IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss I?EEI?AeIIIEO A?ENUeE OE?A?IE

?iai? Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai

EOOA? AAEA??E AANEEUeIAE*

OAeE 344.1:343(477)

E?EI?IAEUeIA A?AeIIA?AeAEUeI?NOUe

A?ENUeEIAINEOAEAIAOess CA ?ICAIEIOAIIss

AeA?AEAAII? OA?IIEOe?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 20.02.03

A?enueeiaa i?aai; a?enueeia? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Caeiaoaa/ A. A. Eooa?

Oiaeueieoeueeee-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie ?iai? Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai,
Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao o ni?aaao ioi?iie aea?aeaaiiai ei?aeiio Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio A?EUOE A?eoi?
Eeeiiae/, Euea?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?. O?aiea,
eaoaae?a e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ? e?ei?iieia??, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio INOAIAIEI Ieaen?e ?aaiiae/,
Euea?anueeee ?inoeooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ia?oee i?i?aeoi?;

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe EIEIN Ieoaeei ?aaiiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee
oi?aa?neoao «Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea aeaaeai?y», Ino?icueea aeaaeai?y,
eaoaae?a niaoe?aeueieo th?eaee/ieo aeenoeeie?i, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie,
I?i?noa?noai aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa, i.
Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 17 ” a?oaeiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 70.705.02 Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie ?i. Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai ca aae?anith
200003, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, aoe. Oaa/aiea, 46.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? IAO.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 16 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio A.
A. Aae?iia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?eeiyooy Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Aeaeea?aoe?? i?i
aea?aeaaiee noaa?ai?oao Oe?a?ie a?ae 16 eeiiy 1990 ?ieo ? Aeoa
i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie a?ae 24 na?iiy 1991 ?ieo caeeaei
ooiaeaiaio aeey oi?ioaaiiy iacaeaaeiino? aea?aeaae Oe?a?ia, ?? aeanii?
i?aaiai? nenoaie.

A?ae aeiy iaaoooy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ia iaeiicia/ii ? iacaaaeaee
aecia/eea na?e no?aoaa?/iee eo?n ia iiaoaeiao noaa?aiii?,
aeaiie?aoe/ii?, i?aaiai? aea?aeaae ia canaaeao ?eieiai?, nioe?aeueii
i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie. Oeae eo?n ciaeoia naith eaaae?caoe?th
a Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie 1996 ?ieo, noaooy ainueia yei? i?iaieineea
i?eioeei aa?oiaainoaa i?aaa.

Iaiao?aeiith oiiaith oni?oiiai cae?eniaiiy a Oe?a?i? iaoe?iiaeueii —
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ? caeaoi?noue iieiaei? aea?aeaae caaacia/eoe
naith iaoe?iiaeueio aaciaeo. Noaooy 17 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie i?iaieineea,
ui “caoeno noaa?ai?oaoo ? oa?eoi??aeueii? oe?e?niino? Oe?a?ie,
caaacia/aiiy ?? aeiiii?/ii? oa ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aaciaee ? iaeaaaeeea?oeie
ooieoe?yie aea?aeaae, ni?aaith anueiai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo”. O ca’yceo
c oeei aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iaaea?oueny ieoaiiyi ioi?iie aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe?. Aac noai?aiiy iaae?eiiai i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio caoenoo
aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? iaiiaeeeai aoaeoeaii ?aae?coaaoe eiioeaioe?th
caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio. C?icoi?ei, ui
ae?iaeaiiy oaeiai iaoai?cio ia? a?oiooaaoeny ia anaa?/iiio iaoeiaiio
aeine?aeaeaii? no/anieo i?iaeai iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee.

Aeey ai?ioueae c iinyaaiiyie ia aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth aeei?enoiaothoueny
??ciiiai?oi? caniae — i?aai?caoe?ei?, aeiiii?/i?, aeoiai?, i?aaia? oa
?io?. Aaaeeeaa i?noea na?aae ieo caeiathoue e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? caniae.
*eiiee E?ei?iaeueiee eiaeaen Oe?a?ie (aeae?-EE) i?noeoue oe?eee ?yae
ii?i, ca yeeie eaae?o?eothoueny ie?ai? aeaee iinyaaiue ia aea?aeaaio
oa?iieoeth. Aei ieo, cie?aia, a?aeiinyoueny: no.no. 56, 57, 67, 68, 253
EE Oe?a?ie. Iayai?noue oeeo ii?i ia icia/a?, ui aiie ooai?ththoue iaaio
nenoaio. I?ae iacaaieie noaooyie EE Oe?a?ie iayaia oa?i?iieia?/ia
iaocaiaeaeai?noue, iaaei?aaaeaia eiieo?aioe?y .

I?iaaaeaia a oiae? iaienaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aea/aiiy i?aaicanoinia/i?
i?aeoeee iieaco?, ui e?ei?iaeuei? ni?aae i?i ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe? ii?ooothoueny ia /anoi. Ca aeaieie ne?ae/iai oi?aae?iiy
Neoaeae Aaciaee Oe?a?ie c 1991 ?ieo ii oaia??oi?e /an aoei ii?ooaii 16
e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa ca no.67 EE Oe?a?ie ? 2 e?ei?iaeuei? ni?aae ca
no.253 EE Oe?a?ie. Oaea iacia/ia e?euee?noue aeyaeaieo cei/ei?a
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?, i/aaeaeii, coiiaeea a?aenooi?noue
niaoe?aeueii? Iinoaiiae Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie, a ye?e aoea a
ocaaaeueiaia noaeiaa i?aeoeea ?icaeyaeo oe??? eaoaai??? ni?aa.

A?aeiinia cae?eo?noue aeaii? i?iaeaie iaoiiaeth? oa, ui ?aaaoaaiiy ia
iayai? iaaeie?ee o ai?iouea? c ?icaieioaiiyi aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?
cae?enith?oueny caniaaie i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa o oi?i? ?ino?oeoe?e,
aee?aeoea, iaeac?a.Oe? aeieoiaioe ia iathoue cia/aiiy aeo?a io?oe?eiiai
?ic’yniaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiio. Oiio iiaeia neacaoe, ui ia nueiaiaei?
i?iaeaia iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaiiai eiiieaeniiai ?ic’yniaiiy ieoaiue
canoinoaaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?, cie?aia,
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie, iio?aao? naiai ae??oaiiy.

