2

Iaoeiiiaeueia aeaaeaiiy iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iinoeooo nioe?ieia??

Ia/a?ia Aiaoieie Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 301.061

NIOe?AEUeIA AOAEOEAI?NOUe I?AAI?CAOeIE

A NONIIEUeNOAI, UI CI?ITH?OUeNss

22.00.03 — nioeiaeueia no?oeoo?a, nioeiaeueii iinoeoooe oa nioe?aeuei?
a?aeiineie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoei?

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioeiieiai/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe Aeii/aiei Ieaia Aiae???aia, ?inoeooo
nioe?aeueii? oa iie?oe/ii? ineoieia??, caa?aeoth/a eaai?aoi???th ian oa
i?aai?caoe?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Noaeaeia Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/,
I?ae?aa?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii, ea??aiee iaoeiaeo
i?iaeo?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai aeaia?oaiaioo

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe I?aeaeoaiee Aieiaeeie? Aiae??eiae/,
noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee, ?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie,
a?aeae?e nioe?aeueii? aenia?oece.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a
aaeocaai? nioe?ieia??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.229.01. a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a-21, aoe. Oiaeiae/ia, 12.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a-21, aoe. Oiaeiae/ia,
12.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “22” ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Nooeaei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue aeineiaeaeaiiy. A oiiaao aeiaaeueii? nioe?aeueii?
o?ain-oi?iaoe?? aeieea? iio?aaa a nioe?ieia?/i?e eiioeaiooae?caoe??
aaaaoueio i?ioean?a ? yaeu. Ia ? aeiyoeii i?ioeane, iia’ycai? c
ia?ano?oeoo?oaaiiyi ?inoeooo?a oa i?aai?caoe?e a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa?.

A?aenooi?noue nioe?ieia?/iiai aiae?co a ieoaiiyo aaaeaieo ci?i a
i?aai?caoe?eiiio iiiaeaii? nioe?oio aieeaa? ia niiioaii?noue,
aeiaaeeia?noue i?ioean?a aeieeiaiiy oa ?oeiaoe?? ??ciiiai?oieo
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? (aeae? — i?aai?caoe?e). Iaaeinoaoiuei
?ic?iaeaia ? i?iaeaia aaiethoe??-?iaiethoe?? i?aai?caoe?e i?ae aieeaii
ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a — iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo oiui.

Iai?eeeaae, ia aeiyeueiinoue i?aai?caoe?e aieeaathoue oaei caaaeueii
/eiieee ye /an oa iinoea iiaeie. Inoi?e/iee aiaeic naiae/eoue, ui iaeii
ia?iiaee noniieueiiai ?icaeoeo oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieith aeeiaiieith
nioeiaeueieo i?ioeania, iioi — noaoe/iinoth, iia’ycaiith ci noaaiaoei?th
oa caiaiaaeii. Iacaaaeath/e ia ioeiieo aaaaoueio aiaeioeeia noaio iaoiai
noniieuenoaa ye nooe?eueii e?eciaiai, oeae aeniiaie ? aeaui iaeiiaieei.
Aeienii, aaaaoi i?aaiicaoeieieo no?oeoo?, a ieioeiio aoaeoeaieo, ia
ooieoeiiiothoue cianii, aai ooieoeiiiothoue /anoeiai. Aea, iaeii/anii,
noai?th?oueny iana iioeo no?oeoo?, ui aeinyaathoue iaaiiai oniioo o
nai?e aeiyeueiinoi.

Oaia?ioiie ia?iiae ? ia?aoiaeiei ia o?eueee a aeiiiii/iiio eiioaenoi,
aea e a /aniaiio, a c?inoaiii oaiiia nioeiaeueieo i?ioeania ia an?o
?iaiyo noniieueiiai aeeooy. ? i?iaeaia a oiio, ui iaeii i?aaiicaoei? ca
nai?th aioo?ioiueith no?oeoo?ith caeaoii aaeaiooaaoeny aei ciii, a iioi
ii. Oaiiiai aaeaioaoei? i?aaiicaoeie aei o?ainoi?iaoeieieo ci?i a
nioeioii oaeiae ? iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiei, a oiio i aeineoue
aeooaeueiei.

Ae?oaee caaaeueiee /eiiee — iinoea, oiaoi oa nioeiieoeueoo?ia
na?aaeiaeua, a yeiio o?ainoi?io?oueny i?aai?caoe?y. Caa?oath/enue aei
e?aueo c?aceia naioiaiai aeinaiaeo oa iaiaaath/enue ?o aac ?icai?o
ia?aeiaoe, ie ia caaaeaee /ioei ona?aeiieth?ii, ianeieueee eiie?aoii
caiice/aii iaoiaee niiacao/ii iniaeeainoyi iaoiai aoiino ye iaaiie
i?aaiicaoeieiie no?oeoo?i c ?? iaioaeueiinoth. ?ic?iaee oa
aeineiaeaeaiiy a oeueiio iai?yi? aaea aaaeooueny, ? oiio c iaoi? oi/ee
ci?o aeooaeueiei ? neioac ?icieo iiaeoiaeia aei i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiino?
i?aai?caoe?e.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aieiaiee aeoeaio a aeaiie aeena?oaoei? c?iaeaii ia
iaoai?ci? ooieoe?iioaaiiy i aeiyeueiinoi ?icieo oeiia i?aaiicaoeieieo
no?oeoo? caeaaeii aiae eiie?aoieo oiia: nioeiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai oiio
oa c?inoath/i? aeeiaiiee nioeiaeueieo i?ioeania.

I??a iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie. A naioiaie iaoeiaie eioa?a-oo?i
oa?iiie “i?aaiicaoeiy”, “oei i?aaiicaoei?” iia’ycai? c iiaiaie F.W.
Taylor, H. Fayol, S.A. Iayo, I.Weber, A.Iaslow, D.C. IcCllelland, ?.
Hersey, E. Blanchard, H. Mintzberg oa iioeo. O?aaeeoeieii iiiyooy
“i?aaiicaoeiy” a ?aieao nioeiieiai? aeei?enoiao?oueny a aeae?eueeio
cia/aiiyo, oaeeo ye:

1) aeaiaio nioeiaeueii? no?oeoo?e;

2) oei aeiyeueiinoi;

3) nooiiiue aioo?ioiuei? oii?yaeeiaaiinoi, ocaiaeaeaiinoi /anoei
oeieiai;

4) nenoaia aiaeiinei iiae aeayeith eieueeinoth iiaeeaiaeia, ia’?aeiaieo
caaaeueiith iaoith.

Oiaoi, iiiyooy “i?aai?caoe?y” aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c oaeeie
oa?iiiaie — “no?oeoo?a” oa “nenoaia”. A iiiyooi “no?oeoo?a” cae/aeii
oienothoueny aiaeiinii iiaa?iaioii oa noaoe/ii caeiiiii?iinoi, ui
aiaeiinyoueny aei niiniaia aca?iica’yceo aeaiaio?a nenoaie iiae niaith,
a a iiiyooi “i?aaiicaoeiy” — aeeiaii/ii, ui iia’ycaii c ooieoeiiioaaiiyi
oa aca?iiae??th /anoei oeieiai.

A neeo iaaieo ianoaaei aio/eciyia iaoea aei 90-o ?ieia ia
aeineiaeaeoaaea ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c ?aaeueiith nooiinoth oa iaoaiiciaie
ooai?aiiy, aeiyeueiinoi oa i?eieiaiiy inioaaiiy i?aaiicaoeie. A
?aaeyinueeie ia?iiaeeoei oa ie?aieo aeaeaiiyo a ieaii iieaiiee c
ao?aeoaciith iaoeith iieiee c’yaeyeeny i?aoei, i?enay/aii aeaiie oaii.
Oea, cie?aia, ?iaioe Ae.I. Aaioiaii “I?aaiicaoeiy oa oi?aaeiiiy” (1970),
A.I. I?eaiaeeia “?icaeoie oai??? i?aai?caoe?? a iiaeono?iaeueiie
nioeiieiai?” (1970), A.A.Iao?ianueeiai “Aeinaiae iiaoaeiae
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii? eiioeaioei? a?oiiai? aeoeaiinoi” (1973),
E.I.Oiainueeiai “Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii i?iaeaie iiaoaiiiai ?icaeoeo
a?oie ye eieaeoeao” (1975). Aea, i??i?eoao a oeueiio iai?yi?, ye i a
iioeo aaeocyo nioe?ieia?? iaeaaeeoue aia?eeainueeei aeineiaeieeai, ye?
c?iaeee cia/iee aianie a oai?ith, i?eeeaaei? iaoiaee i oaoiieia??
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?e. Iniaeeai caneoaiao? ia oaaao ?iaioa oaeiai
oaoiaoey ii ineoieiai? oi?aaeiiiy ye L.Konstantin “I?aaiicaoeieii
ia?aaeeaie” (1991), a yeie aaoi? i?iiiio? nai? aa/aiiy oeiieiai?
i?aaiicaoeie.

