Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Ia?aiaeeoey Oaoyia A?eai??aia

OAeE 316:754

NIOe?IEOEUeOO?I? *EIIEEE CEI*EIII? IIAAAe?IEE I?AeE?OE?A

22.00.06. – nioe?ieia?y eoeueoo?e, iaoee, ina?oe

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie
Aoaa?nueeee Eaii?ae Aaneeueiae/, Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?einio?? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe ?o/ea Aiaoie?e Ieaenaiae?iae/, ?inoeooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Caoa?/aiei Ia?ei Aaneeueiae/,
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, i?ioani? eaoaae?e oai???
oa ?noi??? nioe?ieia??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo”, eaoaae?a iie?oieia?? ? nioe?ieia??, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “04” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 16 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.30. Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252017, Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, aoae. 315.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252017, Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 61.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “23” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

O.a.i. a/aiiai nae?aoa?y aeieoi?
nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
TH.?.sseiaaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Nioe?aeuei? i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o
no/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeae?eueeiia
oaiaeaioe?yie. C iaeiiai aieo, oea ?oeioaaiiy oi?i ni?eueii? ethaenueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ye? ?nioaaee ?ai?oa, a c ?ioiai — noaiiaeaiiy ?o iiaiai
??ciiiai?ooy. Iiaiaaaaeaiiy o aaeocyo aeiiii?ee, i?aaa, iie?oe/iiai
oeaoooaaiiy iaai?ciaiii ci?ieee noni?eueia aeeooy. Oea coiiaeei na?eici?
ci?ie o eoeueoo?iiio i?inoi??: ceai oe?iiinoae, ii?i, o?aaeeoe?e,
noa?aioei?a, eieeoi?o noee?a ieneaiiy oa ae?yeueiino?.

Aeeiai?ci nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o ia??iaee e?ec ? cia/ieo nioe?aeueieo
ia?aoai?aiue i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui iiia?aaei? nioe?aeuei? ii?ie oa
oe?iiino? ?oeiothoueny, ia?anoathoue a?aeiia?aeaoe iiaei aeeoo?aei
oiiaai, ethaee ao?a/athoue i???ioaoe?th, ui o naith /a?ao aaaea aei
aeaci?aai?caoe?? oa nioe?aeueieo a?aeoeeaiue.

Oe?a?ia ia?aaeeaa? ca?ac nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io, iie?oe/io ? eoeueoo?io
e?eco, eiee o iiaaae?ioe? ethaeae iineeththoueny aeaa?aioi? i?iyae oa
i?enei?aieie oaiiaie ?icaeaa?oueny noai aiii??. A oiae? ?aaeeeaeueieo
ia?aoai?aiue o no/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? no??iei c?inea
cei/eii?noue, io?eiaee oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?io? aeaee aeaa?aioii?
iiaaae?iee.

Ona?aeiieaiiy oaeoo iaaecae/aeiiai iioe?aiiy cei/eiiino? noaei
oa?aeoa?iith ?enith noaio noni?eueii? na?aeiiino? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. Aei
oaeiai aeniiaeo i?eaiaeeoue aiae?c, io?eiaiee, i?eiaeii?, c o?ueio
aeaea?ae. Ii-ia?oa, noaoenoe/i? ca?oe I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa
Oe?a?ie iino?eii a?aeia?aaeathoue c?inoaiiy ??aiy cei/eiiino?.
Ii-ae?oaa, caa?oaiiy aei i?ane iieaco?, ui cia/ia /anoeia iia?aeiieaiue,
ye? aiia ?iciianthaeaeo?, i?enay/aia naia aena?oeaiith e?ei?iiaaiii?
neooaoe??. Ii-o?ao?, ?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieia?/ieo iieooaaiue na?ae/aoue
i?i oa, ui i?iaeaia c?inoaiiy cei/eiiino? aoiaeeoue aei ia?oi? i’yo??ee
i?iaeai, ui aeeeeeathoue iaea?eueoo noo?aiaai?noue ?aniiiaeaio?a.

Caaaeath/e ia ana neacaia, ? an? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
cei/eii?noue o iaoiio noni?euenoa? iaaoea iaaei??ii? iioe?aiino? ?, ui
oeae oaeo ciaeoia nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iania?e na?aeiiino?.

Iaaaoeai? iane?aeee iioe?aiiy cei/eiiino? a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?,
ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe o aeaio aniaeoao: c oi/ee ci?o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? nenoaie a oe?eiio, ? c oi/ee ci?o ?? aieeao
ia noaiiaeua eiie?aoieo ?iaeea?ae?a. O ia?oiio aniaeo?, iaaei??ia
?iciianthaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino? oa ?ioeo aeae?a aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee
aeanoaa?e?co? nioe?aeueio nenoaio, noa? ia caaaae? ?? ii?iaeueiiio
ooieoe?iioaaiith oa ?icaeoeo. Aaeaea nioe?aeuei? ii?ie ni?yiiaothoue
iiaaae?ieo nioe?aeueieo noa’?eo?a o noni?eueii i?eeiyoia ?onei, a ?o
ii?ooaiiy aeieo? ?aae?caoe?th noni?eueii-iaiao?aeieo ooieoe?e, aac /iai
iaiiaeeeaa ii?iaeueia ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoie nioe?aeueii? nenoaie.
Ia iaio o?aa?/i? iane?aeee ia? iioe?aiiy cei/eiiino? ? aeey ie?aiiai
?iaeea?aea.

Iniaeeaa caiaiiei?iiy aeeeeea? c?inoaiiy cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o.
Aaeaea a?ae oiai, yea i?noea o nioe?aeueiiio aeeoo? noni?euenoaa caeia
eiai iaea?eueo aeoeaia /anoeia, aaaaoi a /iio aoaeooue aecia/aoeny
oni?oi?noue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i oa ia?aoai?aiue, aea?? oeyo?a
? cania?a aeey ?o aeinyaiaiiy, ?ici??e oa ia’?i nioe?aeueii cia/oueo
aeo?ao.

??aaiue cei/eiiino? na?aae i?aee?oe?a ia? no?eeo oaiaeaioe?th aei
c?inoaiiy. Ca inoaii? 10 ?ie?a aaeai? c?inea e?euee?noue i?ioei?aaieo
ae?e iaiiaiie?oi?o. I?aee?oee, a?eii 14-17 ?ie?a neeaaeathoue 8% anueiai
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, iaeiae neiththoue /aa?oue on?o ca?a?no?iaaieo
cei/ei?a I?aeaoianueea A.I. I?io?eaeoeea i?aaiii?ooaiue na?aae
iaiiaiie?oi?o. – E.: “A?AI”, 1996. – N.12.. Eeoa i?ioyaii oanoe i?nyoe?a
1998 ?ieo aeyaeaii a 1,4 ?ace a?eueoa iaiiaiie?oi?o cei/eioe?a, i?ae o
ia?oiio i?a??//? 1997 ?ieo ssieoeueea I. No/ani? oaiaeaioe?? cei/eiiino?
na?aae iieiae? // I?aai Oe?a?ie. – 1998. — ?12. – N.87..

I?iaeaie aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a ? niaoeeo?/iei
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi e?ece, a ye?e ia?aaoaa? iaoa noni?euenoai, eiee ?
i?ioean nioe?ae?caoe??, ? i?ioean ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? caciathoue cia/ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e.

A?aenooi?noue /?oei aecia/aieo oe?ii?nieo i???ioe??a, iaaia
“?icieo?noue” ii?aeueieo ii?i, iaioth/ee o noni?euei?e na?aeiiino?
i?aaiaee i?a?e?ci ?noioii aieeaathoue ia noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino?, ia?o
ca ana, iniaenoino? iieiae? oa i?aee?oe?a, ye? a iaea?eueo?e i???
a?ae/oaathoue ceai oe?ii?nii? nenoaie noni?euenoaa. O iei?oi?o oiiaao
ana a?eueoa neaaoa? nioe?aeueii eiio?ieueiaaiee oaeoi? nioe?ae?caoe??
iniaenoino?, a?aeaeath/e nai? iiceoe?? noeo?eiiio aieeao ia ia?.

Oaeei /eiii, noai ? oaiaeaioe?? cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o aeathoue
aeinoaoi? i?aenoaae aeey aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
caaaeaiue ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth o iao?e e?a?i? — ? ai?ioueaa c?
cei/eii?noth iaiiaiie?oi?o. I?e oeueiio ni?aaa ia eeoa a oa?aeoa?enoeeao
naii? cei/eiiino?, ?? ??aiy, no?oeoo?e, aeeiai?ee, aea e o oiio
iani?eyoeeaiio aieeaia?, yeee aiia ni?aaey? ia ianoaiiaeo a
noni?euenoa?.

