IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO CAAAEUeII? OA IAI?AAI?*II? O?I??

?i. A.?.AA?IAAeNUeEIAI

AeCssCUeEI THE?ss NA?A??AIA

OAeE 541.183

NI?AOe?EI? AEANOEAINO? IAI?AAI?*IEO I?IOIII?IA?AeIEO IAOA??AE?A IA
INIIA? OINOAOO OEOAIO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 02.00.04 — o?ce/ia o?i?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? ?i.
A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe Aaeyeia Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/

c caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii ?inoeeoooo caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii? o?i??
IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: /eai ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?
a?aeae?eaiiy aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aia?aaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie

I?enyaeiee A?oae?e Aeai’yiiae/

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii ?inoeoooo
ni?aoe?? oa i?iaeai aiaeiaeieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie

Oa?anaiei TH??e Ieaenaiae?iae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo eiei?aeii? o?i?? oa o?i?? aiaee ?i.
Aeoiainueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “4” ethoiai 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.218.01 a ?inoeooo? caaaeueii? oa
iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? ?i A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith,
252680, Ee?a-142, i?. Iaeaae?ia 32/34 (eiioa?aioe-cae).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? ?i. A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “31” a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe Iaiia A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ni?aoe?ei? oaoiieia??, ye? aacothoueny ia
?iiiiai?iiiio iiaeeiaii? ?a/iaei, aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey i?eaiooaaiiy
oa i/euaiiy ?ic/ei?a, ?aaeoea?a, aiaee, oa?/iaeo ? oa?iaoeaaoe/ieo
i?iaeoeo?a oiui. Oe?ieee ani?oeiaio ?iiiiai?iieo iaoa??ae?a, ye?
ae?iaey? i?iieneia?noue, aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe ?o aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee
aea?? o eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo. Iaeiae, ?iiiiai?iiei oaoiieia?yi
aeanoeaee ?yae iaaeie?e?a, ye? nooo?ai iaiaaeothoue noa?o ?o
canoinoaaiiy. A iniiaiiio, oe? iaaeie?ee, iia’ycai? c:

· iaiiaeeea?noth ciai?oiueiai ea?oaaiiy ni?aoe?eieie i?ioeanaie, ui ia
aeicaiey? ?aae?coaaoe iioeiaeuei? oiiae ?o ?aae?caoe??;

· aeiao?eaae?noth oeeo i?ioean?a a neeo aeeooc?eieo iaiaaeaiue. sse
?acoeueoao, aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy aaeeeiai ia’?io
ni?aoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo aeey aeinyaiaiiy aaaeaii? aeeiai?ee aeeo/aiiy c
?ic/eio iio??aieo eiiiiiaio?a;

· iaiao?aei?noth o?i?/ii? ?aaaia?aoe?? ni?aaio?a, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aaaaeaiiy o oaoiieia?/iee oeeee aaeeei? e?eueeino? aeiaeaoeiaeo
?aaaaio?a ? iiyae cia/iiai ia’?io aoi?eiieo noie?a.

Iiaeaeueoa aaeineiiaeaiiy ni?aoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oa i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
aoaeoeaiino? aeiaaa? iao?aaeeoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a aei ae??oaiiy iacaaieo
i?iaeai. Iaeiei c oeyo?a ? canoinoaaiiy aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe??
i?ioean?a ?iiiiai iai?io. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iai?aaeaii? ci?ie
eeneioiino? ?aaeoe?eii? ciie aac canoinoaaiiy o?i?/ieo ?aaaaio?a ca
?aooiie aeaeo?ie?co aiaee o o?eoaci?e nenoai? aeaeo?iae — ?ii?o- ?ic/ei.
A ?acoeueoao?, c iaeiiai aieo, nooo?ai i?aeaeuo?oueny aoaeoeai?noue
ni?aoe?? oa, c ae?oaiai aieo, c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue aac?aaaaioii?
?aaaia?aoe?? ni?aaio?a. I?ioa, i?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y iaoiae?a
aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe?? ?iiiiai iai?io no?eio?oueny ?o aeinoaoiuei
aaeeeith aia?ai?ii?noth oa iaeith ?ioaineai?noth.

Iiaeieaiiy oeeo o?oaeiiu?a aeiaaa? ae??oaiiy ?yaeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
caaea/ iia’ycaieo, ianaiia?aae, c aeai?ii a?aeiia?aeieo ni?aoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a. Oae? iaoa??aee ionyoue iaoe iaa?? iaaieo aeanoeainoae, a
naia: aenieo aeaeo?e/io i?ia?aei?noue, ni?iiiaei?noue aei ?iiiiai
iai?io, o?i?/io oa oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue.

Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano a aeoeaiaaieo ?iiiiai?iieo i?ioeanao
o?aaeeoe?eii canoiniaoaaeeny i?aai?/i? ?ii?oe, ye? ia iathoue o
aeinoaoi?e i??? aeacaieo aeanoeainoae. Ii?yae c oeei, iica oaaaith
caeeoaeeny iai?aai?/i? ni?aaioe. A?aeiii, ui aeaye? iai?aai?/i? ?ii?oe,
oae? ye eene? oinoaoe aaaaoiaaeaioieo aeaiaio?a (cie?aia, oinoaoe oeoaio
? oee?eii?th), aaoa?iiie?eeneioe iie?aaeaio oa aieueo?aio, niieoee oeio
-aeeiicaio oa ?io? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iith aeaeo?e/iith
i?ia?aei?noth. A ?ie? iin??a ca?yaeo a oaeeo iaoa??aeao aenooiathoue
i?ioiie iiaa?oiaaeo ?iiiiai?iieo a?oi oa o?ce/ii ca’ycaii? aiaee. Oaea
ii?aeiaiiy aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? oa ni?iiiaeiino? aei ?iiiiai iai?io
ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeeea?noue aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe?? ni?aoe?? ia oeeo
iaoa??aeao.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioo aeeiiaii
a ?aieao oaiaoee a?aeae?eo ? 9 ?inoeoooo caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii?
o?i?? ?i. A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie: “O?i?/i? oa aeaeo?io?i?/i?
i?ioeane ia iaae? ?icae?eo o?eoacieo aeaeo?iaeieo nenoai” (?
Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 01.9.10. 013728); “?ic?iaea aaca?aeoiaeiiai i?ioeano
i/euaiiy i?iieaieo aiae aaeueaai?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa, ui aeeth/a?
aac?aaaaioio ?aaaia?aoe?th ni?aaioo oa ooee?caoe?th iaoae?a” (?
Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 02.02.U03065-92); “Oi?ioaaiiy ca?yaeo iiaa?oi? o
aaoa?iaaiieo nenoaiao ia iniia? aeenia?nieo iai?aai?/ieo niieoe IY — Y
a?oie c i?ioiiiith i?e?iaeith i?ia?aeiino?” (? Aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
0194.U036410); “Aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy ca?yaeo o
aaoa?iaaiieo nenoaiao c ??cieie oeiaie i?ia?aeiino?” (?
Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0194.U010820). *anoeio ?iaioe aeeiiaii a ?aieao
oaiaoeee “Ci?aoe?ei? aeaeo?iaee, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
aac?aaaaioiiai i/euaiiy neaaieiioeaio?iaaieo no?/ieo aiae”, yea aoea
/anoeiith i?ia?aie, o?iainiaaii? IAOI (oeo? oaiaoeee IITECH.
CRG.941095).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, uia ia iniia?
aeine?aeaeaieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae iai?aai?/ieo
i?ioiii?ia?aeieo ?iiiiai?iiee?a oeio oinoaoo oeoaio aii?oii?
iiaeeo?eaoe?? aeyaeoe iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oa iaoai?ci aieeao I+ oa
II— ?ii?a, ye? aaia?othoueny o o?eoaci?e nenoai? aeaeo?iae — ?ii?o —
?ic/ei, ia ni?aoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeo iaoa??ae?a. Caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o oiio, uia ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?
iioei?coaaoe iaoiaee aeeo/aiiy oa eiioeaio?oaaiiy ?ii?a eieuei?iaeo
iaoae?a ?c ?ic/ei?a ??ciiai neeaaeo, a oaeiae aac?aaaaioii?
?aaaia?aoe?? ?ii?o?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa?
a oiio, ui aia?oa aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaiiai aac?aaaaioiiai
aieeao ia ni?aoe?ei? i?ioeane ca o/anoth iai?aai?/ieo i?ioiii?ia?aeieo
iaoa??ae?a oeio oinoaoo oeoaio. Anoaiiaeaii iaoai?ci oa iioeiaeuei?
ia?aiao?e aieeao. Iieacaii, ui aeaeo?io?i?/ia aeoeaaoe?y aeicaiey?
aeiaeaoeiai i?aeaeueoe ni?aoe?eio ?ii?noue iai?aai?/ieo ?ii?o?a, ni?ey?
cia/iiio i?aeaeuaiith oaeaeeino? ni?aoe??, a oaeiae aeicaiey?
cae?enithaaoe aac?aaaaioio ?aaaia?aoe?th ?ii?oo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue
?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeai? oaoiieia?? ni?aoe?eiiai i/euaiiy ?icaaaeaieo no?/ieo
aiae a?ae aeii?oie eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a c ianooiiith aac?aaaaioiith
?aaaia?aoe??th ni?aaioo, a oaeiae aeicaieythoue anoaiiaeoe iniiai?
e?eoa??? aeai?o ni?aaio?a aeey aeoeaiaaieo ni?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aianie aaoi?a a iioae?eiaai? ?iaioe,
aeeiiai? o ni?aaaoi?noa? oa aeeth/ai? a aeena?oaoe?th, iieyaaa o
aeoeai?e o/ano? a iaaiai?aii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo caaea/ oa ?o i?aeoe/ii?
?aae?caoe??, a aiae?c? oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, a
oaeiae o ?o ioi?ieaii? o aeaeyae? noaoae oa oac aeiiia?aeae. On?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eniai? aaoi?ii iniaenoi, ca
aeiyoeii aoiiii-aani?aoe?eiiai oa iieoi’yii-oioiiao?e/iiai aiae?co,
yeee aeeiiaii a eiio?ieueii-aiae?oe/i?e eaai?aoi??? ?CIO IAIO.

On? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii o ni?aaaoi?noa? c iaoeiaei ea??aieeii ae.o.i.
Aaeyeiaei A.I., aianie yeiai iieyaaa o iinoaiiaoe? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
caaea/, iaaiai?aii? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa o/ano? o iaienaii? noaoae.

I’youe ?ia?o iioae?eiaaii o ni?aaaoi?noa? c e.o.i. Eacaeia?iei E.I.,
aianie yeiai iieyaaa a iaaiai?aii? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa
i?aeaioiaoe? ?ia?o aei ae?oeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia eiioa?aioe??
iieiaeeo a/aieo (?CIO IAIO, i.Ee?a, 1990), XIY Anaoe?a?inuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? c iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? (i.Ee?a, 1996), eiioa?aioe?? c ?iiiiai
iai?io ?N?A’95 (i. Oaeaiaoeo, ssiii?y, 1995), o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/ieo
eiia?anao CHISA’96 oa CHISA’98 (i.I?aaa, *ao?y, 1996-1998), ?iai/?e
ia?aae? a ?aieao anana?oiueiai aeaeo?io?i?/iiai c’?caeo ICE’97 (i.Iain?,
O?aioe?y, 1997), III eiioa?aioe?? e?a?i NIAe “Aeieia?y”
(i.N?a??iaeiiaoeuee, 1998) III oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiio neiiic?oi? ii
iiaa?oiaaei yaeuai ? aaeni?aoe?? (i. Euea?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 11 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o,
cie?aia 4 noaoo? a i?ia?aeieo o?i?/ieo aeo?iaeao, noaooy o iaoa??aeao
eiioa?aioe?? oa 6 oac aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaa?oaiiy, aeniiae?a oa nieneo oeeoiaaii?
e?oa?aoo?e Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 172 noi??ieao. Aiia i?noeoue 43
iaethiea oa 15 oaaeeoeue (30 n.). Ia’?i a?ae?ia?ao?? — 189 iaeiaioaaiue
(20 n.).

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo,
iaoeiao iiaecio oa caaaeuei? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aaoi? aeiineoue ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, a yeiio ?icaeyiooi iniiai?
iaoiaee neioaco oa no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? iai?aai?/ieo oinoi?iieeneeo
?ii?o?a e?enoae?/ii? e aii?oii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? oa ?o ni?aoe?ei?
aeanoeaino?, c?iaeaii ii??aiyiiy i?ioiii?ia?aeieo aeanoeainoae
i?aai?/ieo oa iai?aai?/ieo ?iiiiai?iieo iaoa??ae?a. Aeaia ioe?iea
iiaeeeaino? aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe?? ni?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia
?iiiiai?iieeao ??cii? i?e?iaee oa ?o aac?aaaaioii? ?aaaia?aoe??. Ia
i?aenoaa? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo noi?ioeueaaii caaea/? ?iaioe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia’?eo?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy — aeenia?nieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? oinoaoo oeoaio
aii?oii? iiaeeo?eaoe??, iienaii iaoiaee, ye? canoiniaoaaeeny aeey
aea/aiiy no?oeoo?ii-ni?aoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee oeeo iaoa??ae?a.
Aeeeaaeaii oaeiae iaoiaeeee aenia?eiaio?a oa iienaii i?ea?iaeueia
eaai?aoi?ia iaeaaeiaiiy.

Ni?aoe?ei? aeanoeaino? oinoaoo oeoaio i?? aeaeo?io?i?/i?e aeoeaaoe?? oa
o ?? a?aenooiino? ioe?ithaaee i?e iiaeeiaii? eao?ii?a Na+, Cu (II) , Cr
(III), Co (II), Cd (II), Ni (II), Zn (II) ?c ?ic/ei?a a?aeiia?aeieo
oei?eae?a, a oaeiae ai?ii?a Cr (YI), Mo (YI), W (YI) c ?ic/ei?a
a?aeiia?aeieo iao???aeo nieae. Oiiiaei aeaeo?ie?oii neoaoaaa 0.05 I
?ic/ei NaCl. ?yae aeine?ae?a i?iaaaeaii c ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie ?ic/eiaie.
Ni?aoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? ?ii?o (a) :
?ic/ei (ie), ??aiiio 1:100. *an eiioaeoo neeaaeaa 48 aiaeei, ui aoei
aeinoaoiuei aeey anoaiiaeaiiy ni?aoe?eii? ??aiiaaae.

