IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Eiaaeue/oe Aaneeue A?eai?iae/

OAeE 631.152:65.013

NIOe?AEUeII-INEOIEIA?*I? ANIAEOE

AOAEOEAIIAI IAIAAeAEIAIOO

(IA IAOA??AEAO AIE OIAEUeIEOeUeEI? IAEANO?)

08.06.02 — i?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

Caaaaenueeee Einei Noai?neaaiae/ —

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo
oa ia?eaoeiao

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

Aaeaiaoeue Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ —

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo ? i?aaa

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Inianueea Aaeeia Aieiaeeie??aia —

AEeoiie?nueeee ?iaeaia?ii-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ae?iaie/iai iaiaaeaeiaioo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI, a?aeae?e
a?aeiinei aeaniino? ? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “29” ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.004.01 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 15,
ei?ion 3, aoaeeoi??y 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo: i. Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 11, iaa/aeueiee
ei?ion 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_29_” _aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee AEaaea A.A.

14

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeiiii?/ia aeeooy a iao?e e?a?i?
iaooeeueii ?ooa?oueny o iai?yieo, ui aaaea aei ooai?aiiy eiieo?aioieo,
ciaaaeueieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? aeaniino?.

A oeeo oiiaao c?inoa? ?ieue oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie a nenoai?
oaeoi??a, ui caaacia/othoue aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?e.
Ethaeeia aenooia? nueiaiaei? ia i?inoi ye noa’?eo ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei,
aea e aeoeaii oi?io? ?o. Ca?eueoaiiy ieoiii? aaae o?a/aaeaii? i?aoe?,
oi?iae?caoe?y ae?iaie/eo iia?aoe?e ia iniia? aeinyaiaiue
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ia ci?ia?, a, iaaiaee, caaino?th? i?iaeaio
aeeai? i?aoe? a noni?eueiiio aeeoo?.

A oiiaao iaoi? e?a?ie nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe nioe?aeueii?
iiaaae?iee ? ae?yeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a, i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?ioaaiue
iathoue ?yae iniaeeainoae. O?eaaea aeii?ioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaieo
iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith coiiaeei iaa?aeiia?aei?noue o ??ai?
i?aeaioiaee eaae??a, ineoieia?/ieo noa?aioei?a ?o ieneaiiy ? ae?e. Oea
noino?oueny ? naeyieia, yeee c oniaaeeiaaiiai, aa?aaeeeaiai ainiiaea?y o
ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? ia?aoai?eany a aac?i?oe?aoeaiiai iiaeaiieea.

sse na?ae/eoue i?aeoeea, iaaeinoaoi? a?aooaaiiy oeeo oaeoi??a o
iaoai?ci? cae?eniaiiy ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i, noaei iaei??th c i?e/ei ?o
oiia?eueiaiiy, caaino?aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a aa?a?iiio
naeoi??.

?ica’ycaiiy oeeo oa ?ioeo, aaaaoi a /iio i?eioeeiiai iiaeo i?iaeai,
aeiaaa? aaeineiiaeaiiy on??? nenoaie no/aniiai aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo,
iniaeeai nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo iaoiae?a. Aaciaeie
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie o oeueiio iai?yieo ? i?aoe?
ca?oa?aeieo ? a?o/eciyieo a/aieo: C.O?aeaea, E.A.THiaa, A.Ianeio,
?.Iaei, I.Oiee?o, I.A.Aoaooeueeiai, A.A.Aaeaioey, A.I.Aaeooea,
E.N.Caaaaenueeiai, A.I.Eaci??aiea, A.?.Eoiaeiai?, I.I.Eaiioue?aa,
I.A.Eiaana, ?.?.Eoe?iiaa, I.E.Iae?ea, N.E.?oa?iooaeia, I.O.Naaeoea,
A.E.Oa?auaiea, E.I.Oaiioueei, A.A.Uie?ia, A.A.TH?/eoeia oa ?ioeo.
A?oioiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aniaeo?a ?eieiaiai
?aoi?ioaaiiy AIE a ?iaioao a?o/eciyieo a/aieo cina?aaeaeai? ia?aaaaeii
ia i?iaeaiao iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?, aieeao aeaniino? ia ci?io oe?ii?nieo
e?eoa???a iiaaae?iee ? ae?yeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a, o?ainoi?iaoe??
ineoieia?? ea??aieo eaae??a oa aeayeeo ?ioeo.

O oie aea /an ?nio? iio?aaa a iaieiae?ii? iaoiaeieia??th oa aii??e/ieie
ciaiiyie c oe?ieiai eiea ieoaiue, ui noinothoueny noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai?
ineoieia??. Oeei ? coiiaeaii aea?? oaie ? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?ei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?ia?aiith
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ii
aeeiiaiith eiiieaenieo oai: «?ic?iaea ieoaiue iaiaaeaeiaioo ? ia?eaoeiao
ia ??cieo ??aiyo AIE a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee» oa «?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo
i?eioeei?a ? iaoiaeieia?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy AIE
a?aeiia?aeii aei eiioeaioe?? eiai ?icaeoeo» (iiia?e aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe??: 0193U022571, 0196U001975), a oaeiae a eiioaeno? caaaeaiue
aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Iiae?eey,
?ic?iaeaii? Euea?anueeei ?inoeoooii ?aa?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI
Oe?a?ie ?acii c I?i?noa?noaii aeiiii?ee, A?iieoeueeith,
Oa?iii?euenueeith oa Oiaeueieoeueeith iaeanieie aea?aeaaieie
aaei?i?no?aoe?yie (iinoaiiaa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie N279 a?ae 12
ea?oiy 1995 ?.).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aniaeo?a aa?a?iiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy. O
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei oeueiai noi?iiaaii iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— aecia/eoe iaea?eueo aieeaia? oaeoi?e ciai?oiueiai ? aioo??oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a AIE;

— aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oa nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??
i?aoe?aiee?a, i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?ioaaiue AIE a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiaiai iaoai?cio ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

— ocaaaeueieoe i?aeoeeo oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie
ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ? i?noeaaiio ??aiyo, aecia/eoe ?? a?aeiia?aei?noue
caaaeaiiyi noaa?e?caoe?? ? ?icaeoeo aaa?ii? aeiiii?ee;

— ioe?ieoe iniaeeaino? i?aeiniaiai? oa i?aea?oiiai? aca?iiae?? a
eieaeoeaao AIE i?e ci?i? oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? aeaniino?;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ca’ycie i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a AIE c
oa?aeoa?ii ? iai?aaeai?noth nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a o
eieaeoeaao oa ?o aoaeoeai?noth;

— cae?enieoe oeiieia?caoe?th oi?i aeaaeiiai aieeao ? e?aea?noaa
ea??aiee?a ca oiia ci?ie ?o noaoonii-?ieueiai? ooieoe?? o eieaeoeaao;

— aecia/eoe ci?ie o no?oeoo?? oaeoi??a iioeaaoe?? o?oaeiai? aeoeaiino?
??cieo eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a AIE.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaeieia?/i? oa i?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie a nenoai? aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo.
Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy acyoi i?aei?e?inoaa ? i?aai?caoe?? AIE
Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano? an?o oi?i aeaniino? ? ainiiaea?thaaiiy, a oaeiae
nenoaio i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy AIE ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ? i?noeaaiio ??aiyo.
Iiaeeaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeeny ia aac? ie?aieo ainiiaea?noa
A?iueeiaaoeueeiai, Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiai, *aia?iaaoeueeiai oa
Oiaeueieoeueeiai ?aeii?a Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a a?aeia?aaeaia o ianooiieo
?acoeueoaoao aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— iaoeiaa ioe?iea ae?th/eo oi?i ? iaoiae?a ?aaoethaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ainiiaea?thth/eo noa’?eo?a AIE;