Naia oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy cei/eiiino? oa ?ioeo aeae?a aeaa?aioii?
iiaaae?iee ? aaaeeeaith oiiaith caaaeaii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? oa
eoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae, ni?yiiaaii? ia iiaeieaiiy e?ece.
Aeyaeaiiy oa aiae?c nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a oi?ioaaiiy ?
?iciianthaeaeaiiy cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee iaiiaiie?oi?o a no/aniiio
noni?euenoa? aeiiiiiaea ia eeoa aecia/eoe eiai “aieueia? oi/ee”, aea e
?ic?iaeoe iniiai? iai?yie ci?oeiaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ii?yaeeo c iaoith
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?aoi?i, aeicaieeoue a?eueo aeeaiei
i?iaiae?coaaoe /eiieee, i?e/eie oa ianoaaeie, ye? ni?e/eiythoue
i?aaiii?ooaiiy. Ioaea, iaoeiaa i?iaeaia iieyaa? o iaiao?aeiino?
aecia/aiiy iiaeo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a, ye? aeieeathoue a oiiaao
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?eueii? nenoaie oa aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy
cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a, aiae?co ?o nooiino? oa no?oeoo?e ia
ia?ao?aeiiio aoai?.

I??a iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie. Aiae?coth/e nooi?iue iaoeiai?
?ic?iaeaiino? oaie, ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ?? iaoiaeieia?/i?,
caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? oa i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe aaea ieiaeioai?ii
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny ye a?o/eciyiith nioe?ieia?/iith oa i?aaiaith iaoeith,
oae ? a/aieie aeecueeiai ca?oa?aeaey.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e aeaea?aea, i?enay/ai? aeai?e i?iaeaiaoeoe?, iiaeia
aeae?eeoe aea? iniiai? a?oie ?ia?o. Aei ia?oi? a?aeiinyoueny
?noi?eei-e?eoe/i? iaeyaee ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaa?aioii?
iiaaae?iee. Na?aae ieo aeae?eythoueny e?ei?iieia?/i? i?aoe?
O.I.?aoaoieeiaa, ?.?.Ea?iaoea, I.I.Aeoa?i?ia, I.O.Eociaoeiai?,
A.I.I?iueeianueeiai, I.?.?aoeiiaa oa ?i., a oaeiae nioe?ieia?/i? ?iaioe
?.N.Eiia, E.A.?ii?ia, A.A.Ineiiaa oa ?i. Cia/aiiy oeeo ?ia?o iieyaa? a
oiio, ui aiie aeicaieythoue neeanoe oyaeaiiy i?i oai?aoe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo ? ni?anoaaeoe ?o c? noaiii oa
iai?yieaie a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ae?oao a?oio neeaaeathoue i?aoe?, a yeeo ?iaeyoueny ni?iae
nioe?ieia?/iiai inieneaiiy nooiino? oa cia/aiiy ??cieo aeae?a
aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee, cie?aia, cei/eiiino?, o ?icaeoeo iaoiai
noni?euenoaa. Aei ieo a?aeiinyoueny ?iaioe iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa
caaaeueiioai?aoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o ss.?.A?e?inueeiai, A.I.Eoae?yaoeaaa,
A.N.Ia?nanueyia, I.I.sseiae?aa.

Cia/io /anoeio ?ia?o neeaaeathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy eiie?aoieo aeae?a
aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee. Na?aae ieo cia/ia i?noea iin?aeathoue i?aoe?,
i?enay/ai? ??ciei aniaeoai aea/aiiy cei/eiiino?. A ?o /ene? ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe iiiia?ao?? TH.I.Aioiiyia, I.?.Ao?iaa, E.?.?aioaaa,
?.?.Ea?iaoea, A.I.I?iueeianueeiai oa ?ioeo.

I?iaeaia i?ioei?aaii? iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a
aeineoue ?ioaineaii aeine?aeaeoaaeany ye oe?a?inueeeie a/aieie, oae ?
a/aieie aeecueeiai ca?oa?aeaey. Aiae?c i?aoeue, ye? o??th /e ?ioith
i??ith i?enay/ai? i?iaeai? iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeicaiey? ie?aneeoe
eiei ieoaiue, ui a ieo ?icaeyaeathoueny. Oae, o aea/aii? aeaii? i?iaeaie
iicia/eeinue aeae?eueea iai?yi?a:

1)aea/aiiy iioeaaoe?? i?ioei?aaii? iiaaae?iee iaiiaiie?oi?o
(TH.I.Aioiiyi, A.N.Aieeia, E.?.?aioaa, A.A.?oneiia, A.I.Oocia oa ?i.);

2)aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a i?e?ina?aaeiaeua, ye? aieeaathoue
ia oi?ioaaiiy cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a (A.I.Aeiacia,
E.A.A?euaiei, A.I.I?aeaoianueea, I.?.Iicaeiyeiaa oa ?i.);

3)aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoi?iaeueieo oa noaeoeueoo?ieo ia’?aeiaiue, o yeeo
i?aee?oee caeo/athoueny aei i?ioei?aaii? oa cei/eiii? (A.O.Ie?iaeeia,
A.?.Caa?yinueeee, E.I.Naa?ieiaa, A.Ae.??iaeia oa ?i.);

4)aiae?c oaiiiaio e?ei?iae?caoe?? noni?euenoaa ye ?acoeueoaoo
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei (A.Eocueiaiei, ?.A.?eae?ia oa ?i.);

5)aeine?aeaeaiiy cei/eiiino? /a?ac aiae?c noni?eueieo noia?a/iinoae, ui
?? ni?e/eiythoue (ss.?.A?e?inueeee, I.I.Eacaeia, A.I.Eoae?yaoeaa,
E.?.Nie?eaeiiia, A.??.O?eiiia oa ?i.);

6)aeyaeaiiy ineoieia?/ii? niaoeeo?ee i?aaiii?ooaiue iaiiaiie?oi?o
(I.I.Aeaiane?i, N.A.A?e?/aaa, A.O.Eiiae?aoaiei, E.N.Neaa?ia oa ?i.);

7)iiooee oeyo?a ? cania?a caiia?aaiiy i?aaiii?ooaiiyi i?aee?oe?a
(A.A.Aaaeaiia, I.A.Ea?oeianueea, A.I.I?aeaoianueea, A.TH.Oa?an oa
?i.).

O nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo cei/eiiino? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a cia/ia
oaaaa eiioeaio?o?oueny ia iiiyooyo nioe?aeueii? ia??aiino?, eoeueoo?e oa
noaeoeueoo?e, ?o ?ie? o aeieeiaii? cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a
(A.Eiai (A.N.Nihan), O.Naee?i (O.Sall?n), O.I?eea? (W.Iiller) oa ?i.).
Iaeia c aieiaieo i?noeue o ioe?ioe? aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee, a oe?eiio,
oa cei/eiii?, cie?aia, iin?ee oai?aoe/i? ?iaioe A.Aeth?eaaeia
(A.Durkheim) oa ?.E.Ia?oiia (R.E.Iaatin) (eiioeaioe?y aiii??),
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei aiae?co cei/eiiino?.

Iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeineoue a?oioiaii a?aeia?aaeathoue noai
cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o o ieioe? ?iee, ?? /eiieee, iniaeeaino? iniae
oa iioeaaoe?? thieo i?aaiii?ooiee?a. Aea ca inoaii? ?iee (1991-1999)
?ioa?an a/aieo aei oe??? i?iaeaie aeaui cieceany. ?acii c oei
e?ei?iaeueia noaoenoeea ia aea? i?aenoaa aeey naiicaniiei?iiy.

Iii?e oaaao iaoeiaoe?a aei aaaaoueio aniaeo?a oe??? i?iaeaie, ana ae
/eiaei caeeoa?oueny iac’yniaaiei ? iio?aao? iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee. Ia iao
iiaeyae, iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaieie oa aena?oeaieie ? i?e/eie oa
oaeoi?e oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino? a oiiaao noni?euenoaa
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo oa o ca’yceo c e?eciaith neooaoe??th a aaaaoueio
noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy, iio?aao? iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee ieoaiiy aieeao
iiaeo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a oa oiia ia aeieeiaiiy cei/eiii?
iiaaae?iee iaiiaiie?oi?o

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? aoiaeeoue aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eaoaae?e
aaeocaai? nioe?ieia?? oa Oeaio?o nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ? ? neeaaeiaith ieaiiai?
oaie “Nioe?aeuei? i???ioe?e iieiae?”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeyaeaiiy oa
aiae?c eiiieaeno iniiaieo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a no/aniiai
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, ye? aeaoa?i?iothoue cei/eiio iiaaae?ieo
i?aee?oe?a.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ?ica’ycaoe ianooii?
caaaeaiiy: 1.Aeaoe ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th oa aii??e/io aa?eo?eaoe?th iiiyooy
“e?ei?iae?caoe?y” oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

2.Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe noai no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa c oi/ee
ci?o oiia, ye? aeaoa?i?iothoue oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy cei/eiii?
iiaaae?iee.

3.Aeine?aeeoe aieea nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy
iniaenoino? iaiiaiie?oiueiai i?aaiii?ooieea.

4.I?iaiae?coaaoe niaoeeo?eo oa iioeae i?aaiii?ooaiue iaiiaiie?oi?o a
Oe?a?i? ia no/aniiio aoai?.