Aecia/aiiy ai?noo ni?aiaaieo eiiiiiaio?a o oac? ?ii?oo cae?enithaaee ca
iaoiaeeeith, iniiaaiith ia aeani?aoe?? eao?ii?a i?e aeththaaii? ni?aaioo
20% ?ic/eiii H2SO4, c ianooiiei aiae?cii aethaoo niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iei oa
aoiiii-aani?aoe?eiei iaoiaeaie. I?e aea/aii? ai?iiiiai iai?io aethaioii
neoaoaaa 20% ?ic/ei NaOH.

O o?ao?e aeaa? iaaaaeaii aeai?, io?eiai? i?e aea/aii? aieeao
iai?aai?/iiai ni?aaioo ia iioaioe?ae eiioaeooth/iai c iei ieaoeiiaiai
aeaeo?iaeo c iaeiiai aieo, oa aieeao iioaioe?aeo ieaoeiiaiai aeaeo?iaeo
ia ca?yae iiaa?oi? ?ii?oo c ?ioiai aieo. Iieacaii, ui ianeiiee oa?
?ii?oo, yeee ciaoiaeeoueny o eiioaeo? c ieaoeiiaei aeaeo?iaeii, aieeaa?
ia noaoe?iia?iee iioaioe?ae inoaiiueiai. Oea a?aeaoaa?oueny o
neaaieeneiio na?aaeiaeu?, eiee ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?oie ?ii?oo /anoeiai
aeenioe?eiaai?. Anoaiiaeaii ca’ycie i?ae i??ith oeueiai aieeao oa ?I
?ic/eio. C ?ioiai aieo, iiey?ecaoe?y ieaoeiiaiai aeaeo?iaeo i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ci?ie eeneioiino? i?eiiaa?oiaai? iaeano? /anoeiie oinoaoo oeoaio, ui
?a?no?o?oueny ie?aiei ieaoeiiaei ciiaeii, ?ici?uaiei o oa?? ?ii?oo.

Oaeee aca?iiee aieea aeaeo?iaeo oa oinoaoo oeoaio iaoiiaeaiee oei, ui o
oac? ?ii?oo eieae?ciaaii iia?euei? i?ioiie, eii?aeeiiiaai?
ooieoe?iiaeueieie a?oiaie. Oe? i?ioiie aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy
iiaea?eiiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o ia iaae? eiioaeoo aeaeo?iae — ?ii?o
-?ic/ei. ?acoeueoaoii oeoeueiai aieeao ? ci?ia noaoe?iia?iiai
iioaioe?aeo aeaeo?iaeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae eeneioiino? i?eiiaa?oiaiai
oa?o ?ii?oo, yea, a naith /a?ao, iaoiiaeaia e iiaeooue a?aoe o/anoue o
aeaeo?io?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?yo. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ? ca?eueoaiiy neee
no?oio, yea niinoa??aa?oueny i?e i?aeaeuaii? aenioe ianeiiiai oa?o
ni?aaioo. Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui i?ioiie, eii?aeeiiaai? ooieoe?iiaeueieie
a?oiaie, aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?eiiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o ia
iaae? eiioaeoo aeaeo?iae — ?ii?o — ?ic/ei. ?acoeueoaoii oeueiai aieeao
? ci?ia noaoe?iia?iiai iioaioe?aeo aeaeo?iaeo a a caeaaeiino? a?ae
eeneioiino? i?eiiaa?oiaiai oa?o ?ii?oo, yea, a naith /a?ao iaoiiaeaia
eeneioi?noth ?ic/eio.

wmetafile8? ?? ???Z????????&??yyyy????MrEd?Microsoft
Draw??Z???&?©?MrEd?????Iae. 1. Iiaeaeue ia?aiino ca?yaeo o nenoai?
ieaoeiiaee aeaeo?iae — oinoao oeoaio — ?ic/ei.

Ia aac? io?eiaieo aeaieo cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci aeaeo?io?i?/ieo
i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o nenoai? aeaeo?iae — iai?aai?/iee
i?ioiii?ia?aeiee iaoa??ae — ?ic/ei. I?e eaoiaei?e iiey?ecaoe?? oe?
i?ioeane neeaaeathoueny c oaeeo noaae?e: ia?ao?ae i?ioii?a ?c oace
?ic/eio o oaco ?ii?oo; ?o o?ainii?o /a?ac oa? ?ii?oo aei aeaeo?iaeo oa
aeaeo?io?i?/iiio a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ii?a aiaeith (iae. 1).

I?e aiiaei?e iiey?ecaoe??, i?ioiie, ye? aaia?othoueny o nenoai?
aeaeo?iae — ?ii?o — ?ic/ei, i?a?othoue /a?ac oaco ?ii?oo oa
iio?aieythoue o ?ic/ei. Oea ioneoue i?ecaiaeeoe aei ci?ie ni?aoe?eii?
?iiino? ?ii?oo.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeaoaeueii aeine?aeaeaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino?
ni?aoe?? eao?iiieo oa ai?iiieo oi?i ??cieo iaoae?a ia oinoao? oeoaio ye
o a?aenooiino?, oae ? i?e iayaiino? aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe??. Oaeiae
aea/aia iiaeeea?noue aac?aaaaioii? ?aaaia?aoe?? ?ii?oo. Ia iniia?
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?icaeyiooi ?yae i?eeeaae?a i?aeoe/iiai
canoinoaaiiy aeoeaiaaieo ni?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ca o/anoth iai?aai?/ieo
i?ioiii?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a.

O noaoe/ieo oiiaao aeine?aeaeaia ni?aoe?y ?ii?a eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ia
oinoao? oeoaio c ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?ic/ei?a oa a i?enooiino? oiiiaiai
aeaeo?ie?oo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iayai?noue oiiiaiai aeaeo?ie?oo ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith ni?ao?iino? eao?ii?a iaoae?a, iniaeeai a iaeano? iecueeeo
eiioeaio?aoe?e (0.001-0.005 I). Oea iaoiiaeaii iayai?noth o oac? ?ii?oo
oeaio??a naeaeoeaii? ni?aoe??, yeeie neoaothoue ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?oie
?ii?oo, ii?aeiai? aiaeiaaeie ca’yceaie.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eao?iio eieuei?iaiai iaoaeo, ui ni?ao?oueny, o oe?
oeaio?e iia’ycaii c aeiaeaoeiaeie aia?aaoe/ieie aeo?aoaie ia ?ic?ea
aiaeiaaeo ca’yce?a (no. 1 a). Oe? aeo?aoe i?i?i?cothoueny i?e ia?aaiae?
oinoaoa oeoaio o nieueiao oi?io (no. 1 a). Oaeei /eiii, iieaaoo?oueny
i?iieeiaiiy o ni?aoe?eiee oeaio? eao?iio eieuei?iaiai iaoaeo, ui
ni?ao?oueny.