— aiae?c i?e/ei iaaoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
oaeoi??a aeey noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai na?aaeiaeua ?icaeoeo ? iiaeeaeaiiy
?eieiaeo ?aoi?i a aa?a?i?e noa??;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy i??i?eoao?a o ?ica’ycaii? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
i?iaeai aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?ioaaiue aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno (iioeaaoe?y, nioe?aeueia ?io?ano?oeoo?a, e?aea?noai, aeaaea,
aioo??oiy naii?aaoeyoe?y eieaeoea?a oa ?i.);

— ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??ae?a nioe?iiao?e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue (iieaciee?a nioe?iiao?e/iiai noaoono, aiioe?iiaeueii?
aeniaineaiino?, ia’?io oa ?ioaineaiino? a?aeiioaiue, eiaa?aioiino?,
?aoa?aioiino?, eiioe?eoiino? oa ?i.), i?e oi?ioaaii? nioe?aeueieo a?oi ?
i?aai?caoe?? aoaeoeaii? aca?iiae?? i?aoe?aiee?a;

— ?ic?iaeaiee iaoai?ci aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiaiue nioe?ii?ee (?ioa?oeii?
a?aeiineie a nenoai? nioe?iia) aeey ?aaoethaaiiy aeaaeieo a?aeiinei ?
e?aea?noaa a iaeeo nioe?aeueieo a?oiao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o aecia/aii?
no?aoaa?/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a a
i?ioean? ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?, a?eueo iiaiiai a?aooaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aniaeo?a iaiaaeaeiaioo ye oiiae aoaeoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aaeocyie AIE, ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo oa ii?iaoeaieo iaoa??ae?a
c nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo ieoaiue aeey aeei?enoaiiy i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo niaoe?ae?no?a c aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue canoiniaothoueny a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?
ainiiaea?nueeeo i?aai?a Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano? oa i?e /eoaii? eo?no
“Iniiae iaiaaeaeiaioo” a oaoi?eoi? Iiae?euenueei? aea?aeaaii?
aa?a?ii-oaoi?/ii? aeaaeai??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— ocaaaeueiaii no/ani? oaiaeaioe?? o ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
iaoiae?a iaiaaeaeiaioo;

— i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ? ioe?ieo iniiaieo oi?i ? niinia?a ?aaoethaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo i?iya?a a nenoai? iaiaaeaeiaioo ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ? i?noeaaiio ??aiyo;

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e aii??e/ieo
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i;

— i?iaiae?ciaaii iciaee ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oa nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??
iniiaieo eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a AIE i?e cae?eniaii? ?eieiaeo
ia?aoai?aiue, o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?o onoaiiaie, iai?aaeaiino?, oe?iiinoae
oiui;

— aecia/aii nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a no/anieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a
AIE;

— iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue iioe?aiiy iiiyoue ? iaoiae?a
nioe?ii?ee ia nenoaio ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaaeieo a?aeiinei a i?ioean?
i?aeiniaiai? aca?iiae??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? c
ieoaiue iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? /eoaiiy iaiaaeaeiaioo ? ia?eaoeiao o
aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe (Ee?a, 22-23 aa?aciy 1995 ?.) oa Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee oa aaeineiiaeaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe o aeu?e oeie?» (E??iaia?aae, 21-22 o?aaiy 1998 ?.),
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
oa ani??aio?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa Iiae?euenueei?
aea?aeaaii? aa?a?ii-oaoi?/ii? aeaaeai?? a 1995-1998 ??., I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iie?auaiiy i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a
aeey AIE oa ?icaeoie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue c iaiaaeaeiaioo oa
ia?eaoeiao” (Ee?a, 24-25 a?oaeiy 1998 ?.). Iiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??
iaaiai?thaaany ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo oa ia?eaoeiao IAO
(aa?anaiue 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? o ainueie iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,9 ae.a.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 154 a?eooao
eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?c 205 iaeiaioaaiue,
i?noeoue 22 oaaeeoe?, 12 ?enoie?a, 24 aeiaeaoee.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

Anooi.

?icae?e 1. ?eieiaa aeiiii?ea ? iaoeia? i?aeoiaee aei oi?aae?iiy

1.1. Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? iaoiaee a nenoai? iaiaaeaeiaioo

1.2. Oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? eiioeaioe?? iaiaaeaeiaioo

1.3. Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia?iaee iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

?icae?e 2. Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? iaoiaee iaiaaeaeiaioo a i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e AIE

2.1. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea AIE Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano?
ye ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiiy

2.2. Ciai?oi? ? aioo??oi? na?aaeiaeua i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a
AIE

2.3. I?aeiniaiaa ? i?aea?oiiaa aca?iiae?y i?aoe?aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa oa
i?aai?caoe?e AIE

2.4. Ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe ae?yeueiino? ea??aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa a oiiaao
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee AIE

?icae?e 3. ?aoe?iiae?caoe?y iaoiae?a nioe?aeueii? ineoieia?? a no/aniiio
iaiaaeaeiaio?

3.1. Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?eii? eoeueoo?e
i?aei?e?inoa AIE

3.2. ?icaeoie aeaaeieo a?aeiinei ? o?ainoi?iaoe?y oi?i e?aea?noaa

3.3. Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy iioeaaoe?? o?oaeiai? aeoeaiino? i?aoe?aiee?a

Aeniiaee

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae

Aeiaeaoee

Aeia?aeee i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iaoo, caaea/?, i?aaeiao ?
ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aeia?aaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio, i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy, ai?iaaoe?th oa ioae?eaoe?th iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?eieiaa aeiiii?ea ? iaoeia? i?aeoiaee aei
oi?aae?iiy” ?ice?eaa?oueny nooi?noue oa i?eioeeie
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aniaeo?a iaiaaeaeiaioo ye ?acoeueoao
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaciaeo iaoe – o?einio??,
nioe?ieia??, caaaeueii? oa nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??, aeiiii?/ii? oai???
oa ?ioeo.

Aiae?cothoueny no/ani? iiaeyaee ia iiiyooy “?iaeea?aeooi”,
“?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue”, “iniaeno?noue”, “nioe?ae?caoe?y”, “noaoon”,
“?ieue”, “nioe?aeueia a?oia”, ci?no ? iaoiae iaoeiaeo oa/?e ? oe?e i?i
oeiieia?caoe?th iiaaae?iee ethaeae ? nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua –
o?aeaeecio ? iaio?aeaeecio, a?oaa?i?ecio, eieaeoeaii? ?aoeaenieia??,
e?i?? ineoieia?/ii? aeoeaiino?, nioe?ii?ee oa ?ioeo, ui aecia/athoue
ethaeeio, ethaenuee? i?aai?caoe?? ye aieiaiee noa’?eo ? ia’?eo
oi?aae?iiy.

A?aeia?aaeaii i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? eiioeaioe??
iaiaaeaeiaioo, ye ?acoeueoao ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, aaiethoe?? iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei ?icoi?iiy nooiino? ?
?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee ? ae?yeueiino? ethaeae, ii/eiath/e
a?ae i?aenaieia?/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue aei iei?oi?o aei?a.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui no/ani? oai??? noni?eueiiai i?ia?ano –
“?iaeono??aeueiiai”, “iino?iaeono??aeueiiai”, “?ioi?iaoe?eiiai”
noni?euenoaa ?icaeaathoue eiioeaioe?th i?i c?inoaiiy ?ie? ineoieia?/ieo
oaeoi??a o naii?aaoethaaii? ? naiiaaeineiiaeaii? i?aai?caoe?eieo nenoai.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? iaoiaee iaiaaeaeiaioo a
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e AIE” aea?oueny
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno
Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano?, ye ia’?eoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ioe?iththoueny oaeoi?e no/aniiai i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai na?aaeiaeua a
aa?a?iiio naeoi??, aiae?co?oueny aieea ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i ia ineoieia?th
ea??aii? ae?yeueiino?, i?aeiniaiai? ? i?aea?oiiai? aca?iiae?? a
eieaeoeaao aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno.

