IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IIE?OE*IEO ? AOIIIAOe?IIAEUeIEO AeINE?AeAEAIUe

OAeE 323.3.38

EssOAIEI

Oaoyia Ieoaee?aia

Nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai ye OAEOI? iie?oe/ii? OA nioe?aeueii?
noaa?eueiino? a Oe?a?i?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 23.00.02 – iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe ? i?ioeane

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iaoa??a Aiaoie?e Aeieo?iae/, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo
iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Uaae?iaa Aaeeia Iao??aia, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith iie?oieia??
No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

eaiaeeaeao iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Aacaa?oee Aaeaioei Ai?eniae/, eiinoeueoaio-aenia?o Neoaeae aaciaee
Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
i?e

I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a iie?oieia??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “12” n?/iy 1999 ?ieo i “14” aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.181.01 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e a ?inoeooo? iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252011, i.Ee?a, aoe.Eooociaa, 8, cae
can?aeaiue a/aii? ?aaee (e.202).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo
? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie (aoe.Eooociaa, 8,
e?i.218).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “13” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe TH.A.Eaaaiaoeue

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Ia?ao?ae a?ae aaoi?eoa?iiai eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ?aaeeio aei
aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae, yea caniiao?oueny ia i??i?eoaoao yeiaeoe?oi?
?aae?caoe?? iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo i?aa ? naiaiae a?iiaaeyi, aeyaeany
aeaeaei ia oaeei i?inoei, ye ia oea iiaeia aoei niiae?aaoenue a?ae
ii/aoeo.

Oe?ae neeaaei? caaaeaiiy a?aeoai?aiiy nenoaie aeaiie?aoe/ieo
iie?oeei-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a ocaiaeaeaiiy
noni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a, ui ni?iiiaei? aa?aiooaaoe aaiethoe?eiee ?icaeoie
aea?aeaae, caiia?aaoe ianooaaiei aioo??oi?i iio?yn?iiyi ? caaacia/oaaoe
nioe?aeueiee ie?, aecia/athoue aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Nueiaiaei? aaea aen?iiaoe/iei ? oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui ?iaeono??aeueia oa
iino?iaeono??aeueia aeaiie?ao?y iaiiaeeea? aac «nioe?ae?caoe??»
aea?aeaae, iaaeaiiy ?e ooieoe?e nioe?aeueiiai ?aaoeyoi?a — oae caaiiai
welfare state. Iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui no/ani? aeaiie?aoe/i? e?a?ie, c
iaaiith /aniaith ??cieoeath, i?ioa an? aac aeiyoeo i?eeoee aei
iaiao?aeiino? ?inoeooae?caoe?? iaoai?ci?a caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai
ie?o. Iiae?aia iie?oeea ooaa?aeaeoaaeanue o aeaeyae? ??cieo oi?i,
iiaeaeae a?aeiia?aeii aei oiia oa iio?aa eiaeiiai noni?euenoaa,
io?eiaaoe caaaeueia aecia/aiiy iie?oeee nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa.

Aeey no/anii? Oe?a?ie naia o?eueee iiaeieaiiy aeiiii?/iiai a?aenoaaaiiy
a?ae aeniei?icaeiaieo aea?aeaa ?a?iie oa na?oo ia iiaea aooe
naiioe?eeth. Aac iiaoaeiae oe?e?nii? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ?ioi?iaoe?eii-oaoiieia?/iee ?icaeoie iaa?aeai?ioii
iaa?iaoueny nioe?aeueiith, a a?aeoae ? iie?oe/iith ianoaa?euei?noth. Oei
neeaaei?oei ? oieeiooe iiae?aii? iaaaciaee o e?a?i?, aea i?ioyaii
aeanyoee?oue i???ioe?ii noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo aaaaeaeanue eeaniaa
ai?ioueaa. Oiio aaccanoa?aaeiei aaa/a?oueny aecia/aiiy nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee ye «neeaaeiai? /anoeie ?aeaieia?? aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa,
yea iaoe?eaia ia caaacia/aiiy i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie, ?ioaa?aoe?th
noni?euenoaa iaaeiei iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, a?aeoai?aiiy nioe?aeueieo
oe?iiinoae, nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai, ?icaeoie aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?inoeooo?a
naiia?yaeoaaiiy».

?acii c oei iniaeea?noth nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece a Oe?a?i? ?
ia?aaeienaeueia neooaoe?y, ca yei? a?eueoa iieiaeie ianaeaiiy ioiieaii
??cieie aeaeaie nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae. C ?ioiai aieo, aaeaoainuee?
iio?aae nioe?aeueiiai naeoi?o ia aeicaieythoue ye?nii ciaioeoe
iiaeaoeiaee oene ia i?aei?e?inoaa aac ?eceeo iineeeoe nioe?aeueio
iai?oao o oaeeo ianooaaao, ui iiaeooue noaiiaeoe na?eicio caa?ico aeey
aea?aeaae oa ?icaeoeo aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?inoeoooe?e.

Aeo?ae c oeueiai caieiaiiai eiea, ui ooai?eany aiane?aeie ii?aeiaiiy
eiiiiiaio?a iaoa?iae?nonueei? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie ?aaeyinueeiai c?acea
c iiaeie oiiaaie aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, iiaeeeaee o?eueee ca
aeiei??iiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei, noai?aiiy oa
?icaeoeo nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa.

Iiae?aiee ia?ao?ae, ui ? iaaaeueiei caaaeaiiyi aeey iiaeieaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, aa?aiooaaiiy iie?oe/ii? noaa?e?caoe?? i?e
ci?oeiaii? canaae aeaiie?ao??, iio?aao? noai?aiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiiai
aa/aiiy ia?aaeoiia, no/aniiai noaio oa iaoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo, ?ie? oa caaaeaiue aea?aeaaieo ?inoeoooe?e, ooieoe?e ?
iniaeeainoae ae?yeueiino? ?inoeooae?ciaaieo a?oi ?ioa?an?a – i?ioan?eieo
ni?eie oa i?aai?caoe?e i?aei?e?ioe?a, ye? cia/iith i??ith aenooiathoue
o/anieeaie iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a, — a eiioaeno? iiaoaeiae nioe?aeueii?
aea?aeaae a Oe?a?i?.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a
?? no/aniiio ?icoi?ii? aa?a na?e ii/aoie o i?aoeyo o?einio?a oa
noni?eueieo ae?y/?a e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo XX noie?oue: Ea Iea,
Aeae.I?eey, AE.-A.Nay, E.Aetha?, A.O??ca. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie ?o
aeoiie i?ecaaee aei iioe?aiiy ?aea? i?i ie?ia ni?a?nioaaiiy i?aoe? ?
eai?oaeo, yea i?ieoea aaaaoi noaae?e, o?ainoi?ioaaeany caeaaeii a?ae
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa iie?oe/ieo oiia e?a?ie ? c /anii ioi?ieeanue
o /?oeo aeieo?eio nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, iniiaiiieiaei? i?eioeeie
yei? i?ci?oa aoei aeeeaaeaii o i?aoeyo oaeeo a/aieo, ye E.A?oa?ae,
A.Itheea?-A?iae, A.Aeanei, N. aai Ia?eaeii, A.Eaeca?, ?.?oiiaeue,
A.Aeaaaea.

Eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a cao?aeieo e?a?iao iaa?ae‘?iii
iia‘ycaia c ?aeayie o?ainoi?iaoe?? eai?oae?cio a ?iaeono??aeueia
noni?euenoai oa oai???th i?iieneiai? aeaiie?ao??, ui ia?aaeaa/a? o/anoue
iaeiaieo ?ia?oiee?a a oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaii oa ni?ao/anoue o
i?eaooeao. Oeae a?e nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ?icaeyaea?oueny oaeeie
aaoi?aie, ye Ae.Eioe, ?.Aeaeue, I.Ia?aio?, Aeae.Aaea?aeo, ?.A?ii,
E.Ai?aeii, I.Oa?aniaa oiui.