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I+- eao?ii eoaeiiai iaoaeo

(1) a a

Ia aac? aeaieo, io?eiaieo o noaoe/ieo oiiaao ?ic?aoiaai? oyai? eiinoaioe
??aiiaaae ?iiiiai iai?io wmetafile8? ???????%????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????AyyyTH???@??

?? ???&? ?MathType??@?
???u?????????»????-?????X?@????X?T???u?th??????A?aeiii, ui
ni?aoe?y eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a oneeaaeiaia ?o a?ae?ie?cii o ?ic/ei? oa
eiiieaeniooai?aiiyi c ooieoe?iiaeueieie a?oiaie oinoaoo o?oaio. Oiio
aeey aea/aiiy aieeao aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe?? ia i?ioean ni?aoe?? oa c
iaoith eiai e?euee?nii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ia?o ca ana aoei aeine?aeaeaii
iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ni?aoe?? eao?ii?a Na+ c ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
?ic/ei?a. Ia iae. 2 iaaaaeaii caeaaeiino? ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino? (A)
oinoaoo oeoaio ii ?iiai Na+ a?ae ?I ?ic/eio ye i?e eaoiaei?e
iiey?ecaoe?? -0.3 A, oae ? o ?? a?aenooiino?. Oinoao oeoaio ?
neaaieeneioiei ?ii?oii, eiai ni?aoe?eia ?ii?noue o iaea?eueo?e i???
?aae?co?oueny naia a neaaieene?e iaeano? (?I 45). Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e
cacia/aieo ?I aeaeo?io?i?/ia aeoeaaoe?y i?ecaiaeeoue aei iii?oiiai
i?aeaeuaiiy ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino? ?ii?oo. A a?eueo eene?e iaeano? (?I 23)
aieea aeoeaaoe?? ia ni?aoe?th ?ii?a Na+ oinoaoii oeoaio ia ? oaeei
cia/iei. O?aaa a?aecia/eoe: o a?aenooiino? aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe??
a?aeiia?aeia ni?ao?i?noue aeinyaa?oueny o a?eueo eoaei?e iaeano? ?I, aei
oiai ae ii i??? c?inoaiiy ni?ao?iino? oey ?ica?aei?noue ca?eueoo?oueny.
Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy aeenioe?aoe??
ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi ?ii?oo i?e aeoeaaoe??. Oaeiae aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui
aoaeoeai?noue aieeao aeoeaaoe?? ia ni?aoe?th ?ii?a Na+ oinoaoii oeoaio
ciaioo?oueny ?c c?inoaiiyi ?o eiioeaio?aoe?? o ?ic/ei?.

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t????u??????????????????D???-?????????uoy??????Io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe iiaeia iiynieoe, yeui i?eeiyoe aei oaaae i?ioeane, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny o nenoai? aeaeo?iae — oinoao oeoaio — ?ic/ei. Ae?enii,
ye iieacaii ia iae. 1, i?e eaoiaei?e iiey?ecaoe??, i?ioiie, ye?
eieae?ciaai? o oac? oinoaoo oeoaio, i?eeiathoue o/anoue o
aeaeo?io?i?/iiio i?ioean? (a?aeiiaeaii?). O ?acoeueoao? ciaioo?oueny ?o
eiioeaio?aoe?y o i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? ?ii?oo.

Oaeei /eiii, ooai?aiiy II—?ii?a i?e eaoiaei?e iiey?ecaoe??
a?aeaoaa?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei ia iiaa?oi? oinoaoo oeoaio.

C?inoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? II—?ii?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?uaiiy
?iiiiai?iii? ??aiiaaae (noaia 2) o a?e ooai?aiiy eao?iicai?uaii? oi?ie
?ii?oo oa i?aeaeuaiiy eiai ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino?:

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¬?¬???u??????????????????D???-?????????uoy?????? I+ +
II- I2I.

(2)

(3)

Iiia?aaeiuei anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aaeoe?y (2) a?aeaoaa?oueny o no?iaiio
noao?iiao?e/iiio a?aeiioaii? ?aaaoth/eo eiiiiiaio?a: e?euee?noue
iiaeeiooeo ni?aaioii ?ii?a Na+ aea?aaeaioii e?eueeino? aea?eueiaieo
I+-?ii?a. ?ioeie neiaaie, ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?ii?a Na+ oinoao oeoaio ?
?aeaaeueiei ?iiiiai?iieeii. sseui a oiae? ni?aoe?eiiai i?ioeano ?I
?ic/eio ?aaaaioii i?aeo?eioaaoe ia caaeaiiio ??ai?, oi o ?ac?
a?aenooiino? aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe?? ni?aoe?eia ?ii?noue oinoaoo
oeoaio (A) iiaea aooe aecia/aia ye ooieoe?y ??aiiaaaeii? eiioeaio?aoe??
?ii?a aiaeith o ?ic/ei? (wmetafile8? ??+???!????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?@???&??yyyy?????AyyyV??????Oe?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????wmetafile8? ??P?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
???&??yyyy?????AyAya?A ???&?
?MathType??P????&??yyyy???????????????yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy?yy?y?yyywme
tafile8? ??P?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
???&??yyyy?????AyAya?A ???&?
?MathType??P????&??yyyy??????????»System????-??????????

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???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
``???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¤yyy ???? ???&? ?MathType??°?
???u?????????»????-?????|oe???|???u?th??????

aea V — ia’?i ?ic/eio, m — iaaaaeea ni?aaioo.

A i?ioean? ae aeaeo?io?i?/ii aeoeaiaaii? ni?aoe?? ?iie aiaeith, ui
aea?eueiththoueny a ?acoeueoao? i?ioeano (2) iaeo?ae?cothoueny ?iiaie
II-, ye? aaia?othoueny o nenoai? aeaeo?iae — ?ii?o — ?ic/ei. Caaaeyee
oeueiio i?e aeaeo?io?i?/i?e aeoeaaoe?? ??aiiaaaeio eiioeaio?aoe?th ?ii?a
aiaeith wmetafile8? ??a????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¤yyy`??$?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????

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???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¤yyy`??$?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????wmetafile8? ??T?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyya???A?? ???&?
?MathType??P????&??yyyy??????????

aea [OH-] — ??aiiaaaeia eiioeaio?aoe?y ?ii?a II-, ye? aaia?othoueny a
nenoai?. Oaeei /eiii, i?e aeaeo?io?i?/i?e aeoeaaoe?? ni?aoe?eia ?ii?noue
oinoaoo oeoaio aecia/a?oueny ia o?eueee ca eiioeaio?aoe??th I+— ?ii?a,
ui aea?eueiththoueny a ?acoeueoao? ni?aoe?eiiai i?ioeano, aea e ca
eiioeaio?aoe?th OH—?ii?a, ye? ooai?ththoueny aiane?aeie aeaeo?io?i?/ii?
aeoeaaoe??

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a@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy???–?? ???&? ?MathType??°?
???u?????????»????-?????ueoe???ue&???udya?????