A e?oa?aoo?? ieoaiith a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe? i?eae?eyeanue iaaia oaaaa. A?aeiia?aei? i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeoaaee I. N. Ae?en??a, O. I. Aoiaoo?i, A. I. Aa?ae??a, A. A.
Aeaae?i??ia, I. A. Aieiaeueei, N. A. Aeiiao?i, I. Ae. Aeo?iaiia, N. A.
Aeueyeia, A. A. ?aiaoue?a, A. I. ?aiaoue?a, I. I. Ea?iooei, I. E.
Ei?aeainueeee, A. ?. Eo?eyiaenueeee, I. N. Iaoeoaanueeee, A. Ae.
Iaiueoaa?i, I. I. Ieoaeeia, ?. A. Ni??iia, ?. ?. Nieiaee?i, A. O.
Oaeueiia, A. N. Oo?anueeee, I. A. Oiaeaea? oa ?io?.

Iaeiae, iioae?eiaai? ?iaioe aeeiiai?, ye i?aaeei, a ieioe? ?iee ?
iaienai? ia aac? ?ai?oa ae?th/iai nithciiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, noinothoueny
caaaeueiiai aiae?co cei/ei?a i?ioe aea?aeaae, ia a?aoiaothoue no/anio
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/io ? aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th. A?aenooi? a Oe?a?i? ?
niaoe?aeuei? iiiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?.

Oaeei /eiii, aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaiee
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iith aeooaeuei?noth i?iaeaie e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai?
ai?ioueae c ?icaieioaiiyi aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?, iaaeinoaoiueith
?ic?iaeai?noth i?iaeai ?? caoenoo a oai??? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa,
iaiao?aei?noth noi?ioethaaoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?i
ae?th/iai e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiio, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?? ioi?iio.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei ieaio iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie ia 1999 ??e, ieaio iaoeiai?
?iaioe Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie a ?aieao
IAe? ?299-1602I “E?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey
ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?” oa ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe eaoaae?e e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaiiy ? eiiieaenia
?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a
ai?ioueae c ?icaieioaiiyi aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? ? ae?iaeaiiy ia oe?e
iniia? i?iiiceoe?e uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ii?i /eiiiai
e?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno.

A?aeiia?ii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaai? ianooii?
caaaeaiiy:

1) aeine?aeeoe aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoie ?inoeoooo e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? oa
i?iaiae?coaaoe ii?ie EE OE?a?ie, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?;

2) i?iaanoe aiae?c ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo iciae neeaaeo cei/eio
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? oa aecia/eoe niaoeeo?eo eaae?o?eaoe??
oeueiai cei/eiiiai ae?yiiy o aeiaaeeo a/eiaiiy eiai
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeai;

3) aea/eoe oa ioe?ieoe i?aeoeeo canoinoaaiiy ii?i E?ei?iaeueiiai
eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?;

4) iaa?oiooaaoe oa noi?ioethaaoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
ii?i /eiiiai E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeueiinoue ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?.

Aeena?oaio aeei?enoaa iayaio i?aeoeeo canoinoaaiiy noaoae 67, 253 EE
Oe?a?ie, ne?ae/ei oi?aae?iiyi NAO, a?enueeiaeie noaeaie Oiaeueieoeueeiai
aa?i?ciio oa cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio ca 1991 — 1999 ?iee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieyaa?, ianaiia?aae, o oiio, ui aiia ? ia?oei a Oe?a?i? aeena?oaoe?eiei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi a yeiio ?icaeyioo? oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey ca ?icaieioaiiy
aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeiinyoueny ia ?icaeyae oa caoeno iieiaeaiiy, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue
aeiiaai iaoeiai? iiaecie:

1) ia?en ?noi??? aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ?inoeoooo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? ii/eiath/e c XIV noie?ooy aei 90-o
?ie?a XX noie?ooy.

2) eiioeaiooaeueiee aiae?c ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo iciae neeaaeo
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? oa niaoeeo?ea eaae?o?eaoe?? oeueiai
cei/eio o aeiaaeeo a/eiaiiy eiai a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeai.

3) iieiaeaiiy i?i ?iciaaeoaaiiy iiiyoue “aea?aeaaia oa?iieoey” ?
“a?enueeiaa oa?iieoey” oa iaiao?aei?noue neanoaaiiy no.253 EE Oe?a?ie.

4) i?iiiceoe?y anoaiiaeoe e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? ca aeiaai?iaeo i?e a?aenooiino? iciae
aea?aeaaii? c?aaee /e oieaoinoaa.

5) iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aaeaeoe?? noaoo? EE Oe?a?ie «Ii?eethaeiaiiy
aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?».

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeniiaee, i?iiiceoe?? ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe??, aoee aeei?enoai? i?e
?ic?iaeaii? i?ae?o/ieea «Neoaeaa ooaa?a I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie»
(IAe? 098-0001 E «Ooaa»), ii?aaeieea c? neoaeae c’?aeiaiue ? /anoei
I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie (IAe? 099-0001 E «C’?aeiaiiy») o
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie (aeo
?aae?caoe?? ? 31 a?ae 26.02.99), a oaeiae i?e i?aeaioiaoe? eo?no eaeoe?e
ii Iniaeea?e /anoei? E?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie aeey Aeaaeai??
I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie ?i. Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai (aeo
?aae?caoe?? a?ae 10.02.99) oa iiaeaeueoiio eiai aeeeaaeaii?. O
iiaeaeueoiio aiie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?: o caeiiioai?/?e
ae?yeueiino? — o i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee iiaiai EE Oe?a?ie; o
i?aaicanoinia/?e ae?yeueiino? — aeey caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino? noaeiai?
i?aeoeee ? i?aeaioiaee iinoaiia Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie c
ieoaiue canoinoaaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa a ni?aaao i?i
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?; o iaoeia?e ?iaio? — i?e i?iaaaeaii?
ianooiieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue c oe??? oa noi?aeieo oai; o
iaa/aeuei?e ?iaio? — i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?no Iniaeeai? /anoeie
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa, niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a, i?aeaioiaoe? a?aeiia?aeieo
?icae?e?a i?ae?o/iee?a ? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
can?aeaii? eaoaae?e e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie, ia ?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? o
Eueaia? (ethoee 1998?.) oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe??
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie (o?aaaiue 1998
?ieo). Ii?yae c oeei, c ieoaiue i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?
aenooiaa c aeiiia?aeyie ia i?aeeaoaae?aeueieo nai?ia?ao th?eaee/ieo
eaoaae? o Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeaaeai?? I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie.
Iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee ?iaioe aeei?enoaii a i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy eo?no
Iniaeeai? /anoeie e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeeaaeai? o /ioe?ueio noaooyo, ye? iioae?eiaai? a i?ia?aeieo iaoeiaeo
oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy
? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a caaaeueiei
ianyaii 157 noi??iie, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (198 iaeiaioaaiue)
oa aeiaeaoeo ia 4 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/a?oueny iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiaa iiaecia, noi?ioeueiaai?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, ?ice?eaathoueny oai?aoe/ia ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaaiaeyoueny aeai? ?o
ai?iaaoe?? oa i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “?noi?e/i? aniaeoe e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?” i?enay/aiee
c`ynoaaiith ieoaiue, iia`ycaieo c aeieeiaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai ?inoeoooo ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?.