Ia aeieth aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno i?eiaaea? iiiaae 30% aaeiaiai
noeoiiiai i?iaeoeoo iaeano?, iaeaea 27% aa?oino? on?o oiiae?a
ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy cina?aaeaeai? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?.
Ii/eiath/e c 1990 ?. a iaeano? a?aeaoaa?oueny nei?i/aiiy ianya?a ?
cieaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa. O
i?iieneiaeo aaeocyo ciaioaiiy aeioneo i?iaeoeoe?? neeaaea? a
na?aaeiueiio 40%. A 1998 ?. aaeia? cai?e ca?ia ciaioeeeny ii??aiyii c
1990 ?. iaeaea ia iieiaeio, oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ia 70%, ae?iaieoeoai
iieiea o an?o eaoaai??yo ainiiaea?noa ia 34, i’yna ia 48, y?oeue ia 61%.
Caeoeiaeie aeyaeeeny iaeaea 93% n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
iaeano?. Ieiu? ca?iiaeo, c yeeo c?a?aii o?iaeae a 1998 ?., ciaioeeeny ca
oeae ia??iae ia 22%, oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ia 55, iiaie?a’y A?O ia 42,
naeiae ia 30, iaaoeue ? e?c ia 85%.

No/aniee ia??iae ooieoe?iioaaiiy AIE iaeano? ioe?ith?oueny a oe?eiio ye
iani?eyoeeaee, c ia?aaaaeaiiyi e?eciaeo yaeu, ui iathoue oaiaeaioe?th
aei ia?a?inoaiiy o iaa?aeai?ioi? i?ioeane ?oeioaaiiy ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo AIE. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue ?aae?caoe??
caoiae?a ii noaa?e?caoe?? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee a ?aaeei? aioee?eciaiai
oi?aae?iiy.

Noai ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i aecia/a?oueny a?aeiiaeaiiyi eiiia?aoeaii-iaeiai?
noo? eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noa, ?icaea?aeaaeaiiyi ?aaeaini?a,
aeoe?iioaaiiyi caaio?aaeueieo ? ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa, ?icaeoeii iiaeo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? ae?iaie/i? ?ioaa?aoe?? a AIE.

O?aaeeoe?eiei a iaeano? caeeoa?oueny e?oiiioiaa?iee oeeaae
aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?e ci?oei?eiio i?aeniaiiio naeoi?? ?
iacia/ieo ca ?ici??aie ? ianyaao ae?iaieoeoaa naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo)
ainiiaea?noaao. Eieaeoeai? ainiiaea?noaa aieiae?thoue 61%
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue iaeano?, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
eiiia?aoeae ? oiaa?enoaa – 15, aea?aeaai? i?aei?e?inoaa – 3,4,
oa?ia?nuee? ainiiaea?noaa – 1,4, iniaenoee i?aeniaiee naeoi? – 17%.

I?ioa no?oeoo?a ? aeeiai?ea ae?iaieoeoaa ia a?aeia?aaea? oeeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iii?oe?e. I?eaaoieie i?aeniaieie
ainiiaea?noaaie ianaeaiiy iaeano? a 1998 ?. ae?iaeaii iaeaea 97%
caaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ea?oiie?, 86 iai/?a, 93 ieiae?a ? ya?ae,
aeecueei 60% iieiea ? i’yna a caa?ei?e aac?, 80% y?oeue.

O oeueiio i?iyaey?oueny ?aoe?iiaeueia ae?y i?aai?caoe?eieo, aeiiii?/ieo
? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaeoi??a: iayai?noue i?eaaoii? aeaniino?,
aa?aaeeeaiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy, iaaaeeeeo ?ici???a ainiiaea?noa ? aeniea
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia?aaaaeii ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?aoe?. Aaaaea?ii, ui
canoinoaaiiy oe??? iiaeae? ia ??ai? ia?aeiii? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? a
eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noaao, ii?aeiaiiy c ia?aaaaaie e?oiiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ? iaeiei c iai?yie?a noaa?e?caoe?? ? aeoiaeo c e?ece AIE.

I?eaaoecaoe?y i?aei?e?inoa AIE a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a i?ieoea oiiaii,
oaeoe/ii? ia?aaea/? aeaniino? c eieaeoeaii? oi?ie a i?eaaoio ia
a?aeaoeiny, ui ? ? ?aca?aii aeoea?caoe?? ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a
aa?ii?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa a no/anieo oiiaao.

I?aei?e?iieoeueea na?aaeiaeua AIE aeine?aeaeo?oueny a ?ic??c? oaeoi??a
ciai?oiuei? ae?? iaaa-na?aaeiaeua oa na?aaeiaeua caaea/: aeiiii?ee,
iie?oeee, oaoiieia??, i?aeia?iaeiiai aieeao oa nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai
oaeoi?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui no/ani? aeiiii?/i? oaeoi?e iaaa-na?aaeiaeua iaaaoeaii
iicia/athoueny ia aeoeaiino? noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a
AIE. Ca ?iee ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeenia?eoao oe?i ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo
i?iaeoeoe?th ? iineoae aeey naea c??n a 6,4 ?aca, noi?ioaaeany
ia?aoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a ?ano?niiai iinoa/aiiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. Oea ia caaacia/o? ia o?eueee ?icoe?aiiai, aea e i?inoiai
a?aeoai?aiiy. Oiiae iieaoe i?aoe? eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa ia?aaeuo? aaee/eio aaeiaiai aeioiaeo, oiaoi,
caaacia/o?oueny ca ?aooiie ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??aeueii? aace ae?iaieoeoaa.
Ia e?aaeeoii-o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
aeae?ey?oueny iaioa 10% aaie?anueeiai e?aaeeoiiai iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie, a
oe?ia ca e?aaeeoe ia?aaeuo? ??aaiue aaccaeoeiaino? oeueiai aeaeo
?iaanoeoe?e. Cai?noue eeane/ieo oi?i naiai iai?ioo A-O-A’ (a?io? – oiaa?
– a?io? c i?eaooeii), aaie?anueeee eai?oae iaa?oa?oueny nueiaiaei? ca
noaiith A-A’ (a?io? – a?io? c i?eaooeii), oiaoi c noa?e e?aaeeooaaiiy
aeiaei ae?iaieoeoai.

??aaiue aea?aeaaieo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue a n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai
neeaaea? eeoa 10 a?aenioe?a ??aiy 1990 ?., ia eiiiainiaaii oea ?
i?eaaoieie ?iaanoeoe?yie, aaniethoia aaee/eia yeeo iacia/ia.

Iie?oeea ? i?aeoeea oi?aae?iiy a AIE ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ? i?noeaaiio
??aiyo ia a iiai?e i??? a?aeiia?aea? io?oe?eiei eaiiiai uiaei ?icaeoeo
?eieiaeo ?aoi?i. Oea coiiaeaii noa?aioeiaie ieneaiiy ? iiaaae?iee
cia/ii? /anoeie i?aoe?aiee?a, o oiio /ene? ea??aiee?a, a oaeiae aieeaii
e?eciaeo yaeu. Iiceoeaiee iioaioe?ae ?aoi?i ioneoue aooe cae??ieaiee
aeoaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a ?aaeei? aioee?eciaiai oi?aae?iiy.