?ic?aooaaaoe [H+] ca oi?ioeith

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???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? aa
???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy  ?? ?? ???&? ?MathType??°?
???u?????????»????-?????ue???ue“ ???u?th??????

aea wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy ??A?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??y???????????
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a????&??yyyy?????Ay?y@? ???&?
?MathType??°????u????????????-?????ue¬???ue,???u?th?????
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Aeey aenia?eiaioaeueiiai i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aeneiaeaieo aeua i??eoaaiue
i?i i?e?iaeo aieeao aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe?? ia ni?aoe?ei? i?ioeane
aeine?aeaeaii ci?io eeneioiino? ?iai/iai ?ic/eio NaCl oa ni?aoe?eii?
?iiino? oinoaoo oeoaio ii ?iiai Na+ i?e eaoiaei?e iiey?ecaoe?? -0.3 A.
Aeei?enoaii ?iai/o eii??eo, a ye?e aiiaeiee oa eaoiaeiee i?inoi?e aoei
?cieueiaaii (c iaoith aeeeth/aiiy aieeao ?ii?a I+, ye? ooai?ththoueny ia
aiiae?) oa c’?aeiaii nieueiaei i?noeii.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a nenoai? aeaeo?iae — oinoao oeoaio — ?ic/ei ooai?aiiy
II— ?ii?a a?aeaoaa?oueny a?eueo ?ioaineaii, i?ae ia oiio ae
aeaeo?iae? o a?aenooiino? i?ioiii?ia?aeiiai ?ii?oo. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c
??aiyiiyie 2 ? 3 oea, a naith /a?ao, ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith eao?iiiiai?iii?
ni?iiiaeiino? oinoaoo oeoaio.

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New?I????-?????????uey??????Iae. 3. Ni?aoe?y eao?ii?a Co (II)
ia oinoao? oeoaio i?e eaoiaei?e iiey?ecaoe??..

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue i?eionoeoe, ui aaia?aoe?y II—?ii?a,
yea a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iiaa?oi? oinoaoo oeoaio i?e eaoiaei?e
iiey?ecaoe??, aoaea ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith ni?aoe?eii? aeoeaiino? oinoaoo
oeoaio ? ii a?aeiioaiith aei eao?ii?a eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a (iae. 3).
Aeey ia?aa??ee oeueiai i?eiouaiiy aea/aii ni?aoe?th ?ii?a Co (II) ia
oinoao? oeoaio i?e aeoeaaoe?? oa o ?? a?aenooi?noue. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e
eaoiaei?e iiey?ecaoe?? niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy ni?ao?iino?
eao?ii?a Co (II).

Aeaeii, ui ye ? o aeiaaeeo ni?aoe?? Na+ (iae. 2), aieea aeoeaaoe?? ia
ni?aoe?eio ?ii?noue oinoaoo oeoaio a iaea?eueo?e i??? i?iyaey?oueny o
neaaieene?e iaeano? (pH 4-5). I?e oeueiio iaeni?eyoeea?o? oiiae aeey
ni?aoe?? Co (II) oaeiae ?aae?cothoueny i?e A = — 0.3 A.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?aoe?? i?e A — 0.3 A iaaeioe?eueii, ine?eueee
iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy iiey?ecoth/iai iioaioe?aeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iia??oaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ?ii?oo.

Oaeiae anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeoeaaoe?? a?aeiiniee i?e??no ni?aoe?eii?
?iiino? oinoaoo oeoaio ii ?iiai Co (II) o anueiio eioa?aae? ?I aeuee,
i?ae ii ?iiai Na+. Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe, ui
oea iiaea aooe iia’ycaii ?c niaoeeo?/iith aca?iiae??th eao?ii?a Co (II)
c ooieoe?iiaeueieie (oinoaoieie) a?oiaie ?ii?oo (noaia 9).

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(9)

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ? ?acoeueoao aeaeo?iiii-niaeo?ineii?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy eiaaeueocai?uaieo c?ace?a oinoaoo oeoaio, io?eiaieo ye
i?e aeaeo?io?i?/i?e aeoeaaoe??, oae ? o ?? a?aenooiino? (iae. 4).

Aeey ceiiee aeaeo?iiieo niaeo??a iiaeeiaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaee neeiaeaei?
iioe/ii i?ici?? noa?e/i? a?aioee oinoaoo oeoaio, ye? i?noeee ni?aiaai?
?iie iaoaeo. Iaoaiaoe/io ia?iaeo io?eiaieo niaeo??a i?iaiaeeee oeyoii
?iceeaaeaiiy ia aaonia? eiiiiiaioe.

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Iae. 4. Aeaeo?iii? niaeo?e iiaeeiaiiy oinoaoo oeoaio, iane/aiiai ?iiaie
Ni (II) aac aeeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoee? (a) oa i?e A= -0.3 A (a).
Niaeo?e:

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Aiae?c iaaaaeaieo ia iae. 4 aeaieo iieacaa ?aeaioe/i?noue niaeo??a ?ii?a
Ci (II) ia oinoao? oeoaio aeey iaio c?ace?a — aeey oeeo ?ii?a oa?aeoa?ia
ieoaaae?e/ia eii?aeeiaoe?y. O an?o niaeo?ao iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e iniiai?
nioae: I ( 470 ii) — a?aeiia?aea? caai?iiaiiio ii ni?io ia?aoiaeo aei
aeoaeaoiiai noaio, iia’ycaiiai, ianaiia?aae c 2G oa 2H; II ( 600 ii) —
iia’ycaia c ia?aoiaeii 4O1g(P) 4T1g,; III ( 520 ii) — ui a?aeianaii
aei aeaiaeaeo?iiiiai ia?aoiaeo 4A2g 4T1g,. ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th niaeo??a
c?iaeaii ia i?aenoaa? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui niaeo?ai
oinoaoo oeoaio aeanoeaa iiaeeiaiiy a iaeano?, aeecueei? aei
oeueo?ao?ieaoiai?, ui iaoiiaeaii iayai?noth o oac? ?ii?oo iiaa?oiaaeo
eiiieaen?a oeoaio c ia?ieneaeii aiaeith. Oey niieoea, ye a?aeiii,
ooai?th?oueny ia ieaoeiiaiio aeaeo?iae? a ?acoeueoao? a?aeiiaeaiiy
eenith. Oiio aeey Ni-cai?uaieo oi?i oinoaoo oeoaio niaeo?aeuei? aeai?
aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe eeoa a iaeano? aeua 450 ii.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iieacaa, ui iieiaeaiiy iaeneioi?a oa
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae cacia/aieo nioa caeaaeeoue a?ae niiniao
iiia?aaeiueiai iane/aiiy ni?aaioo ?iiaie. Oae, aeey c?ace?a, io?eiaieo
i?e eaoiaei?e iiey?ecaoe?? A= -0.3 A, anoaiiaeaii cnoa iaeneioi?a
?ioaineaiinoae nioa iiaeeiaiiy. E??i oiai, o oeueiio aeiaaeeo
niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae nioa I oa III ii
a?aeiioaiith aei nioae II o ii??aiyii? ?c c?aceaie, iane/aieie aac
aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe??. Oea iiaea aooe iia’ycaii ?c cai?iith aiaee o
eii?aeeiaoe?ei?e noa?? ?iio Ni (II) ia e?aaiaei? (oinoaoi?) a?oie ?ii?oo
i?e aeaeo?io?i?/i?e aeoeaaoe??. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c e?oa?aoo?ieie
aeaieie, i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaith aeenioe?aoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi
iiaeiii i?ecaiaeeoe aei iineeaiiy ?o eiiieaeniooai?thth/i? ni?iiiaeiino?
o ?acoeueoao? ia?a?iciiae?eo aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie o nenoai? niieo/aieo
ca’yce?a IYTi-I-?-OH

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(10)

?, ye iane?aeie, aei iineeaiiy ni?aoe?eii? nii??aeiaiino? oeo /e ?ioeo
eao?ii?a aei oinoaoo oeoaio.