Ii/eiath/e c e?ioey XIV noie?ooy Ineianueea noaeia a?aiioa
(1397-1467??.) caaaeo? i?i iiea?aiiy “ia?aaaoieea”, i?ae yeei iiaeia
?icoi?oe c iaeiaeiaith i?aenoaaith ? oa?iiiai ia?aaeaaa/a a?noae, ?
aea?aeaaiiai c?aaeieea, ? aea?aeoaa/a.

O eeyoaaieo caienao aiy? ? eiyc?a ia a??i?noue iineianueeiio ainoaea?th
a?ae ??-i? iieiaeie XVI noie?ooy iia?aeiieaiiy ?io?e noi?ii? iaiao?aeii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye cei/ei “c?aaea”.

A XVII noie?oo? cei/ei “c?aaea” oaeiae cono??/a?oueny a
o?anoioe?eoaaeueieo caienao, ia yeeo i?enyaaeinue iineianueea ianaeaiiy
iiaiia?aiiio ainoaea?th.

Aiae?coth/e ?noi??th ?icaeoeo iiiyooy cei/eio “c?aaea” iiaeia
anoaiiaeoe iniiai? eiai iciaee: c?aaea — oea ae?y, a ye?e aaa/a?oueny
iaeaeeae/ee iai?? iaianoe oeiaeo ?ioa?anai iineianueeiai ainoaea?y ia
ei?enoue ?ioi? aea?aeaae.

Na?aae iai’yoie i?aaa ?in?? na?aaeeie XIX noie?ooy iniaeeaa i?noea
caeia? ”Oeiaeaiea i iaeacaieyo oaieiaiuo e eni?aaeoaeueiuo” 1845 ?ieo. A
iueiio caeiiiaeaaaoeue aea? ia?ae?e ae?e, ye? aeciathoueny aea?aeaaiith
c?aaeith. Na?aae ieo caaaeo?oueny oaea ae?y, ye iia?aeiieaiiy
aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? ?iicaiiiio o?yaeo.

I?iaeiaaeoth/e aiae?c caeiiiaeaanoaa ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui a “Oaieiaiiio
oeiaeaii? 1903 ?ieo” cae??ieaia iiiyooy oieaoinoaa, yea iieyaa? a
iia?aeiieaii? a?aeiiinoae, ieaio, iaethieo, aeieoiaioa, ui caa??aaany a
nae?ao?. Iaea?eueo /?oeiai aecia/aiiy cei/eio ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe? caeiiiaeaaaoeue aeinya o Caeii? 1912 ?ieo “I?i ci?ie ae?th/eo
caeii?a i?i aea?aeaaio c?aaeo oeyoii oieaoinoaa a ie?iee /an”. Oea
aeaea/a a?enueeiaeo oa?iieoeue, yea iieyaaea a iioae?eoaaii?,
iia?aeiieaii? /e ia?aaea/? a?aeiiinoae aai i?aaeiao?a.

I?ney aeiaoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? coneeey iiaiai o?yaeo aoei ni?yiiaaia ia
cieuaiiy noa?iai ? noai?aiiy iiaiai ?aaeyinueeiai e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa. Aecia/aiiy oieaoinoaa aia?oa aoei aeaia a oee?eoey??
eanaoe?eiiai a?aeae?eo Ana?in?enueeiai Oeaio?aeueiiai Aeeiiaa/iai
Eii?oaoo a?ae 6.10. 1918 ?ieo, a yeiio cacia/aeinue, ui aeiiei o
oieaoinoa? aeciaaaany oie, “ooi a o?e /e ?io?e oi?i? aee?eaaany a
iaieioaii?, ia?aaea/? a?enueeiaeo oa?iieoeue, no?aoaa?/ieo ieai?a …
i?aaenoaaieeai ?iicaiieo aea?aeaa ”. Oaea oi?ioethaaiiy aoei ae?ae
aocueeei. Aiii ioiiethaaei eeoa aeiaaeee a?enueeiaiai oieaoinoaa. I?ney
ooai?aiiy N?N? anoaiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
aea?aeaai? cei/eie aoei a?aeianaii aei eiiiaoaioe?? Nithco. E?ei?iaeueia
caeiiiaeaanoai ia??iaeo a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie ? e?ei?iaeueiee eiaeaen
??ON? 1922 ?ieo ia i?noeee aecia/aiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? ? ia
ia?aaeaa/aee ie?aii? naiino?eii? ii?ie i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ??
?icaieioaiiy.