Aiaeaeath/e iaeaaeia iaoeiaie i i?aeoe/iie oe?iiino? aeacaieo ?iaio,
neiae cacia/eoe, ui eiioeaiooae?caoe?y ?icieo oeiia i?aaiicaoeie a
?aaeueiiio nioeiieoeueoo?iiio na?aaeiaeu? c oaioe/iith aeeiaiieith
nioeiaeueieo i?ioeania ?ic?iaeaia iaaeinoaoiuei. Oiio iinoa?
iaiaoiaeiinoue aieueo aeaoaeueiiai aiaeico inioth/eo iiaeaeae
i?aaiicaoeieieo no?oeoo? oa ae?iaeaiiy eiioeaioei? aoaeoeaiino?
i?aaiicaoei? a oiiaao aeeiai?/ieo ci?i.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iniiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe
? aea/aiiy iiaeeeainoae aeeiai?/ieo ci?i a no?oeoo?? i?aaiicaoei? o
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iio?aa neooaoe??. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeaii? iaoe
iio??aii aoei ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

· cae?enieoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?nioth/eo a oi?aae?inuee?e e?oa?aoo??
iiaeaeae ? oei?a i?aai?caoe?e;

· aeie?aieoe iniiai? /eiieee aieeao oa iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy,
ae?yeueiino? oa ?oeiaoe?? i?aai?caoe?e, a?aoiaoth/e ?noi?e/i?
ia?aaeoiiae ? iayaiee nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee noai noni?euenoaa;

· ?ice?eoe i?e?iaeo i?aai?caoe?? ye aeaiaioa nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e c
oi/ee ci?o noaoeee, oiaoi aoaeiae oa oeio aioo??oi?o ca’yce?a a
i?aai?caoe??, a oaeiae aeeiai?ee, oiaoi i?ioean?a, iia’ycaieo c
ooieoe?iioaaiiyi i?aai?caoe?? ye oe?e?nii? i?aenenoaie ana?aaeei?
eiie?aoii? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie;

· iieacaoe ?ieue, oe?e? oa ooieoe?? i?aai?caoe?? a nioe?oi?;

· i?iaiae?coaaoe aeina?ae, iaeiie/aiee a nioe?ieia?? i?aai?caoe?e
a?aeiinii ??cieo no?oeoo?, ?o oei?a, iciae, niinia?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ?
iniaeeai eiiieaen /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy ,
aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue oa nioe?aeueio aoaeoeai?noue i?aai?caoe?e a ia??iae
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa;

· caoaeoaaoe aaaaoiaei??io iiaeaeue i?aai?caoe??, ?ioaa?iaaio a iaaeao
iaaieo ye?nieo oeae aai iieaciee?a;

· c?iaeoe aiae?c aeeiai?ee icia/aieo oeae aai iieaciee?a a oiiaao
iaaieo nioe?aeueieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy
aenooiathoue i?aai?caoe?? ye iaai? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe noni?euenoaa.
I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooiathoue:

1) aioo??oi? aeanoeaino? i?aai?caoe?e, ye? noai?ththoue eiei
iiaeee-ainoae aeey aoaeoeaiiai /e iaaoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeeo
no?oeoo?;

2) oeiieia?? oa iiaeae? i?aai?caoe?e, a yeeo aiie aii?yaeeiaothoueny ca
nooiaiai iaaeeaeaiiy aei ?aeaaeueiiai aa??aioo naiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oa aii??e/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Oai?aoe/io oa iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue
i?eioeeie, ia yeeo aaco?oueny nenoaiii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei
aiae?co i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? oa iniaeeainoae ?o ae?yeueiino? a
oiiaao ci?ie ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Aiae?coth/e oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?, aeena?oaio
aeei?enoiaoaaa ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy i?aoeue I.Weber, O.Parsons, R.K.
Iarton, A.Gouldner, A.A.Ae?oaeei?ia, Ae.N.Eiioi?iaa oa ?i.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e oi?ie, oeie, iiaeae? oa eeaneo?eaoe?? i?aai?caoe?e, ?o
cia/aiiy aeey oai??? oi?aae?iiy, aaoi? nie?aany ia ?ic?iaee
L.Einstantin, P. Blau, A.Rogers, H.I?ntzberg, A.?.I?eaiaeeia oa ?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O aeena?oaoe?? cae?enith?oueny
eiioeaiooaeueiee aiae?c i?aai?caoe?eieo ia?aaeeai oa oi?aae?inueeeo
oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?e.
I?iaaaeaia ca?aeii c iinoaaeaiith iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy
aea? ciiao aenoiooe oa iaa?oiooaaoe ?yae iieiaeaiue, ui i?noyoue iaoeiao
iiaecio:

· ia iniia? aea/aiiy nioe?ieia?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e, aii??e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa aeina?aeo oi?aae?inueeiai
eiinoeueooaaiiy i?aai?caoe?e c?iaeaia ni?iaa aecia/aiiy i?e/ei
nioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino? oa aaeaeaaoiino? (a?aeiia?aeii iaaoaeoeaiino?
? iaaaeaeaaoiino?) i?aai?caoe?? ? cai?iiiiiaaia aaoi?nueea
i?aai?caoe?eia iiaeaeue (n.134);

· ia iniia? oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo c aeei?enoaiiyi oeiieia?/iiai iaoiaeo
aoea ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y i?aai?caoe?e, aei yei? oa?eoee /ioe?e oeie
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?: ???a?o?/ia, eiieo?oth/a, eiinie?aeaoe?eia oa
?iaeea?aeoae?nonueea. Eiaeiiio oeio i?aai?caoe?? a?aeiia?aea? iaaia
oa?aeoa?enoeea ?? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae, a oaeiae
noeeue aca?iiae?? aeaii? i?aai?caoe?? ?c ciai?oi?i nioe?aeueiei
na?aaeiaeuai (n.114-123);

· ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y nenoaiieo iciae i?aai?caoe?e, ye? ?
aeeiiothoue ?ieue iniiaieo oeae a aaoi?nuee?e iiaeae?: ?ioaa?aoeaiino?,
aeeoa?aioe?eiino?, ii?iaoeaiino? oa e?aaoeaiino?. Oa?aeoa? oa noeeue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? iaoiiaeth?oueny eiia?iaoe??th aeaio
aeii?ioth/eo iciae c eiaeii? aeeoioii?/ii? ia?e (n.131);

· iaa?oioiaaii, ui aeieeiaiiy ? aeii?ioaaiiy a nioe?oi? iaaieo oei?a
i?aai?caoe?e aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c ?yaeii aeaoa?i?ioth/eo
/eiiee?a: iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo; iieacaii ye
?aaeueiee oa?aeoa? iaaiiai /eiieea aieeaa? ia aaiethoe?th ??cieo oei?a
i?aai?caoe?e; i?iaiae?ciaaii caeaaei?noue i?ae oeiii i?aai?caoe??,
ooieoe?yie, ye? aiia aeeiio? a aeaiiio nioe?oi? oa ?? nioe?aeueiith
aoaeoeai?noth (n.139 – 151).

Iiaecia cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia aeicaiey?:
canoiniaoaaoe nenoaiiee eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aeey ioe?iee ae?yeueiino?
?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e; aecia/aoe, iane?eueee i?aai?caoe?y a?aeiia?aea?
?aae?yi oa caieoai ciai?oiueiai nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua; i?iaiicoaaoe
??aaiue aoaeoeaiino? i?aai?caoe?e a ??cieo oiiaao, cie?aia, a ia??iae,
iia’ycaiee c o?ainoi?iaoe??th noni?euenoaa.

A i?aai?caoe?ei?e iiaeae? a?aoiaothoueny ye ciai?oi? nioe??oaeuei?
/eiieee oae ? aioo??oiueii?aai?caoe?ei?, ui aeeth/athoue a naaa oaeee
iieaciee ye aaeaeaaoi?noue oeio i?aai?caoe?? noeeth oi?aae?iiy oa
iinoaaeaiei caaea/ai.

Iaoith oaeiai iiaeaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe?e oeyoii aaeaeaaoiiai aeei?enoaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oa eieaeoeaieo ?ano?n?a, oieeath/e oaeei /eiii
i?ioean?a aeano?oeoo?oaaiiy ? aeaci?aai?caoe??, ye? aaeueiothoue
i?ia?aneaiee ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
iaoi-aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai aeine?aeaeaiiy oeiieia?? i?aai?caoe?e,
nenoaiiiio aiae?c? i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?, iiaoaeia? iioeiaeueii?
oeiieia?/ii? iiaeae? ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaieo nenoaiieo iciae
i?aai?caoe?e; ocaaaeueiaii? oa?aeoa?enoee ??cieo i?aai?caoe?e oa a
?icai?? ??cieo aa??aio?a oi?aae?inueeeo no?aoaa?e, ui iiaeooue aooe
canoiniaai? a ??cieo oeiao i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?.

Aieiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? oao?aoeyie, ye? i?aoeththoue iaae i?iaeaiaie
nioe?aeueieo i?aai?caoe?e, caeiathoueny oeiieia?yie iae?i- oa i?e?ia?oi,
aea/athoue aieea nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia no?oeoo?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?aai?caoe?e oa niiniae ?o aca?iiae?? a nioe?oi?, a oai??? oa i?aeoeoe?
oi?aae?iiy.

Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ??cieie
oi?aae?inueeeie no?oeoo?aie aea?aeaaiiai oa iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi??a aeey
ae?iaeaiiy no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee iioeiaeueieo oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue; i?e
iiaeaethaaii? iiaaae?iee ie?aieo noa’?eo?a iie?oe/ii?, aeiiii?/ii? oa
eoeueoo?ii? noa? noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a ooi/iaii? oa aeiiiaiaii?
eaoaai??aeueii-iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo, a oaeiae canoinoaaii? iiaeo iiiyoue
aeey aecia/aiiy i?eaaaeaieo aeua nenoaiieo iciae i?aai?caoe?eieo
no?oeoo?.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? o/aiaeo
i?ia?ai oa niaoeeo?n?a aeey aeueo oa na?aaei?o niaoe?aeueieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a i?e aea/aii? oaeeo aeenoeeie?i, ye nioe?ieia?y, nioe?aeueia
ineoieia?y, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee iaiaaeaeiaio, nioe?ieia?y
i?aai?caoe?e, oai??y oi?aae?iiy, a oaeiae i?e i?iaaaeaii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia??a a ?inoeoooao oa ia eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a, i?e ae??oaii? i?iaeai
oi?aae?inueeiai eiinoeueooaaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaii o aeiiia?aeyo ? iia?aeiieaiiyo ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iioaioe?ae oi?aae?inueeeo
nenoai: i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo” (Ee?a, 1993); ia can?aeaii?
Ananithciiai Eeoao Aee?aeoi??a (Oa?e?a, 1994), ia iaoiaeieia?/iiio
nai?ia?? “Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia iaoea ? noni?eueia ?aeaieia?y” (Ee?a,
AII Oe?a?ie, 1998).

E??i oiai, ?yae iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
a i?aeoeoe? oi?aae?inueeiai eiinoeueooaaiiy a ??cieo i?aai?caoe?yo:
ae?iaie/eo, iaa/aeueieo, aaei?i?no?aoeaieo, eoeueoo?ieo, aeieia?/ieo,
iie?oe/ieo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? — 174 n., 9 oaaeeoeue, 4 ?en., nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
(144 iaeiaioaaiue) caeiathoue 16 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy oa i??a
iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie; oi?ioeththoueny: iaoa, caaaeaiiy,
ia’?eo, i?aaeiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy; aea?oueny
oa?aeoa?enoeea eiai oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? oa aii??e/ii? aace;
?ice?eaa?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a; iaaiaeyoueny aeai? i?i ?o ai?iaaoe?th.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “I?aai?caoe?y ye ia’?eo nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy”
i?enay/aii aiae?co i?aai?caoe?? ye aeaiaioo nioe?aeueii? nenoaie,
i?inoaaeo?oueny ca’ycie i?ae i?ioeanii aaiethoe?? i?aai?caoe?e oa
nioe?aeueieie ci?iaie a noni?euenoa?. Aeae?ey?oueny ?yae oa?aeoa?ieo
oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia oe? ci?ie.

Ia iniia? caeiaooe?a eeanee?a a iaeano? nioe?ieia?? i?aai?caoe?e
oi?ioeth?oueny aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “i?aai?caoe?y”. I?aea?oioyi oaeiai
aecia/aiiy yaey?oueny ?icoi?iiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai oaiiiaio oaeei
oao?aoeai a icia/ai?e iaeano?, ye A.?.I?eaiaeei. A?aeooiaooth/enue a?ae
iniiaieo eaoaai??e, ui aecia/athoue i?aai?caoe?th ye iiiyooy:

a) aeaiaio nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e;

a) ??ciiaeae ae?yeueiino?;

a) nooi?iue aioo??oiuei? oii?yaeeiaaiino? oa ocaiaeaeaiino? /anoei
oe?eiai.

A.?. I?eaiaeei aeae?ey? noiniaii nioe?aeueieo ia’?eo?a ianooii?
cia/aiiy oa?i?io “i?aai?caoe?y”:

1. I?aai?caoe?y — oea nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo, i?ecia/aiee aeey aeeiiaiiy
iaaii? nioe?aeueii? ooieoe?? a noni?euenoa?;

2. I?aai?caoe?y — oea i?ioean, ui iia’ycaiee c iaaiith ae?yeuei?noth,
aeeth/ath/e oae? ooieoe??, ye ?iciiae?e ?ieae, anoaiiaeaiiy
aa?oeeaeueieo oa ai?eciioaeueieo ca’yce?a oa eii?aeeiaoe?th, A oeueiio
cia/aii? iiiyooy “i?aai?caoe?y” ni?aiaaea? c iiiyooyi “oi?aae?iiy”.

3. I?aai?caoe?y — oea no?oeoo?a ia’?eoo, aoaeiaa oa oei ca’yce?a i?ae
ie?aieie aeaiaioaie i?aai?caoe?? ye nioe?aeueii? nenoaie c ?o iciaeaie.

A?aeiiee oe?a?inueeee nioe?ieia A.E. Innianueeee aeei?enoaa aeaui
a?aei?iiee a?ae aeuacaaaeaieo oa?i?iieia?/iee aia?ao a i?aai?caoe?eiiio
eiioaeno?.

I?aai?caoe?y nioe?aeueia:

1) oe?eueiaa a?oia, noai?aia aeey ?aae?caoe?? iaaieo oe?eae ca
aeiiiiiaith ?aoe?iiaeueieo cania?a;

2) eiiieaen cania?a oi?aae?iiy ? ea??aieoeoaa ethaeueie, eii?aeeiaoe??
?o ae?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeinyaiaiiy aecia/aieo oe?eae;

3) nai i?ioean ?aaoeyoe?? nioe?aeueieo ae?e.

Ine?eueee aoaeue-yea i?aai?caoe?y ? nenoaiith no?oeoo?ieo ca’yce?a ?
a?aeiinei, ooieoe?iiaeueieo noai?a (noaoon?a, ?ieae, caeaaeiinoae oa
ae?e), a oaeiae i?e iayaiino? a i?e no?eeeo (oeiiaeo) aeanoeainoae oa
iciae, eio?? aeicaieythoue a?aeiineoe ?? aei iaaii? a?oie /e
eeaneo?eaoe??, a iniiao aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei iieeaaeaii o?e
iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?eioeeie:

· nenoaii?noue

· ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue

· ?aeeia oeiieia?y

Ca?aeii ia?oiai i?eioeeio i?aai?caoe?y oyaey? niaith neeaaeiee nenoaiiee
ia’?eo ye eiiieaen aca?iieo ca’yce?a oa oa?aeoa?enoee. Oaeeo
oa?aeoa?enoee iiaea aooe aeinoaoiuei aaaaoi. Ian a ia?oo /a?ao
oe?eaaeyoue o? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa aeanoeaino?, ye? aeicaieythoue
?aeaioeo?eoaaoe oei i?aai?caoe?? oa caaacia/othoue aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue
oa aoaeoeai?noue ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy, aaeaeaaoi?noue ciai?oiueiio
nioe?aeueiiio na?aaeiaeuo. Iaie aoee cai?iiiiiaai? /ioe?e aaciaeo
oa?aeoa?enoeee, ui aenooiathoue a ?ie? nenoaiieo iciae i?aai?caoe?? oa
yaeythoueny iniiaith ?ic?iaeaii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?eii? iiaeae?.

1. Ii?iaoeai?noue ye can?a nioe?aeueii? ?aaoeyoe?? iiaaae?iee
?iaeea?ae?a oa a?oi. Ii?iaoeai?noue ? noeoii?noue aioo??oi?o oa
ciai?oi?o c?ace?a iiaaae?iee. Aioo??oi? ii?ie iia’ycai? c
iaioaeuei?noth, ui oi?io? o? /e ?io? ii?aeueii-aoe/i? i?eioeeie
iiaaae?iee, a ciai?oi? ii?ie oi?iothoueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae
nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa, ?ioa?an?a a?oi, nenoaie noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei. Ii?ie caaacia/othoue ooieoe?? ?ioaa?aoe??, aii?yaeeoaaiiy oa
i?aeo?eiee nenoaie i?aai?caoe?eieo a?aeiinei i?e aeiiiiic? ioe?iie
iiaaae?iee /eai?a i?aai?caoe??.

2. E?aaoeai?noue yaey? niaith aeeoioii?/io i?ioeeaaei?noue
ii?ia-oeaiino?. ?? iiaeia ?ioa?i?aooaaoe ye oai?/o ae?yeuei?noue, a
?acoeueoao? yei? aeieea? ye?nii iiaee i?iaeoeo — iaoa??aeueiee /e
?ioaeaeooaeueiee. Naiaiaea oai?/ino? oa ieth?ae?ci a aeoieao ?
i?aeoiaeao /anoi noia?a/aoue anoaiiaeaiei ii?iai ? oe?iiinoyi a i?e?i /e
iae?inioe?oi?. Iaei??th c oiia ?icaeoeo e?aaoeaiino? ? naiaiaea e?eoeee,
oai?/? aeeneon??, iai?i oa ai?ioueaa aeoiie.

3. ?ioaa?aoeai?noue ye nenoaiia iciaea iia’ycaia c i?ioeanaie
ia’?aeiaiiy oa cao?oiaaiino? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a nenoaie a oe?ea.
?ioaa?aoeai?noue nenoaie iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye eiiieaen ie?aieo
nioe?aeueieo, iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa eoeueoo?ieo oaeoi??a, eio??
ni?eythoue oaeei i?aai?caoe?eiei i?ioeanai:

· ia’?aeiaiith ?iaeea?ae?a oa a?oi a eieaeoea;

· iiya? oaiiiaio cao?oiaaiino?;

· oi?ioaaiith a?oiiaiai aoino;

· anoaiiaeaiith iioeiaeueieo ca’yce?a i?ae ie?aieie /eaiaie i?aai?caoe??
oa a?oiaie.