Aea/aiiy ni?aoe?? eao?ii?a ?ioeo eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a a oiiaao iaeneioio
ni?ao?iino? ?ii?a No (II) (?I 5, A = -0,3 B) iieacaei, ui a on?o
aeiaaeeao niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy iiaeeiaiiy eao?ii?a (oaae.
1). Aeaeii, ui aaee/eia i?e?inoo ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino? i?aeaeuo?oueny ?c
ciaioaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/eio. Aeaeo?io?i?/ia aeoeaaoe?y ni?aaey?
iaea?eueoee aieea ia ni?aoe?th eii?a Cu (II) oa Cr (III), ye? iaee?aua
ni?aothoueny oinoaoii oeoaio, oiae? ye aeey eao?ii?a Ni (II) oa Cd
(II), ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaioith ni?aoe?eiith nii??aeiai?noth aei
aeaiiai ?ii?oo, aieea aeoeaaoe?? ia oaeee cia/iee.Oaaeeoey 1.

Ci?aoe?eia ?ii?noue, A, oinoaoo oeoaio ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?ii?a
eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a i?e ciai?oiueiio aieea? oa o eiai a?aenooi?noue.

Ni?aoe?y c 0.001 M ?ic/eioNi?aoe?y c 0.01 M ?ic/eio i?e iayaiino?
oiiiaiai aeaeo?ie?ooEao?iiA,

ia a-1

I?aeaeuaiiy A, %A,

ia a-1I?aeaeuaiiy A,

%aac aeoeaaoe??A=-0.3 Aaac aeoeaaoe??A=-0.3 ANu
(II)3.4913.0227221.6063.54194Cr (III)1.534.422308.3716.74100Zn (II)
1.955.2016711.4320.2677Co (II)2.365.9015020.9433.0457Cd
(II)1.994.6313317.8733.7689Ni (II)0.581.171007.3810.2740

Anoaiiaeaii oaeiae, ui aeaeo?io?i?/ia aeoeaaoe?y ni?ey? ia o?eueee
i?aeaeuaiith ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino?, aea e i?aeaeuaiith oaeaeeino? ni?aoe??
eao?ii?a eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a. I?i oea na?ae/aoue aeai? oaaeeoe? 2, aea
iaaaaeaii eiao?oe??ioe aeeooc?? ?ii?a eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a (Di) o oac?
oinoaoo oeoaio, ?ic?aoiaai? ia i?aenoaa? oai??? Aieaea — Aaeainiia.
Aeaeii, ui aeaeo?io?i?/ia aeoeaaoe?y i?ecaiaeeoue aei oyaiiai
i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??io?a aeeooc?? ni?aiaaieo eao?ii?a, a oaeiae aei
cieaeaiiy aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? aeeooc?? (wmetafile8? ??I????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????«?y«x ???&?
?MathType??P????uath??????Aeine?aeaeaii iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy
aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe?? aeey aac?aaaaioii? aeani?aoe?? eao?ii?a
eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a. Oae, aeyaeaii, ui i?e aiiaei?e iiey?ecaoe??
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?aaaia?aoe?y oinoaoo oeoaio. I?e A = 1.2 A nooi?iue
?aaaia?aoe?? ?ii?oo neeaaea? 80-90 %).

Aac?aaaaioia ?aaaia?aoe?y i?e aeaeo?io?i?/i?e aeoeaaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny
caaaeyee i?aeeeneaiith i?eiiaa?iaaiai oa?o oinoaoo oeoaio, ui coiiaeaii
i?a?aoe??th /a?ac oa? ?ii?oo ?ii?a aiaeith, ye? aaia?othoueny o nenoai?
aeaeo?iae — ?ii?o — ?ic/ei.

Ine?eueee aeine?aeaeai? c?acee oinoaoo oeoaio iathoue aioioa?i?
aeanoeaino?, oi iaaiee ?ioa?an aeeeeeaei aea/aiiy aeaeo?io?i?/ii?
aeo?aaoe?? ia ai?iiiiai?ii? i?ioeane. Iieacaii, ui aiiaeia iiey?ecaoe?y
ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith ni?aoe?? ai?ii?a ia oinoao? oeoaio (oaae.3).
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aieea ia ai?iiiiai?ii? aeanoeaino? ni?aaioo
ca?eueoo?oueny i?e ciaioaii? eeneioiino? ?ic/eio. I?aeaeuaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? ni?aaoo, a oaeiae aaaaeaiiy o nenoaio oiiiaiai
aeaeo?ie?oo i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy i?e?inoo iai?iii? ?iiino? oinoaoo
oeoaio. Ciaeaeaii, ui i?e eaoiaei?e iiey?ecaoe?? aeinyaa?oueny i?aeoe/ii
iiaia aeani?aoe?y ni?aiaaieo oinoaoii oeoaio ai?ii?a.

Aea/aia iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaiiai aeeo/aiiy eao?ii?a ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a
ia o?eueee c ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo, a e ?c noi?nieo ?ic/ei?a. Cacia/aii, ui
iiceoeaiee aieea aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe?? ia ni?aoe?ei? aeanoeaino?
oinoaoo oeoaio aeyaey?oueny ? i?e iaeii/ani?e i?enooiino? o ?ic/ei?
?ii?a, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??ciei nooiaiai ni?aoe?eii? nii??aeiaiino?
aei oeueiai iaoa??aeo. Anoaiiaeaii oaeiae, ui aeoeaaoe?y cia/ii ci?ith?
naeaeoeai?noue ni?aaioo. Oae, i?e A = -0.3 A iiaeeeai i?aeoe/ii
iiai?noth aeeo/eoe aeii?oee i?ae? c ?ic/eio, yeee i?noeoue ?iie
eaaei?th.

Aeine?aeaeaii oaeiae iiaeeea?noue caaaeueiiai aeeo/aiiy eao?ii?a
eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ?c aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo ?ic/ei?a. Iiaeaeuei? ?ic/eie
i?noeee ?iie Nu (II), Cr (III), Zn (II), Co (II), Cd (II), Ni (II):
eiioeaio?aoe?y eiaeiiai eiiiiiaioo ia ia?aaeuoaaea 0.001 I. O aeiaaeeo
aeoeaiaaii? ni?aoe?? nooi?iue aeeo/aiiy oeeo ?ii?a neeaaeaea 80-99.9 %,
oiae? ye ca a?aenooi?noth aeoeaaoe?? oey aaee/eia neeaaea? ia a?eueoa
46-90 % (a caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?aoe?eii? nii??aeiaiino? aei oinoaoo
oeoaio ?iio iaaiiai iaoaeo). Anoaiiaeaii, ui o ia?oo /a?ao
aeeo/athoueny ?iie Cu (II), ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaea?eueo aenieith
ni?aoe?eiith nii??aeiai?noth aei oinoaoo oeoaio, o oie /an ye iaea?eueoa
nooiaiue i/euaiiy ?ic/eio a?ae ?ii?a Ni (II) aeinyaa?oueny eeoa i?ney
iiaiiai aeeo/aiiy c ?ic/eio eao?ii?a Cu (II). Aiaeia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe
iaea?aeaii ? o aeiaaeeo ni?aoe?? eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a i?e iayaiino?
oiiiaiai aeaeo?ie?oo.