Iinoaiiaa Oeaio?aeueiiai Aeeiiaa/iai Eii?oaoo ? ?aaee Ia?iaeieo
Eii?na??a a?ae 14.07.1925 ?ieo “I?i oieaoinoai” ?ice?eaa? iiiyooy
aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?. Aia?oa a ?noi??? ?aaeyinueeiai e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa aoei aeacaii, ui niaoe?aeueii ioi?iithaaiith aea?aeaaiith
oa?iieoeath aaaaeathoueny a?aeiiino?, ia?a?aoiaai? a Iniaeeaiio
ia?ae?eo, caoaa?aeaeoaaiiio ?aaeith Ia?iaeieo Eii?na??a N?N?.
Niaoe?aeueiith ioi?iithaaeueiith aea?aeaaiith oa?iieoeath a iinoaiia?
?aaee Ia?iaeieo Eii?na??a 27 ea?oiy 1926 ?ieo aaaaeathoueny, ia?o ca
ana, a?aeiiino? a?enueeiaiai ? aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o.

27 ethoiai 1927 ?ieo Oeaio?aeueiee Aeeiiaa/ee Eii?oao N?N? caoaa?aeea
“Iieiaeaiiy i?i cei/eie aea?aeaai?”, yea aoei i?enay/aia ai?iouea? c
eiie?aoieie eiio??aaiethoe?eieie cei/eiaie, cie?aia oieaoinoaii. 27
eeiiy oeueiai ae ?ieo AOeAE aoei caoaa?aeaeaia “Iieiaeaiiy i?i
a?enueeia? cei/eie”, a yeiio i?noeeanue ii?ia, ui ia?aaeaa/aea
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
? a?enueeiai? oa?iieoe? ? ca ?icaieioaiiy a?enueeiaeo a?aeiiinoae, ye?
ia i?aeeyaathoue ?icaieioaiith. Iniaeea?noth e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa oeueiai ia??iaeo aoei oa, ui a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe? ia
ianee a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?, e??i
aeiaaee?a c?aaee Aaouee?auei? /e oieaoinoaa. Oey i?iaaeeia a
caeiiiaeaanoa? iaaaoeaii a?aeaeeanue ia noaeia?e i?aeoeoe?, eiee
aeiaaeee ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? iinaaeiaeie ? ie?aieie
iniaaie iai?aaeeueii eaae?o?eoaaeenue ca aiaeia??th c? oieaoinoaii.
Ae?oaith i?iaaeeiith a e?ei?iaeueiiio caeiiiaeiaeaanoa? aei 1943 ?ieo
aoea a?aenooi?noue niaoe?aeueii? ii?ie i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
ao?aoo aeieoiaio?a, ye? i?noyoue a?aeiiino?, ui noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio
oa?iieoeth.

A oiiaao Aaeeei? A?o/eciyii? a?eie, eiee caa?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? ?
a?enueeiai? oa?iieoe? aoei iaei??th ?c iaiao?aeieo oiia ia?aiiae iaae
oaoenonueeeie caaa?aieeaie, aoa aeaeaiee Oeac I?aceae?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
N?N? a?ae 15 eenoiiaaea 1943 ?ieo “I?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? ? ao?aoo aeieoiaio?a, ye? i?noyoue
aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth”, yeee caeeaa iiao th?eaee/io aaco a ai?iouea? c
oaeeie cei/eiaie ye ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?, ao?aoa
aeieoiaio?a, ui i?noyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth,

Aeaiee Oeac anoaiiaea e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?icaieioaiiy
aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? ? ca ao?aoo aeieoiaio?a, ye? i?noyoue aea?aeaaio
oa?iieoeth, yeui aeacai? ae?? aoee a/eiai? iinaaeiaeie iniaaie (ia
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie).Aoea anoaiiaeaia e?ei?iaeueia
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ? aeey i?eaaoieo in?a ca ?icaieioaiiy
a?aeiiinoae,ye? caa?aeiii ? aea?aeaaiith oa?iieoeath.

9 /a?aiy 1947 ?ieo aoa aeaeaiee Oeac I?aceae?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee N?N?
“I?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? ? ao?aoo
aeieoiaio?a, ye? i?noyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth”. Oeac aeeoa?aioe?thaaa
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue a caeaaeiino? a?ae noa’?eoa cei/eio (iinaaeiaa
iniaa, a?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue, i?eaaoia iniaa).A?i ia aoa aeeth/aiee a
e?ei?iaeuei? eiaeaene nithcieo ?anioae?e (ca aeeeth/aiiyi Ocaaoeueei?
?N?), oiio aeiaaeee ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? eaae?o?eoaaeenue
aaciina?aaeiuei ca oeei oeacii. sse iieacaea i?aeoeea eiai canoinoaaiiy,
ia oii? iiceoeaii? noi?iie eiai iniiaiei iaaeie?eii aoei ??cea iineeaiiy
iiea?aiiy ca iacaai? cei/eie. Oaea iaiaa?oioiaaia iineeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? a ie?iee /an iiaeia iiynieoe aieeaii caaaeueii?
oaiaeaioe?? iineeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? a ia??iae
eoeueoo iniae Noae?ia.

I?ney canoaeaeaiiy iie?oeee eoeueoo iniae, a ia??iae oae caaiiai
“o?ouianueeiai iioaie?iiy” i?eeiathoueny caoiaee aeey aeayei?
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? ?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. 28 a?oaeiy 1958 ?ieo
Aa?oiaia ?aaea N?N? i?eeiyea aeaa caeiie: ”I?i e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca aea?aeaai? cei/eie” ? “I?i e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca a?enueeia? cei/eie”. Oeeie caeiiaie aoei,
cie?aia, ciaioaii i??o iiea?aiiy ca aeaye? cei/eie, ae??aiyii iiea?aiiy
ca a/eiaiiy oeeo cei/ei?a ye a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie oae ? ia
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie, ?icoe?aii ia?ae?e a?aeiiinoae, ui iiaeooue aooe
a?aeianai? aei aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?. Iniaeea?noth aoei ? oa, ui
caeiiaie aaaaeaii eaae?o?eiaai? aeaee ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?
? ao?aoe aeieoiaio?a, ui i?noyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth.

On? noaoo? iacaaieo caeii?a aoee aeeth/ai? aei E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie, i?eeiyoiai 28 a?oaeiy 1960 ?ieo.