I?aeia?iaeiee aieea ?icaeyaea?oueny ye caeo/aiiy a?o/eciyieo
oiaa?iae?iaiee?a o i?aeia?iaeia eiieo?aioia na?aaeiaeua, ye
aeueoa?iaoeaa iecueeei ye?niei ? aeiiii?/iei iieacieeai ainiiaea?thaaiiy
o a?o/eciyiiio AIE. Caaaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio, uia ??cei ci?ieoe
neooaoe?th ? iaeii/anii nei?ioeoe /an aoiaeaeaiiy a i?aeia?iaeiee ?eiie
ca oiia a?aei?aoethaaiiy iaoai?cio aea/aiiy ? ioe?iee eiieo?aioe??,
nia?aa?oino? ? ?aae?caoe?eieo oe?i ia aeanio i?iaeoeoe?th, nenoaie
i?inoaaiiy oiaa??a ia ciai?oiueiio ? aioo??oiueiio ?eieao.

Aaaaea?ii, ui iiaeiia ci?ieoeny no?oeoo?a aenii?oo aa?ii?iieneiai?
i?iaeoeoe??. A no?oeoo?? ia?aoe?iiaeueii? ciai?oiuei-aeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? iiaeia ooeaoe iiyniaiiy iecueei? aeoeaiino? ca?oa?aeieo
?iaanoi??a uiaei a?o/eciyiiai aa?a?iiai naeoi?a.

Aieea e?eciaeo yaeu ia?aa?a oaoiieia?/io i?iaeaio a?o/eciyiiai AIE a
?ioo ieiueio, a naia ?ano?niiai aeao?oeeoo, a o./.
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa. Ieoiia aaaa
oaeia?aieo ieiu i?ae o?iaeae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?
i?ia?aeueieie ? i?aai?/ieie aeia?eaaie a inoaii? ?iee ia ia?aaeuoaaea
a?aeiia?aeii 32 ? 7% iio?aae. Ae?iaieoeoai o?i?/ieo cania?a ai?ioueae c
oe?aeieeaie ? oai?iaaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ciaioeeiny
iaeaea o 20 ?ac?a, oaeoe/i? no?iee aenieoaoaoe?? iniiaieo cania?a o 2,3
?ace ia?aaeuothoue ii?iaoeai?, nooi?iue ?o ciino noaiiaeoue iiiaae 60%.
O ca’yceo c oeei i???ioe?ii aa?ii?iaeiaieue/i? iie?oeee ? oaoiieia?/ia
ia?aoai?aiiy ae?th/eo ? noai?aiiy iiaeo i?iieneiaeo iiooaeiinoae ?c
ni?eueiei (aeaniei ? ?iicaiiei) eai?oaeii, aai oe?eeii ca ?aooiie
?iicaiiiai ia aeani?e oa?eoi???.

Ia? i?noea caaino?aiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe??, aeaiiioeyoe?y
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, ui i?ae?eaa? iniiae i?e?iaeiiai a?aeoai?aiiy
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa. Oae, yeui a 1970-1990 ??.
/enaeuei?noue i?aoethth/eo a aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie
nei?i/oaaeany ui?ieo a na?aaeiueiio ia 100-110 oen. /ie., oi a ianooii?
?iee i?a?aoe?y n?euenueeeo i?aoe?aiee?a c?inea a?eueoa ye o 2 ?ace.

I?ioa aeaio neooaoe?th ia ne?ae ?icoe?ithaaoe ye iaeiicia/ii iaaaoeaio:
a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? caeiyoi
3-5% ianaeaiiy, oiae? eiee a noni?eueiiio naeoi?? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie oeae iieaciee noaiiaeoue 21,4%, i?e iecueeiio
??ai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?. Iaoa??aee ioe?iee aeine?aeaeaieo oaeoi??a
i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai na?aaeiaeua a AIE ca a?aeiia?aeiith iaoiaeeeith,
i?eaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 1.

Cia/aiiy oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua na?ae/aoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue
noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeueei? aeoeaiino? a
AIE.

I?aeiniaiaa ? i?aea?oiiaa aca?iiae?y neeaaea? iniiao i?aai?caoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ia ?? ci?no ? oa?aeoa?
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae ia?aeiieo ae?iaie/eo
i?ae?icae?e?a eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noa iieacaei, ui a iaiaaeaeiaio?
iineaaeaii oaaao aei oi?iaeueii-i?aai?caoe?eieo canaae aoaeoeaii?
i?aeiniaiai? aca?iiae??. A cia/i?e /anoei? ainiiaea?noa iaeano?
e?ea?aeiaaii eaiee, ye ia?aeii? no?oeoo?e, a ?o ooieoe?? aeeiiothoue
iano?oeoo?iaai? ??eueie/? a?eaaaee /enaeuei?noth 40-60 in?a. Oea
oneeaaeith? ?icaeoie i?aeiniaiai? eiioi?eaoe??, iineaaeth? neeo
ii?aeueiiai aieeao eieaeoeao ia nai?o /eai?a. Iaeaeua i?iaeoeoeai?noue
i?aoe? cao?eniaaia a eieaeoeaao /enaeuei?noth aei 17 in?a.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Ciai?oi? iaaaciaee ? iiaeeeaino? aeey caiyoue i?aei?e?iieoeoaii a AIE

A aaeoc? iaoai?caoe?? ciaioeeany e?euee?noue iaoai?ciaaieo eaiie ii
ae?iuoaaiith n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, ye? aoee noi?iiaai? c
o?aooaaiiyi ineoieia?/ii? noi?niino? i?aoe?aiee?a. Ia?aeii? eieaeoeae a
oaa?eiieoeoa? oaeiae noi?iiaai? ca i?eioeeiii e?euee?niiai caaacia/aiiy
ianyao ?ia?o. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa,
ui aoaeoeai?oa i?aoeththoue eieaeoeae c aaoa?iaaiiith a?eiaith,
ina?oiueith, i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiith no?oeoo?ith.

Aea/aiiy oe?ii?nii-i???ioaoe?eii? ?aeiino? eieaeoea?a AIE, ye iieacieea
aioo??a?oiiai? cao?oiaaiino? iaaeiei oaeoi??a i?aai?caoe?eii? ae??,
aeyaeei ia?aaaaeaiiy a ineoieia?/ieo onoaiiaeao i?aoe?aiee?a oaeeo
oe?iiinoae ? ii?i, ye aeenoeeie?iiaai?noue, ni?aaaaeeea?noue, i?aaiaiiy
aei caa?aaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? oiui. I?ioa neaaei i?ine?aeeiaothoueny
iciaee ci?ie eieaeoeaii? ineoieia?? i?ae ae??th ?eieiaeo oaeoi??a.

O caoiaeao i?aeoe/iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoeny iaeaaaeeea?o?
nioe?iiao?e/i? iieacieee, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue aioo??a?oiia?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? i?ioeane:

— eiao?oe??io eiaa?aioiino?, cao?oiaaiino? a?oie (a?aeiioaiiy noie
iaea?aeaieo /eaiaie a?oie aeai??a ? a?aeoeeaiue aei e?eueeino? iiaeeeaeo
aeai??a);

— eiao?oe??io aiioe?iiaeueii? aeniaineaiino? (aeaaa?a?/ia noia
a?aeaeaieo o a?oio iiceoeaieo ? iaaaoeaieo aeai??a aei /enaeueiino?
a?oie);

— ?iaeaen aca?iiino? a?oie (a?aeiioaiiy noie aca?iii iiceoeaieo aeai??a
aei e?eueeino? iiaeeeaeo;

— ?iaeaen eiioe?eoiino? a?oie (a?aeiioaiiy noie aca?iii iaaaoeaieo
aeai??a aei e?eueeino? iiaeeeaeo) oa ?ioeo.