?icaeoie nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa o iie?oe/iiio nain? ciaoiaeeany o
o?niiio aca?iica’yceo c ?a?iiaenueeith nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??th, c yeith
?aeaioeo?eo?oueny noaiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae. Aoaeiiii oaei?
i?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe neaiaeeiaanuee? e?a?ie, aea/aiith yeeo i?enay/aii
i?aoe?, cie?aia, A.Aeioi?ia, Aeae.Eiaa, E.Aeeoiaea, A.Aieeiaa,
E.Ai?ioiai? oa ?i.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i?
iaoiiaeth? aeei?enoaiiy i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo oe?a?inueeiio ?ia?oie/iio
?ooo, i?aai?caoe?yi oa ia?o?yi, ui aeneiaethaaee eiai ?ioa?ane. ?ic?iaee
c oeueiai ieoaiiy oiiaii iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie. Ia?oa a?oia
noino?oueny ?noi??? ? ioiieth? ia??iae c ii/aoeo OO no. aei na?aaeeie
30-o ?ie?a, eiee a ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? inoaoi/ii ooaa?aeeeenue
eiiaiaeii-ath?ie?aoe/i? iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy, — eaeaoueny i?i i?aoe?
I.Ii?oa, ?.Aieoeinueeiai, O.Einy, A.A?eoeaiea, O.Nieaeaoaiea, I.?a?ioa,
A.Aiae?oneoeia. Ae?oaa — noino?oueny aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioni?eeiaiai ?ooo
oa eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai i?ioeano o ia??iae aei ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a, —
i?aoe? ?.Aeiiiai?, A.Neiaaee?ia, ?.Ni?a??ueiai?, A.Eieiniaa,
A.?onia/aiea oiui.

I?ioyaii aeanyoee?oue a iao?e e?a?i? eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue o?eueee ye «?aiaaaonoai», «c?aaeieoeoai
eeaniaeo ?ioa?an?a». ?acii c oei o?aaa a?aecia/eoe i?aoe? ?yaeo
?aaeyinueeeo a/aieo, yeeie aoei c?iaeaii iaaiee ?ao?iniaeoeaiee iaeyae
noaiiaeaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaii ie?ai? oi?ie nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa.
Cie?aia, ne?ae iacaaoe i?aoe? A.Eeaeia, A.Noaiaiaiea, A.A?eueoia/aiea,
N.Aieiaea. O/ano? ?ia?oiee?a a oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaii oa ni?ao/ano? o
i?eaooeao i?enay/aii i?aoe? A.A?aea?aa, A.Aaaa?a, ?.Eenaeueiaa,
I.Iioainueeiai, ?.*ea?eia, A.Noaiaiaiei, I.Einaiei, A.Aeiia?aaeiaa,
A.*oao?iea, A.Aeooeiaa. I?aoe? oaeeo aeine?aeiee?a, ye A.Onai?i,
E.Eeth/ieeia, I.No?aeee, N.Iiiia a?aecia/athoueny aiae?cii
oaeoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo, yeee, iaeiae, ?icaeyaea?oueny c oi/ee ci?o
i?aeoiae?a, ui ia ia?aaeaa/aee iiaeeeainoae ?aae?caoe?? eiioeaioe??
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ia a?o/eciyiiio a?oio?.

I?ioa inoaii?i /anii aei oeueiai oaiiiaio ana /ano?oa caa?oa?oueny
iaoeiaa ? a?iiaaenueea aeoiea. Iniaeea?noth oe?a?inueeeo oiia ? oa, ui,
c iaeiiai aieo, nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny «caa?oo»,
ii/eiath/e ?c caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ia?aaiai??a ia o?enoi?iii?e iniia?, ?
oaeoe/ii ia? oa?aeoa? o?eia?oecio. I?aoe?, ui aeoiaeyoue, ni?yiiaai? ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy naia oeueiai aniaeoo. C ?ioiai aieo, ?aea?th
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa caeiathoueny, ianaiia?aae, i?aaenoaaieee
i?ioni?eie, i?aai?caoe?e i?aei?e?ioe?a, a oaeiae aeaaeieo no?oeoo? oa
ie?aieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, oiaoi aaciina?aaei? o/anieee ia?aaiai?iiai
i?ioeano: I.Noiyi, TH.Aocaeoaai, I.I??ioie/aiei, O.ssnueei,
A.Oi?eueianueeee, A.?eaae oa ?i. O i?aoeyo A.Aa?oey, A.A?na?iea,
A.Eieioa, ?.E?aa/oea eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa
?icaeyaea?oueny e??cue i?ecio ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo.

?icaeoie nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a ?in?enuee?e Oaaea?aoe?? ia?
ni?euei? ?ene c oe?a?inueeith ae?eni?noth. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?ae o?yaeii, i?ioni?eeaie oa ?iaioiaeaaoeyie o
iino?aaeyinueeeo oiiaao ? ei?enieie i?aoe? ?yaeo ?in?enueeeo
aeine?aeiee?a.

?acii c oei, eiiieaeniiai oai?aoeei-i?eeeaaeiiai aiae?co i?iaeaie
?aoi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei a eiioaeno? iiaoaeiae
nenoaie aeaiie?aoe/ieo iie?oeei-aeiiii?/ieo ?inoeoooe?e, ia?niaeoea
?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i? iiee ui ia
i?iaiaeeeinue. A?o/eciyi? ?ic?iaee, ui ?niothoue ia oaia??oi?e /an,
?icaeyaeathoue caeaa?eueoiai i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe i?iaeaie — ye noiniaii
neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, oae ? uiaei ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo. Iaiao?aei?noue
iaoeiaiai inieneaiiy oe??? eiioeaioe??, nenoaiaoecaoe?? oai?aoe/ii?
aace, aecia/aiiy iaea?eueo aeecueei? aei oe?a?inueeeo oiia iiaeae?
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, caeeoath/enue o /a?c? iaaaeueieo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue, iaoiiaeth? aaaeeea?noue ia?aii? aeey
iiaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioeane iie?oeei-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa, o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeeiai?ee aea?aeaaieo iaoai?ci?a
?aaoeyoe?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy
aenooia? eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ye iie?oe/ia aeieo?eia
a?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaeo eiioe?eo?a o aea?aeaa?.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy —
aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy ? ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i? ye niiniao ocaiaeaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo
?ioa?an?a aeey caaacia/aiiy iie?oe/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino?
aea?aeaae, aa?aiooaaiiy aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ia canaaeao
aeaiie?ao??.

I?iaaaeaiiy oaeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aao? ae??oaiiy ianooiieo
caaaeaiue:

aeine?aeeoe aeoiee oa oiiae oi?ioaaiiy, a oaeiae i?iaanoe ocaaaeueiaiiy
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii? aace eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa;

i?iaiae?coaaoe noni?euei? iniiae ? eiie?aoi? oi?ie oa iiaeae?
?aae?caoe?? aeaii? eiioeaioe?? a yeino? nenoaiiooai?thth/iai a?oioo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee o aea?aeaaao ?iaeono??aeueii?
aeaiie?ao?? c aecia/aiiyi c?acea, iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiiai aeey no/anieo
oiia a Oe?a?i?;

i?inoaaeeoe aaiethoe?th nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? aei
ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a ye aaceno noaiiaeaiiy no/anieo a?aeiinei i?ae
i?aoeath oa eai?oaeii;

aeine?aeeoe ia?aaeoiiae oa iiaeeeaino? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa o aea?aeaaiiio oi?aae?ii? no/anii? Oe?a?ie,
ia?niaeoeae caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai ie?o, ciyooy nioe?aeueii? iai?oae
oa noaa?e?caoe?? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a aea?aeaa?.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia oa oai?aoe/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ieai? ae??oaiiy
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue naith aoaeoeai?noue aeiaaee ianooii? iaoiaee
iaoeiaiai aiae?co: no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee, ?iaeoeoeaiee,
aeaaeoeoeaiee, eeaneo?eaoe?eiee, ?ao?iniaeoeaiee,
ii??aiyeueii-aiae?oe/iee, anioe?aoeaiee, eaai?aoi?ii-i?iaiinoe/iee.