5.?ice?eoe iniiai? /eiieee n?iaeiiai oa oe?eueiiai aeoiaaiiy, ye?
aieeaathoue ia aeieeiaiiy cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee iaiiaiie?oi?o.

6.I?iaiae?coaaoe i?e/eie ooai?aiiy i?aee?oeiai-iieiae?aeieo a?oi
i?ioei?aaiiai ni?yioaaiiy.

7.Aecia/eoe i?noea ? ?ieue nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a o aeieeiaii? oa
iioe?aii? o no/aniiio noni?euenoa? cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee iaiiaiie?oi?o.
8.Ae?iaeoe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii a?aooaaiith oa
iiaeieaiith aieeao nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a, ye? ni?eythoue c?inoaiith
cei/eiiino? i?aee?oe?a.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? cei/eiia
iiaaae?iea i?aee?oe?a.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nioe?ieoeueoo?i? /eiieee, ye?
aeaoa?i?iothoue cei/eiio iiaaae?ieo i?aee?oe?a a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe??
noni?euenoaa.

Aeoiaey/e c iaoe oa caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea noi?ioeueiaaia
ianooiia a?iioaca: a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa aeii?ioth/o
?ieue o aeieeiaii? oa iioe?aii? cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee iaiiaiie?oi?o
ii/eiathoue a?ae?a?aaaoe nioe?ieoeueoo?i? /eiieee, cie?aia,
o?ainoi?iaoe?y oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaii? nenoaie, i?ioeane
aea?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oa aeanioe?ae?caoe?? iniaenoino?, aeaci?aai?caoe?y
noni?euenoaa oiui.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cae?eniaia a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiiy cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a oa
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a, ye? iiina?aaeeiaothoue ?? aaiaco,
nie?a?oueny ia iaoiaeieia?th no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aiae?co
nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ?iaioe iineoaeeee
i?aoe? A.Aeth?eaaeia (oai??y nioe?aeueii? aeaci?aai?caoe??) oa ?.Ia?oiia
(oai??y aiii??). Oai?aoe/ieie aeaea?aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee ?aea?
A.I.Eoae?yaoeaaa, ss.?.A?e?inueeiai, I.I.sseiae?aa i?i aeaoa?i?iaoe?th
cei/eiiino? yaeuaie o?ueio ??ai?a: noni?eueiei na?aaeiaeuai,
aaciina?aaei?i nioe?aeueiei ioi/aiiyi (i?e?ina?aaeiaeuai) oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueieie iniaeeainoyie ? oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iniae.

I?e oeueiio a aiae?c? i?e/ei oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino? a
no/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? aeei?enoiaoaaany aaaaoioaeoi?iee
i?aeo?ae aei i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aoiaoaaeeny ia eeoa ia’?eoeai?
oiiae, ye? aeaoa?i?iothoue cei/eiio iiaaae?ieo i?aee?oe?a, aea e oae?
noa’?eoeai? oaeoi?e, ye oe?iiino?, ii?ie, ?ioa?ane oa iio?aae, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai ianiai? na?aeiiino?.

Aii??e/ia aaca. Aii??e/io aaco aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
neeaaeathoue io?oe?ei? aeieoiaioe: io?oe?ei? noaoenoe/i? aeai?, aeai?
I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie, iaoa??aee nioe?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo aiae?co nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a a no/aniiio
oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, a oaeiae aaoi?nuee? nioe?ieia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy — aiae?c aeieoiaio?a (e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa iaiiaiie?oi?o
ca 1995-97 ?iee), aenia?oia iieooaaiiy (eeiaiue 1998 ?ieo) oa
eiioaio-aiae?c i?ane (ethoee-aa?acaiue 1999 ?ieo).

A oiae? aiae?co e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa iaiiaiie?oi?o aoa aeei?enoaiee
iaoiae eiioaio-aiae?co aeieoiaio?a, aea/aii oa i?iaiae?ciaaii 412
e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa ca aeae?eaieie iciaeaie.

sse aeiaeaoeiaee aeei?enoiaoaaany iaoiae aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy, a oiae?
yeiai aoei iieoaii 29 noaeae?a ?aeiiieo noae?a i.Ee?aa oa Aa?oiaiiai
noaeo Oe?a?ie, ye? caeiathoueny (caeiaeeny) ?icaeyaeii e?ei?iaeueieo
ni?aa iaiiaiie?oi?o.

Eiioaio-aiae?c i?ane — o?ueio aacao i.Ee?aa c iaea?eueoei oe?aaeai
(“Oaeou e eiiiaioa?ee”, “Aa/a?iea aanoe”, “Naaiaeiy”), aoa cae?eniaiee c
iaoith aeyaeaiiy a ieo ?ioi?iaoe?? e?ei?iaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iniaenoee aianie
caeiaoaa/a aecia/a?oueny eiai iaaiei aeeaaeii o ?ic?iaeo oai???
aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee ? iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? oa aiae?c? eiiieaeno
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a, ye? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa
aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee iaiiaiie?oi?o. O ?iaio?
ocaaaeueiaiee aeina?ae aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee o
i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo c iaeyaeo ia neooaoe?th a
Oe?a?i?. Aia?oa io?eiaia ciaiiy i?i cei/eiio iiaaae?ieo oa /eiieee, ui
?? aeaoa?i?iothoue a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa. Aeaia
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oa aii??e/ia aa?eo?eaoe?y iiiyooy “e?ei?iae?caoe?y”
noni?euenoaa. Ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aeine?aeaeaiiy aeenooieoe?e
iniiaieo io?oe?eieo ?inoeooo?a nioe?ae?caoe?? i?aee?oe?a, ye iaeiiai c
/eiiee?a, ui ni?e/eiy? cei/eiio iiaaae?ieo iaiiaiie?oi?o. Aia?oa i?e
nioe?ieia?/iiio aiae?c? cei/eiiino? ye aeaea?aei oa iaoiae cai?o
?ioi?iaoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaany aiae?c e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa iaiiaiie?oi?o,
ye? aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano ciaoiaeeeeny o cae?eoiio neoaeaiaiio
ei?enooaaii?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui iaea?aeai?
?acoeueoaoe iiaeeaeththoue ?icoi?iiy i?iaeaie cei/eiiino?, a oaeiae
aeicaieythoue e?aua c?icoi?oe nooi?noue i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a
oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? ia aoai? eiai noaiiaeaiiy ? aieeaathoue ia
aeieeiaiiy cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a. Iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? ? iaaiei aianeii o iaoeiaee aiae?c i?iaeaie cei/eiiino? ?
oiio iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaieie aeey ?icai?oaiiy i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ia iaae? nioe?ieia?? eoeueoo?e, nioe?ieia?? ina?oe,
nioe?ieia?? i?aaa oa nioe?ieia?? aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee, a oaeiae o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? caeeaae?a ina?oe i?e aea/aii? oa aeeeaaeaii?
aeuacacia/aieo aeenoeeie?i.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny iiaeeea?noth
aeei?enoaiiy iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a, c?iaeaieo a oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy o
ae??oaii? i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue, ye? noiyoue ia?aae noni?euenoaii o ca’yceo
c iaiao?aei?noth oaeineiiaeaiiy, o?ainoi?iaoe?? o iiaeo oiiaao oaei?
neeaaeii? nenoaie ye “noni?euenoai-eoeueoo?a-iniaa”.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
i?e nioe?ieia?/iiio aiae?c? e?ei?iiaaiii? ianoaiiaee a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa?, i?e ?ic?iaoe? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa iie?oe/ieo
i?ia?ai noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo; oi?ioaaii? eoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee,
i?io?eaeoe/ieo i?ia?ai ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth.