Cia/aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ? a?oiiaeo nioe?iiao?e/ieo ?iaeaen?a ?
eiao?oe??io?a na?ae/eoue, ui a oiiaao iaaecia/aiino? ?eieiaiai
na?aaeiaeua, aieeao e?eciaeo yaeu, a i?aeiniaia?e aca?iiae??
iineeththoueny eii’thieoeai? ineoio?ce/i? i?iyae – anioe?aoe??,
iane?aeoaaiiy, ca?aaeaiiy, eiioi?iiino? oa ?io?. I?e/iio, ?o
?ioaineai?noue aeua o ae?iaie/eo eieaeoeaao, ii??aiyii c
ooieoe?iiaeueieie (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2.

A?oiia? nioe?iiao?e/i? ?iaeaene aeine?aeaeoaaieo eieaeoea?a

No/aniee ??aaiue a?aeiinei aeaniino?, ?icaeoeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy nooo?ai ia ci?ieee nioe?aeueieo ii?i a?oiiai?
aca?iiae?? ? i?iaeiaaeothoue aecia/aoe oei ? oa?aeoa? i?aai?caoe?eieo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a AIE.

Aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y i?aea?oiiai? ia?oeaioe?? ? aca?iiae?? ia ??ai?
?aoa?aioieo a?oi a eieaeoeaao aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
oaeeie iniaeeainoyie: yeui i?ae ae?iaie/eie i?ae?icae?eaie, i?ioan?eieie
a?oiaie i?iyaey?oueny aca?iiae?y c iii?oiei iineaaeaiiyi ineoieia?/ieo
aoaeo?a aioo??a?oiiai? ia?aaaae oa i?aea?oiiai? aeene?ei?iaoe??, oi ii
a?aeiioaiith aei ea??aii? a?oie aeene?ei?iaoe?ei? i?iyae iineeththoueny.
Ia oea, cie?aia, aeaco? ? aeniea ci?ii?noue ea??aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa AIE.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaea neooaoe?y a cia/i?e i??? ? iane?aeeii nioe?aeueiiai
?icoa?oaaiiy eieaeoea?a a oiae? ia?oiai aoaio i?eaaoecaoe??. Ioaea,
oiia?eueiaiiy ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a eieaeoeaao AIE ia? ?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/io i?e?iaeo.

?aae?caoe?y ea??aii? ae?? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia ??ai? aioo??oi?o oyaeaiue
ea??aiee?a i?i ia’?eoeaio ?aaeuei?noue oa ?aeaaeueieo iiaeaeae, a yeeo
aecia/athoueny oe?e?, oeyoe ? iane?aeee ae?yeueiino?. Oea iia’ycaii c
?ioaineaieie ineo?/ieie i?iyaaie, a iniia? yeeo eaaeeoue aca?iiae?y
ia’?eoeaiiai ? noa’?eoeaiiai.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia oaeo caeaaei?noue aieeaathoue a?e, noaoue,
i?ioan?eiee ??aaiue, iinaaea ea??aieea, a oaeiae oa?aeoa? ? oiiae
aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue. Ia?aaaaeaiiy noa’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a a?aei?/aii o
ii/aoeiaee ia??iae ae?yeueiino?, ia aoai? i?aeaioiaee ea??aiee?a ?
o?eaaeiai ia?aaoaaiiy a iinaae? – ia’?eoeaieo oiia. A oiiaao ?eieiaeo
ia?aoai?aiue cia/ii c?inea ??cieoey i?ae ni?eeiyooyi iaaaoeaiiai aieeao
ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a ??cieie eaoaai??yie e?i?eieo ?
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ea??aiee?a AIE (?en. 1).

Oaiiiai caeaaeiino? i?ae neoaeaiaith ae?yeuei?noth ? niiniaii aeeooy
ea??aiee?a i?iyaey?oueny a a?iiaaenuee?e aeoioe? i?i ea??aieea, a oaeiae
a eiai noa’?eoeaieo ioe?ieao aeanii? ae?yeueiino? ? iiaeeeainoae
?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo aeeoo?aeo iio?aa.

Ci?ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a eieaeoeaao coiiaeea iineeaiiy
iaaaoea?cio a ioe?ieao ea??aiee?a i?aeeaaeeie: 63% ?aniiiaeaio?a
aaaaeathoue, ui ea??aieee aeeaooue ia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c? nai?i aianeii
o caaaeueio ni?aao, 38,6% iathoue i?aoaic?? aei ia?oeo ea??aiee?a
i?aei?e?inoa, 40% aaaaeathoue, ui aiie a a?eueo?e i??? ea?othoueny
iniaenoeie ?ioa?anaie i?ae eieaeoeaieie. A naith /a?ao, 95% iieoaieo
ea??aiee?a a?aei?oeee, ui a no/anieo oiiaao cieceany ??aaiue ?o
caoeuaiino? a?ae aeano?oeoeaieo i?iya?a c aieo i?aeeaaeeo, 75,5%
?icoe?iththoue oea ye iaaaoeaiee oaeoi? ea??aieoeoaa a no/anieo oiiaao,
a?ae yeiai caeaaeeoue neoaeaiaa ea?’??a. I??i?eoaoe i?ae neoaeaiaith
ae?yeuei?noth ? niiniaii aeeooy ea??aiee?a ci?ieeeny ia ei?enoue oaeeo
ci?noiaieo nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a, ye caei?ia’y, aeia?iaoo, aa?iii?eia
n?iaeia aeeooy oiui. Ineoieia?y noee?a ea??aieoeoaa aeine?aeaeoaaeany ia
iniia? ineoieia?/ieo i?iya?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue no/ania ia?ai?uaiiy
ea??aieea c iieiaeaiiy “iaae eieaeoeaii” a iieiaeaiiy “?acii c
eieaeoeaii”.

?en. 1. Aieea ia ae?yeuei?noue ea??aiee?a ??ciiai ??aiy ?o iniaenoeo
yeinoae oa ia’?eoeaieo oiia ae?yeueiino?

1 – ea??aieee ainiiaea?noa; 2 – canooiieee; 3 – aieiai? niaoe?ae?noe; 4
– aaeocaa? niaoe?ae?noe; 5 – ea??aieee na?aaeiuei? eaiee

Aei ?iaioe a iiaeo oiiaao ineoieia?/ii a?eueo iaeaooiaai? ea??aieee
aeaiie?aoe/iiai noeeth. Ineo?/i? c?eae o ni?eeoaaii? c i?aeeaaeeie
aeiioneathoue iiiaae 80% aaoi?eoa?ieo ea??aiee?a, o 74% oea
a?aeaoaa?oueny /anoi, na?aae aeaiie?aoe/ieo ea??aiee?a oaeeo eeoa 30%.
A?eueoa iieiaeie aeaiie?aoe/ieo ea??aiee?a a?ae/oaathoue ineoieia?/ia
iieaaoaiiy a?ae ona?aeiieaiiy i?ioeano aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue ia
ieae/? eaiee oi?aae?iiy, a oie /an 65% aaoi?eoa?ieo ea??aiee?a
aaaaeathoue, ui i?aeeaae? ia a aeinoaoi?e i??? ona?aeiieththoue ??aaiue
iniaenoi? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, 67% c ieo i?iaeiaaeothoue iaaeoioaaoe
ae?iaie/? neooaoe?? o ia?iai/ee /an, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaaaoeaieie
ineo?/ieie noaiaie. Iaeaea 80% aaoi?eoa?ieo ea??aiee?a a?ae/oaathoue
neeueia ? cia/ia ia?aaaioaaeaiiy a i?ioean? ?iaioe, oiae?, eiee na?aae
aeaiie?aoe/ieo ea??aiee?a oaeeo aaea?/? iaioa.