Oa?aeoa? ?ioaa?aoeaiino? ye nenoaiii? iciaee caeaaeeoue ye a?ae noaoono
naii? i?aai?caoe??, ?? oe?eae oa ae?yeueiino?, oae ? a?ae aieeao
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

4. Aeeoa?aioe?ei?noue a i?aai?caoe?ei?e nenoai? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
iciaea ?iciiae?eo ca ooieoe?iiaeueiei i?eioeeiii, ?ioa?anaie,
oe?iiinoyie, noeeai iiaaae?iee oa ae?yeueiino?, ??aiai aeeooy ? o.i.
Aeeoa?aioe?ei?noue ii nai?e nooiino? i?ioeeaaeia ?ioaa?aoeaiino?,
ine?eueee ia?oa iciaea i???ioiaaia ia ni?iuaiiy nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e
nioe?oio, a oie /an, ye ae?oaa — ia no?oeoo?ia oneeaaeiaiiy.

Aeae?eaiiy i?eaaaeaieo nenoaiieo iciae aeicaiey? iiaoaeoaaoe
?ioaa?aeueio i?aai?caoe?eio iiaeaeue o aeaeyae? aeaio eiioeiooi?a:
ii?ia-oeai?noue-e?aaoeai?noue oa ?ioaa?aoeai?noue-aeeoa?aioe?ei?noue.
Neeaae oa oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?e oeeo eiioeiooi?a neeaaea? aeeiai?/io
i?e?iaeo i?aai?caoe?eii? ?aaeueiino?.

I?eioeei ooieoe?iiaeueiino? a aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi a eiioaeno?
?iciiae?eo ooieoe?e a i?aai?caoe?? : ?ioi?iaoe?eii?, ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy
oa ooieoe?? aieeao. ?ioi?iaoe?eia ooieoe?y iia’ycaia c i?eeiaiiyi,
ia?iaeith oa aeaea/ath ?ioi?iaoe??. Ooieoe?y oi?aae?iiy aeeth/a? aiae?c,
?ici?ciaaaiiy, ioe?ieo neooaoe?e, ae?iaeaiiy oa ocaiaeaeaiiy ??oaiue, ?o
iioei?caoe?th oa eiio?ieue ?o aeeiiaiiy. Ooieoe?y aieeao — oea iaai?
ae??, iia’ycai? c aeoeaiei aieeaii ia ?io? i?aai?caoe??, ia’?eoe /e
ethaeae.

A eiioaeno? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo oaeiae ?icaeyiooi ??ci?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeae?, cie?aia: iiaeaeue A.Oaeiey, ui aaco?oueny ia
oaeeo i?aai?caoe?eieo aeaiaioao, ye ieaioaaiiy, i?aai?caoe?y, eiio?ieue,
oi?aae?iiy, i?iaiicoaaiiy, eii?aeeiaoe?y ? noeioethaaiiy; iiaeaeue
A.Oaeiaia-A.Iaa??, aea aeae?eythoueny /ioe?e oace ?icaeoeo a?oiiai?
ae?yeueiino?:

1. Eaoaioia oaca, a eio??e aeii?io? i???ioaoe?y ia ia?oia?noai oa iiooe
noa?e ae?yeueiino?;

2. Aaeaioaoe?eia oaca, aeey yei? oa?aeoa?i? ai?ioueaa c i?iaeaiaie oa
c?inoaiiy aieeao ia ie?aieo /eai?a a?oie;

3. ?ioaa?aoe?eia oaca: iiey?ecaoe?y iiaeyae?a a?aeiinii i?iaeaiieo
??oaiue;

4. Oaca aeinyaiaiiy oe?e?, c oi?ioethaaiiyi caaaeueiiai ??oaiiy oa
aeinyaiaiiyi eiinainono noiniaii ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino?.

Oaeiae ?icaeyiooi iiaeaeue A.Iiaeia?eiaa, ui aaco?oueny ia nenoai?
i?aai?caoe?eieo ca’yce?a:

· oi?iaeueieo

· iaoi?iaeueieo

· iai?aoi?iaeueieo

· iicaoi?iaeueieo

· io?oe?eieo

· iaio?oe?eieo

sseui i?iaiae?coaaoe aeacai? ca’ycee a eiioaeno? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaeia
ciaeoe iaai? ei?aeyoe?? oi?iaeueieo oa io?oe?eieo ca’yce?a c
ii?iaoeai?noth ye nenoaiiith iciaeith, a iaoi?iaeueieo oa iaio?oe?eieo —
c e?aaoeai?noth. Iai?aoi?iaeuei? oa iicaoi?iaeuei? ca’ycee yaeythoueny
nei??oa aeiaaeeiaeie aai oei/aniaeie ooai?aiiyie, oiio ia
i?aaenoaaeythoue ?ioa?ano aeey aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeae? aiae?cothoueny oeie oa iiaeae? i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?, ye?
iiaeia a?aeianoe aei ?noi??? oi?aae?inueei? aeoiee. Ooiaeaiaio
eeane/iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo neeaee /ioe?e oeiee:

1. 1885-1920 ?.?. — oeiea iaoeiaiai oi?aae?iiy (F.W.Taylor,
F.B.Gilbreth, H.Hunt).

2. 1920-1950 ?.?. — oeiea aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai iai?yieo (H.Fayol,
J.D.Mooney, A.P.Slone).

3. 1930-1950 ?.?. — oeiea ethaenueeeo a?aeiinei ( I.P.Follett, A.Iayi,
A.Iaslow).

4. 1950- oaia??oi?e /an — iaoea oi?aae?iiy aai e?euee?nieo iaoiae?a.

A oe?eiio eeane/iee iaiaaeaeiaio aeei?enoiao? oae? iai?aoeueiaai?
noaiaea?oi? i?aeoiaee:

a) i?ioeaniee i?aeo?ae, yeee ?icaeyaea? oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe?yie ye
aca?iicaeaaei?noue oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e;

a) nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, ui ?icaeyaea? i?aai?caoe?th ye nenoaio, iniiaieie
aeaiaioaie yei? ?: ethaee, no?oeoo?e, caaea/? oa oaoiieia??, ui
ci???ioiaai? ia aeinyaiaiiy iaoe a oiiaao i?ieeaiai ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua;

a) neooaoe?eiee i?aeo?ae, yeee eiioeaio?o?oueny ia aeai?? iioeiaeueiiai
iaoiaeo, a?aeiia?aeiiai aeai?e eiie?aoi?e neooaoe??.

Ine?eueee iniiaiei iaoiaeii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaiiee aiae?c, ie
aeei?enoaee a yeino? ?ino?oiaioo aiae?co oeiieia?caoe?th ia’?eoo
aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?aai?caoe?th oa ?? neeaaeia? aeaiaioe. ?acoeueoaoii
oeiieia?caoe?? ? aeae?eaiiy iaaieo oei?a nioe?aeueieo ia’?eo?a oa yaeu,
ui i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith ?aeaae?caoe?th ?o ?aaeueii ?nioth/eo aiaeia?a
a nioe?oi?.

Ia?oei cia/iei aianeii a oai??th i?aai?caoe?? aoea eiioeaioe?y
ath?ie?aoe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? I.Aaaa?a. Oai??y Aaaa?a ia i?noeea a nia?
iien?a eiie?aoieo i?aai?caoe?e, eiai oei ath?ie?aoe/ii? i?aai?caoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e i?aaenoaaeya oiiaio ii?iaoeaio iiaeaeue, aei yei? iiaeii?
i?aaiooe ?aaeuei? i?aai?caoe??. Aeueoa?iaoeaiith iiaeaeeth aaaa??anueei?
noaea “ae?aeaeoe/ia” i?aai?caoe?y (aaoi? — I. White). I?aai?caoe?eia
no?oeoo?a, yeo iienaa I.Aaeo, a?aeia?aaea? ?ioi?iaoe?eio a?aee?eo?noue
oa i???ioaoe?th ia ethaenueeee oaeoi?. Eiioeaioe?y “ae?aeaeoe/ii?”
i?aai?caoe?? aaea aei iiaiai niiniao ieneaiiy oa iiai? nenoaie
oe?iiinoae oeo, ooi i?aoethaaa a ath?ie?aoe/ieo no?oeoo?ao.

Eiioeaioe?th iaoi?iaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ye i?ioeaaao eeane/iei
?aoe?iiaeueiei i?aeoiaeai I.Aaaa?a oa eiai iine?aeiaiee?a ?ic?iaea
A.Aieaeia?. Oey eiioeaioe?y iieno? i?ioeane naii?aaoeyoe??,
aiiainoacena, noeo?eiino? a a?oiia?e oa i?aai?caoe?ei?e aeeiai?oe?.

?icaeoeii aaaa??anei? o?aaeeoe??, ui noaea ii/aoeii oeiieia?caoe?? ye
nenoaiiiai iaoiaeo aea/aiiy i?aai?caoe?e, yaey?oueny iien aeaio oei?a
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? — iaoai?noe/ii? ? i?aai?noe/ii?. Ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c oeeo no?oeoo? c?iaeee a/ai?-a?oaa?i??noe O.Berns oa J.I.Stalcker.
Aiie i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo, ui i?aai?/i? no?oeoo?e e?aua i?aeoiaeyoue
aeey i?aai?caoe?e, ye? ae?thoue a oiiaao oaeaeeeo ci?i ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, a oie /an ye iaoai?noe/i? i?enoiniaai? aeey iia?eueii?
aaiethoe?? nioe?aeueiiai ioi/aiiy.