No?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee aiae?c aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iniiai?
eiiiiiaioe iie?oeee nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, ?icaeyiooe ?? oi?ie,
iiaeae? oa iaoai?cie, aeie?aiethth/e eeth/ia? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ye?
oiiaeeeaeththoue ioi?ieaiiy o??? /e ?ioi? iiaoaeiae nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa. Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a ?iaeoeoe?? ?
aeaaeoeoe?? ni?ey? a?aeoai?aiith caaaeueii? oai?aoe/ii? aace
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?? canoinoaaiiy aei ?aaeueii ?nioth/eo iiaeaeae
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa. Iaoiae eeaneo?eaoe?eiiai aiae?co aeicaiey?
i?iaiaeeoe aoaeoeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?oeee nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa c
?iciiae?eii ca ??cieie iiaeaeyie, oi?iaie oa niiniaaie ?aae?caoe??.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ia?aaeoiia oa /eiiee?a, ui iaoiiaeththoue aea?? o??? aai
?ioi? iiaeae?, a oaeiae aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeeiai?ee
eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa aoaeoeaieie noathoue
?ao?iniaeoeaiee ? ii??aiyeueii-aiae?oe/iee iaoiaee. Anioe?aoeaiee ?
eaai?aoi?ii-i?iaiinoe/iee iaoiaee ? iaiao?aeieie i?e aiae?c?
iiaeeeainoae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, a
oaeiae aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ? ei?aaoaaiiy i?ioeano i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe??
aeaii? iie?oeee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o i?iaaaeaii? eiiieaeniiai
aiae?co noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ye
niiniao aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee o aeaiie?aoe/i?e
aea?aeaa?, ocaaaeueiaii? oai??? oa i?aeoeee aeaii? eiioeaioe?? a
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao a eiioaeno? aeyaeaiiy oiia oa iiaeeeainoae
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iie?oeee nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i?, a
?acoeueoao? /iai noai?th?oueny nenoaiaoeciaaia iaoeiaa aa/aiiy oeueiai
caaaeaiiy o ieai? caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino?,
ci?oeiaiiy ?inoeoooe?eieo iniia aeaiie?ao??. Aeey a?o/eciyii? iie?oe/ii?
iaoee iiaei oaeiae ? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiinei i?ae i?ioni?eeaie oa
i?aai?caoe?yie i?aei?e?ioe?a c oi/ee ci?o ?inoeooae?ciaaieo a?oi
?ioa?an?a o iie?oeei-aeiiii?/i?e noa??, ui aenooiathoue ia ye
aioaaii?cie, a ye ia?oia?e o caaacia/aii? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai
eiinainono.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy:

?icaeoie ?aea? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ia?ic?eaii iia‘ycaiee c
nioe?aeueiith oa aeiiii?/iith iie?oeeith aea?aeaae. I?ecia/aiiy oe???
eiioeaioe?? oa oa?aeoa? ?? caaaeaiue iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai? eeoa o
ca’yceo c oeie ?noi?e/ieie i?e/eiaie, ui iaoiiaeee iio?aao o
nioe?aeueiiio eiinainon?, yeee ae ocaiaeaeoaaa ?aeaaee aeaiie?ao?? c
?eieiaith aeiiii?eith;

noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a?aeaoaaeinue ia Caoiae?
ia??aiii??ii — ii ie?aiei aaeocyi, ?aa?iiai, e?a?iai. I?aea?oioyi eiio
neoaoaaa oa?aeoa? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ?noi?e/iee iiiaio oa eoeueoo?ia
iiea e?a?ie, ui iaoiiaethaaei noai?aiiy ??cieo iiaeaeae nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa. Iaea?eueo ei?aeoiith ? oaea eeaneo?eaoe?y: eiina?aaoeaia,
aeaiie?aoe/ia oa nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ia iiaeae?, c yeeo iaea?eueo
i?eaeaoiith aeey oe?a?inueeiai a?oioo iiaea aooe aeaiie?aoe/ia iiaeaeue.
Aieiaiith oiiaith aeey ?nioaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ? noai?aiiy
aea?aeaaith iaaiiai eiea eii?aeeioth/eo iaoai?ci?a, aac yeeo aeiaeia
iiaeaeue ?nioaaoe ia iiaea;

ca /an?a ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a Oe?a?i? ?nioaaee aeaye? aeaiaioe
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, cie?aia i?aeoeea oeeaaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo
aeiaiai??a, noai?aiiy ?aae o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a. I?ioa i?e a?aenooiino?
a?eueiiai ?eieo i?aoe? a e?a?i?, aea ?aeeiei iiiiiieueiei ?iaioiaeaaoeai
oa aeanieeii iniiaieo oiiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa aenooia? aea?aeaaa,
ai?iaaaeeoe nenoaio nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa iaiiaeeeai;

a oiiaao no/anii? Oe?a?ie, ca cia/iiai caaino?aiiy
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai iaaoaa?
iniaeeai? aaae. Nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, c iaeiiai aieo,
caeaoia caaacia/eoe nioe?aeueio ceaaiaeo a ianooaaao an??? e?a?ie, a c
?ioiai, iiaea ni?eyoe aeinyaiaiith eiie?aoieo oaiae a ie?aieo aaeocyo.
Oiio iaoai?ci nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa iiaeiai aeeth/aoe aea?
aca?iiiia’ycai? no?oeoo?e: iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaie nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa oa ?icaaeoaeaio (ia ??ai? i?aei?e?inoaa, o??ie, aaeoc?,
?aa?iio) nenoaio ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeth?oueny
ianooiieie ?acoeueoaoaie.

O oai?aoe/iiio ieai? a?aecia/a?oueny i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aaiethoe?? oa
noaiiaeaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa
a?ae e?ioey ieioeiai noie?ooy aei oaia??oiueiai /ano. Iinoaaeai?
caaaeaiiy aeicaieythoue i?iaanoe eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano
noaiiaeaiiy ??cieo oi?i oa iiaeaeae nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa,
iaeii/anii aaiaey/e a eiioaeno caaaeueiina?oiaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?e aiae?c
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue.

?acii c oei i?iaaaeaii nenoaiaoecaoe?th oa a?aeoai?aiiy caaaeueii?
oai??? nioe?aeueiiai ie?o. Ia iiae?ai?e oai?aoe/i?e iniia? noai?th?oueny
iaoeiaa aa/aiiy iaoe, caaaeaiue oa iiaeeeainoae iie?oeee o noa??
nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei o aeaiie?aoe/i?e aea?aeaa?, aa?aiooaaiiy
iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo, caaacia/aiiy iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? ia a?oio?
nioe?aeueiiai eiinainono.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aii iiaeaeue
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, yea iaea?eueoa a?aeiia?aea? oe?a?inueeei
oiiaai ? iiaea a?aoenue ca iniiao ?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa.