Na?aae yeinoae, ye? aaaeaee a aa/eoe o ea??aiee?a i?aeeaae?, iiiaae 30%
iia’ycai? c aeaiie?aoecaoe??th iiaaae?iee ? ae?yeueiino?.

Ineoieia?y oai?/ino? ea??aii? ae?yeueiino? caeaaeeoue a?ae e?aui?
ii?iiaaiino? ?iai/iai aeiy (46,2% a?aeiia?aeae), iiceoeaieo ioe?iie ?
iaeaaeii? iaoa??aeueii? aeiaai?iaee ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? (47,4%),
ciaioaiiy ?eceeo aaaaeaoeny iiaaiei ea??aieeii i?e ie?aieo iaaaea/ao
(50,5%) oa ?ioeo. A oie aea /an, 77,5% ?aniiiaeaio?a a?aei?oeee
aeinoaoi?e iia?aoeaiee i?ino?? aeey oai?/ino? a ?iaio? a no/anieo
oiiaao.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?aoe?iiae?caoe?y iaoiae?a nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??
a no/aniiio iaiaaeaeiaio?” ?icaeyaeathoueny caaaeaiiy aii?yaeeoaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a eieaeoeaao AIE.Oeueiio ni?eyoeia
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? eoeueoo?e i?aei?e?inoa AIE, aeeth/ath/e
iia?oi? oi?ie. A aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? oey i?iaeaia
iaa?oioiao?oueny c iiceoe?e “i?aai?caoe?eiiai ee?iaoo” ? eiai neeaaeiaeo
– “nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai i?inoi?o” oa “?ioi?iaoe?eii-ae?eiaiai
iai?io,” ye oa?aeoa?enoee aieeao iniaeeainoae i?aai?caoe?eii? aoaeiae,
oi?iaeueii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ca’yce?a ia ci?no ? oa?aeoa?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a o eieaeoeaao. Cia/iee
i?aai?caoe?eiee aoaeo iiaea aooe aeinyaiooee oiae?, eiee i?aai?caoe?eia
no?oeoo?a, oi?ie ? iaoiaee ea??aieoeoaa caaacia/othoue iioeiaeuei?
ia?aiao?e nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai i?inoi?o (NII) ye i?inoi?o iai???a,
aaaeaiue ? iiaeeeainoae /eai?a i?aai?caoe??.

Aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua iiaeiii cae?enithaaoeny o
ianooiieo iai?yieao: a?eueoa ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y i?aoe?aiee?a c
i?aai?caoe??th; iioeiae?caoe?y ?ici??o i?aai?caoe?e, aeeth/ath/e
e?euee?noue i?aeno?oeoo?; i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy ?ioaa?iaaiino?
eiino?oeoeaieo ? aeano?oeoeaieo nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a;
i?aai?caoe?eia neeaaei?noue – cae??ieaiiy a i?aai?caoe?ei?e no?oeoo?? ?
iaoiaeao ea??aieoeoaa iiceoeaii ni?yiiaaieo nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
i?iya?a; aeeoa?aioe?eiaai?noue – noai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeeo
oiia aeey aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aeno?oeoo? ??cieo ca ianyaii oa
?ioaineai?noth aca?iiae??, aeoiaey/e c oa?aeoa?o ?o ae?yeueiino?.

I?i iecueeee ??aaiue ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? i?aoe?aiee?a c i?aai?caoe?yie
na?ae/eoue oa, ui 33,2% ?aniiiaeaio?a ioe?ieee iiaeeea?noue cae?eniaiiy
nai?o ieai?a ia aeaiiio i?aei?e?inoa? ye iaaeinoaoith, a 46,6% acaaae?
a?aenooiueith.

O caoiaeao oi?aae?iiy ne?ae a?eueoa a?aoiaoaaoe aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th
iaoi?iaeueii? aca?iiae?? i?ae i?aoe?aieeaie ??cieo i?aeno?oeoo?
i?aei?e?inoa AIE (?en. 2).

1 — iaoai?caoi?e; 2 — ??eueieee; 3 — oaa?eiieee; 4 — aoae?aaeueieee; 5 —
i?aoe?aieee nioe?aeueii? noa?e; 6 — aia?ao oi?aae?iiy.

Noai oa iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaa?iaaiino? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
i?iya?a o no/anieo eieaeoeaao AIE a?aeia?aaeaii ia ?en. 3.

1. Nooiiiue cao?oiaaiinoi eieaeoeao iaaeiei ea?iaieea. 2. Aiaeiioaiiy
eieaeoeao aei iiiiaaoeieieo ii/eiaiue ea?iaieea. 3. Aieea ia iano?i? a
eieaeoeaao niieueii? aeiyeueiinoi ii ?aaeicaoei? caaaeaiue i oeieae
i?aaiicaoei?. 4. Iiceoeiy eieaeoeaia o aiaeiioaiiyo ea?iaieeia c aeuei
ea?iaieoeoaii. 5. Iiaeo?eiea a eieaeoeai ii/eiaiue ie?aieo i?aoeiaieeia
ciiieoe oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy. 6. Iiceoeiy eieaeoeao o eiioeieoi
ea?iaieea c ie?aieie i?aoeiaieeaie /e a?oiith. 7. Aiaeiioaiiy aei
iaii?ia ?ai?aaiicoaaoe ainiiaea?noai oeyoii aiaeiiaeaiiy ?aiioa
eieaiaeiaaieo ainiiaea?noa.

Ae?aa?aia aeaco?, ui nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee aieea ne?ae cina?aaeeoe
ia onoiaii? aeac?ioaa?aoe?? ? eiioeaio?aoe?? aeano?oeoeaii? aeoeaiino? o
noinoieao ea??aiee?a c i?aeeaaeeie.

?ioi?iaoe?eii-ae?eiaee iai?i a no/anieo eieaeoeaao AIE oaeiae ia a
iiai?e i??? caaacia/o? ooieoe?? ciyooy i?ioe??/, aii?yaeeoaaiiy
aioo??oi?o ca’yce?a ? oi?ioaaiiy oe?eani?yiiaaii? iiaaae?iee
i?aoe?aiee?a. Oiio oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ia
iniia? ?icaeoeo oi?i aeaniino? ? ainiiaea?thaaiiy ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye
noaiiaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaii? nenoaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii-ae?eiaiai iai?io a eieaeoeaao aa?ii?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa, ae??aeo iaoai?ci?a nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth.

A nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiio ?aaoethaaii? aioo??oi?o i?ioean?a
iaeaaeeoue a?aoiaoaaoe o?ainoi?iaoe?th oi?i aeaaee ? e?aea?noaa ca oiiae
noaiiaeaiiy iiai? noaoonii-?ieueiai? no?oeoo?e eieaeoea?a AIE (Oaae. 3).

Ocaaaeueiaiiy, i?iaaaeai? a oaae. 3 aeacothoue ia c?inoaiiy a no/anieo
oiiaao oaeoi??a aoaeiiii?, aenia?oii? aeaaee.