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oeeo ?aeae a i?aoeyo R.E.Ackoff, S.M.Davis,
P.Lawrence, J.W. Slocum, R.Woodman, H.Eoontz, N.I’Donnel oa ?i.
aeicaieea aoaeoaaoe iia? oeiieia?? ia o?ueio ??aiyo aca?iiae??:

1) i?aai?caoe?y — ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua

2) i?ae?icae?e — i?ae?icae?e

3) ethaeeia — i?aai?caoe?y

A eiioaeno? oeiieia?? i?aai?caoe?e ii aca?iiae?? i?ae?icae?e?a aoea
?ic?iaeaia ianooiia eeaneo?eaoe?y i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?:

a) o?aaeeoe?eia;

a) aeea?c?iiaeueia;

a) iao?e/ia.

O?aaeeoe?eia no?oeoo?a a ii?aeiaii? c ?icaeoeii iaoai?noe/iiai
(ath?ie?aoe/iiai) i?aeoiaeo aeeiiaea ae??oaeueio ?ieue i?e ia?aoiae?
a?ae aa?a?iiai noni?euenoaa aei ?iaeono??aeueiiai. A 1-e iieiaei? OO no.
o?aaeeoe?ei? no?oeoo?e caaacia/eee ??no ?ioaa?iaaieo i?aai?caoe?e, ye?
caiaeii ia?a?inee a aaee/aci? ei?ii?aoe??.

Aeea?c?iiaeuei? i?aai?caoe?? aeieeee ye ?aaeoe?y ia e?eco o?aaeeoe?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo a?ae aei?noei? oeaio?ae?ciaaii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy aei ?eieiai?, aea ia oeyoii iiaii? a?aeiiae a?ae ia?oi?, a ye
?acoeueoao ii?aeiaiiy iaio nenoai a i?aai?caoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino?.

Iao?e/i? i?aai?caoe?? noai?ththoueny aeey aeeiiaiiy ??cieo i?iaeo?a a
noae? no?iee oa iaoiiaeaiei ??aiai yeino?. A ia?oo /a?ao oea noino?oueny
iaeano? iia?oi?o oaoiieia?e. Oiio iao?e/i? i?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e
a?ae??ciythoueny neeaaei?noth ? ?acii c oei a?aeiia?aeathoue aeeiai?oe?
noni?eueieo ci?i, ine?eueee ni?iuothoue oi?aae?inueeo ???a?o?th ?
?iaeyoue oaeo i?aai?caoe?th a?eueo aio/eith a ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie oeiaie
i?aai?caoe?e.

Ia ??ai? “?iaeea?ae-i?aai?caoe?y” ?nio? oaea eeaneo?eaoe?y i?aai?caoe?e
: ei?ii?aoeai? oa ?iaeea?aeoae?nonuee?. Ei?ii?aoeai? i?aai?caoe??
yaeythoueny a?aeiinii caieiooeie a?oiaie ethaeae c iaeneiaeueiith
oeaio?ae?caoe??th, noeeuei?noth aei aaoi?eoa?ieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy ? c
oaiaeaioe?yie i?ioenoaaeyoe naaa ?ioei nioe?aeueiei ni?eueiioai.
?iaeea?aeoae?nonueeee oei i?aai?caoe?? i?ioeeaaeiee ei?ii?aoeaiiio ? ?
a?eueiei, a?aee?eoei ia’?aeiaiiyi ethaeae, ui caeiyo? ni?eueiith
ae?yeuei?noth.

Cia/iee ?ioa?an a eiioaeno? i?aai?caoe?eieo ia?aaeeai i?aaenoaaey?
niaith oeiieia?/ia iiaeaeue E.Eiinoaioeia (NOA). Oeth iiaeaeue iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ye ?ioaa?aeueio i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o, ui aaco?oueny ia
aeaio aeeoioii?/ieo oeaeao: a?aee?eo?noue-caieioo?noue oa aeiaaeeia?noue
(oaioe/i?noue)-neio?iii?noue. A?aeiia?aeii aeacaiei iciaeai E.Eiinoaioei
aeae?ey? /ioe?e oeie i?aai?caoe?e — a?aee?eoo, caieiooo, aeiaaeeiao oa
neio?iiio.

Caieiooa i?aai?caoe?y ia? ???a?o?/io i??ai?aeo aeaaee. Aiia
oa?ae-oa?eco?oueny noaa?euei?noth, iaci?ii?noth, o?eaae?noth ?nioaaiiy,
/?oeei ?iciiae?eii iaia’yce?a. ?iaioa a i?e noaiaea?oia oa iaoai?/a. A
i?e oe?iyoueny: a?aeaeai?noue ea??aieoeoao oa eiyeuei?noue,
eiioi?ii?noue oa ne?aeoaaiiy a?oiiaei ii?iai. Aeinooi aei ?ioi?iaoe??
iaiaaeaiee, naieoe?iiiaaiee oa eiio?ieueiaaiee.

A?aee?eoa i?aai?caoe?y aaco?oueny ia a?eueiiio iai?i? ?ioi?iaoe??th,
iino?eieo eiioi?eaoe?yo. A i?e oe?ieoueny oa, ui aea? ?acoeueoao,
aca?iiae?th oa a?ae/oooy ni?eueiino?. A i?e a?aeaoaa?oueny iino?eia
?ioaoe?y ?ieae.

Aeiaaeeiaa i?aai?caoe?y i???ioiaaia ia ??ciia?/i? ?ioa?ane oa oe?e?,
noeioeth? oai?/ee iiooe oa aeeneon??, ia aeiineoue ?aaeaiaioaoe??.

Neio?iiia i?aai?caoe?y aeaiiino?o? aenieee ??aaiue cao?oiaaiino? iaaeiei
ea??aieea c iciaeaie oa?eciaoe/iiai e?aea?a. A i?e ianaiia?aae
oe?iothoueny: a?aeaeai?noue ?aea?, aacoiiaia ne?aeoaaiiy caaaeuei?e iao?
oa aeciaiiy aaoi?eoaoo e?aea?a.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c i?eaaaeaieo aeua eeaneo?eaoe?e iieaco?, ui, ia
caaaeath/e ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue ?nioth/eo a ieo oeiao i?aai?caoe?e,
aiie ia iia’ycai? i?ae niaith caaaeueieie ?aeaioeo?eaoe?eieie iciaeaie.
Aiaeii/an i?ae a?eueo?noth ?nioth/eo a iaoeiaeo aeaea?aeao oei?a
i?aai?caoe?e ?niothoue ei?aeyoe??, ye? ni?aiaaeathoue ii ci?noo c
cai?iiiiiaaieie a aeaiiio aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaiith nenoaiieie
iciaeaie — ii?iaoeai?noth, e?aaoeai?noth, ?ioaa?aoeai?noth oa
aeeoa?aioe?ei?noth.

Ii?aeiaiiy oeeo iciae ooai?th? iiey?i? eiioeiooie, aiae?c yeeo aeicaiey?
?iaeoe ye?nii iia? aeniiaee a?aeiinii aaeaeaaoiino? i?aai?caoe?e
ciai?oiueiio nioe?aeueiiio na?aaeiaeuo oa iaoiae?a iioei?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe?eieie no?oeoo?aie. I?aaeeuei?noue oai?aoe/ieo
aeniiae?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aii??e/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie ? i?aeoeeith
oi?aae?inueeiai eiinoeueooaaiiy.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe “Iaoiaeieia?/ia oa iaoiaee/ia
caaacia/aiiy iaoeiaiai oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe?yie” i?enay/aia iaoiaeai
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?aai?caoe?e ? aiae?co iaoai?ci?a ?o
nioe?aeueii? aaeaeaaoiino?. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny oaeei iaoiaeai
ye oeiieia?caoe?y ? iiaeaethaaiiy.

Oeiieia?caoe?y aeeiio? ?ieue nenoaiiiai oaeoi?a i?e aeae?eaii? oeio
nioe?aeueiino? oa ??ciiaeae?a eiie?aoieo oi?i ? ni?aa?aeiioaiue a o?ueio
aniaeoao:

1. Aeinyaa?oueny nenoaiaoecaoe?y ia’?eoo, ui iaaea? aeine?aeieeo
iiaeeeaino? cina?aaeeoenue ia iniaeeainoyo, aiaeia?yo oa ?ica?aeiinoyo,
i?eoaiaiieo ??ciei i?aai?caoe?yi.

2. Oi?iothoueny canaaee aeey oei?caoe?? i?iaeai ??cieo i?aai?caoe?e oa
ia?aianaiiy iaoiae?a ?o ae??oaiiy a?ae iaeieo aei ?ioeo ca oiiae
ni?aiaae?iiy iaaieo nenoaiieo iciae.

3. Io?eio?oueny iiaeeea?noue oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe noni?euenoai c iaeyaeo ia
eiai i?aai?caoe?th, no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino?, iaoai?cie ?ioaa?aoe?? oa
aeeoa?aioe?aoe??, nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth ? naii?aaoeyoe??.

Aeei?enoaiiy a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaoiaea iiaeaethaaiiy ia?aaeaa/a?
ni?iuaiiy oa ?aeaae?caoe?th ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiiy; aecia/aiiy
eiioeaiooaeueieo eaoaai??e, aano?aaiaaieo a?ae ?aaeueiino? ? iiaoaeiaa
ia ?o iniia? ocaaaeueiaieo iiaeaeae. sse ? oeiieia?y, iiaeaeue
i?aaenoaaey? neioaciaaiee ia?ac, caaea/a yeiai — iiyniaiiy oa
nenoaiaoecaoe?y iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ii nai?e i?e?iae? oeiieia?y
a?eueo noaoe/ia, a iiaeaeue — aeeiai?/ia.

