?euanoaa ca 1915 — 1916 aa. —
O., 1917.

Io/ao Oa?ueeianeiai iauanoaa acaeiiiai aniiiiaeaiey caieiathueony
?aianeaiiui o?oaeii (ca 1 aiae aeayoaeueiinoe 1898). — O., 1899; Io/ao
iauanoaa acaeiiiai aniiiiaeaiey ?aai/eo ia oaaa/iuo oaa?eeao
a.Oa?ueeiaa. — O., 1906 oa ?i.

Io/ao iauanoaa iiniaey ai?ii?aai/ei THaa ?innee // O?.XLI nuacaea
ai?iii?iiuoeaiieeia THaa ?innee. — O., 1916.

Io/ao einiaeoi?a Eeaaneiai oaa?e/iiai ie?oaa ca 1885 a. — NIa., 1886;
Io/ao einiaeoi?a Oa?ueeianeiai oaa?e/iiai ie?oaa ca 1885 a. — NIa.,
1886; Naiae io/aoia oaa?e/iuo einiaeoi?ia ca 1901 a. — NIa., 1903.

Io/ao ia/aeueieea ai?iiai oi?aaeaiey THaeiie ?innee ca 1910 a. —
Aeaoa?eiineaa, 1911; Oa ae. — ca 1913a. — *.1. — Aeaoa?eiineaa, 1914
oa ?i.

O?.VII nuacaea ai?iii?iiuoeaiieeia THaa ?innee. — O., 1884; O?.VIII
nuacaea… — O., 1884; O?.O nuacaea… — O., 1886 oa ?i.

O?.2-ai nuacaea ai?iicaaiaeneeo, oaa?e/iuo e ?oaeie/iuo a?a/ae
Aeaoa?.aoa. — Aeaoa?eiineaa, a/a; O?.1-ai ana?inneeneiai nuacaea
oaa?e/iuo a?a/ae. — I., 1910.

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