Ne?ae onoiooe aeeni?iii?oe?th i?ae aeaaeieie iiaiiaaaeaiiyie ?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth e?i?eieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo ea??aiee?a ia an?o
??aiyo aeaaeii? aa?oeeae? a AIE. Ca ioe?ieaie ea??aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa
AIE, na?aaeiy eaiea oi?aae?iiy a no/anieo oiiaao i?eeia? ia naaa
iiaiiaaaeaiiy a iaaeao 55-65%, a a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? – 45-55% a?ae
aeaeaaiaaieo ?i, aenooiath/e ae?acieeaie cai?ioii? aeaaee i/iethaaieo
ieie eieaeoea?a. Oea oneeaaeith? ?aae?caoe?th ooieoe?e ea??aieoeoaa.

A aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiao?oueny iioe?aiiy iaoiaeo nioe?ii?ee,
cie?aia ?ioa?oeiieo a?aeiinei ye oaeoi?a ?aaoethaaiiy ineoieia?/ii?
noi?niino? /eai?a eieaeoeao ia oi?ioaaiiy aeaaeieo a?aeiinei ?
e?aea?noaa ia ??ai? i?aeiniaiai? aca?iiae??. A?oioaaiiy ia?aeiieo
ae?iaie/eo i?ae?icae?e?a nioe?ioeiaie, a yeeo i?iyaeythoueny iciaee
i?ia?aiii? ooieoe?? a oaeiae ei?aeoe??, eii?aeeiaoe?? ? ?aae?caoe??
ni?eyoeia ?aoe?iiaeueiiio ooieoe?iioaaiith a?aeiinei aeaaee a aeaieo
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?ioaaiiyo, ui caaacia/eoue aoaeoeai?noue on???
nenoaie.

Oaaeeoey 3.

Iciaee o?ainoi?iaoe?? oi?i e?aea?noaa a oiiaao ci?ie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo canaae aeaaeieo a?aeiinei

Oi?ie e?aea?noaa ca eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiyOi?ie
e?aea?noaa a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?eeAe?eia? yeino?Aeniea
aeeiiaanueea aeenoeeie?ia, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, i???ioaoe?y ia
aea?aeaai? ?ioa?ane, i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue aeuanoiyuiio ea??aieoeoao,
iecueea ?i?oe?aoeai?noue, ia?ano?aooaaiiy.?i?oe?aoeai?noue,
i?aei?e?ieea?noue, aioiai?noue eoe ia aei?aaaeaiee ?ecee,
aenia?eiaiooaaoe, iino?eiee iiooe oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa, iiaeo oi?i i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?iaioe c
ethaeueie.I?ioan?ei? yeino?Caaacia/aiiy oi?iaeueieo iciae i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee: iayai?noue aeieoiaioa i?i a?aeiia?aeiee ??aaiue ? i?io?eue
ina?oe, noaaeo ?iaioe i?e aenoiaii? ia ea??aio iinaaeo, i???ioaoe?y ia
na?aaei? iieacieee, aeinyaioo? a?oiith ainiiaea?noa, aaeoccth,
aenoaineai? oaeoi?e aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo, oi?ioaaiiy ?aca?ao eaae??a,
nenoaiia iaa/aiiy ? ia?ai?aeaioiaea ca ?aooiie aea?aeaae.Aenoiaiiy ia
iinaaeo oeo, ooi i?iyaea na?e i?ioan?iiae?ci a eiie?aoieo ae?iaie/eo
oiiaao, iino?eia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai ??aiy
aeinyaiaiiyi aeueo ae?iaie/eo iieaciee?a, ?ica’ycaiiyi nioe?aeueieo
ieoaiue, nenoaiaoe/ia ?iaioa iaae niaith, i?aeaioiaea ? ia?ai?aeaioiaea
ca ?aooiie i?aei?e?inoaa oa aeaniiai athaeaeaoo /ano ? eioo?a.Iniaeno?
yeino?Oaaeiii?noue ieneaiiy, aeaiiino?aoe?y naiai nioe?aeueiiai
iieiaeaiiy, caa?oi?noue, oia?aaeaeai?noue a ioe?ieao,
ca?aeaieia?ciaai?noue, iiaea?eia ii?aeue, iaoaeoiai?noue, a?oa?noue,
iaaeinooii?noue.Ni?aaaaeeea?noue, oe?iea eiei ?ioa?an?a ? caieo?a,
caaaeueia eoeueoo?a, ia?acia ieneaiiy, eiioi?eaaaeuei?noue, aioiai?noue
aei eiii?ii?no, aeo?eiai?noue, oaeoiai?noue, aeayeee i?aaiaoeci o
ae?yo.Noeeue ae?yeueiino?Cai?aai?ciaai?noue, ?aaeaiaioaoe?y, iineeaiiy
ia aeuanoiyua ea??aieoeoai, ia’?eoeai? i?e/eie, aaei?i?no?oaaiiy,
ia?aaaaeaiiy oi?ie iaae ci?noii.Ae?eiaeo?noue, eiie?aoi?noue,
aeaiie?aoe/i?noue, aeinooii?noue, a?aee?eo?noue, oaaaeia noaaeaiiy aei
aeyao ?i?oe?aoeae i?aeeaaeeie, i???ioaoe?y ia ?ioa?ane eieaeoeao,
iacaeaaei?noue o ae?yo, iaia’yceia?noue.Ia?aaaaei? oi?ie i?iyao
aeaaeeCaeiiia (eaa?oeiia aeaaea). aeaaea i?eiono ? caioi/aiiy,
?ioi?iaoe?eia aeaaea.Aoaeiiia, aenia?oia aeaaea.Iaeaaeeoue i?eaanoe o
a?aeiia?aei?noue c no/anieie oe?ii?nieie i???ioaoe?yie i?aoe?aiee?a AIE
nenoaio iioeaaoe?? ?o o?oaeiai? aeoeaiino?. Aeyaeaii, ui ?eieiaa
na?aaeiaeua aieeioei ia iine?aeiaii-eia?/io noaio ?icaeoeo iioeao: aieea
iiiaeeie ci?noiaieo ? i?ioeanoaeueieo oaeoi??a ia’?eoeaii i?aeiyee ?ieue
iie?iioeaaoe?? — nenoaie e?eoa???a, ioe?iie, ineoieia?/ieo i?iya?a ia
iniia? yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny a?aoiaioaoe?y ? ocaiaeaeaiiy iio?aa,
oi?ioaaiiy aieiaiiai niiioeaeueiiai ?iioeueno. Oiio iiaeaeue iioeaaoe??
iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe ca noaiith, cia?aaeaiith ia ?en. 4.

?en. 4. ?icaeoie iioeao c o?aooaaiiyi c?inoaiiy cia/aiiy i?ioeano
iie?iioeaaoe??

Oaea neooaoe?y aeaco? ia oa, ui ia no/aniiio aoai? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee aeioe?eueii iineeeoe oi?aae?inueeee aieea c iaoith cieaeaiiy
??aiy iaaecia/aiino?, yeee oa?aeoa?iee aeey iiaaae?iee i?aoe?aiee?a a
oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio a e?a?i?.

Iaea?eueo ae??aith nenoaiith iioeaaoe?? a no/anieo oiiaao iiaea aooe
oaea: a?ioiaa (iaoa??aeueia) ca?ioa?aniaai?noue; ia?oeneiaoeai?noue;
caaaa/aiiy ci?noo i?aoe?; oe?eueiaee iaoiae iioeaaoe??.