Aeniiaee, iniiai? ?aea? oa i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? e?ei?iaeueiith eieaa??th Aa?oiaiiai
Noaeo Oe?a?ie o oiae? i?aeaioiaee ? i?iaaaeaiiy nai?ia?o “Cei/eii?noue
iaiiaiie?oi?o a Oe?a?i?: noai, oaiaeaioe?? oa nioe?aeuei? iane?aeee.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiai? ?aea?
aeena?oaoe?? ii?eethaeiai? o aenooiao ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
nooaeaio?a oa ani??aio?a oaeoeueoaoo nioe?ieia?? oa ineoieia??
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (Ee?a, 1997) oa ia
can?aeaiiyo I?aeia?iaeii? e?oiuei? oeiee iieiaeeo nioe?ieia?a (E?ei,
E?/e?ia, 1997). Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?aia ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
aaeocaai? nioe?ieia?? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.
Oace aenooi?a iioae?eiaai?. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o
4 ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aia iaoith, caaaeaiiyie, caaaeueiith
eia?eith aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aei
yeeo oa?eoee 9 ia?aa?ao?a, a oaeiae anooio, aeniiae?a aei eiaeiiai
?icae?eo ? caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
aeiaeaoe?a. Ia?ae?e iniiaii? aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 161
iaeiaioaaiiy. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 202 a?eoo?;
o oiio /ene? 31 a?eoo caeiathoue 2 aeiaeaoee, 6 oaaeeoeue, 5 ?enoie?a
oa nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ??
aeooaeuei?noue, aiae?co?oueny i??a ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie o iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo??, aecia/athoueny iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie oa iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue, oi?ioeththoueny
iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny
ia caoeno, a oaeiae ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ai?iaaoe?th aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
ioae?eaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Iaoiaeieia?/i? oa oai?aoe/i? iniiae aiae?co aeaa?aioii?
iiaaae?iee iaiiaiie?oi?o o ca?oa?aei?e oa a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo??” ia?
oa?aeoa? oai?aoe/ii? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy a oe?eiio, ine?eueee a iueiio
aecia/athoueny oa aiae?cothoueny iniiai? aeine?aeieoeuee? no?aoaa?? oa
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei aea/aiiy aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee. I?e
oeueiio iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aaoi? i?eae?ey? aeine?aeaeaiith cei/eiiino?,
?? i?e/ei oa coiiaeaiino? nioe?aeueieie yaeuaie, aiae?co ??ciiiai?oieo
eiioeaioe?e aea/aiiy cei/eiiino? ca?oa?aeieie oa a?o/eciyieie a/aieie.
Aaoi? i?aee?aneth? ye?nio aecia/ai?noue nioe?ieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei
aiae?co aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny o ca’yceo c oaeeie
iiiyooyie ye nioe?aeuei? ii?ie, nioe?aeuei? oe?iiino?, nioe?aeuei?
?inoeoooe oa i?aai?caoe??, nioe?ieoeueoo?i? yaeua. Aeena?oaioea aiae?co?
nooi?noue oe?iiinoae, ui ? aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii eoeueoo?e oa nenoaie
nioe?aeueii? ?aaoeyoe??, i?aee?aneth? aa??aoeai?noue nenoaie oe?iiinoae
oa ?o ?noi?e/iee oa?aeoa?. O ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaiee aiae?c iiiyooy
ii?ie, ui ? aeo?aeiei aeey aecia/aiiy aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee. Naia
nioe?aeuei? ii?ie, cae??ieai? o eoeueoo??, ni?eueiino? a?oi oa
?iaeea?ae?a ? aaaeeeaeie aeaoa?i?iaioaie ??aiy aeicaieaii?, oiaoi
naieoe?eiaaii? noni?euenoaii iiaaae?iee. Ine?eueee ethaenueea
na?aeii?noue caeaoia aeoiaeeoe ca iaae? aoaeue-yeeo noa?aioei?a ?
ae?iaeyoe iia? aa??aioe iiaaae?iee, oea coiiaeth? iiaeeea?noue
iaii?iaoeaii? iiaaae?iee aai nioe?aeueiiai a?aeoeeaiiy, yea iiaea aooe
aeaio aeae?a: a)iiaaae?iea, iao?aaoeueiaaia ii?iith; a)iiaaae?iea, ui
noia?a/eoue ii?i?. Nioe?aeuei? ii?ie ae?aaeathoue iaiao?aei? iaae?
nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei ethaeae ? ? aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii i?aeo?eiee
noaa?eueiino? noni?euenoaa. Aaoi? cacia/a?, ui nioe?aeuei? a?aeoeeaiiy
iiaeooue iaoe aeey noni?euenoaa ??cia cia/aiiy. Iiceoeai? — neoaeaoue
caniaii i?ia?aneaiiai ?icaeoeo nenoaie; iaaaoeai? — aeenooieoe?iiaeuei?,
aiie aeaci?aai?cothoue nenoaio, i?ae?eaath/e /anoi ?? iniiae. Iaae? i?ae
iiceoeaieie oa iaaaoeaieie oi?iaie aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee ?ooii? o /an?
oa i?inoi??.

Aeaiee ?icae?e i?noeoue oaeiae aiae?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeae?a nioe?aeueii?
ii?ie: ii?ae? oa i?aaa, oa?aeoa?enoeeo nioe?aeueieo naieoe?e oa ?o
ooieoe?e o noni?euenoa?.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui iien yaeu, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny o aeena?oaoe??
i?iaiaeeoueny, ye i?aaeei, a oa?i?iao cei/eiii? aai aeaa?aioii?
iiaaae?iee, o ?iaio? aiae?co?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiiyoue cei/eiiino?
oa aeaa?aoe??. Iaaieioo?oueny, ui aeaa?aioia iiaaae?iea ? a?aeiiniith,
ine?eueee noino?oueny eeoa eoeueoo?ieo ii?i iaaii? a?oie, cei/eiia ae
iiaaae?iea ? aaniethoiith ii a?aeiioaiith aei caeii?a e?a?ie.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?noeoueny oaeiae aeaoaeueiee aiae?c iiaeyae?a
ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo ia ie?aneaio i?iaeaio, ye?, a iniiaiiio,
eiioeaio?othoue naith oaaao ia iiiyooyo nioe?aeueii? ia??aiino?,
eoeueoo?e/noaeoeueoo?e, nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth oa i?aeiniaeno?nii?
aca?iiae??. Nioe?ieia?/iee i?aeo?ae o aea/aii? cei/eiiino? iioiaeeoue
nai?ie ei?aiyie c eiioeaioe?? “aiii??” A.Aeth?eaaeia, yeo a?i iia’yco? c
aeaci?aai?caoe??th noni?euenoaa. Ia aeoieo o?aioeocueeiai nioe?ieiaa, a
oiiaao noni?eueieo e?ec oa a ia??iaee ?aaeeeaeueieo nioe?aeueieo
ia?aoai?aiue, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei ?oeioaaiiy /e iineaaeaiiy
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo ii?i iiaaae?iee, ?o noia?a/eeaino? oa iaaecia/aiino?,
oi?iothoueny ??ci? aeaee aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
ii?iiii?yaeie o noni?euenoa?.

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie eiioeaioe?y “aiii??” io?eiaea o i?aoeyo
?.E.Ia?oiia, yeee iniiaio oaaao i?eae?eya aeine?aeaeaiith
iaa?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae eoeueoo?ii-coiiaeaieie oe?eyie oa ocaeiiaieie
caniaaie ?o aeinyaiaiiy. Cacia/ai? eiioeaioe?? ? iniaeeai aeooaeueieie
aeey aiae?co neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, oa?aeoa?ieie aeey yei? ? yaeua
aeaci?aai?caoe?? oa aiii??.

I?aaenoaaieee eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo oai??e (A.Eiai, ?.Eeioa?ae, O.I?eea?,
O.Naee?i) o nai?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?iaeyoue aeoeaio ia aiae?c?
eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae, ui ni?eythoue aeaa?aoe?? (oai??y noaeoeueoo?e,
oai??y eiioe?eoo eoeueoo?).

Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oai??? cei/eiiino? (oai??? nioe?aeueiiai
iaa/aiiy, eiio?ieth, aca?iiae??) cina?aaeaeothoue oaaao ia
i?aeiniaeno?nieo a?aeiineiao ? ?icaeyaeathoue nioe?aeuei? a?aeoeeaiiy ye
?acoeueoao “e?enoae?caoe??” i?ioean?a i?aeiniaeno?niiai ni?eeoaaiiy,
aaiethoe?? eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?i. ?ioa?aeoe?ii?nonueea oai??y, a iaaeao
yei? noi?ioaaeanue oai??y noeaiaoecaoe??, aea/a? i?ioeane, a oiae? yeeo
ethaee aecia/athoueny ye cei/eioe?.

Aeena?oaioea caa?oa? oaaao ia oa, ui a?eueo?noue ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo,
aea/ath/e aieea nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?
?icaeyaeathoue eiai aeineoue iaiaaeaii ? aeine?aeaeothoue oaeoi?e eeoa
iaeaeeae/iai nioe?aeueiiai ioi/aiiy, cie?aia, n?i’? (Aeae.Aioea?,
I.Aano, N.?ae). I?aenoiiao?oueny, ui, iaaeath/e n?i’? ae??oaeueiiai
cia/aiiy o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino? iaiiaiie?oiueiai i?aaiii?ooieea,
aaaaoi cao?aeieo a/aieo ?icaeyaeathoue ?? ye naiino?eio ?cieueiaaio
iaeeieoeth noni?eueii? i?aai?caoe??, ae?eaathoue n?i’th c on???
noeoiiino? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, aaniethoecothoue ?ieue iaaaoeaieo
n?iaeieo aieea?a o aeieeiaii? a?aeoeeaiue a iiaaae?ioe? iniaenoino?.