A neeo oeueiai, oeiieia?/iee iaoiae aeei?enoiao?oueny iaie aeey aiae?co
no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae i?aai?caoe??, ia?aaaa oa iaaeie?e?a i?ano?oeoo?
??cieo oei?a. A naith /a?ao, iiaeaeue e?aua oa?aeoa?eco? aeeiai?eo,
oiaoi ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?caoe??, ?? ?aaeoe?th ia ci?ie a ciai?oiueiio
na?aaeiaeu?.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? iioeiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?eii? iiaeae? aoea aeei?enoaia
aaoi?nueea eeaneo?eaoe?y ie?aieo iciae i?ano?oeoo? oa oi?aae?inueeeo
noee?a, a oaeiae a?aeiia?aeieo oei?a aeaaee, anoaiiaeai? ca’ycee i?ae
ieie ? iiaoaeiaaia oeiieia?/ia iiaeaeue.

Iiaoaeiaa iiaeae? iia’ycaia c iaiao?aei?noth iiyniaiiy nioe?aeueieo yaeu
? i?ioean?a. ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? i?e aiae?c? i?ioean?a ia
i?aaenoaaeythoue ?aaeueiiai ?ioa?ano, yeui aiie ia aacothoueny ia iaaieo
ci?iieo oaeoi?ao, aea?aieo aeey oi?ioethaaiiy eiioeaioe?? /e oai??? a
aeai?e aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?.

Aei oaeeo ci?iieo ne?ae a?aeianoe aaaaeai? iaie eaoaai??? ii?iaoeaiino?,
e?aaoeaiino?, ?ioaa?aoeaiino? oa aeeoa?aioe?eiino?.

I?ae ii?iaoeai?noth ie ?icoi??ii noeoii?noue aioo??oi?o oa ciai?oi?o
ii?i nioe?oio ye can?a nioe?aeueii? ?aaoeyoe?? iiaaae?iee ?iaeea?ae?a oa
a?oi.

Aieiaiith oiiaith i?iyao e?aaoeaiino? (oai?/ino?) ? a?eueia
naii-ae?aaeaiiy. A i?aai?caoe?yo, aea oaea naiiae?aaeaiiy oiniaeth?oueny
c a?oiiaeie oe?iiinoyie, oai?/?noue — oea can?a aeey ae?iaieoeoaa ye?nii
iiaiai iaoa??aeueiiai /e ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai i?iaeoeoo.

Ianooiia ia?a iciae, ui cai?iiiiiaai? a yeino? aaceno ?ioaa?aeueii?
i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e, iia’ycaia c i?eioeeiii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
caaaeueiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai a nioe?ieia?? i?aai?caoe?e. Iciaea
?ioaa?aoeaiino? ia?aaeaa/a? aeii?ioaaiiy eieaeoeaiiai iaae iniaenoei,
ni?eueiiai iaae ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei, aaeaioaoe?? iaae aeooae?caoe??th.
Aeeoa?aioe?ei?noue ? iane?aeeii i?iyao nioe?aeueieo a?aei?iiinoae i?ae
?iaeea?aeaie, a?oiaie a ?ioa?anao, oe?iiinoyo, ii?iao iiaaae?iee oa
noeeth aeeooy.

Oaeei /eiii ie iaea?aeo?ii aea? oeaee, aea iaeia iia’ycaia c
?ioaineai?noth ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iai?io a i?aai?caoe?? : a?ae
iaeneiaeueii? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aei i???ioaoe?? ia oai?/ee
iiooe. Ae?oaa oeaea iieaco? ??aaiue aca?iiae?? /eai?a i?aai?caoe?? —
a?ae iaeneiaeueii? cao?oiaaiino? oa i?aai?ciaaiino? ia canaaeao
ni?eueiino? aei iaeneiaeueii? ?ic’?aeiaiino? ia iniia? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
a?aei?iiinoae.

A ?acoeueoao? i?oiaiiaeueiiai ia?aoeio aeacaieo oeae ooai?ththoueny
/ioe?e eiioeiooie, ye? i?noyoue a?aeiia?aeii /ioe?e oeie i?ano?oeoo?.
Oe? i?ano?oeoo?e iiaeia oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe i?e aeiiiiic? eiia?iaoe?e
a?aeiieo iai iciae: ?ioaa?aoeaii-ii?ioth/i?, aeeoa?aioe?eii-ii?ioth/i?,
?ioaa?aoeaii-oai?/i? oa aeeoa?aioe?eii-oai?/i?.

Aeoiaey/e c i?eioeeio ?icoiii? aeinoaoiino?, ui aeeeth/a? ?c
eeaneo?eaoe?? ia’?eoe c aaeeeith e?euee?noth ei?aethth/eo iciae, oiaoi a
?acoeueoao? e?euee?nii? iioei?caoe?? i?ano?oeoo? aoea ?ic?iaeaia
oeiieia?y c /ioe?ueio aoaeiiieo oei?a i?aai?caoe?e. Cae/aeii, oe?
aoaeiii? oeie ? ?aeaaeueieie iiaeaeyie, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo iiaeeeai
iiaoaeoaaoe oe iienaoe aoaeue-yeo ?aaeueio i?aai?caoe?th.

Iniiaiith iciaeith ?ioaa?aoeaii-ii?ioth/iai oeio i?aai?caoe?? ?
aeii?ioaaiiy i?eioeeio nioe?aeueii? ???a?o??, oiaoi oaei? oi?ie
iiaoaeiae neeaaeieo nioe?aeueieo nenoai, a yeeo ieae/? ??ai?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?e eiio?ieththoueny aeueie. Oa?aeoa?ieie
i?iyaaie oaei? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie ? oeaio?ae?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy oa ??
ath?ie?aoecaoe?y. Nioe?aeueia ???a?o?y oaeiae aeyaey?oueny a
iaooeeueiiio aeio?eiaii? /eaiaie i?aai?caoe?? iaaieo ii?i, ui
oiniaeththoueny o aeaeyae? i?aaee, aeac?aie, ?ino?oeoe?e, ?aaeaiaioaoe?e
? o.i., ye? iicaaaeythoue ethaeae iiaeeeaino? i?iyaeyoe naiino?ei?noue ?
oai?/?noue o ae??oaii? caaea/. Oiio oaeee oei i?aai?caoe?? aoa iaie
iacaaiee ???a?o?/iei.

Aeeoa?aioe?eii-ii?ioth/ee oei i?aai?caoe??, caa??aath/e i???ioaoe?th ia
caaaeuei? ii?ie, aiaeii/an aeicaiey? oa caioi/o? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee
noeeue ae?yeueiino?, ?i?oe?th? iniaenoo oa a?oiiao eiieo?aioe?th. Aeey
ia? oa?aeoa?ieie ? iayai?noue ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeooo oa oe?iea
aeei?enoaiiy a ?iaio? c eaae?aie iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo iaoiae?a. Oaeee oei
i?aai?caoe?? oiiaii iacaaii eiieo?oth/ei.

?ioaa?aoeaii-oai?/ee oei i?aai?caoe?? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeei oeiii
aca?iiae?? i?ae ?? /eaiaie, yeee a?aeiia?aea? iiiyooth eieaeoeaii?
oai?/ino?. Oaea aca?iiae?y iaoiiaeth? ni?yiiaai?noue ia ni?eueio caaea/o
i?e a?aenooiino? aei?noeeo ii?i oa ?aaeaiaioaoe?e. Caaaeyee
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iei iaoai?ciai iane?aeoaaiiy, iaa?thaaiiy,
?aeaioeo?eaoe??, a oaeiae aiane?aeie iaaiai?aiue, eiinoeueoaoe?e oa
aeeneon?e, ui ni?eythoue ?aeiino? oa aca?ii?icoi?iith, aeinyaa?oueny
eiinie?aeaoe?y /eai?a i?aai?caoe??, a ?? oei iiaeia a?aeianoe aei
eiinie?aeoth/iai.

Aeeoa?aioe?eii-oai?/ee oei i?aai?caoe?? ao?eth? a nia? oae? yeino?, ye
?iaeea?aeoaeueia oai?/?noue, iaoi?iaeueiee oa?aeoa? aca?iia?aeiinei oa
naiiaeinoaoi?noue iiaaae?iee ?? /eai?a. Aeeoa?aioe?ei?noue a i?ioean?
ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino? aaaea aei iiyae a?aei?iiinoae a ?ioa?anao,
oe?iiinoyo ? ii?iao iiaaae?iee oa iiaeeeaino? iiaiiai ?ice?eooy oai?/iai
iioaioe?aeo eiaeii? ethaeeie. Oiio oaeee oei i?aai?caoe?? aoa
a?aeianaiee aei ?iaeea?aeoae?nonueeiai.

A ?acoeueoao? ocaaaeueiaiiy c?iaeaieo aeniiae?a, aoa c?iaeaiee ia?ao?ae
a?ae noaoe/ieo oi?iaeueieo no?oeoo? aei aeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? c
aeei?enoaiiyi oeiieia?? ye ?ino?oiaioo aiae?co aca?iica’yceo oei?a
i?aai?caoe?e, noee?a oi?aae?iiy oa oei?a aeaaee a eiioaeno?
?ioaa?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e.