Iniaeeai? i?aeoe/ii? aaae aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaiith iaaea?
aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaiaoeee noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?ii. Iaa?oioiaai? aaoi?ii iieiaeaiiy i aeniiaee
iiaeooue iaaeae? canoiniaoaaoenue i?e ae?iaeaii? caaaeueieo i?aeoiae?a,
iinoaiiaoe? no?aoaa?/ieo i oaeoe/ieo caaaeaiue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee a oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?. Iaoa??aee ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e neeaaeaiii eo?no c iie?oieia??, a oaeiae iecee
niaoeeo?n?a o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao, aeey i?aeaioiaee
ocaaaeueithth/eo oa iiiia?ao?/ieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? aaoi?ii o
aenooiao ia iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, neiiic?oiao,
nai?ia?ao, «e?oaeeo noieao», ui i?ioiaeeee ye a Oe?a?ii, oae ?
caei?aeiiii, a oiio /ene?: «Oe?a?ia-Aano?iy: ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo?» (Ee?a, 1995), «Oe?a?ia i ?iniy a iiaiio
aaiiie?oe/iiio i?inoi??» (Ee?a, 1995), I oa II E?oi? oeiee ?in?enueeiai
iaoeiaiai oiiaeo (?in?y, Ieaei?e Iiaai?iae, 1995; Aeaaeeie?, 1996),
«Iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa: noai ? ia?niaeoeae a
Oe?a?i?» (Ee?a, 1998) oa ii.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee ?iaioe, oaia yei? aoiaeeoue aei ieaio
aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeae?eo oai?aoe/ieo oa i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai iie?oieia??
?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoeiiiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie,
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaii? aeacaiiai a?aeae?eo, a oaeiae
a?aeia?aaeaii o 8 ioae?eaoe?yo, c yeeo ia caoeno i?aaenoaaeaii 4.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie
aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioo neeaaeathoue anooi, /ioe?e ?icae?ee, aeniiaee,
nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 180
noi??iie, nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e iae?/o? 288 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, noai ??
iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee ye o na?oia?e, oae ? a?o/eciyi?e iie?oe/i?e iaooe?,
oi?ioeththoueny iaoa oa caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, aecia/aii iaoiaeieia?/io
iniiao, iaoeiao iiaecio, iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, i?aaenoaaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i
ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai ye noni?eueii-iie?oe/iee
oaiiiai» aeine?aeaeothoueny ia?aaeoiiae noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, ?icaeyaeathoueny ?? ie?ai? eiioeaioe??, ui
noi?ioaaeeny iai?ee?ioe? XIX — o ia?o?e iieiaei? XX no. Iaei??th c
iaeaeaai?oeo aeieo?ei eeaniaiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ? eiioeaioe?y
iaoa?iae?cio. Iaea?eueo a?aeiieie i?iiaaaiaeenoaie iaoa?iae?cio aoee O.
Ea Iea oa AE.A.Nae.

Aiae?coth/e ianooii? oai??? eeaniaiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, aaoi?
i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui oa?aeoa?iith ?enith ii/aoeiaiai ia??iaeo
noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ? oa, ui a?aeiineie i?ae
iaeiaiei ?ia?oieeii oa i?aei?e?ioeai iineee ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee oa?aeoa? c
aeoeaioii ia ethaenueeee oaeoi?. Iieaciaeie a oeueiio ieai? ? oai??y
ethaenueeeo noinoie?a o i?iieneiaino?, iniiai? i?eioeeie yei? aoee
noi?ioeueiaai? A.Iaei, O.?aoe?naa?aa?ii oa O.Oaeei?ii, a oaeiae
eiioeaioe?y noaa?eueiino? o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei oa cao?aeiii?iaoeueea
oai??y iniaenoi-i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei.

Noaiiaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? noaa?eueiino? o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei o?nii
iia’ycaia c aeieeiaiiyi a?eueaeaenueeiai nioe?ae?cio oa i?aoeyie
aiae?enueeiai aeiiii?noa Ae.Eioea. Oe?ii?noue ?aeae Ae.Eioea, ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, iieyaa? ianaiia?aae o oiio, ui aiie ni?eyee aeciaiith cia/aiiy
ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a a no/ani?e i?iieneiaino?. ?aea? i?iieneiaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy aeiiiiiaee ni?yioaaoe iie?oeeo i?ioni?eie o noa?o
i?aeoe/iiai ae??oaiiy ieoaiue.

Ca oai???th iniaenoi i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei ethaenuee? noinoiee ? iniaeeaith
oi?iith i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaii c i?aaiaeie iaia’yceaie
noi??i o?oaeiai? oaiaee. Ua o 70-o ??. O?O no. a I?ia//ei?
ioi?iethaaeanue aeoiea i?i eeaniaa ni?a?ia?oieoeoai, ui i?eaaea aei
ao?eaiiy a aeeooy eaioeea?ii I. oii A?nia?eii ia?oi? o na?o? i?ia?aie
no?aooaaiiy caei?ia’y ?ia?oiee?a oeyoii aeiaiai?o. Oea aoei oaeoe/ii
ii/aoeii ?aeaieia?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aea? ia?oia?noaa i?ae aeanieeaie
? ?ia?oieoeoaii a ?? no/aniiio ?icoi?ii?.

Aaoi?ii aiae?cothoueny i?aeaaeeie nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee Aano??? ye
e?a?ie, ui ia? iaeio c iaea?eueo ?icaaeoaeaieo oa ae??aeo nenoai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?ioni?eie oa i?aai?caoe?e ?iaioiaeaaoe?a. Nioe?aeuei?
?aoi?ie iaee i?noea ua ca /an?a Aano?i-Oai?nueei? iiia?o??. I?ioa
iioe?eeenue aiie i?ney ? na?oiai? a?eie, eiee o 1918 ?. eaioeea?ii
?anioae?ee I?iaoeueei? Aano??? noaa aano?iia?eneno E.?aiia?. ?c nenoaie
aeiaiai??a a?i ia aeeeth/a? aea?aeaao, yea ia? aeaeyae «iie?oe/ii?
ei?ii?aoe??». I?ioa ?ieue aea?aeaae iieyaa? a ioi?ieaii? noinoie?a i?ae
i?aoeath oa eai?oaeii.

Iaeiei ?c ao?eaiue ?aea? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ? eiioeaioe?y o/ano?
o i?eaooeao, ui oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeaia o aaaaoueio ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao.
Ni?iae caeo/aiiy ?ia?oiee?a oa neoaeaiaoe?a aei aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano?
o i?eaooeao i?aei?e?inoaa nyaathoue 40-o ?ie?a XIX no. C oai?aoe/iei
iaa?oiooaaiiyi aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio ?iciiae?eo i?eaooe?a aenooiea
A.Aa?iooaei, yeee aaaaeaa oea ?aeeiei i?aaeeueiei oeyoii «ia?aoai?aiiy
a?aeieo ia aaaaoeo».

Aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui nueiaiaei?oiy iie?oeea nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa io?eiaea cia/io oai?aoe/io i?aeo?eieo o aeaeyae? aaaaoueio
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo eiioeaioe?e: ye oaeeo, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue ci?io
naii? noo? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, oae ? eiioeaioe?e, iia’ycaieo c
eiino?othaaiiyi oa ?aaoethaaiiyi ?eieo i?aoe?. Oiio ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa
?icaeoie iie?oeee nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i? iiaeiai eoe o
o?ni?e aca?iiae?? c ae?iaie/ith oa nioe?aeueiith iie?oeeith aea?aeaae.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai – ia?aaeeaia noaiiaeaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaaiino?: na?oiaee aeina?ae» ?icaeyaeathoueny
?nioth/? ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue iiaeae? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa,
aiae?co?oueny ?o i?eaeaoi?noue aei oe?a?inueeeo oiia.

I?ney Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie, yea noaea ia?aeiiiei iiiaioii o ia?aoiae?
a?ae ?iaeea?aeoae?nonueei? nenoaie aei nenoaie a?oiiai-eiiia?aoeaieo
oe?iiinoae, ii/aany ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa. Oey eiioeaioe?y ia? aeae?eueea eeaneo?eaoe?e, ye?
aeoiaeyoue ye c aaia?ao?/ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiiai e?eoa??y, oae ? e?eoa??y
iie?oe/ii? ?aeaieia??. Ca ia?oiai aecia/athoue aia?eeainueeo,
neaiaeeiaanueeo, ?a?iiaenueeo, a oaeiae aiaeinaeniinueeo, ?iiainueeo,
na?aaeiuei?a?iiaenueeo oa neaiaeeiaanueeo iiaeae?. A eiioaeno? e?eoa??y
iie?oe/ii? ?aeaieia?? iiaeae? aeie?aieththoueny ye eiina?aaoeaia,
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ia ? aeaiie?aoe/ia. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, naia oeae
e?eoa??e o iaea?eueo oi/iee niin?a a?aeia?aaea? ia o?eueee nooi?noue
??cieo iiaeaeae nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, a e aeicaiey? ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe
oiiae oa /eiieee, ui i?ecaaee aei oi?ioaaiiy eiaeii? c ieo,
oiiaeeeaethth/e aecia/aiiy a?oioo aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiioeaioe??
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a o?e /e ?io?e e?a?i?.

Ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiina?aaoeaii? iiaeae?, aei yei? aaoi? a?aeiineoue
Niieo/ai? Ooaoe Aia?eee oa ssiii?th, a?eueoith i??ith aaco?oueny ia
caaaeuei?e i?aaina?aeiiino? e aeia??e aie? noi??i, ? iaioith — ia
caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao. Aiae?c no/anii? no?aoaa?? oi?aae?iiy ia?aeiio? a
aeoea?caoe?? «ethaenueeiai oaeoi?o», ui a no/ani?e ?icoe?ai?e o?aeoiaoe?
?icaeyaea?oueny ia eeoa ye o/aniee ae?iaieoeoaa, a e ye eiiieaeniee
noa’?eo on?o noaae?e nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei.

Aeey aeaiie?aoe/ii? iiaeae? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa (I?ia//eia,
Aano??y) oa?aeoa?ia iayai?noue i?aai?a nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ia an?o
??aiyo. Oe? i?aaie caeiathoueny, ianaiia?aae, iiia?aaeaeoaaeueiith
?iaioith, ui aeicaiey? ia aeiaiaeeoe ni?aao aei na?eicieo eiioe?eo?a.

Iaei??th c iniaeeainoae Aano??? oa I?ia//eie ? neeueia oeaio?ae?caoe?y
i?aai?caoe?e i?ioni?eie. Aeinyaiaiiyi oe??? nenoaie ? aeniea
noaa?euei?noue ia?aaiai?iiai i?ioeano.

Nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/i?e iiaeae? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a?aeiia?aea?
oae caaia «oaaaenueea iiaeaeue». Oey nenoaia caniiaaia ia aca?iiae?? oa
a?aeiia?aeiiio ?iciiae?e? ooieoe?e aea?aeaae, i?aei?e?ioe?a oa
i?ioni?eie. I?e/iio, ia a?aei?io a?ae eiina?aaoeaii? iiaeae?, aea?aeaaa
aenooia? aieiaiei aeaiie?aoe/iei ?ino?oiaioii, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai
iiaeia ia o?eueee caaacia/oaaoe noaa?euei?noue aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, a e
aeiiaaaoeny ?? aaeineiiaeaiiy, caa??aath/e iniiao — ?eieiaa
ainiiaea?noai oa i?eaaoia i?aei?e?iieoeoai. Aaoi?ii aiae?co?oueny
ae?yeuei?noue Oeaio?aeueiiai ia’?aeiaiiy i?ioni?eie Oaaoe?? (OeIIO),
nooi?iue o/ano? o?oaeyueo a yeiio ? aeoaea aenieee. Aaoi? caa?oa? oaaao
ia iaeei aaaeeeaee ? oeiiaee o?eueee aeey oe??? e?a?ie aniaeo
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee, ui aaeeeith i??ith iaoiiaea ?? aoaeoeai?noue. A
naia: yeui a ?ioeo aea?aeaaao Caoiaeo nioe?aeueia iie?oeea noaea
neeaaeieeii aea?aeaaii-iiiiiie?noe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee eeoa o
60-? ?iee, oi o Oaaoe??, ii/eiath/e c 40-o ?ie?a, nioe?aeueia iie?oeea ?
iaeiei c aieiaieo aeaiaio?a aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee.

O aoaeue-ye?e iiaeae? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa iayaia nenoaia o/ano?
iaeiaieo ?ia?oiee?a o i?eaooeao, ui ?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aaaeeeaei
oaeoi?ii i?iieneiai? aeaiie?ao??. ?ioei aniaeoii i?iieneiai? aeaiie?ao??
? i?aai ?ia?oiee?a ia o/anoue a oi?aae?ii?, ui cae/aeii ia? aea? oi?ie.
Ia?oa iieyaa? o iaaeaii? iiaiiaaaeaiue i?aaiai oaa?e/iiai
(caaiaenueeiai) i?aaenoaaieoeoaa, ae?oaa — o aeeth/aii? i?aaenoaaiee?a
?ia?oiee?a aei neeaaeo ea??aiiai i?aaio o??ie. Aaoi? aiae?co? aeina?ae
I?ia//eie, aea o/anoue a oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaii a?aeaoaa?oueny a
?aieao oa?eoii? aaoiiii??, yea ia?aaeaa/a? naiaiaeo nioe?aeueieo
ia?oia??a aeiiiaeyoeny i?i ca?ia?oio ieaio oa oiiae i?aoe? aac i?yiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy, oi/a e ca?aeii c aecia/aieie i?aaiaeie ii?iaie.

Aaoi?ii i?iiiio?oueny canoinoaaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? iiaeae? nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa (cie?aia, noai?aiiy ?aae i?aei?e?inoa, ?inoeoooo oa?eoii?
aaoiiii??) ye iaea?eueo i?eaeaoii? aeey oiia ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo a
Oe?a?i?. A?aenooi?noue no?eeeo o?aaeeoe?e nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa,
iayai?noue oo?eiainueeeo iano?i?a o noni?euenoa?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ia
a?aeiia?aea? eiina?aaoeai?e iiaeae? c ?? iaaieinii ia caaaeuei?e
i?aaina?aeiiino? o ethaenueeeo noinoieao. Oaeiae ia a?aeiia?aea?
no/aniei oiiaai Oe?a?ie nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ia iiaeaeue nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa c iaaeaenieeie iiaeaoeaie oa ia iaio aenieei ??aiai
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy.

I?ioa aaoi? i?aee?aneth? aio/e?noue nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa,
yea ia ? canoeaeith oi?iith. Iaeia iiaeaeue iiaea aeiiiaithaaoenue
?enaie ?ioi?. Aieiaiith oiiaith aeey ?nioaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa
? noai?aiiy aea?aeaaith iaaiiai eiea eii?aeeioth/eo iaoai?ci?a, aac yeeo
aeiaeia iiaeaeue ?nioaaoe ia iiaea.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/i? aniaeoe aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee
o noa?? o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei a e?a?i?» aiae?co?oueny noaiiaeaiiy
?ia?oie/iai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? oa noai eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai i?ioeano aei
ii/aoeo 90-o ??. OO no.

Iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. Oe?a?ia a?aenoaaaea a?ae caaaeueiiai
?iaeono??aeueiiai ??aiy ?in??. ?ioaineaiee i?iieneiaee ?icaeoie e?a?ie,
ui ?icii/aany c 1902 ?., iioya ca niaith ia eeoa e?euee?nia c?inoaiiy
?ia?oieoeoaa, aea e ona?aeiieaiiy iei nai?o aeiiii?/ieo i?aa. C 1905
?ieo, aaaaea? aaoi?, ieoaiiy o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o ia?aeoei c th?eaee/ii?
noa?e o noa?o ?ia?oie/iai ?ooo, a ieiueio ?aaeueieo eiioe?eo?a i?ae
?ia?oieeaie oa i?aei?e?ioeyie.

Aeena?oaioii aeine?aeaeo?oueny ae?yeuei?noue i?eie?ieo eaia? oa
o?aoaenueeeo noae?a, ?nioaaiiy yeeo a Oe?a?i? aei 1917 ?. aoei
iaoiiaeaia oei, ui i?ioan?ei? ?ia?oie/? nithce ia aoee ia oie /an
iano?eueee i?oeieie, uia acyoe ia naaa ea??aieoeoai o ae??oaii? an?o
eiioe?eo?a ia ie?aieo i?aei?e?inoaao. Aaoi? aiae?co? ?inoeoooe??, ui
aoee iieeeeai? ae??ooaaoe o?oaeia? nii?e ca /an?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee,
o?yaeo I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai oa Aee?aeoi???.

A?ae /ano anoaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee iaeiei c aieiaieo iai?yi?a
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee aoei i?iaieioaii ?ia?oie/ee eiio?ieue iaae
ae?iaieoeoaii oa ae??oaiiy eiioe?eo?a i?ae i?aei?e?ioeyie oa
?ia?oieeaie; i?noea eieaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?o caeiya aeae?ao.