Ui noino?oueny aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee
iaiiaiie?oi?o o a?o/eciyi?e nioe?ieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo??, oi ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy o ?aaeyinuee?e iaooe? io?eiaa
aaaaoioaeoi?iee i?aeo?ae, ca?aeii c yeei iiaaae?iea ie?aii? iniae
aeaoa?i?io?oueny yaeuaie o?ueio ??ai?a: noni?eueiei na?aaeiaeuai,
aaciina?aaei?i nioe?aeueiei ioi/aiiyi (i?e?ina?aaeiaeuai) oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iniae (A.I.Eoae?yaoeaa, ?.?.Ea?iaoe,
A.O. Eiiae?aoaiei oa ?i.). Aecia/aeueiei ??aiai aeaoa?i?iaoe??
iiaaae?iee iniaenoino? ? ??aaiue nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua. A?i iiaea
aooe ioa?aeoa?eciaaiee iayai?noth o noni?euenoa? ??cieo yaeu
aeiiii?/iiai, ?aeaieia?/iiai, eoeueoo?ii-aeoiaiiai oa
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Naia a iaaeao oe?ieiai
nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua anoaiiaeththoueny aeiiii?/i?, iie?oe/i?,
i?aaia?, ii?aeuei? oa ?io? nioe?aeuei? a?aeiineie, ye? oi?iothoue
iniaeno?noue ye aaciina?aaeiuei, oae ? iiina?aaeeiaaii,
ia?aeiiethth/enue /a?ac ?? iaeaeeae/a nioe?aeueia ioi/aiiy.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny aeaa iniiai? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie cei/eiiino? a iaaeao nioe?ieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo. Iaeei
cina?aaeaeo? oaaao ia ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao iniaenoino? cei/eioey;
aaoi?e, ye? aeio?eiothoueny oeueiai iiaeyaeo, iniiaio oaaao
i?eae?eythoue aea/aiith ci?noiaiiai aieo iniaenoino? cei/eioey
(iiaeyae?a, ia?aeiiaiue, onoaiiaie, oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e oiui), a
oaeiae a?oiiaeo ii?i, cae/a?a, e?ei?iieia?/ii cia/oueo iiiaio?a
noni?eueii? ineoieia?? ??cieo nioe?aeueieo ni?eueiio (I.A.Naoa?ia oa
?io?). I?eoeeueieee ?ioiai iai?yio a?aeaiaeyoue iniiaio ?ieue
iniaeeainoyi iaoai?cio aca?iiae?? iniaenoino? oa nioe?aeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua (I.I.sseiae?a oa ?io?).

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaeaeaa oe? i?aeoiaee iathoue i?aai ia ?nioaaiiy ?
iiaeii? aeiiiaithaaoe iaeei iaeiiai c iaoith iaea?eueo iiaiiai oa
anaa?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie cei/eiiino? o iaoiio noni?euenoa? ?
ae??oaiiy eiie?aoieo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi oeueiai
yaeua.

Iienaaoe aeaye? iaeaaaeeea?o? nioe?ieia?/i? iai?yie aeine?aeaeaiiy
cei/eiiino?, aaoi? aeae?ey? iieiaeaiiy, ye?, ia eiai aeoieo, iathoue
ia?oi/a?aiaa nioe?ieia?/ia cia/aiiy: cei/eii? iaae/ee canaiththoueny
oeyoii iaa/aiiy; cei/eii?noue ia iiaeia c?icoi?oe aac aiae?co ?? c oi/ee
ci?o caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo oe?iiinoae oa i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny o
noni?euenoa?; o aeieeiaii? i?iaeai cei/eiiino? aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a?
nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a noni?euenoaa; neooaoe?eii cei/eii?noue caeaaeeoue
a?ae noni?eueii? ?aaeoe?? ia ia?.

?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy cei/eiiino? a
yeino? aeaiaioa neeaaeii? nenoaie nioe?aeueieo aca?iiae?e, i?e yeiio
aeo?aeiith oi/eith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia cei/ei /e cei/eii?noue, a
nioe?aeuei? i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o noni?euenoa?. Cacia/a?oueny,
ui iniiaith nioe?ieia?/iiai aiae?co cei/eiiino? iiaeiia neoaeeoe
?icoi?iiy ?? ye aeaiaioa neeaaeiiai eiiieaeno nioe?aeueieo a?aeoeeaiue,
ui noia?a/aoue ia eeoa ii?iai i?aaa, aea e aeiiaai ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo
ii?i, oiaoi ii?ooaiue, ui i?ae?eaathoue ii?iaoeaiee ii?yaeie a oe?eiio.

Ciaiiy nooi?nieo iniia cei/eiiino? ?iaeoue iiaeeeaei aeya i?e/ei ??
iiyae oa iniaeeainoae i?iyao a Oe?a?i?, aiae?cia? yeeo ? i?enay/aiee
ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe – “Iniaeeaino? oiia no/aniiai
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ye oaeoi? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oa
e?ei?iae?caoe?? aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a”. Ooo aecia/athoueny ?
aiae?cothoueny nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?ieoeueoo?i? aeaoa?i?iaioe
cei/eiiino? a oe?eiio, oa cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o, cie?aia, ia
no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

C?iaeaia aeine?aeieoeueea ni?iaa aeaoe a?aeiia?aeue ia caieoaiiy, /iio
caaaeueiie?ei?iaeueiee iioaioe?ae a iacaeaaei?e oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?
ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei c?inoaiiy, e?ei?iae?caoe?y aeiiii?ee, iie?oeee
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ? iiaeeaeth?oueny. Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui aeey iiyniaiiy
oaiiiaio oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino? a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa?, iaiao?aeii cae?enieoe ?? aiae?c a eiioaeno? a?eueo
caaaeueii? nenoaie ? o ca’yceo c ?yaeii iia’ycaieo nioe?aeueieo
i?ioean?a. Iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iniaeeainoae
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie a inoaii? ?iee noaei oaeaeea
c?inoaiiy o?iueiaiai naeoi?o aeiiii?ee, iineeaiiy eiai aieeao ia
o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane. Aeena?oaioea caa?oa? oaaao ia i?e/eie oa
iane?aeee o?i?caoe?? aeiiii?ee, iaeiei c iniiaieo iane?aee?a yei?
aenooia? e?ei?iae?caoe?y noni?euenoaa oa ao?aoa aea?aeaaith nai?o
?aaoethth/eo oa nioe?aeueii aaaeeeaeo ooieoe?e. Aiae?co?oueny cia/ia
iineaaeaiiy ?ie? aea?aeaae o i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? a no/anieo oiiaao,
iniiaieie i?iyaaie yeiai ?: iaaeineiiae?noue caeii?a, ye? iiaeooue
i?ecaiaeeoe aei i?ioei?aaii? iiaaae?iee a?iiaaeyi oa c?inoaiiy
e?eueeino? i?aaiii?ooaiue c aieo i?aoe?aiee?a aea?aeaaieo ?
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a. Aeani? aeniiaee i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny aeaieie
aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy, i?iaaaeaiiai aaoi?ii. Aeena?oaioea cacia/a?, ui
aeenooieoe?? aea?aeaae aeaoi?iothoue nioe?aeueio no?oeoo?o noni?euenoaa,
iaaeathoue ?e e?ei?iiaaiiiai oa?aeoa?o.

Iaaieioo?oueny, ui oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ??cieo aeae?a aeaa?aioii?
iiaaae?iee, a oiio /ene? cei/eiiino?, o iaoiio noni?euenoa? iia’ycaia c
iniaeeainoyie eiai nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e. Ieie ?: iaeiiaa iiey?ecaoe?y
noni?euenoaa, c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? aac?ia?oieo, iayai?noue
“nioe?aeueiiai aeia”, ia?icaeiai?noue na?aaeiueiai eeano. A?aei?noue,
aac?ia?ooy, aeiiii?/ia oa nioe?aeueia ianoaa?euei?noue ?ioaineaii
?ice?o/othoue i?ioean ia?a?iae?caoe?? ianaeaiiy. I?ioeane
ia?a?iae?caoe??, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a iaoiio noni?euenoa?, ioiieththoue
i?aeoe/ii an? nioe?aeuei? a?oie ? na?ae/aoue i?i a?ae/oaeaiiy
iniaenoino? a?ae noni?euenoaa oa eoeueoo?e.