I?aai?/iei noeeai oi?aae?iiy ???a?o?/iith i?aai?caoe??th ? noeeue,
aiaeia?/iee aee?aeoeaiiio. Oea caeiiii??ii, ine?eueee a oae?e no?oeoo??
ea??aiee aeeiio? ?ieue ooieoe?iia?a ii o?ueii aieiaiei aniaeoai —
oi?aae?inueeiio, aieeaiaiio oa ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio — ? iana iniaenoo
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiaeii? c aeacaieo
neeaaeiaeo. Eiai noeeue — oea noeeue i?yieo iaeac?a, ?icii?yaeaeaiue oa
aeac?aie i?e a?aenooiino? cai?ioiiai ca’yceo c i?aeeaaeeie.

A i?aai?caoe?? eiieo?oth/iai oeio a?ae ea??aieea aeiaaa?oueny ai?iiy
eii?aeeioaaoe ae?? nai?o i?aeeaaeeo ii a?eueoino? iai?yie?a ?
noai?thaaoe a eieaeoea? aoiinoa?o nii??aeiaiino?, yea ni?ey? aeieeiaiith
iniaenoi? caoe?eaaeaiino? a ?acoeueoaoao oa iioeaaoe?? ae?yeueiino?.
Oaeee noeeue oi?aae?iiy iiaeia a?aeianoe aei eii?aeeioth/iai. Oaiiiai
nii??aeiaiino? aeieea? caaaeyee noi?iiaai?e a i?aai?caoe?? ei?ii?aoeai?e
eoeueoo?? — noeoiiino? ii?i, i?eioeei?a oa oe?iiinoae, yeeie ea?othoueny
an? /eaie i?aai?caoe??.

Iniiaiei /eiieeii aoaeoeaiino? a i?aai?caoe?? eiinie?aeoth/iai oeio ?
caiacia/aiiy i??i?eoaoo ?ioi?iaoe?? oa oaoiieia?yi ?? iaea?aeaiiy,
ia?a?iaee ? aeaea/?. Ea??aiee a oae?e i?aai?caoe?? aeoeaioo? naith oaaao
ia ?icaeoie ?i?oe?aoeaiino? oa oai?/ino? o nai?o i?aeeaaeeo. A?i
a?aeaea? ia?aaaao eieaa?aeueiiio noeeth oi?aae?iiy, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
ii?aeiaiiy eieaeoeaii? aie? oa eiinainono a i?ioean? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue.

I?aai?caoe?y ?iaeea?aeoae?nonueeiai oeio eoeueoeao? o nai?o /eai?a oae?
yeino?, ye aeaiie?aoe/i?noue, a?aee?eo?noue, oiea?aioi?noue. A i?e ia
aeiaaa?oueny ni?eueiino? aeoiie, no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee. Eieaeoeai?
iaaiai?aiiy iathoue ia iao? ia aeaea/o aeac?aie ? naieoe?e, a aenoiaiiy
?aeae, eiioeaioe?e oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e iaoi?iaeueiiai ieaio. Oiio ea??aiee
oaei? i?aai?caoe?? i???ioiaaiee ia eiinoeueoaoeaiee noeeue oi?aae?iiy
i?ano?oeoo?aie.

Aaaaoi aeine?aeiee?a cacia/athoue ca’ycie i?ae oa?aeoa?ii noni?eueieo
i?ioean?a, cie?aia i?aai?caoe?eieo, c iniaeeainoyie ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeaaeieo no?oeoo?. Aeii?ioaaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai oeio aeaaee a nioe?oi?
ni?ey? aoaeoeaiino? iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e ? iaaiaee — ?iaeoue
ae?yeuei?noue ?ioeo iaeiaoaeoeaiith /e iaa?oue oiaiiaeeeaeth? ??. Oiio
aeieea? eia?/ia i?eiouaiiy i?i aaeaeaaoi?noue iaaieo i?aai?caoe?e oeio
?nioth/i? aeaaee — ia iae?i??ai? (aea?aeaaiiio) oa i?e?i??ai?
(?aa?iiaeueiiio, aaeocaaiio, i?aai?caoe?eiiio).

Oiio aeioe?eueii i?iaiae?coaaoe oeie aeaaee ye ??ciiaeaee i?ano?oeoo?
a?aeiinii aea?aieo iaie aaciaeo nenoaiieo iciae — ?ioaa?aoeaiino?,
aeeoa?aioe?eiino?, ii?iaoeaiino? oa e?aaoeaiino?.

Ii?aeiaiiy iciae “?ioaa?aoeai?noue-ii?iaoeai?noue” noai?th?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee eiioeiooi, yeee ca nai?ie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
a?aeiia?aea? oioae?oa?iiio oeio aeaaee, yea aaco?oueny ia nooe?eueiiio
eiio?ie? iaae an?ia noa?aie aeeooy nioe?oio, caaacia/o? aeeiiaiiy an?ia
ni?eueieo ii?i, i?aaee oa nioe?aeueieo onoaiiaie, i?eaeooo? iiiceoe?th.

Eiia?iaoe?y “aeeoa?aioe?ei?noue-ii?iaoeai?noue” a?eueo i?aai?/ia
aaoi?eoa?iiio oeio aeaaee, ui cae?enith? eiio?ieue iaae eeth/iaeie
iiceoe?yie a ae?yeueiino? nioe?oio, oa aeicaiey? aeayeei aieeaaai
a?aeiinio naiaiaeo ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Niieoea iciae “aeeoa?aioe?ei?noue-e?aaoeai?noue” a?eueo aaeaeaaoia
e?aa?aeueiiio oeio aeaaee, i?e ye?e noa? iiaeeeaei ieth?ae?noe/iee
i?aeo?ae aei ae??oaii? a?eueoino? i?iaeai oa naiino?eiee aea?? no?aoaa??
? oaeoeee a i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue ?iaeea?aeaie oa a?oiaie. Aeoeaio ?iaeoueny
ia ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e oai?/ino?, ii/anoe c ?aii?oaaiiyi ni?eueieo ii?i oa
oe?eae.

Ii?aeiaiiy iciae “?ioaa?aoeai?noue-e?aaoeai?noue” iaea?eueo a?aeiia?aea?
aeaiie?aoe/iiio oeio aeaaee, i?e ye?e i?eioeeie ieth?ae?noe/iino?
aeiiiaiththoueny ia’?aeioth/eie aeey nioe?oio oe?eyie oa oe?iiinoyie .

?acoeueoaoii c?iaeaiiai aiae?co o?ueio oeiieia?e — i?aai?caoe?e oa
aaeaeaaoieo ?i noee?a ea??aieoeoaa ? oei?a aeaaee — aoea iiaoaeiaaia
?ioaa?aeueia iiaeaeue i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e ia canaaeao
cai?iiiiiaaieo nenoaiieo aaciaeo iciae.

Aacia?a/ii oaea iiaeaeue ? ?aeaaeueiith, ine?eueee a oiiaao ?aaeueiiai
nioe?oio /ano?oa ie ia?ii ni?aao c ci?oaieie oeiaie no?oeoo? oa ?o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Aiaeii/an ?ic?iaeaiee iaie eiioeaiooaeueiee i?aeo?ae
iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee ye iioei?coth/ee oaeoi? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ?aaeueii ae?th/eo i?ano?oeoo?, ?o oi?ioaaiiy,
?ai?aai?caoe?? oa iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy.

AENIIAEE

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeeiai?ee i?aai?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a iieaco?, ui
aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?caoe?e ye a?aee?eoeo nioe?aeueieo nenoai — ?o
oi?ioaaiiy, ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?oeiaoe?y — a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue
a?ae ia’?eoeaieo ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a. O?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane, ui
i?ioiaeyoue a iaoiio noni?euenoa?, iaaeathoue iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe
oa?aeoa? ?aaeoe?? ??cieo oei?a i?aai?caoe?? ia ci?ie iie?oe/iiai,
aeiiii?/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai aniaeo?a aeeooy, ??aaiue ?o aaeaioiaaiino?,
no?eeino?, eiieo?aioiino?, a?aeiia?aeiino? nioe?aeueiei caieoai.

Aeaa?aaeaoe?y aai i?ia?an ie?aieo i?aai?caoe?e aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai?
c oaeei /eiieeii ye aaeaeaaoi?noue ?o ae?yeueiino?, iaoe oa iaoiae?a,
cie?aia oi?aae?inueeeo, nioe?aeueiiio caiiaeaiith na?aaeiaeua, a yeiio
aiie ciaoiaeyoueny. Oa?aeoa? oaeiai caiiaeaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae nenoaiieo
iciae, i?eoaiaiieo i?ano?oeoo?ai, ui neeaaeathoue na?aaeiaeua.

Aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy — ni?iaa aeae?eeoe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe oeie
i?ano?oeoo? oa oa?aeoa? ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy a no/aniiio noni?euenoa?.
Iaoiae — aeei?enoaiiy oeiieia?caoe?? ye caniao oii?yaeeiaaiino? oa
i?eaaaeaiiy aei eia?/ii? nenoaie ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy o aeaeyae?
?ioaa?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?eii? iiaeae?.

Iiaeaeueo? e?iee o aeine?aeaeaii? oe??? i?iaeaie — a aeei?enoaii?
iiaeaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aeey ?ic?iaee nioe?ieia?/ieo oaoiieia?e o noa?ao
oi?aae?inueeiai eiinoeueooaaiiy oa nioe?aeueiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy
noni?eueieo i?ioean?a.