Iaea?eueoith aaaaoia?aii?noth nioe?aeueii-o?oaeia? a?aeiineie
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny a ia??iae iaio, ca oiia ?nioaaiiy aaaaoioeeaaeii?
aeiiii?ee. Aieiaiith iniaeea?noth o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei oiai ia??iaeo aoea
i?aeoeea oeeaaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a i?ae aaei?i?no?aoe??th oa
i?ioni?eeaie, ye? ?a?no?oaaeeny a Ia?eiiao? i?aoe?. Oeeaaeaiiy iiae?aieo
eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, na?ae/eei i?i cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aeayeeo aeaiaio?a nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a o?oaeia? a?aeiineie.

C ia?oeo aea aei?a i?eoiaeo a?eueoiaee?a aei aeaaee noaea aeooaeueiith
i?iaeaia aca?iia?aeiinei i?ioni?eie ? aea?aeaae. Niaoeeo?/i?noue
ooieoe?e ?aaeyinueeeo i?ioni?eie nii/aoeo i?iyaeyeanue o aeoaethaaii?
?iaioe Ia?eiiaoo i?aoe?, a c 1933 ?. aiane?aeie ceeooy Ia?eiiaoo i?aoe?
c AOe?IN a?aeaoeanue ia?aaea/a i?ioni?eeai on?o ooieoe?e Ia?eiii?aoe?. O
1937 ?. aoei e?ea?aeiaaii ?aeiii?, iaeani?, e?aeia? oa ?anioae?eainuee?
?aaee i?ioni?eie, ana?aaeei? i?ioni?eeiaiai ?ooo ?icaeioeenue
oaiaeaioe?? aei iaiaaeaiiy aeaiie?ao??, ui cacia/aeinue iaa?oue ie?aieie
iinoaiiaaie ieaioi?a AOe?IN. Aioeaeaiie?aoe/i? oaiaeaioe?? ciaeoee
ae?ac, cie?aia, o o?eaaeiio iaiaaeai? naiaiaee o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o, ui
iaaeae? i?iyaeeinue a oiio oaeo?, ui o?oaeiaee aeiaia?? ia aaaaeaany
ii?iaoeaiith oaiaeith.

Aaoi? cacia/a?, ui niaoeeo?/iith iniaeea?noth ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a ? i?aai ia canoinoaaiiy i?eiono. A?i yaey? niaith iaea?eueo
oa?aeoa?io iciaeo aeaaeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a. Ioaea,
a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??, cie?aia i?ioni?eee, ia iiaeooue iaoe oaeiai
i?aaa, oi/a a c o??? i?e/eie, ui /eainoai a ieo ? aeia?ia?eueiei. ?acii
c oei ia an?o aoaiao nioe?ae?noe/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa i?ioni?eee iaee
i?aai canoinoaaiiy i?eiono ? c /anii ci?ithaaany eeoa ianya ?oi?o
iiaiiaaaeaiue.

Iaeaaaeeea?oith ooieoe??th i?ioni?eie o aoaeue-ye?e e?a?i? ? caoenia
ooieoe?y. Ia iath/e iiaeeeainoae ?aaeueii aieeaaoe ia iieaoo oa oiiae
i?aoe?, ?aaeyinuee? i?ioni?eee iiaeooue aooe i?eeeaaeii a i?aai?caoe??
aeica?eey, caoiae?a ii ioi?ii? caei?ia‘y, caaacia/aiiy aeeoeiaeo oiia
oiui.

A ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? i?iaieiooaaeanue aeoiea, ui ia i?aei?e?inoaao oa
i?aai?caoe?yo aoei aeinyaiooi aenieee ??aaiue naiioi?aae?iiy. Iani?aaae?
a N?N? neeaeany nai???aeia iiaeaeue o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei, oa?aeoa?ieie
?enaie yei? aoa aea?aeaaiee iaoa?iae?ci oa ea??aia ?ieue eiiia?o?? ia
ieciaiio ??ai?. Oei ia iaio, aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?aeoeea
??ciiiai?oieo oi?i caeo/aiiy o?oaeyueo aei oi?aae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaii:
oaa?e/ii-caaiaenuee? i?noeaa? eii?oaoe, iino?eii ae?th/? ae?iaie/?
?aaee, a?oie ia?iaeiiai eiio?ieth, a?iiaaenuee? ath?i eaae??a,
oiaa?enuee? noaee oa ?aaee o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a. Ia oie /an oe? i?aaie
aoee ac??oeyie ae?iaie/i? aeaiie?ao?? oa nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa.

Aeena?oaio aeneiaeth? aeoieo, ui aeaiaioe nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a
o?oaeiaeo a?aeiineiao o ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? aoee i?enooi?. I?ioa ?oiy
ae??a?noue cia/ii iineaaethaaeanue iaaeeeoeiaei aea?aeaaiei ao?o/aiiyi a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia aeeooy e?a?ie, ui, c iaeiiai aieo, aei iaaii?
i??e iicaaaeyei ye aee?aeoi?nueeee ei?ion, oae ? i?ioni?eee naiaiaee
ae?e, a c ae?oaiai, ni?eyei aei??iaiith o ianaeaiiy aoaoenonueeeo
iano?i?a. Iane?aeee oe??? iie?oeee a?ae/oaathoueny ? nueiaiaei? o
iaaei??iiio iieeaaeaii? ia aea?aeaai? ?inoeoooe iaeiaieo ?ia?oiee?a oa
iaaiaaiaiino? o aeanieo neeao ea??aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie iie?oeee nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i?: ?aae??, i?iaeaie, ia?niaeoeae» aiae?co?oueny
iie?oeea nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ia no/aniiio aoai?, aeine?aeaeo?oueny
ae?yeuei?noue noa‘?eo?a, aiinyoueny i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a iao?e e?a?i?.

Iaeii/anii c i?iaieioaiiyi Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino? ii/aany ?? ia?ao?ae
aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Oeae ia?ao?ae ii?iaeea ieceo nioe?aeueieo
i?iaeai, ye? aeiaaaee a?aeiia?aeieo caoiae?a nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee,
cie?aia o noa?? nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei. Aeieeea aino?a iio?aaa
iiaiai caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy. Aaoi?ii aiae?co?oueny caeiiioai?/ee
i?ioean o ieai? a?aeiinei i?ae aeanieeaie ? iaeiaieie ?ia?oieeaie,
cie?aia oae? caeiie, ye: «I?i ioi?iio i?aoe?», i?eeiyooy yeiai, ca
aeciaiiyi i?aeia?iaeiei aenia?o?a, noaei ciaiaiiith iiae??th ia eeoa a
Oe?a?i?, a e ia anueiio i?inoi?? eieeoiueiai N?N?, «I?i ii?yaeie
ae??oaiiy eieaeoeaieo o?oaeiaeo nii??a (eiioe?eo?a)», ui iaa?aa /eiiino?
31 aa?aciy 1998 ?. Aeinyaiaiiyi oeueiai Caeiio ? noai?aiiy ?icaaeoaeaii?
Iaoe?iiaeueii? neoaeae iina?aaeieoeoaa ? i?eie?aiiy, ??oaiiy yei?
iaoeiooue ?aeiiaiaeaoe?eiee oa?aeoa? ? aoaeooue iaia‘yceia? aei
?icaeyaeo iaiia noi?iiaie oa i?aaiaie aeaaee.

Noiniaii /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa o noa?? nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei,
aaoi? aaaaea?, ui iniaeeao oaaao iaiao?aeii caa?iooe ia oi?ioaaiiy
iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? i?aa oa aa?aio?e, cao?eniaaieo o caeiiiaeaa/eo oa
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeoao; aaeaeaaoi?noue caeiiiaeaa/eo i?aa oa aa?aio?e
oiiaai ?o ?aae?caoe??; i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? no?oeoo?
aeeiiaa/i? oa noaeiai? aeaaee o caaacia/aii? ?aae?caoe?? o?oaeiaeo i?aa
oa aa?aio?e.