C i?iaieioaiiyi Oe?a?ie, ye iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae, Aa?oiaia ?aaea
21.01.1994 ?ieo i?eeiyea caeii “I?i aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth”, yeee cia/ii
?icoe?ea ia?ae?e a?aeiiinoae, ye? noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth a
ii??aiyii? c eieeoi?i nithciei caeiiiaeaanoaii. Caeii ?ice?eaa? iiiyooy,
ii?yaeie aeinooio, ei?enooaaiiy ? ioi?iie aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?.
Iacaaiith ?aaeaeoe??th oeueiai caeiio (1999 ?.) ?icoe?aii ia?ae?e
a?aeiiinoae, ui noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth.

I?iaaaeaiee ia?en ?noi??? aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ii?i caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i
e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?
aeicaieea aaoi?ia? aeae?eeoe oae? caeiiii??iino? oeueiai i?ioeano:
iinooiiaa oaeineiiaeaiiy iiiyooy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?, aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “TH?eaee/iee aiae?c neeaaeo cei/eio
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?” i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith ia`?eoa
? i?aaeiaoa, ia`?eoeaii? noi?iie, a oaeiae noa`?eoa ? noa`?eoeaii?
noi?iie aeaiiai neeaaeo cei/eio.

O i?ae?icae?e? ia?oiio “Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe?” aaoi? aiae?co? caaaeueiee, ?iaeiaee, aaciina?aaei?e ia`?eo
cei/eio oa eiai i?aaeiao.

Caeiaoaa/ cacia/a?, ui ca aaaeeea?noth a e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia?e ioi?ii?
iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea Oe?a?ie iinoaaeaia ia ia?oa i?noea.

O cayceo c oeei ?iaeiaee ia’?eo ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?
aecia/a?oueny ye ioi?iithaai? e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii noni?euei?
a?aeiineie, ni?yiiaai? ia caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie.
O aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aaciina?aaei?i ia’?eoii
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? ? ioi?iithaai? e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii
noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ni?yiiaai? ia caaacia/aiiy anoaiiaeaiiai ii?yaeeo
caa?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?.

Aaoi? aeaco?, ui /?oea aecia/aiiy i?aaeiaoo cei/eio ia? aaaeeeaa
oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? ? iaei??th c oiia i?aaeeueiiai
canoinoaaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i i?i
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?. Ca?aeii no.
67 E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie, i?aaeiaoii oeueiai cei/eio iiaeooue
aooe a?aeiiino?, ui noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth.

Aiae?c noaoae /eiiiai E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie iieaco?, ui
e?ei?iaeueiee caeii a oe?eiio caaacia/o? ioi?iio a?aeiiinoae, ui
noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth. ?o i?aaiaa ioi?iia iineoue
eiie?aoiee, iienaiee a caeii? oa?aeoa? ? caeaaeeoue a?ae aae?anaoa
ia?aaea/?, noa’?eoa ?icaieioaiiy /e ao?aoe.

Aaoi? caa?oa? oaaao ia oa, ui a iiiyooy “a?enueeiaa oa?iieoey”, ui
i?noeoueny a no. 56 oa /anoei? 1 no. 57 E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie
c iaeiiai aieo, ? a i. “a” noaoo? 253 E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie c
?ioiai, aeeaaeaii ??ciee ci?no. Iiiyooy a?enueeiai? oa?iieoe?, yea
canoiniaaia o no. 56 oa /. 1 no. 57 EE Oe?a?ie, ? ca ci?noii aeaui
aoae/ei a?ae eiai ci?noo o no. 253 EE Oe?a?ie. Ca?aeii noaoo? 253
E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie a?enueeiaa oa?iieoey ? aeaio aeae?a ?
aeeth/a?: ii-ia?oa, a?aeiiino? a?enueeiaiai oa?aeoa?o, ui noaiiaeyoue
aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth; ii-ae?oaa, a?aeiiino? a?enueeiaiai oa?aeoa?o, ui
ia noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth, aea ye? ia i?aeeyaathoue
?icaieioaiith. A?enueeiao oa?iieoeth noaiiaeyoue a?aeiiino?, ye?
noinothoueny Ca?ieieo Nee oa ?ioeo a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie ?
iiaeii? caa??aaoenue oa?iii. Neiai “a?enueeiaa” o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo
cana?ae/o? a?aeii/o iaeaaei?noue a?aeiiinoae ? eiea ieoaiue, yeeo aiie
oi?eathoueny.

O i?ae?icae?e? ae?oaiio “Ia’?eoeaia noi?iia ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeai” c`yniao?oueny, cie?aia, o /iio iieyaa?
noni?eueii-iaaacia/ia ae?yiiy ? a yeeo oi?iao aiii iiaea ae?aaeaoenue.

Aaoi? aeiaeaoeiai a?aoiaioo?, ui i?ae ?icaieioaiiyi aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe? ne?ae ?icoi?oe i?ioei?aaia ii?eethaeiaiiy a?aeiiinoae, ui
noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth iniaith, ye?e oe? a?aeiiino? aoee
aeia??ai? aai noaee a?aeii? ii neoaea? /e ?iaio?, o ?acoeueoao? /iai oe?
a?aeiiino? noaee iaaeaaiiyi ?ioeo in?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny, ui noni?eueii-iaaacia/ia ae?yiiy a
neeaae? aiae?ciaaiiai cei/eio, yea ioiieth?oueny iiiyooyi ?icaieioaiiy
iiaea a/eiyoenue ye o oi?i? ae??, oae ? o oi?i? aacae?yeueiino? iniae.

Aiae?coth/e aoeiieia?/ia cia/aiiy iayaiiai a no.67 EE Oe?a?ie iiiyooy
?icaieioaiiy, aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui a/eiaiiy ?icaieioaiiy
aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? iiaeeeaa ia?aaaaeii oeyoii a/eiaiiy iaaii? ae??
(ae?e), oiaoi o oi?i? aeoeaii? iiaaae?iee iniae.

Aaoi? ooi/ith? iiiyooy ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? oeyoii
cei/eiii? aacae?yeueiino?. A?i aeaco?, ui aacae?yeuei?noue i?e oeueiio
i?iyaey?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei aei oaeoo ?icaieioaiiy, a ia aei oaeoo
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee caa?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?. Aacae?yeuei?noue, ye
oi?ia noni?eueii-iaaacia/iiai ae?yiiy, oi?iaeueii, c o?eieia?/ieo canaae
ia ioiieth?oueny iiiyooyi ?icaieioaiiy, ui ia a?aeiia?aea? i?aaia?e
ae?eniino?. Oiio oa?i?i “?icaieioaiiy” aeioe?eueii cai?ieoe oa?i?iii
“ii?eethaeiaiiy”.