Ia i?eeeaae? ni?aoe?? ?ii?a Co (II) aea/aii iiaeeea?noue aaaaoi?aciaiai
aeei?enoaiiy oinoaoo oeoaio aeey ni?aoe?eiiai aeeo/aiiy eao?ii?a
eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ?c ?ic/ei?a. C oe??th iaoith cae?eniaii ?yae
oeeee?/ieo i?ioean?a ni?aoe??-aeani?aoe?? i?e A= -0.3 A oa A = 1.2 A
a?aeiia?aeii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia i?ioyc? aeanyoueio oeeee?a
aoaeoeai?noue ni?aoe?? i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny. I?e oeueiio ia
niinoa??aa?oueny iia??oaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ni?aaioo.

Ia aac? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo i?e aea/aii? ni?aoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae oinoaoo oeoaio, ae?iaeaii iniiai? e?eoa???, yeei iiaeii?
a?aeiia?aeaoe iaoa??aee, eio?? aeei?enoiaothoueny o ea?iaaieo
ni?aoe?eieo i?ioeanao: c iaeiiai aieo, aei?noea i?e?iii?enoa no?oeoo?a,
e, c ?ioiai aieo, aeniea i?ioiiia i?ia?aei?noue.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aoaeoeai? eiao?oe??ioe aeeooc??, Di, oa aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? wmetafile8?
??I???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A????&??yyyy?????«?y«x ???&?
?MathType??P????uath??????Di o 109, ci2 c-1wmetafile8?
??I???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A????&??yyyy?????«?y«x ???&?
?MathType??P????uath??????Oaaeeoey 3.

Ni?aoe?y ai?ii?a ia oinoao? oeoaio i?? aeaeo?io?i?/i?e aeo?aaoe?? oa o
?? a?aenooi?noue

Ai?iiNi?aoe?y c 0.001 I ?ic/eio, A, ia a-1Aeani?aoe?y R, %aac
aeoeaaoe??A= 1.2 A(A =-0.3 A) Cr(YI)1.22.696 Io(YI)7.816.097
W(YI)12.518.4198

AENIIAEE

1. Aeey noai?aiiy iniia iiaeo aoaeoeaieo ni?aoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
aeeo/aiiy ?ii?a iaoae?a c aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeaeo?io?i?/io aeoeaaoe?th ni?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia
iai?aai?/ieo ?iiiiai?iieo iaoa??aeao oeio oinoaoo oeoaio, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iith i?ioiiiith i?ia?aei?noth ? aenieith
iiaeeiaeueiith ni?iiiaei?noth.

2. Aeine?aeaeaii iaoai?ci ia?aiino iai?iieo ?ii?a (i?ioii?a) o o?eoaci?e
nenoai? aeaeo?iae — ?ii?o — ?ic/ei. Iieacaii, ui iayai?noue
i?ioiii?ia?aeieo aeanoeainoae ?iaeoue iaoa??aee oeio oinoaoo oeoaio
aeaeo?io?i?/ii aeoeaieie i?e ?o eiioaeo? c aeaeo?iaeii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
a aeine?aeaeai?e nenoai? i?e iiey?ecaoe??, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ciaeo
iiey?ecoth/iai iioaioe?aeo, ia iiaa?oi? ?ii?oo aaia?othoueny I+ oa II-
?iie.

3. Iieacaii, ui aaia?aoe?y II— — ?ii?a i?e eaoiaei?e iiey?ecaoe??
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai i?aeaeuaiiy ni?ao?iino? eao?ii?a eieuei?iaeo
iaoae?a c ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?ic/ei?a. Anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeuei? oiiae
ni?aoe?? eao?ii?a: ?I 5, A = -0.3 A. I?e??no ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino? oinoaoo
oeoaio aeinyaa? 50 — 270 %, a caeaaeiinoe a?ae iaoaeo. Ia i?eeeaae?
eao?ii?a Ni (II) iaoiaeii aeaeo?iiii? niaeo?ineii?? iieacaii, ui i?e
aeoeaaoe?? eii?aeeiaoe?eia ioi/aiiy ?ii?a iaoaeo o oac? ?ii?oo a?aei?iia
a?ae ioi/aiiy, yea ooai?th?oueny o a?aenooiino? aeoeaaoe??.

4. Aea/aii e?iaoeeo ni?aoe?? eao?ii?a eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ia oinoao?
oeoaio i?e aeoeaaoe??. Iieacaii, ui i?e oeueiio a?aeaoaa?oueny oyaia
i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??io?a aeeooc?? ?ii?a o oac? ni?aaioo (a?ae 65 aei
100 %). A oiiaao, iioeiaeueieo aeey ni?aoe?? eao?ii?a c
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?ic/ei?a, cae?eniaii aoaeoeaia ni?aoe?eia aeeo/aiiy
?ii?a Nu (II), Cr (III), Zn (II), Co (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) c noi?nieo
?ic/ei?a. Nooi?iue aeeo/aiiy oeeo ?ii?a neeaaea? 80 — 99.9 %.

5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aiiaei?e iiey?ecaoe??, aiane?aeie aaia?aoe??
I+-?ii?a, a?aeaoaa?oueny aeani?aoe?y iiia?aaeiuei ni?aiaaieo eao?ii?a
iaoae?a. Nooi?iue ?aaaia?aoe?? ?ii?oo neeaaea? 75 — 90 %. Aeyaeaii, ui
i?e aaaaoie?aoieo oeeeeao aeoeaiaaii? ni?aoe??-aeani?aoe??. ia
a?aeaoaa?oueny iia??oaiiy ni?aoe?eieo oa o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
?ii?oo.

6. Iieacaii, ui aeoeaaoe?y aieeaa? oaeiae ia ai?iiiiai?ii? aeanoeaino?
oinoaoo oeoaio: i?e aiiaei?e iiey?ecaoe??, aiane?aeie aaia?aoe??
I+-?ii?a, i?eaeecii o aeaa ?ace i?aeaeuo?oueny ni?aoe?y ai?ii?a Cr
(YI), Mo (YI), W (YI). A oie aea /an, eaoiaeia iiey?ecaoe?y, caaaeyee
aaia?aoe?? II—?ii?a, i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeoe/ii iiaii? aeani?aoe??
ai?ii?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?? AEEEAAeAII A ?IAIOAO

1. Aaeyeia A.I., Eacaeiaei E.A., Aecycueei TH.N. Ni?aoeey eaoeiiia
oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia ni?aaioaie ia iniiaa oinoaoa oeoaia a oneiaeyo
iaeiaeaiey yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey // Oe?. oei. aeo?i. — 1996. — 62, N 4.
— N. 18-21.