Ae??oaeueiei iiiaioii ?icaeoeo nioeiaeueii-o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei ?
oi?ioaaiiy i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo no?oeoo? — i?ioan?eieo ni?eie oa
ia’?aeiaiue i?aoeaaeaaoe?a, ye? a?aeiinyoueny aei ?inoeooae?ciaaieo a?oi
?ioa?an?a iie?oeei-aeiiii?/ii? noa?e. Iaea?eueo aaaiieie a oeueiio ieai?
? Oe?a?inueeee Nithc i?iieneiaoe?a oa i?aei?e?ioe?a ? Oaaea?aoe?y
I?ioni?eie Oe?a?ie. Aaoi? aiae?co? ae?yeuei?noue oeeo nioe?aeueieo
ia?oia??a, cie?aia ni?euei? ae?? i?e i?aeienaii? 18 aeiaoiy 1997 ?ieo
Aaia?aeueii? oaiaee i?ae Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ? ONII oa
i?ioni?eeiaeie ia‘?aeiaiiyie Oe?a?ie ia 1997-1998 ??. Caeo/aiiy aei
Aaia?aeueii? oaiaee ?iaioiaeaaoe?a iaaiith i??ith na?ae/eoue i?i
ona?aeiieaiiy an?ia noi?iiaie ia?aaiai?iiai i?ioeano iaiao?aeiino?
i?enei?aiiy ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa. I?ioa aaoi? aeneiaeth?
noii?a uiaei ei?aeoiino? i?aeienaiiy Oaiaee I?ai‘??ii-i?i?no?ii Oe?a?ie
a?ae noi?iie aeaniee?a. Aeina?ae aaaaoueio e?a?i na?ae/eoue, ui
aea?aeaai? i?aaie iiaeii? iaoe eeoa iina?aaeieoeuee? ooieoe??, a ia
caeiaoe a?e iaei??? ?c noi??i.

I?ioan?ei? ni?eee — caeiiii??iee oa iaiao?aeiee ?inoeooo oeea?e?ciaaiiai
noni?euenoaa. Ia nueiaiaei? a?aei?ii?noue a?o/eciyieo i?ioni?eie a?ae
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo iieyaa? a ?oi?e nioe?aeuei?e iaiaeii??aeiino?.
Aiie aeeth/athoue i?aaenoaaiee?a ye c aieo iaeiaieo ?ia?oiee?a, oae ? c
aieo aeanieea. Oea ? iaei??th c iniia aeey ni?eueieo ae?e iaio a?oi. A
oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo oaea ?aei?noue ? ia’?eoeaiith ?aaeuei?noth.
?ioith iniaeea?noth a?o/eciyieo i?ioni?eie ? ?o niaoeeo?/i? caoeni?
ooieoe?? (i?aai?caoe?y aeica?eey oa icaei?iaeaiiy, caaacia/aiiy
iaeaaeiiai ??aiy aeeooy i?aoe?aiee?a oa /eai?a ?o n?iae oiui). Aaoi?
aeneiaeth? i?eiouaiiy, ui aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ioni?eie o
ieai? oi?ioaaiiy, i?aaenoaaeaiiy ? caaacia/aiiy i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a o
o?oaeia?e ae?yeueiino? eiei iai?yi?a oa aae?anao?a iiaeiii aooe
caoaeaii. Eiioeaio?aoe?y coneeue ia aieiaieo iai?yiao ?aaoethaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei aeicaieeoue aoaeoeaii caoeuaoe ?ioa?ane
iaeiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a, a a ?acoeueoao? — i?aeaeueoe ?acoeueoaoeai?noue
i?ioni?eeiai? ae?yeueiino?. Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae i?ioni?eeiaiai ?ooo
na?ae/eoue i?i aei?aaaeai?noue iaiaaeaiue iai?yi?a ae?yeueiino?
i?ioni?eie noa?ith i?aoe?.

Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ? oi?ie oa iaoiaee
ae??oaiiy o?oaeiaeo nii??a oa eiioe?eo?a, ui aeicaieythoue ?o
iiia?aaeeoe aai iii‘yeoeoe. Nooo?aei e?ieii o oeueiio iai?yi? ?
noai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? o 1993 ?. Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. Ca o/anoth Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee
?ic?iaeaii i?iaeo Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai». Ie??i
caeiiioai?/i? ?iaioe, I?NI, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ia? ni?eyoe oiio, uia
?aa?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane ciaoiaeeee aeo?ae ia o?eueee /a?ac caeiiiaeaa/o oa
aeeiiaa/o aeaaeo, aea e /a?ac i?noeaa? i?aaenoaaieoeuee? i?aaie
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa.

Aei iaea?eueo neeaaeieo i?iaeai, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei noinothoueny
noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i?, ne?ae a?aeianoe
neooaoe?th ia oe?a?inueeiio ?eieo i?aoe?. Aenieee ??aaiue no?aee?a,
c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? aac?ia?oieo ia iiaeooue ni?eyoe iie?oeoe?
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa. C iaeyaeo ia ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae aaoi?ii
i?iiiiothoueny oae? iiia?aaeaeoaaeuei? oa ?aaoethth/? caoiaee: /anoeiaa
aai iiaia a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeo?ao ?iaioiaeaaoeyi ia ca?ia?oio ieaoo
aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo eaoaai??e ?ia?oiee?a; aaceiooiaia aeey
i?aei?e?inoaa oa ?ia?oieea ia?ai?aeaioiaea eaae??a o aea?aeaaieo
caeeaaeao; noai?aiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao ?aaeei?a aeia?ia?eueiiai a?ao?eo
?ia?o a oiiaao iaiiaiiai ?iai/iai /ano.

Iaoai?ci nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, ui neeaaea?oueny a Oe?a?i? ? ae?? ia
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai?, oaeoe/ii ia? oa?aeoa? o?eia?oecio.
Nenoaia o?eia?oecio aeicaiey? caaeainoaaoe aca?ii? aeiiae ?ia?oiee?a oa
i?aoeaaeaaoe?a ? c ?ioeo i?iaeai. Aieiaia, uia aea?aeaaa iioo?aoaaeanue
i?i ni?aaaaeeea? i?aaeea a?e ? c?icoi?ea, iane?eueee iaaacia/iei iiaea
aooe aeenaaeain nee o noa?? i?aoe?.

Eiie?aoieie e?ieaie ia oeyoo aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i? aaoi? aaaaea?: aeeiiaiiy aea?aeaaith ooieoe?e
a?a?o?a oa aa?aioa o caaacia/aii? aeainoi?iii?o oaiae i?ae nithcaie
i?aei?e?ioe?a oa i?ioni?eeiaeie ia’?aeiaiiyie ?ia?oiee?a; i?iaaaeaiiy
i?i?noa?noaaie oa iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?yie aeoeaii? iie?oeee ia ?eieo
i?aoe? ye iaeia c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia caaacia/aiiy aa?aioiaaiiai caeiiiaeaanoaii
Oe?a?ie ??aiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aac?ia?oieo; a?aeiiaeaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo oi?i o/ano? ?ia?oiee?a a oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaaie — ?aae
o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a, ae?iaie/eo ?aae, a?oi yeino? oiui; oi?ioaaiiy
na?oiaeyaeo ??aiino? iaio ia?oia??a — i?aei?e?ioey ? ?ia?oieea.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? ocaaaeueiththoueny iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeiaaaeaii, ui noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa a?aeaoaaeinue ia Caoiae? ia??aiii??ii ? aecia/aeinue
iniaeeainoyie aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ?noi?e/iei iiiaioii oa eoeueoo?iei
iieai e?a?ie, ui iaoiiaethaaei iiyao ??cieo iiaeaeae nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa. Iaea?eueo i?eaeaoiith aeey Oe?a?ie iiaea aooe aeaiie?aoe/ia
iiaeaeue. Aieiaiith oiiaith aeey ?nioaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ?
noai?aiiy aea?aeaaith iaaiiai eiea eii?aeeioth/eo iaoai?ci?a, aac yeeo
aeiaeia iiaeaeue ?nioaaoe ia iiaea. Nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, c
iaeiiai aieo, caeaoia caaacia/eoe nioe?aeueio ceaaiaeo a ianooaaao an???
e?a?ie, a c ?ioiai, iiaea ni?eyoe aeinyaiaiith eiie?aoieo oaiae a
ie?aieo aaeocyo. Iie?oeea nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ? oei iaoai?ciii, c
aeiiiiiaith yeiai ia?ao?ae Oe?a?ie aei iino?iaeono??aeueiiai
noni?euenoaa iiaea a?aeaoaaoenue iaio aie?nii, noai?thth/e oiiae, ui
ni?eyoeiooue ?icaeoeo aeaiie?ao??. Aaoi?ii aecia/athoueny eeth/ia?
iai?yie oa eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy uiaei noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o ianooiieo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

Eyoaiei O.I. Nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai ye oaeoi? iie?oe/ii? oa
nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino? // Iie?oe/ia nenoaia no/anii? Oe?a?ie:
iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy, oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo. — E.: Ia?eaiaionueea
aeaeaaieoeoai, 1998. — 0,5 ae?oe.a?e.