I?e aiae?c? aac?ia?ooy, aaoi? aeae?ey? aea? eaoaai??? aac?ia?oieo:
iiai?noth aac?ia?oieo oa o?eoeaii caeiyoeo, cina?aaeaeoth/e naith oaaao
ia aeine?aeaeaii? inoaii?o. Cacia/a?oueny, ui a?aenooi?noue ii?iaeueii?
?iaioe oa iieaoe i?aoe? noeioeth? iania? ?ice?aaeaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao,
ye? a oiiaao e?ece noathoue nioe?aeueii i?aaii??ieie ? aei?aaaeaieie.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e nioe?aeueio no?oeoo?o no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, aeena?oaioea caa?oa?oueny aei aiae?co iiaeae? ??
nioe?aeueii? no?aoeo?eaoe??. Nioe?aeueia i??ai?aea oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa yaey? niaith iiaeaeue “i?eaeaaeaiiai aei iniiae
o?eeooieea”, ui icia/a? caoaeaiiy no?aoeo?eaoe?eieo eaiae?a ? cia/ia
iaiaaeaiiy, ia?o ca ana, eaaaeueieo aa??aio?a i?aeaeuaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai
oa nioe?aeueiiai noaoon?a. Oea, o naith /a?ao, ooiaoa? ethaeeio aei
iiooeo iacaeiiieo oeyo?a caaeiaieaiiy aeanieo iio?aa, o oiio /ene?, aei
nei?iiy i?ioei?aaieo ae?e. ?ieue i?aeneethaa/a o oeueiio i?ioean?
a?ae?a?a? oaeiae aiaaiai?noue cia/ii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy o ia/aniino? oa
iacaeiiiino? io?eiaiiy i?eaooe?a ae?oith no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa. Iane?aeeii o?ainoi?iaoe?? nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e
noni?euenoaa oa aeaoi?iaoe?? iio?aa ethaeae ? aeanioe?ae?caoe?y, ye
ao?aoa nioe?aeueii-ei?enieo ca’yce?a oa a?ae/oaeaiiy a?ae noni?euenoaa.
Aiia ? iaeiei c ?iaeeeaoi??a “oai?iae” noni?euenoaa, a i?ia?anoth/a
ianiaa aeanioe?ae?caoe?y — ?iaeeeaoi? aiii??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae nioe?ieoeueoo?iee oii ci?i,
ui a?aeaoaathoueny a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? oa aiae?co?oueny ?o
aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a. Aaoi? aiae?co?
i?ioeane nioe?aeueii? aeac?ioaa?aoe?? oa a?ae/oaeaiiy, ui i?iyaeythoueny
o ao?ao? aeanii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ? iacaaeiaieaiino? noni?euenoaii oa
aeaniei noaiiaeuai o iueiio, ? i?ecaiaeyoue aei ao?aoe o?aaeeoe?eii?
iniiae naii?aeaioeo?eaoe? iniaenoino?. Aeine?aeaeo?oueny oe?ii?niee
eiioe?eo, ui ni?e/eiy? aeeaieo e?eco iaoai?ci?a nioe?ae?caoe??
iniaenoino?. Cacia/a?oueny, ui eiioe?eo oe?iiinoae iia’ycaiee c
?oeioaaiiyi o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e ? inieneth?oueny ye ni?a?nioaaiiy o
noni?euenoa? ??cieo nenoai ?aaoeyoi??a, ui aeaci?aai?cothoue ae??
ethaeae, ?o ae?yeuei?noue oa a?aeiineie.

?noioia cia/aiiy a no/anieo oiiaao ia? iineaaeaiiy i?aaiaeo ?aaoeyoi??a
iiaaae?iee iniaenoino?, iniaeeai, i?aee?oe?a oa iieiae?. A ia?oo /a?ao
oea iia’ycaia c iioe?aiiyi i?aaiaiai i?a?e?cio ? oi?ioaaiiyi onoaiiaee
ia aeiionoei?noue i?aaiii?ooaiue. Ia iniia? aiae?co aeaieo
nioe?ieia?/ieo iieooaaiue, aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui cia/ia
/anoeia iaiiaiie?oi?o, ye? ua ia noaee i?aaiii?ooieeaie, aaea iiaeieaee
“ii??a e?ei?iaeueiino?” o nai?io ieneaii? oa iiaaae?ioe?.

C iaeyaeo ia eiie?aoi? oiiae Oe?a?ie, aaoi? iiaeeaeth? ? ?icoe?th?
oeoia/aiiy iiiyooy “e?ei?iae?caoe?y” noni?euenoaa, yea a no/anieo oiiaao
ae?aaea?oueny, ia?o ca ana, o i?ioei?aai?e iiaaae?ioe?, ui iaaoaa?
ianiaiai oa?aeoa?o; ?ice?eaa? eiai aca?iica’ycie c e?ei?iae?caoe??th
eoeueoo?e. Aeena?oaioea i?aaenoaaey? ?acoeueoaoe eiioaio-aiae?co i?ane
ia i?aaeiao iayaiino? o i?e ?ioi?iaoe?? e?ei?iaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Aeai?
na?ae/aoue, ui cia/ia /anoeia iaoa??ae?a i?ane i?enay/aia naia oaeiai
?iaeo ?ioi?iaoe??. ?? ianya noaiiaeoue a?ae 5,2% o “Aa/a?ieo aanoyo” aei
11% o “Oaeoao e eiiiaioa?eyo”. Ia iniia? aiae?co aeae?eythoueny iniiai?
oaie, aei yeeo caa?oathoueny aeo?iae?noe. A iniiaiiio, oea e?ei?iaeueia
o?ii?ea oa iaoa??aee, i?enay/ai? i?iaeai? e?ei?iaeueiino? o ae?yeueiino?
i?aaenoaaiee?a aeeiiaa/i? oa caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee, i?aaiioi?iiieo
i?aai?a, ea??aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa oiui. Aaoi? aiae?co? oa?aeoa?
?ioi?iaoe?? oa niiniae ?? iiaea/? o cacia/aieo aacaoao ? caa?oa? oaaao
ia aeaye? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee, ui aiia ni?e/eiy?. Ii-ia?oa, iino?eia
aeooae?caoe?y i?iaeaie ianeeey oa cei/eiiino? o CI? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
oiai, ui ethaeeia noa? iaio ni?eeiyoeeaith aei ianeeey, yea iinooiiai
ii/eia? ni?eeiaoeny ye ii?iaeueia yaeua; ii-ae?oaa, o i?aee?oe?a,
ineo?ea yeeo ? iano?eeith, i?ae aieeaii oaeiai ?iaeo ?ioi?iaoe?? aeieea?
oaiaeaioe?y aei iane?aeoaaiiy, aiia iineeth?oueny ?ioeie iaaaoeaieie
/eiieeaie nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua. Aaoi? i?aenoiiao?, ui CI? oa,
cie?aia, i?ana, o iiaeo noni?eueieo oiiaao aenooiathoue o?aineyoi?aie
e?ei?iae?ciaaii? eoeueoo?e ? ni?eythoue ao?eaiith o ianiao na?aeii?noue
o?ainoi?iiaaieo oe?iiinoae, a oiio /ene? oaeeo, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue
ii?ooaiiy i?aaiaeo oa ii?aeueieo ii?i.

?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui iniaeea?noue no/anii? neooaoe??, a ye?e
cae?enith?oueny oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? i?aee?oea, iieyaa? a oiio, ui
i?ioean oeae a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao aiii??, aeac?ioaa?aoe?? oa
e?ei?iae?caoe?? noni?euenoaa.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Aeenooieoe?iiaeueia ?ieue ?inoeooo?a
nioe?ae?caoe?? o aeieeiaii? cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a” ii?yae c
oai?aoe/ieie ocaaaeueiaiiyie i?noyoueny ?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, cae?eniaiiai aaoi?ii ia iniia? aiae?co e?ei?iaeueieo
ni?aa iaiiaiie?oi?o. Caa?aa?oueny oaaaa ia i?iaeaio n?i’? oa n?iaeiiai
aeoiaaiiy o noni?euenoa? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, ?o aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy
ii?ooaiue o iiaaae?ioe? iaiiaiie?oi?o. Cia/io oaaao i?eae?eaii aiae?co
n?iae, ye? a?ae/oaathoue cia/i? iaoa??aeuei? o?oaeiiu?, aieeao inoaii?o
ia cae?eniaiiy n?i’?th ?? aeoiaii? ooieoe??. Aeena?oaioea aea?
oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaiiaii? n?i’?, ye iaei??? c iani?eyoeeaeo oiia aeoiaaiiy
aeeoeie; aiae?co? iaaaoeai? aniaeoe aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? iaiiaii? n?i’?,
ye? aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy ii?ooaiue o iiaaae?ioe? i?aee?oe?a.
Aeine?aeaeothoueny ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o ?ieueia?e no?oeoo??
n?i’? ia no/aniiio aoai? oa iniiai? ?? i?iyae; iaaieioo?oueny ia
aeieeiaii? o oaia??oi?e neooaoe?? iiaeo i?iaeai aeoiaiiai oa?aeoa?o, ye?
i?iyaeythoueny, ianaiia?aae, o cieaeaii? aaoi?eoaoo aaouee?a. Iane?aeeii
oeueiai ? oneeaaeiaiiy a?aeiinei i?ae aaoueeaie oa ae?oueie, yea
iineeth?oueny o??th ianoaaeiith, ui o?aaeeoe?ei? ii?ie oa oe?iiino?, ye?
aaaaoi a /iio i?aeo?eiothoueny aaoueeaie, noathoue aeey ae?oae iaio
cia/oueie o ii??aiyii? c iiaeie ii?iaie oa noaiaea?oaie iiaaae?iee.

Aaoi? aeae?ey? ? oa?aeoa?eco? oeie iaaeaaiiieo/ii? iiaii? n?i’?, a
oaeiae ?? i?iyae; aiae?co? i?yi? oa iai?yi? oi?ie i?iyao
aeacaaeaiooth/iai aieeao oiia n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy ia oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? i?aee?oea.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny aiae?co yaeua iiceoeaiiai noaaeaiiy
i?aee?oe?a aei iiaaae?iee, iia’ycaii? c ii?ooaiiyie caeiio, ui aenooia?
ua iaeiei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi a?iioace aaoi?a i?i e?ei?iae?caoe?th
noni?euenoaa oa eoeueoo?e.