Noiniaii iiiyooy ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? a oai???
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa iaia? ?aeiino? iiaeyae?a. Iaeia a?oia a/aieo (A.N.
Oo?anueeee, Iaoeoaanueeee I. N., Aiae?on?a A. A.) i?ae ?icaieioaiiyi
aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? ?icoi?? i?ioei?aai? ae?? aeiiiai, a ?acoeueoao?
yeeo a?aeiiino?, ui noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth, noaee iaaeaaiiyi
?ioeo in?a. ?ioa a?oia (A. Ae. Iaiueoaa?i, O. I. Aoiaoo?i) aeacothoue,
ui i?ae ?icaieioaiiyi aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? ne?ae ?icoi?oe oae? ae??
aeiiiai, a ?acoeueoao? yeeo a?aeiiino?, ui noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio
oa?iieoeth, ia o?eueee noaee, a e iiaee noaoe iaaeaaiiyi ?ioeo in?a.

Aaoi? iaa?oioiao?, ui iiiaioii cae?i/aiiy cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no.67
EE Oe?a?ie, ne?ae aaaaeaoe /an, eiee a?aeiiino? noathoue iaaeaaiiyi
noi?iii?o in?a. Noi?iiiueith iniaith ne?ae aaaaeaoe aoaeue-yeo iniao, a
oiio /ene? ? ni?ai?aoe?aieea, ni?aneoaeaiaoey, yeui oey iniaa ia ia?
niaoe?aeueiiai aeinooio aei oa?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? oey ?ioi?iaoe?y ia
aeia??aia ?e ii neoaea? /e ?iaio?.

Eaae?o?eiaaiee neeaae cei/eio ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?, ia?aaeaa/aiee
/.2 no.67 EE Oe?a?ie, ? iaoa??aeueiei ca eiino?oeoe??th ia’?eoeaii?
noi?iie.Iiiaioii cae?i/aiiy oeueiai cei/eio ? ianoaiiy oyaeeeo
iane?aee?a. A aeena?oaoe?? caa?iooa oaaaa ia iaaeinoaoith iaoeiao
?ic?iaeaii?noue iiiyooy oyaeeeo iane?aee?a i?ae yeeie, ye i?aaeei,
?icoi?thoue oaea ?icaieioaiiy a?aeiiinoae, ui i?noyoue aea?aeaaio
oa?iieoeth, a ?acoeueoao? yeiai aiie noaee iaaeaaiiyi ?iicaiii?
?ica?aeee aai ni?e/eieee cia/io oeiaeo iai?iiicaeaoiino? aai ?ioei
aea?aeaaiei ?ioa?anai Oe?a?ie. I?iiiio?oueny aecia/eoe oea iiiyooy o
i?ei?ooe? aei no.67 EE Oe?a?ie a oae?e ?aaeaeoe??: «I?ae oyaeeeie
iane?aeeaie ne?ae ?icoi?oe oaeo iaaeaaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?
?iicaiiith ?ica?aeeith /e i?aaenoaaieeii ?iicaiii? aea?aeaae, a oaeiae
caiiae?yiiy iaoa??aeueii? oeiaee, yea a 1000 ? a?eueoa ?ac?a ia?aaeuo?
io?oe?eii anoaiiaeaiee i?i?iaeueiee ?ici?? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe»

Aeine?aeaeoth/e oaeoeueoaoeai? iciaee ia’?eoeaii? noi?iie, aeena?oaio
aeiaeaoeiai a?aoiaioo?, ui i?noea, /an, niin?a, cia?yaeaey, caniae,
ianoaiiaea a/eiaiiy cei/eio ia ? iaia’yceiaeie iciaeaie neeaaeo
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?. I?e oeueiio aaoi? aeaco?, ui
iaea?eueo oeiiaeie niiniaaie ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? ?: onia
ii?eethaeiaiiy, ienueiiai-ae?oeiaaia ii?eethaeiaiiy,
iai/ii-aeaiiino?aoe?eia ii?eethaeiaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? i?iaiaeeoueny ?iciaaeoaaiiy ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe? c ?ioeie noi?aeieie cei/eiaie ca iciaeaie ia’?eoeaii? noi?iie.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “A?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue ye noa`?eo
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?” ?icaeyaeathoueny caaaeuei? oa
niaoe?aeuei? iciaee noa`?eoa cei/eio.

Cacia/ath/e, ui noa’?eoii cei/eio iiaea aooe o?ce/ia, inoaeia iniaa,
yea aeinyaea a?eo e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aaoi? caia?a/o?
iiaeeea?noue aeciaiiy th?eaee/ii? iniae noa”?eoii cei/eio.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c oi/ie ci?o, uiaei iiiyooy
“iaiaaeaii?” inoaeiino? ? iaa?oioiao?oueny iaaeioe?euei?noue eiai
aaaaeaiiy a e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai.

A?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue ye noa’?eo aeaiiai cei/eio, iaae?eaiee ye
caaaeueieie iciaeaie noa’?eoa e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, oae ?
aeiaeaoeiaeie iciaeaie: a?i ? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeai ? iniaith, ye?e
a?aeiiino?, ui noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth, aoee aeia??ai? /e
noaee a?aeii? ii neoaea?.

E??i cacia/aiiai o noaoo? 10 EE Oe?a?ie caaaeueiiai ? cieaeaiiai a?eo
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aaoi? aeaco? ia oaeoe/iee a?e
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? (iai?eeeaae no.no.176,208,2081, 2082
EE Oe?a?ie). A?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue — oea o?ce/ia, inoaeia iniaa, yea
aeinyaea anoaiiaeaiiai caeiiii a?eo ? i?ioiaeeoue a?enueeiao neoaeao
ca?aeii caeiio aai ca eiio?aeoii o ca?ieieo neeao Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo
a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiiyo.