Eyoaiei O.I. Nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai: eiinoeoooe?eia ii?ia /e ocae/a?ia
o?aaeeoe?y? // Iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa: noai ?
ia?niaeoeae a Oe?a?i?: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??, 26-27 ethoiai 1998 ?. — E.: Aiicen, 1998. — 0,2 ae?oe.a?e.

Eyoaiei O. ?ieue aea?aeaae o nenoai? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa //
Iaoeia? caienee. Ca??iee. — E.: ?inoeooo iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei ?
iie?oieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1997. — Aei.1. — 0,2 ae?oe.a?e.

Eyoaiei O. Aeaye? i?iaeaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iie?oeee nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i? // Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo?
Aano??? oa Oe?a?ie. Ca. iaoa??ae?a oe?a?inueei-aano??enueeiai
neiiic?oio. — Euea?a, 1996. — 0,3 ae?oe.a?e.

Eyoaiei O.I. Nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai ye oaeoi? iie?oe/ii? oa
nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino? a Oe?a?i?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.02 — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe ? i?ioeane. ?inoeooo
iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1998.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeo?oueny noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia
eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ye niiniao aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe??
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee o aeaiie?aoe/i?e aea?aeaa?, caaacia/aiiy
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino?, ci?oeiaiiy noni?eueieo canaae
aeaiie?ao??.

O oai?aoe/iiio ieai? nenoaiaoeciaaii iaoeiaee aacen eiioeaioe??
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, ?icaeyiooi i?ioean ?? ioi?ieaiiy ye oai???
nioe?aeueiiai ie?o, iiaiai noni?eueiiai aeiaiai?o, iaiao?aeiiai aeey
aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae, ia i?ioeaaao ?aea? eeaniai?
ai?ioueae. I?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c na?oiai? i?aeoeee
noaiiaeaiiy ??cieo oi?i, iiaeaeae oa iaoai?ci?a nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa o e?a?iao ?iaeono??aeueii? aeaiie?ao??, aecia/aii ?o
aeeiai?eo oa no/ani? oaiaeaioe??. Ia i?eeeaae? ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa
i?aai?caoe?e i?aei?e?ioe?a ? i?ioni?eie ca ?aaoethth/i? ooieoe??
aea?aeaae i?iaiae?ciaaii nenoaio o?eia?oecio, ui ? ae??aei niiniaii
iineaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaeo eiioe?eo?a, iniaeeai a ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae.

O i?eci? eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa
aeine?aeaeo?oueny nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie o XX no., ui
aeicaiey? aaanoe eiai a eiioaeno caaaeueiina?oiaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, noaiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae. Oaeee i?aeo?ae oiiaeeeaea
aeie?aieaiiy iiaeae? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, yea ? iaea?eueo
a?aeiia?aeiith aei oiia no/anii? Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai, o?eia?oeci, nioe?aeueia
aea?aeaaa, nioe?aeueia iie?oeea, nioe?aeueii-o?oaeia? eiioe?eoe,
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae, i?ioni?eee, ?iaeono??aeueia aeaiie?ao?y, iiaee
noni?eueiee aeiaia??.

Eyoaiei O.I. Nioeeaeueiia ia?oia?noai eae oaeoi? iieeoe/aneie e
nioeeaeueiie noaaeeueiinoe a Oe?aeia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iieeoe/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.02 — iieeoe/aneea einoeooou e i?ioeannu.
Einoeooo iieeoe/aneeo e yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee IAI Oe?aeiu.
Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa enneaaeoaony iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneay
eiioeaioeey nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa eae niiniaa yooaeoeaiie
?aaeecaoeee nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee a aeaiie?aoe/aneii ainoaea?noaa,
iaania/aiea nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie noaaeeueiinoe, oe?aieaiea
iauanoaaiiuo iniia aeaiie?aoee.

A oai?aoe/aneii ieaia nenoaiaoece?iaaii iao/iue aacen eiioeaioeee
nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, ?anniio?aii i?ioeann aa ioi?ieaiey a ea/anoaa
oai?ee nioeeaeueiiai ie?a, iiaiai iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a, iaiaoiaeeiiai
aeey yaiethoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey ainoaea?noaa, a i?ioeaiaan eaeaa eeanniaie
ai?ueau. I?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniue n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec ie?iaie i?aeoeee
noaiiaeaiey ?acee/iuo oi?i, iiaeaeae e iaoaieciia nioeeaeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa a no?aiao eiaeono?eaeueiie aeaiie?aoee, ii?aaeaeaii eo
aeeiaieeo e nia?aiaiiua oaiaeaioeee. Ia i?eia?a nio?oaeie/anoaa
i?aaiecaoeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e i?ionithcia i?e ?aaoee?othuae ooieoeee
ainoaea?noaa i?iaiaeece?iaaia nenoaia o?eia?oecia, eioi?ay yaeyaony
aeaenoaaiiui niiniaii ineaaeaiey nioeeaeueii-o?oaeiauo eiioeeeoia,
iniaaiii a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae.

A i?ecia eiioeaiooaeueiuo iniia nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa enneaaeoaony
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea Oe?aeiu a XX no., /oi iicaieyao
aaanoe aai a eiioaeno iauaie?iauo o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia,
noaiiaeaiey nioeeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa. Oaeie iiaeoiae naeaeae
aiciiaeiui ii?aaeaeaiea iiaeaee nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, iaeaieaa
niioaaonoaothuae oneiaeyi nia?aiaiiie Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueiia ia?oia?noai, o?eia?oeci, nioeeaeueiia
ainoaea?noai, nioeeaeueiay iieeoeea, nioeeaeueii-o?oaeiaua eiioeeeou,
ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae, i?ionithcu, eiaeono?eaeueiay aeaiie?aoey, iiaue
iauanoaaiiue aeiaiai?.

Lyashenko T.M. The Social Partnership as a Factor of Political and
Social Stability in Ukraine. — Manuscript.

The Thesis for Kandidat degree in Political Science (speciality 23.00.02
— the Political Institutions and Processes). The Institute of Political
and Ethno-National Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of
Ukraine. Kyiv, 1998.

In the thesis the conception of social partnership as a way to carry out
an efficient social policy in democratic state and to ensure the social
and political stability as well as to strengthen social foundations of
democracy is studied.

In the theoretical aspect the scholar basis of the conception is
systemised as well as the process of its forming as a theory of social
cooperation, a new social contract, which is needed to evolutionary
state development as opposed to the idea of class struggling, is
observed. A complex comparative analysis of the world’s practising
various forms, models and mechanisms of social partnership in the
industrial nations is done, its dynamics and contemporary trends are
defined. After the example of cooperation between employee organisations
and trade unions under state’s regulating function a tripartite system
is analysed. This system becomes an efficient way to weaken social and
labour conflicts, especially during the transition period.

In the prism of conceptual bases of social partnership a social and
economic development in Ukraine in XXth century is studied. It enables
to bring it into the context of the world’s transformation processes and
developing welfare state. On such grounds the model of social
partnership, which largely meets the terms of a modern Ukraine, is
determined.

Key words: social partnership, tripartism, welfare state, social policy,
social and labour conflicts, transition period, trade unions, industrial
democracy, new social contract.

I?i Iniiai? iai?yie nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee ia 1997-2000 ?iee: Oeac
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n.

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