O oeueiio ae ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny oa?aeoa?enoeee e?ece ina?oe, ye
?acoeueoaoo aeiaaeueii? noni?eueii? e?ece, ? iaeia c i?e/ei, yea
ii?iaeaeo? ?yae iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a, ui o naith /a?ao ni?aaeythoue
cia/iee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? iaiiaiie?oiueiai i?aaiii?ooieea.
Ia?o ca ana oea eiioe?eoe o nenoai? o/aiue-o/aiue, o/aiue-o/eoaeue,
o/aiue-aaoueee, aaoueee-o/eoae?; iiyaa i?eaaoieo oe?e, ui iiaeeaeththoue
nioe?aeueio aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th; a?aenooi?noue o iaaeaaia?a
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ae?oae oiui.

Aaoi? aiae?co? oaeiae i?ioeane a?ae/oaeaiiy i?aee?oe?a a?ae o/i?anueeiai
eieaeoeao oa iiooeo ?ioeo noa? ni?eeoaaiiy. Iaaieioo?oueny ia ao?ao?
oeieith aoaeue-yeiai aaoi?eoaoo o i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy a yeino?
eaiaeo nioe?ae?caoe??.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui cieaeaiiy i?anoeaeo oeiee, ina?oe ia iaia’yceiai
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iineeaiiyi aieeao ia nioe?ae?caoe?th iniaenoino?
i?aee?oea nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a n?i’? oa cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.
Oaeei /eiii, ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i ineaaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-eiio?ieueiaaiiai oaeoi?o nioe?ae?caoe?? iniaenoino? ?
c?inoaiiy noeo?eiiai aieeao ia ia? c aieo aoee/ieo a?oi, noeo?eieo
oa?oiiaaiue, o oiio /ene?, aioenioe?aeueiiai ni?yioaaiiy. Iaaeaaia?/ia
iani?iiiaei?noue n?i’? oa oeiee i?ecaiaeyoue aei oiai, ui aaaaoi
i?aee?oe?a, ye? ia ciaoiaeyoue ?icoi?iiy c aieo cia/oueo aeey ieo
aei?ineeo, noathoue aei ieo a iiiceoe?th, ui i?iyaey?oueny o caia?a/aii?
iiceoeaieo nioe?aeueieo ii?i oa oe?iiinoae. Iaiiaiie?oi? ia’?aeiothoueny
o a?oie, a i?ioean? ni?eeoaaiiy oa aca?iiae?? o yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny
iane/aiiy iacaaeiaieaieo iio?aa o naiinoaa?aeaeaii?, ni?eeoaaii?,
ii/ooo? iaeaaeiino? oiui. Naia a i?aee?oeiaeo anioe?aeueieo oa
aioenioe?aeueieo a?oiao a?aeaoaa?oueny noaiiaeaiiy ? canai?iiy
aeueoa?iaoeaieo ii?i oa oe?iiinoae, oi?ioaaiiy aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee,
e?ei?iae?caoe?y i?aee?oe?a.

Ioaea, /eiieeaie, ye? aieeaathoue ia aeieeiaiiy cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee
iaiiaiie?oi?o ? aeenooieoe?? n?i’? oa oeiee. Aiie, aenooiath/e
?acoeueoaoii iai?enoiniaaiino? aei iiaeo oiia ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeaeeeie oaiiaie ci?i, i?ecaiaeyoue
aei aeaoi?iaoe?? oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e iaiiaiie?oi?o, ni?e/eiythoue
iineaaeaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?o iiaaae?iee oa ni?eythoue
i?aaiii?ooaiiyi. Oiio ? an? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui c?inoaiiy cei/eiiino?
? iane?aeeii aeenooieoe?e nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a ? aenooia? niiniaii
naiii?aai?caoe?? noni?euenoaa a oiiaao ?a?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe??
nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy.

Aeena?oaioea aiae?co? i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy i?aee?oeiai? noaeoeueoo?e,
aecia/a? ?? nooi?noue, oa?aeoa?enoeee oa nioe?aeuei? ooieoe??
(nioe?ae?caoe?y, ineoieia?/ia, ni?eeoaaiiy, aeica?eey, ?aaoeyoeaia,
nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth). ?icae?e i?noeoue oaeiae aiae?c i?aee?oeiaeo
a?oi ye noa’?eo?a i?aee?oeiai? noaeoeueoo?e, o iueiio aeine?aeaeothoueny
i?e/eie iioyao aei ni?eeoaaiiy c ?iaanieeaie oa ooai?aiiy i?aee?oeiaeo
a?oi, caa?oa?oueny iniaeeaa oaaaa ia ?ieue iaoi?iaeueieo i?aee?oeiaeo
a?oi o aeeoo? iaiiaiie?oi?o.

Aaoi? aeyaey? oa aiae?co? i?e/eie caeo/aiiy i?aee?oe?a aei a?oi c
aioenioe?aeueiith ni?yiiaai?noth, iieno? iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy noeo?eieo
i?aee?oeiaeo a?oi i?ioei?aaiiai oa?aeoa?o. I?e/eiith ooai?aiiy oaeeo
a?oi aeena?oaioea aaaaea? iaaeinoaoi? caaeiaieaiiy iniiaieo
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo iio?aa iaiiaiie?oi?o a iaaeao iniiaieo
?inoeooo?a nioe?ae?caoe??. Oa?aeoa?iei aea aeey no/anieo oiia ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ? iaiiaeeea?noue, iaa?oue i?e i?aaiaii? c
aieo inoaii?o, caaeiaieueieoe oe? iio?aae.

Ia iniia? noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo oa aeaieo aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iniaeeao
oaaao aaoi? i?eae?ey? aiae?cia? niaoeeo?ee oa iioea?a i?aaiii?ooaiue
i?aee?oe?a a Oe?a?i? ia no/aniiio aoai?. Niaoeeo?ea i?aaiii?ooaiue
iaiiaiie?oi?o iieyaa? o : a)ia?aaaaeii a?oiiaiio ?o oa?aeoa??;
a)cae?eniaii? ia?aaaaeii ei?eneeaeo oa ei?eneeai-ianeeueieoeueeeo
cei/ei?a; a)ei?eneea?e iioeaaoe?? cei/eiieo ae?e iaiiaiie?oi?o. Ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, cia/ia c?inoaiiy ei?eneeaeo i?iya?a o cei/eii?e
iiaaae?ioe? iaiiaiie?oi?o ia? aaeaioaoe?eio iioeaaoe?th oa ia’?eoeaii
aeaoa?i?iiaaia aeiiii?/iith e?ecith.

Aiai?y/e i?i caaaeuei? i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii? aeacaaeaioaoe?? i?aee?oe?a
o no/anieo oiiaao, aaoi? caa?oa? oaaao ia oae? i?e?inioe?aeuei?
oaiaeaioe??, ye iineaaeaiiy ooieoe?e oa iioaioe?eiiai aoaeoo eiaeii?
ie?aii? nenoaie nioe?ae?caoe??: n?i’?, oeiee, ?, aiaeii/an, iineeaiiy
?ie? noeo?eieo oiaa?enoa, o oiio /ene? i?ioei?aaiiai ni?yioaaiiy.

AENIIAEE

O aeniiaeao eiioeaio?othoueny iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy,
i?aenoiiaothoueny ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia
oai?aoe/iiio oa i?aeoe/iiio ??aiyo, aeneiaeththoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei a?aooaaiiy oa iiaeieaiiy aieeao nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a, ye?
ni?eythoue c?inoaiith cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o o no/aniiio
noni?euenoa?, aecia/athoueny ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aaeaeiny
i?aeoaa?aeeoe iniiai? iieiaeaiiy a?iioace aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
e?ei?iae?caoe?y noni?euenoaa ni?aaey? cia/iee aieea ia eoeueoo?o,
e?ei?iae?coth/e ??. E?ei?iae?caoe?y eoeueoo?e i?iyaey?oueny o oi?ioaaii?
oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e oa nioe?aeueieo onoaiiaie, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue
ii?ooaiiy ii?aeueieo oa i?aaiaeo ii?i; ni?ey? a?aeoai?aiith oa
iioe?aiith i?ioei?aaii? iiaaae?iee o noni?euenoa?. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui
aeenooieoe?? iniiaieo ?inoeooo?a nioe?ae?caoe?? ? iaeiei c /eiiee?a, ui
aieeaathoue ia aeieeiaiiy cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee iaiiaiie?oi?o.
Iaa?oioiaaia iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui c?inoaiiy cei/eiiino? ? iane?aeeii
aeenooieoe?e nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a ? aenooia? niiniaii
naiii?aai?caoe?? noni?euenoaa a oiiaao ?a?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe??
noni?eueiiai aeeooy. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui i?iaaaeaiiy iiae?aieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ia? aaaeeeaa oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy c iaeyaeo ia
iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie cei/eiiino? i?aee?oe?a,
aecia/aiiy ?? niaoeeo?ee oa aeaoa?i?iaio a oiiaao aeiei??iii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa.

IOAE?EAOe??

Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, ?acoeueoaoe aii??e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aoee aena?oeai? o 4 ioae?eaoe?yo:

1.Ia?aiaeeoey O.A. Aiae?c /eiiee?a oa ia?aaeoiia cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee
iaiiaiie?oi?o o i?ioean? nioe?ae?caoe??. — E.: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 1999. — 21n . – 1,2 ae?.a?e.

2.Ia?aiaeeoey O.A. Nioe?aeuei? aeaoa?i?iaioe cei/eiiino? // Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. A?niee. Nioe?ieia?y. Ineoieia?y.
Iaaeaaia?ea. Aeione 6. — 1998. — N.15-18. — 0,2 ae?.a?e.

3.Ia?aiaeeoey O.A. Oaiiiai cei/eiiino? a e?eciaiio noni?euenoa? //
A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Nioe?ieia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy no/aniiai noni?euenoaa: iaoiaeieia?y, oai??y, iaoiaee. —
1997. -?393. — N.190-195. — 0,2 ae?.a?e.

4.Ia?aiaeeoey O.A. Nioe?aeueia aeaoa?i?iaoe?y cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee
i?aee?oe?a. I?ia?aia nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy // A?niee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Nioe?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
no/aniiai noni?euenoaa: iaoiaeieia?y, oai??y, iaoiaee. — 1998. — ?416. —
N.135-146. — 0,4 ae?.a?e.

Ia?aiaeeoey O.A. Nioe?ieoeueoo?i? /eiieee aeaoa?i?iaoe?? cei/eiii?
iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.06.-nioe?ieia?y eoeueoo?e, iaoee, ina?oe.
— Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. — Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia eiiieaeniiio nioe?ieia?/iiio aiae?co i?iaeaie
cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a a eiioaeno? ?? aeaoa?i?iaoe??
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieie /eiieeaie. O ?iaio? ?ice?eaa?oueny ci?no iiiyooy
“e?ei?iae?caoe?y” noni?euenoaa, ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? i?iyae oeueiai
yaeua, aiae?co?oueny ca’ycie i?ae e?ei?iae?ciaaiei noni?euenoaii oa eiai
eoeueoo?ith. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny aiae?co aieeao aeenooieoe?e
iniiaieo ?inoeooo?a nioe?ae?caoe?? ia aeieeiaiiy cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee
i?aee?oe?a. Ci?no, no?oeoo?a, iaoai?ci oa ni?yiiaai?noue cei/eiii?
iiaaae?iee i?aee?oe?a ?icaeyaeathoueny aaoi?ii ye i?iaeoeo iaaiiai
nioe?ieoeueoo?iith na?aaeiaeua. O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny
?acoeueoaoe aii??e/ieo nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, cae?eniaieo
aaoi?ii (aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy, aiae?co e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa
iaiiaiie?oi?o oa eiioaio-aiae?co i?ane) c i?iaeaiaoeee ?iaioe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaa?aoe?y, cei/eiia iiaaae?iea, e?ei?iae?caoe?y,
nioe?ieoeueoo?i? /eiieee, nioe?ae?caoe?y.

Ia?aiaeeoea Oaoueyia A?eai?ueaaia. Nioeeieoeueoo?iua oaeoi?u i?anooiiiai
iiaaaeaiey iiae?inoeia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa nioeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.06.-nioeeieiaey eoeueoo?u, iaoee,
ia?aciaaiey. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei. — Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiiieaeniiio nioeeieiae/aneiio aiaeeco i?iaeaiu
i?anooiiiai iiaaaeaiey iiae?inoeia a eiioaenoa aai iaoneiaeaiiinoe
nioeeieoeueoo?iuie oaeoi?aie. A ?aaioa no?oeoo?e?oaony noiia oaeoi?ia
o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia e ii?aaeaeyaony eo aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea
i?anooiiiai iiaaaeaiey, iainiiauaaaony i?ei?eoao nioeeieoeueoo?iuo
oaeoi?ia a aeaoa?ieiaoeee i?anooiiiai iiaaaeaiey ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo. A
/anoiinoe, enneaaeothony oaeea nioeeieoeueoo?iua oaeoi?u ia?aoiaeiiai
iauanoaa eae o?ainoi?iaoeey oeaiiinoii-ii?iaoeaiie nenoaiu, i?ioeannu
aeaeaeaioeoeeaoeee e aeanioeeaeecaoeee ee/iinoe, aeaci?aaiecaoeey
nioeeoia.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee eco/athony iniaaiiinoe oneiaee
nia?aiaiiiai oe?aeineiai iauanoaa eae iaeei ec oaeoi?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiey
e e?eieiaeecaoeee aeaaeaioiiai iiaaaeaiey ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo. A
/anoiinoe, ?anniao?eaathony ineaaeaiea ?iee ainoaea?noaa a
i?ioeaiaeaenoaee ?inoo i?anooiiinoe e aai iniiaiua i?iyaeaiey;
iniaaiiinoe nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u oe?aeineiai iauanoaa, eioi?ua
iaoneiaeeaatho oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?anooiiiai iiaaaeaiey;
oaiaeaioeee eciaiaiee a nenoaia oeaiiinoae ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu eae
iieacaoaeue noeoeeiie aaeaioaoeee e iiaui nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei e
iieeoe/aneei oneiaeyi.

A ?aaioa ?ane?uaaaony iiiyoea “e?eieiaeecaoeey”, eioi?ay au?aaeaaony
i?aaeaea anaai, a i?ioeaii?aaiii iiaaaeaiee, i?eia?aoathuai ianniaue
oa?aeoa?. I?ioeann e?eieiaeecaoeee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi a
iauanoaa nicaeaiu oneiaey, eioi?ua i?iaeooee?otho i?ioeaii?aaiia
iiaaaeaiea, a oaeaea i oii, /oi aeaiiue oei iiaaaeaiey onoie/eai
aini?iecaiaeeony. E?eieiaeecaoeey iauanoaa ?anniao?eaaaony a nayce n aa
aeeyieai ia eoeueoo?o iauanoaa. Aiaeece?othony iniiaiua i?iyaeaiey
e?eieiaeecaoeee eoeueoo?u e iauanoaa, eo acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoue.

Aaoi? enneaaeoao iniiaiua /a?ou, oaiaeaioeee, niaoeeoeeo e iioeau
i?anooiiiai iiaaaeaiey ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo,
aiaeece?oao ianoi e ?ieue nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeieoeueoo?iuo
oaeoi?ia a aai aaiacena. Aeenna?oaoeeiiiia enneaaeiaaiea niaea?aeeo
aiaeec e iaiauaiea aeeyiey aeenooieoeee iniiaiuo einoeoooia
nioeeaeecaoeee (naiuee e oeieu) a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiiai iauanoaa ia
aicieeiiaaiea i?anooiiiai iiaaaeaiey iiae?inoeia; a iai eco/athony
i?e/eiu oi?ie?iaaiey iiae?inoeiai-iieiaeaaeiuo a?oii i?ioeaii?aaiie
iai?aaeaiiinoe, iaoaieciu i?eiauaiey ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo e a?oiie?iaeai
oaeiai ?iaea.

Auaiaeu i?iaaaeaiiie ?aaiou iiaeoaa?aeaeathony ?acoeueoaoaie aaoi?neeo
enneaaeiaaiee (yenia?oiue ii?in, aiaeec oaieiaiuo aeae
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo, eiioaio-aiaeec i?annu) e aeaiiuie iiieoi?eiaiauo
nioeeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, iinayuaiiuo aiaeeco nioeeaeueiuo
i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa.

Ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia aiaeeca i?iaeaiu i?anooiiinoe oi?ioee?othony
?aeiiaiaeaoeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia i?aiaeieaiea aeeyiey nioeeieoeueoo?iuo
oaeoi?ia, niinianoaothueo ?inoo i?anooiiinoe, a /anoiinoe, i?anooiiinoe
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo, a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa; iaia/athony iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey aeaeueiaeoaai enneaaeiaaiey aeaiiie i?iaeaiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaaeaoeey, i?anooiiia iiaaaeaiea, e?eieiaeecaoeey,
nioeeieoeueoo?iua oaeoi?u, nioeeaeecaoeey.

Perepelitsa T.G. Sociocultural factors of teenager criminal behaviour.
-Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s of sociologic science degree by speciality
22.00.06.-sociology of culture, science and education. — Kyiv Taras
Shevchenko University. — Kyiv, 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to profound analysis of teenager criminal
behaviour as determined by sociocultural factors of transition society.
The paper explains the notion “society criminalization”, describes its
basic manifestations, analyses interconnection between criminalized
society and its culture. The influence of basic socialisation
institutions improper functioning on teenagers criminal behaviour origin
is analyzed with special attention. The essence, structure, mechanism
and tendencies of teenager criminal behaviour are considered by the
author to be the result of a certain sociocultural environment
characteristic for the society. The results of empirical author’s
research on dissertation issues (including expert polls, teenager
criminal cases analysis and content-analysis of press) are used by the
author.

Key words: deviation, criminal behaviour, criminalization, sociocultural
factors, socialisation.

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