Aaoi? i?iaiaeeoue aiae?c iciae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey, ye noa’?eoa
cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai noaoath 67 EE Oe?a?ie ? iciae
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey, ye noa’?eoa a?enueeiaiai cei/eio, ? aeiaiaeeoue,
ui a?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue, ye noa’?eo a?enueeiaiai cei/eio, ?
iiiyooyi oe?oei ca ci?noii.

O i?ae?icae?e? /aoaa?oiio “Noa`?eoeaia noi?iia ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeai” ?icaeyaeathoueny iciaee noa`?eoeaii?
noi?iie oeueiai cei/eio.

Aeena?oaio cacia/a?, ui ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? iiaea
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoenue ye oieniith, oae ? iaiaa?aaeiith oi?iith aeie ? ia
eaae?o?eaoe?th a/eiaiiai ia aieeaa?. Aea noae ciaia’ycaiee i?e aeianaii?
iiea?aiiy a?aooaaoe, ui ?icaieioaiiy oienii a?aeiiinoae, ye? noaiiaeyoue
aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth, ? a?eueo noni?eueii-iaaacia/iei cei/eiii, i?ae
a/eiaiiy cei/eio c iaiaa?aaeiino?. I?e oieni?e oi?i? aeie noa’?eo
ona?aeiieth?, ui ii?oooth/e i?aaeea caa?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe?,ii?eethaeith? a?aeiiino?, ui noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio
oa?iieoeth, ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeeea?noue caiiae?yiiy noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo
iane?aee?a ? aaaea? aai na?aeiii aeiionea? ?o ianoaiiy. I?e iaiaa?aaei?e
oi?i? aeie noa’?eo ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeeea?noue ianoaiiy
noni?eueii-iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?
aiane?aeie naiai ae?yiiy, aea eaaeiaaaeii ?ic?aoiao? ia ?o a?aeaa?iaiiy
aai ia ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeeeaino? ianoaiiy oaeeo iane?aee?a naiai ae?yiiy,
oi/a ca ianoaaeiaie ni?aae iiaeiai aoa ? i?a ?o ia?aaeaa/eoe.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? iioeao ? iaoe, ye iciae noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie,
aeena?oaio iaa?oioiao?, ui iioea i?e ?icaieioaii? aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?
ia ia? eaae?o?eoth/iai cia/aiiy, yeui aiii a/eiaia i?e a?aenooiino?
iciae aea?aeaaii? c?aaee /e oieaoinoaa.

Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui iniaa iiaeiia i?aeeyaaoe e?ei?iaeuei?e
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?icaieioaiiy a?aeiiinoae, ui noaiiaeyoue
aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth, a/eiaia ca aeiaai?iaeo, a ?ioa?anao noa’?eoa
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aeey aeei?enoaiiy ?o iei o ae?iaie/?e
ae?yeueiino?. Iioea ? iaoa a aeaiiio neeaae? cei/eio aca?iiiia’ycai?,
oiaoi ei?eneeaee iioea ia?aaeaa/a? iaoo iaaeeae. O ca’yceo c oeei
cai?iiiiiaaii aeiiiaieoe no. 67 EE Oe?a?ie ? aeeeanoe ?? a oae?e
?aaeaeoe??:

«Ii?eethaeiaiiy a?aeiiinoae, ui noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth,
iniaith, ye?e oe? a?aeiiino? aoee aeia??ai? aai noaee a?aeii? ii neoaea?
/e ?iaio?, yeui aiie noaee iaaeaaiiyi noi?iii?o in?a, i?e a?aenooiino?
iciae aea?aeaaii? c?aaee aai oieaoinoaa, —

ea?a?oueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie a?ae aeaio aei i’yoe ?ie?a.

Oa naia ae?yiiy, a/eiaia ca aeiaai?iaeo i?e a?aenooiino? iciae
aea?aeaaii? c?aaee aai oieaoinoaa, —

ea?a?oueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie a?ae o?ueio aei naie ?ie?a.

Ae??, ia?aaeaa/ai? /anoeiaie 1 aai 2 oe??? noaoo?, yeui aiie ni?e/eieee
oyaee? iane?aeee, —

ea?athoueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie a?ae i’yoe aei ainueie ?ie?a.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “I?ecia/aiiy iiea?aiiy ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe?, a/eiaia a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeai” i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith
caaaeueieo ia/ae i?ecia/aiiy iiea?aiiy ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe?.

Aaoi? cacia/a?, ui i?ae iiea?aiiyi ne?ae ?icoi?oe ia?aaeaa/aio
e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii oi?io ea?e ca a/eiaiee cei/ei, yea iieyaa? a
iaiaaeaiiyo aai iicaaaeaii? aeiiiai i?aa ? naiaiae, ui i?ecia/a?oueny
a?ae ?iai? aea?aeaae noaeii ? ia? ca iaoo caaaeueia ? niaoe?aeueia
iiia?aaeaeaiiy a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a.

E?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?
ia?aaeaa/aia a aeaio noaooyo /eiiiai eiaeaeno. Aaoi? iaa?oioiao?
aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue neanoaaiiy noaoo? 253 EE Oe?a?ie.

O ?icae?e? a?aoiaioo?oueny iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo canaae caaacia/aiiy a?aeaoaaiiy iiea?aiiy
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? o
aei?aaii-o?oaeiaeo onoaiiaao. Aaoi? i?aee?aneth?, ui ia?aaoaaiiy
canoaeaeaiiai ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? na?aae ?ioeo
eaoaai??e cei/eioe?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoue iiea?aiiy, ii?iaeaeo? i?iaeaie,
iia’ycai? c iiaeeea?noth iiaeaeueoiai ii?eethaeiaiiy a?aeiiinoae, ui
noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth.

O ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny ia?aaeaa/ai? no. 39 EE Oe?a?ie caaaeuei?
ia/aea i?ecia/aiiy iiea?aiiy: a) noae i?ecia/a? iiea?aiiy a iaaeao,
anoaiiaeaieo noaooath caeiio, yea ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
a/eiaiee cei/ei; a) noae i?ecia/a? iiea?aiiy o oi/i?e a?aeiia?aeiino? c
iieiaeaiiyi Caaaeueii? /anoeie e?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno; a) i?e
i?ecia/ai? iiea?aiiy noae, ea?oth/enue i?aaina?aeii?noth, a?aoiao?
oa?aeoa? ? nooi?iue noni?eueii? iaaaciaee a/eiaiiai cei/eio, iniao
aeiiiai ? ianoaaeie ni?aae, ui iii’yeoothoue ? iaoyaeothoue
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue.