IOAE?EAOe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o 1 a?ioo?? oa 5
noaooyo.

1. Ia/a?ia A.A. Nioeeaeueiue iaiaaeaeiaio. Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee
/Aeaaeai?y ioi?oeeiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. — Ee?a, 1998. — 61 n.

2. Aeii/aiei I.A., Ia/a?ia A.I. Ua iaeei iaoiae i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? i?aai?caoe?? // Nioe?ieia?y: oai??y, iaoiaee, ia?eaoeia. —
1998. — ? 4-5. — N. 146-159.

3. Aeii/aiei A.A., Ia/a?ia A.A. Aaeaioaoeeiiiue iaa?ic nioeeoia eae
neaaenoaea oi?aaeai/aneiai e?ecena // Nioeeieiaey: oai?ey, iaoiaeu,
ia?eaoeia. – 1999. — ?1. – N. 173-190.

4. Ia/a?ia A.I. Ia oeyoo aei iioei?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe?eieo
no?oeoo? // A?niee Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ?
11-12. — N. 77-84.

5. Ia/a?ia A.A. Nenoaiiua i?eciaee e eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue
nioeeaeueiie yaiethoeee // Nioe?aeuei? aei??e noni?euenoaa. Ca??ea
iaoeiaeo ?ia?o ani??aio?a ?inoeoooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1998. —
Aeione 2. — N. 33-43.

6. Ia/a?ia A.A. Eaeaieiaey i?aaiecaoeee e noeee oi?aaeaiey //
Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia iaoea ? noni?eueia ?aeaieia?y. Iaoa??aee
iaoiaee/iiai nai?ia?o Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie. (12
eenoiiaaea 1998?.). — Ee?a, 1998. — N. 92-100.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O ioae?eaoe?? ?2 iniaenoi aaoi?ia?
iaeaaeaoue:

1. Oeiieia?y i?aai?caoe?e, iiaoaeiaaia ia iniia? aaciaeo nenoaiieo
iciae: ii?iaoeaiino?-e?aaoeaiino? oa ?ioaa?aoeaiino?-aeeoa?aioe?eiino?.

2. ?ioaa?aeueia ?aeaaeueia iiaeaeue i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e, ui
i?noeoue oeie i?aai?caoe?e ?c aaeaeaaoieie ?i noeeyie oi?aae?iiy e
oeiaie aeaaee.

O ioae?eaoe?? ? 3 iniaenoi aaoi?ia? iaeaaeaoue iieiaeaiiy,
iia’ycai? c oa?aeoa?ieie iniaeeainoyie iaioae?oaoo oe?a?inueeiai
nioe?oio ye nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e.

Ia/a?ia A.I. Nioe?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue i?aai?caoe?e a noni?euenoa?, ui
ci?ith?oueny. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.03 — nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a, nioe?aeuei?
?inoeoooe oa nioe?aeuei? a?aeiineie. — ?inoeooo nioe?ieia??
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?,
nenoaii? iciaee oa nioe?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue i?aai?caoe?e a ??cieo
oiiaao. I?iiiio?oueny ?aeaioeo?eaoe?eia iiaeaeue iioei?caoe?? i?ioeano
iiaoaeiae i?aai?caoe?? ye ?aeaaeueiiai c?acea, aei yeiai iathoue oyae?oe
?aaeueii ?nioth/? i?aai?caoe??. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c ae?yeueiino? iniiaieo
oei?a i?aai?caoe?e ye i?iaeoeoo iaaieo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue, i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a,
?aeaioeo?eaoe?eia iiaeaeue, nenoaii? iciaee, oeie i?aai?caoe?e.

Ia/a?ia A.A. Nioeeaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaiecaoeee a eciaiythuainy
iauanoaa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeena?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa nioeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.03 — nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a, nioeeaeueiua
einoeooou e nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey. — Einoeooo nioeeieiaee
Iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaaeaiee iaoe Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?,
nenoaiiua i?eciaee e nioeeaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaiecaoeee a
?acee/iuo oneiaeyo. I?aaeeaaaaony eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue
iioeiecaoeee i?ioeanna iino?iaiey i?aaiecaoeee eae yoaeiia, e eioi?iio
aeieaeiu no?aieoueny ?aaeueii nouanoaothuea i?aaiecaoeee. I?iecaaaeai
aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe iniiaiuo oeiia i?aaiecaoeee eae i?iaeoeoa
ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeieoeueoo?iuo oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu.

Aeaiiay ?aaioa auea iai?aaeaia ia ii?aaeaeaiea n?aaieoaeueii onoie/eauo
oi?i i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?, yaeythueony noauaeoaie eieeaeoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a no?oeoo?a iauanoaa e iaoiaeaeaiea niiniaia iioeiecaoeee
oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeyie a oneiaeyo eo ?aaeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Aeey ?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiie oeaee aue eniieueciaai ?yae iaoiaeiei-ae/aneeo
i?eioeeiia, a /anoiinoe: nenoaiiinoue, ooieoeeiiaeueiinoue,
oeiieiaecaoeey, a oaeaea n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec aeeiaieee
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia.

A enneaaeiaaiee auea i?iaiaeece?iaaia ?ieue ooieoeeiiaeueiiai oaeoi?a
eae iniiaiie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oa?aeoa?enoeee e, a oii /enea, aeaaiie
ooieoeee – oi?aaeai/aneie.

A ?aaioa oaeaea iieacaia naycue iaaeaeo oeiii i?aaiecaoeee, noeeai
oi?aaeaiey e oeiii aeanoe, aeiieie?othuai a aeaiiii nioeeoia.
Oeii-eiaecaoeey eae niinia oii?yaei/eaaiey iauaeoia e i?eaaaeaiey eo a
eiae/ioth nenoaio iineoaeeea a aeaiiii enneaaeiaaiee neaaeothuei oeaeyi:

· auaeaeaiee a aeaea iiaeaee iniiaiuo oeiia i?aaiecaoeee eae
?aciiaeaeiinoae nioeeaeueiuo oi?i eieeaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

· iieo/aieth iniiau aeey onoaiiaeaiey iauiinoe e oeiecaoeee i?iaeai aeey
?aciuo i?aaiecaoeee e ia?aianaiey iaoiaeia eo ?aoaiey n iaeieo ia
ae?oaea (ii niaiaaeaieth ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?eciaeia);

· aiciiaeiinoe ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue aeaiiia iauanoai n i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
noi?iiu.

N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec aeeiaieee i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia iieacae, /oi
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee, aeeth/ay eo ia?aciaaiea,
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e ?ac?ooaiea, a aieueoae noaiaie caaenyo io
iauaeoeaiuo aiaoieo oaeoi?ia. I?ioeannu o?ainoi?iaoeee, i?ienoiaeyuea a
iaoai iauanoaa, iieacuaatho eae ?acee/iua oeiu i?aaiecaoeee ?aaae?otho
ia eciaiaiey a iauanoaaiiie aeecie, aeaiiino?e?oy noaiaiue naiae
aaeaioe?iaaiiinoe, aeeao/anoe e nioeeaeueiie aino?aaiaaiiinoe.

Aeaa?aaeaoeey eee i?ia?ann ioaeaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee eiae/anee naycaiu n
niioaaonoaeai eo oeaeae e iaoiaeia, a oii /enea e oi?aaeai/aneeo, n
nioeeaeueiui caeacii n?aaeu, a eioi?ie iie ooieoeeiie?otho, n oa?aeoa?ii
eae aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee, oae e aiaoiaai eeeiaoa
iauanoaa – iieeoe/aneiai, yeiiiie/aneiai e eoeueoo?iiai.

Eniieuecoy i?aaeeiaeaiiua a aeaiiii enneaaeiaaiee aeeooa?aioeeaeueiua
i?eciaee, iiaeii ioneaaeeaaoue iauea caeiiiia?iinoe i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a eiae/aneoth nenoaio, oaeiaioth aeey nioeeiaiaeeca
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. I?aaeeiaeaiiue iaoiae iiaeao oaeaea neoaeeoue
iniiaie aeey ?ac?aaioee i?eeeaaeiuo iaoiaeee nioeeieiae/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee e oi?aaeai/aneiai eiinoeueoe?iaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue, i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
no?oeoo?a, eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue, nenoaiiua i?eciaee, oeiu
i?aaiecaoeee.

Ovcharov A.O. Social effectiveness of organizations in transformational
society. — Manuscript.

Dissertation is maintained for a scientific Degree of the Candidate of
Sociological Sciences for speciality 22.00.03. — Social structure,
social institutions and social relations. — The Institute of Sociology
of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation work concerns the characters of organizational
structures, system signs and social effectiveness of organizations in
different conditions. It is proposed an identificational model of
optimization the process of structuring the organization as an ideal
variant, to which the real organizations should crave for. The analysis
of the activity of the basic organizational types as a product of
determinate sociocultural environment has been made.

Key words: social effectiveness, organizational structure,
identificational model, system signs, types of organizations.

I?aei. aei ae?oeo Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai?? Ion.
ae?oe.

Aa?i?oo?a “Times New Roman Cyr”. Oi.-ae?oe. a?e. Oi. oa?ai-a?ae.

Iae.-aeae. a?e. Iaeeaae 100 i?ei. Cai.
Aaceiooiaii.

Aeae?oeiaaii

Похожие записи