2. Eacaeiaei E.A., Aaeyeia A.I., Aecycueei TH.N. I iioaioeeaea
ieaoeiiaiai yeaeo?iaea a neia eiiiiaiaiiuo iaoa?eaeia // Oe?. oei.
aeo?i. -1998.- 64, N 7.- C. 35-38.

3. Aaeyeia A.I., Aecycueei TH.N. Eeiaoeea ni?aoeee eaoeiiia oeaaoiuo
iaoaeeia ia iiey?eciaaiiii oinoaoa oeoaia // Oe?. oei. aeo?i. —
1998.- 64, N 5.- C. 24-30.

4. The Electrochemically Controlled Sorption of d-Vetal Cations by
Ion-Exchangers, based on Titatium Phosphate/ G. Grevillot, J. Dzyazko,
K. Kazdobin, V. Belyakov // Solid State Electrochem. -1999. — 3, N 1. —
P. 55-60.

5. Dzyazko J., Belyakov V. Electrochemically controlled sorption of
anions by titanium phosphate // Proc. Int Congr. on Chem. Eng.
CHISA’96.-Praga (Czech. Rep.).-1996.- P.154.

6. Aaeyeia A.I., Aecycueei TH.N. Neioac, no?oeoo?a e eiiiiaiaiiua
naienoaa aii?oiiai oinoaoa oeoaia // O?oaeu XIY Anaoe?. eiio. ii iai?a.
oeiee. — Eeaa. — 1996. — N. 220.

7. Dzyazko J., Belyakov V. The Electrochemically Controlled Sorption of
Anions By Titanium Phosphate // Proc. Int. Congr. on Chem. Eng.
CHISA’98. — Praga (Czech. Rep.).-1998.- P. 152

8. D-metal ions transfer in the beds of proton conductive particles / J.
Dzyazko., E..Kazdobin, V. Belyakov, G. Grevillot // Proc. Int. Conf. on
current & potential distribution.-Nancy (France).-1997.- P. 24.

9. Belyakov V., Dzyazko J. Using of inorganic ion-exchangers based on
titanium phosphate for water purification// Proc. Int. Congr. on Chem.
Eng. CHISA’98.-Praga (Czech. Rep.).-1998. — P. 154.

10. Aaeyeia A.I., Aecycueei TH.N. Eniieueciaaiea iai?aaie/aneeo
oinoaoniaea?aeaueo eiieoia a yeaeo?ioeie/anee oi?aaeyaiuo ni?aoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannao//O?oaeu III eiio. no?ai NIA ii yeie. oei. i?ieca.-
Naaa?iaeiiaoee. — 1998.- N. 77 — 78.

11. Belyakov V., Dzyazko J. Alectrochemically controlled sorption
processes using inorganic proton conductive materials // Proc. III
Polish-Ukrainian Symp. on Interfacial Phenomena. Lviv.- 1998.- P. 11-12.

Aecycueei TH.N. Ni?aoe?ei? aeanoeaino? iai?aai?/ieo
i?ioiii?ia?aeieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? oinoaoo oeoaio.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoo o?i?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 02.00.04 — o?ceia o?i?y.-?inoeooo caaaeueii? oa
iai?aai?ii? o?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae
ni?aoe?? ?ii?a eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ia iai?aai?/ieo i?ioiii?ia?aeieo
iaoa??aeao ia iniia? oinoaoo oeoaio. A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii
aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe?? c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ni?aoe?? ia oeeo iaoa??aeao oa cae?eniaiiy ?o aac?aaaaio?i?
?aaaia?aoe??. Iieacaii, ui aaia?aoe?y I+ oa II—?ii?a a nenoai?
aeaeo?iae -?ii?o — ?ic/ei ni?aaey? cia/iee aieea ia ni?aoe?eio
aeoeai?noue ?ii?oo. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoaiiy iai?aai?/ieo
i?ioiii?ia?aeieo iaoa??ae?a oeio oinoaoo oeoaio aeey aeoeaiaaiiai
ni?aoe?eiiai aeeo/aiiy ?ii?a ?yaeo eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a c
iaeii?ia?ae?ciaaieo ?ic/ei?a c ianooiiith aac?aaaaioiiith ?aaaia?aoe??th
?ii?oo.

.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ni?aoe?y, i?ioiii?ia?aeieeia? ?ii?oe, oinoao
oeoaio, aac?aaaaioia ?aaaia?aoe?y.

Aecycueei TH.N. Ni?aoeeiiiua naienoaa iai?aaie/aneeo
i?ioiii?iaiaeyueo iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa oinoaoa oeoaia.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 02.00.04 -oece/aneay oeiey.- Einoeooo iauae e
iai?aaie/aneie oeiee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa,1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth iniiaiuo caeiiiia?iinoae
ni?aoeee eiiia oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia ia iai?aaie/aneeo i?ioiii?iaiaeyueo
eiieoao ia iniiaa oinoaoa oeoaia. A aeenna?oaoeee aia?aua i?aaeeiaeaii
eniieueciaaiea iaoiaea yeaeo?ioeie/aneie aeoeaaoeee n oeaeueth iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe ni?aoeee ia yoeo iaoa?eaeao e inouanoaeaiey eo
aac?aaaaioiie ?aaaia?aoeee. Iieacaii, /oi aaia?aoeey . I+ oa II—eiiia a
nenoaia yeaeo?iae-oinoao oeoaia — ?anoai? ieacuaaao cia/eoaeueiia
aeeyiea ia ni?aoeeiiioth aeoeaiinoue eiieoa. I?aaeeiaeaii eniieueciaaiea
iai?aaie/aneeo i?ioiii?iaiaeyueo iaoa?eaeia oeia oinoaoa oeoaia aeey
aeoeae?iaaiiiai ni?aoeeiiiiai ecaea/aiey eiiia ?yaea oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia
ec iaeiieia?aeeciaaiiuo ?anoai?ia n iineaaeothuae aac?aaaaioiie
?aaaia?aoeeae eiieoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ni?aoeey, i?ioiii?iaiaeyuea eiieou, oinoao oeoaia,
aac?aaaaioiay ?aaaia?aoeey.

Dzyazko Y/S/ Soooorption Properties of Titanium Phosphate-Based
Inorganic Proton-Conducting Materials. — Maanuscript.

Thesis for the degree of candidate of chemical sciences by
speciality 02.00.04 -physical chemistry. -Institute of General and
Inorganic Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv,
1999.

The thesis deals with the study of the main laws governing the
sorption of non-ferrous metal ions on titanium phosphate-based inorganic
proton-conducting ion exchangers. The thesis proposes for the first time
the use of the electrochemical activation method to increase the
efficiency of sorption in these materials and to effect their
reagentless regeneration. It has been shown that the generation of OH-
and H+ ions in the system electrode — titanium phosphate — solution
affects greatly the sorption activity of an ion exchanger. It is
proposed to use inorganic proton-conducting materials, such as titanium
phosphate for the activated sorption recovery of ions of a number of
nonferrous metals from slightly mineralized solutions followed by the
reagentless regeneration of the ion-exchanger.

Key words: sorption, proton-conducting ion-exchangers, titanium
phosphate, reagentless regeneration..

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