Aeniiaee

O aeniiaeao aeeeaaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
a oaeiae aeeeaaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa noiniaii ieoaiue
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Eooa? A. A. Noa’?eo cei/eio ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? (ia
iaoa??aeao IAO) // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? 6, /. II. —
Oiaeueieoeueeee: Aeae-ai Aeaaeai?? IAO, 1998.- N.158-162.

2. Eooa? A. A. A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe? (?noi?e/iee aiae?c) // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? 7, /. II.
— Oiaeueieoeueeee: Aeae-ai Aeaaeai?? IAO, 1998.- N.244- 247.

3. Eooa? A. A. Iiiyooy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
? 9, /. ??. — Oiaeueieoeueeee: Aeaeaaieoeoai Aeaaeai?? IAO,1999. — N.
280-283.

4.Eooa? A.A. Ieoaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? // A?niee Euea?anueeiai
?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa i?e IAAN Oe?a?ie: Ca??iee. — Euea?a:
Euea?anueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa i?e IAAN Oe?a?ie, 1999.- ? 10.
— N.68-73.

AIIOAOe??

Eooa? A.A. E?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue a?enueeiai-neoaeaiaoey ca
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?. ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth
20.02.03 — A?enueeiaa i?aai; a?enueeia? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.
Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie ?i. Aiaaeaia
Oiaeueieoeueeiai, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?inoeoooo e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey ca ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?. O
aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaii noaiiaeaiiy oa ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie ?inoeoooo
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?, i?iaiae?ciaaii /eiia e?ei?iaeueia
caeiiiaeaanoai, i?aaicanoinia/a i?aeoeea. Iiaeaii aiae?c neeaaeo aeaiiai
cei/eio. noi?ioeueiaaii i?iiiceoe?? i?i ci?ie /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, a
oaeiae iai?yiee aaeineiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai ?inoeoooo
?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue, ?icaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?iieoe?, e?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue.

Kuchar V.V. Criminal amenability of service-men for the divulgence of
state secrets.

This thesis is written to get the Candidate of Legal Science’s Degree in
speciality 20.02.03 — Military Law; military problems of International
Law.

The National Academy of Border Troops of Ukraine named by Bogdan
Khmelnitsky — Khmelnitsky, 1999 — Manusckipt.

The thesis is devoted to the institution of criminal amenability
service-man for the divulgence of state secrets. The thesis studies the
formation and historical development of the divulgence of state secret,
it analyses the active criminal legislature, and how to use it in
practice. It gives the analysis of the facts of the certain crime. It
makes some proposals as to the changes (that should be made) in the
activ legislature and also some nays of the impvovement of
criminal-legal institution of the divulgence of state secret.

Key words: service-man, divulgence of the state secret, criminal
amenability.

Eooa?ue A. A. Oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue aiaiiineoaeauaai ca ?acaeaoaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 20.02.03 — Aiaiiia i?aai; aiaiiua i?iaeaiu
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa. Iaoeeiiaeueiay aeaaeaiey Iia?aie/iuo aiene
Oe?aeiu eiaie Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeeiai, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aii?inia oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe aiaiiineoaeauaai ca ?acaeaoaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu.
A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeiaaii noaiiaeaiea e enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea
einoeoooa ?acaeaoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu. I?iaiaeece?iaaii
aeaenoaothuaa oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiay
i?aeoeea,eanathuayny aii?inia oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?acaeaoaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?acaeaoaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu
oaeoi?u, eioi?ua oeacuaatho ia aieueooth iauanoaaiioth iianiinoue
aeaiiiai i?anooieaiey aeey aaciianiinoe ainoaea?noaa.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiu iaycaoaeueiua i?eciaee aeaiiiai ninoaaa i?anooieaiey.

Ioia/aaony, /oi iauanoaaiii-iianiia aeayiea a ninoaaa i?anooieaiey ca
?acaeaoaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu yaeyaony neiaeiui ii oi?ia e
aeeth/aao a naay eae aeaenoaea, oae e aacaeaenoaea.

Aeaiu i?eciaee aiaiiineoaeauaai eae noauaeoa ?anniao?eaaaiiai
i?anooieaiey, oeacaiu e?eoa?ee, eioi?ua ioee/atho aai io noauaeoa
aieineeo i?anooieaiee, ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eioi?ua i?aaeoniio?aia a
aeaaa Oaieiaiiai eiaeaena “I aieineeo i?anooieaieyo”.

Aaoi? enneaaeoao oaeea i?eciaee noauaeoeaiie noi?iiu, eae iioea e oeaeue
e aeieacuaaao, /oi iie ia eiatho i?e eaaeeoeeaoeee eaaeeoeoee?othuaai
cia/aiey. Iaeiaei, a ?yaea neo/aaa, a /anoiinoe i?e ?acaeaoaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu ca aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, iioea e oeaeue neaaeoao
i?aaeoniio?aoue a ea/anoaa iaycaoaeueiuo i?eciaeia ninoaaa ?acaeaoaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu. A nayce n yoei auiineony i?aaeeiaeaiea
noi?ioee?iaaoue iiaue ninoaa i?anooieaiey, eioi?ue i?aaeoniao?eaaao
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?acaeaoaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu ca
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea i?e ionoonoaee i?eciaeia eciaiu ?iaeeia eee oieiiaaea.

Iainiiaaii, /oi i?e ioauaaiee iaeacaiey iieiinoueth ia aeinoeaathony
oeaee, eioi?ua noaayony oaieiaiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Oeacuaaaony ia
aiciiaeiinoue aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeaoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu, a nayce
n ioauaaieai iaeacaiey aianoa n ae?oaeie eaoaai?eyie inoaeaeaiiuo.

Noi?ioee?iaaiu e iainiiaaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey, ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
oniaa?oainoaiaaieth aeaenoaothuaai oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii
aii?ino oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?acaeaoaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aiaiiineoaeauee, ?acaeaoaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu,
oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

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