Aeniiaee

1. Iecueea aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee, ia/ooeea?noue
aei iiaiaaaaeaiue ? iaaaeae? ni?iae ?aoi?i ca ?aooiie /anoeiaeo ci?i a
iaoai?ci? ainiiaea?thaaiiy (eieaeoeaiee i?ae?yae, aioo??ainiiaea?nueeee
aini?ic?aooiie, i?aiaea oiui), na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?e ?o cae?eniaii?
a iaaeinoaoi?e i??? aoee a?aoiaai? oaeoi?e ineoieia?/iiai ci?noo, ui
iaoiiaeththoue ? a?aeoai?ththoue onoaiiaee ia?aoe?iiaeueii? nioe?aeueii?
iiaaae?iee ? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

2. ?eieiaa ?aoi?ioaaiiy AIE cae?enith?oueny a oiiaao ?icaaeainoaaiiy
nenoaie oe?iiooai?aiiy, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai ? e?aaeeoii-o?iainiaiai
caaacia/aiiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ui iaaaoeaii iicia/eeiny ia
a?aeiineiao aeaniino?, o?ainoi?iaoe?? ia?ao?aeieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy
o aoaeoeai? ?eieia? oi?ie aaaeaiiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
coiiaeei aeieeiaiiy a AIE iani?eyoeeaiai nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai
na?aaeiaeua iiaeaeueoeo ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue.

3. Iiaeieaiith iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e i?aeiniaiai? aca?iiae?? a
eieaeoeaao AIE a cia/i?e i??? ni?eyoeia ?aaoethaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ia ??ai? ia?aeiii? i?aai?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii: a) caaacia/eoe iaeaaei?
oi?iaeueii-i?aai?caoe?ei? oiiae aeey aoaeoeaii? i?aeiniaiai? ?
i?aea?oiiai? aca?iiae?? a ia?aeiieo ae?iaie/eo eieaeoeaao, anoaiiaeoe
iioeiaeueio /enaeuei?noue ia?aeiieo o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a: o ??eueieoeoa?
15-18 /ie., iaoai?caoe?? — 5-8/ie., a iiei/iiio ? i’yniiio neioa?noa? —
e?euee?noue i?aoe?aiee?a, ia’?aeiaieo a iaeiiio oaoiieia?/iiio eiioo??
(ei??aiee, naeia?iee, ci?ia ? o.ae.); a) ?icaeaaoe ? iiaeeaethaaoe
a?aeiineie aeaniino?, aaeineiiaethaaoe aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ye aieiaio oiiao oi?ioaaiiy ei?ii?aoeaiiai oeeaaeo
eieaeoea?a i?aei?e?inoa AIE, ae??aeo oi?i nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth,
iiaeieaiiy ia oe?e iniia? ia?aoe?iiaeueieo ineoieia?/ieo noa?aioei?a a
i?ioean? i?aeiniaiai? ? i?aea?oiiai? aca?iiae??.

4. Aeioe?eueii o iiai?e i??? a?aoiaoaaoe ci?ie, ui noaeeny a ineoieia??
ea??aii? ae?yeueiino? i?ae aieeaii iani?eyoeeaeo ia’?eoeaieo oiia
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy iiai? noaoonii-?ieueiai? no?oeoo?e
eieaeoea?a, cieaeaiiy i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai ??aiy ea??aieo
eaae??a. Ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe oaeoi? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oi?i aeaaee ?
e?aea?noaa o iai?yieo aeaiie?aoecaoe?? aeaaeieo a?aeiinei, c?inoaiiy
?ie? aoaeiiii? oa ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aeaaee.

5. Iaiao?aeii aaeineiiaethaaoe i?aai?caoe?eio eoeueoo?o no/anieo
i?aei?e?inoa AIE oeyoii caaacia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a ?o
i?aai?caoe?eiiai ee?iaoo — oe?e?niino?, no?oeoo?iaaiino?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai i?inoi?o eieaeoea?a, iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
aoaeoeaiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eii-ae?eiaiai iai?io c o?aooaaiiyi iioie?a ?
iai?yie?a ?ioi?iaoe?? a i?ioean? oi?iaeueii? ? iaoi?iaeueii? aca?iiae??.

6. A caoiaeao iioeaaoe?? o?oaeiai? aeoeaiino? a a?eueo?e i??? ne?ae
i???iooaaoeny ia no/anio oeaeo oe?iiinoae i?aoe?aiee?a AIE — c?inoaiiy
aieeao iaoa??aeueieo noeioe?a, ia?oeneiaoeaiino?, cieaeaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai ci?noo iioeaaoe?eieo oaeoi??a, a oaeiae i?ioeano
iie?iioeaaoe?? o oi?ioaaii? ?aoe?iiaeueieo ineoieia?/ieo onoaiiaie.

7. Aoaeoeaia ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a nenoai?
aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo iiaeeeaa ia iniia? ?aae?caoe?? eiiieaeno
no?aoaa?/ieo ? oaeoe/ieo i?ia?ai aioee?eciaiai oi?aae?iiy a AIE.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue

1. Eiaaeue/oe A.A.Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe aoaeoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy a AIE: Ca. iaoe. i?. — E.: IAO, 1996. — N.43-46.

2. Eiaaeue/oe A.A. Ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe aca?iiae?? ia’?eoeaiiai ?
noa’?eoeaiiai a ae?yeueiino? ea??aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e AIE
//E.: Iaoe. a?ni. IAO, 1998. — N.291-300.

3. Eiaaeue/oe A.A. Aeaye? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe i?aeiniaiai?
? i?aea?oiiai? aca?iiae?? a no/anieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eieaeoeaao: Oao. ca. iaoe. no. E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo n.-a.
iaoeiiaoae. — 1998. — N.200-203.

4. Eiaaeue/oe A.A. Eciaiaiey a nenoaia oaeoi?ia iioeaaoeee o?oaeiaie
aeoeaiinoe ?aaioieeia AIE // Ia?niiae . — 1998. — N3. — N.12-15.

5. Eiaaeue/oe A.A. Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
eoeueoo?u i?aaei?eyoee AIE: //Ia?niiae. — 1998. — N5.- N.49-51.

6. Eiaaeue/oe A.A. Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e iioeaaoe?? o?oaeiai?
aeoeaiino? i?aoe?aiee?a a no/anieo oiiaao. Iaoe ca. Iiae?euenueei?
aea?ae. aa?. oaoi. aeaae. «Aa?a?ia iaoea — naeo». – 1998. — N6. —
C.174-175.

7. Iaeue/aiei ?.?., Eiaaeue/oe A.A. Ci?ie a nenoai? oaeoi??a iioeaaoe??
i?ae ae??th ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i a AIE. Iaoe ca. Iiae?euenueei? aea?ae. aa?.
oaoi. aeaae. «Aa?a?ia iaoea — naeo». — 1998. — N6. — N.136-138.

8. Eiaaeue/oe A.A. Aeaye? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo aeaaeieo a?aeiinei ?
o?ainoi?iaoe?y oi?i e?aea?noaa a no/anieo oiiaao //Aa?i?ieii. – 1998. —
? 11-12. — N. 29-31.

Eiaaeue/oe A.A. Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe aoaeoeaiiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo (ia iaoa??aeao AIE Oiaeueieoeueei? iae.) — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.02 — i?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa
ia?eaoeia. Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeooaeueiei ieoaiiyi nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??
no/anieo aa?ioi?ioaaiue. Aeine?aeaeaii i?e/eie ? iane?aeee oi?ioaaiiy
iani?eyoeeaiai nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua cae?eniaiiy
?eieiaeo ?aoi?i o aaeoc?, aecia/aii caoiaee ii ?ica’ycaiith aeaii?
i?iaeaie a nenoai? i?eeii?a ? iaoiae?a aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo.
Iaoa??aee ? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny ainiiaea?nueeeie
i?aaiaie Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano? a ?aaoethaaii?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a AIE, a oaeiae i?e aeeeaaeaii?
eo?no «Iniiae iaiaaeaeiaioo» a oaoi?eoi? Iiae?euenueei? aea?aeaaii?
aa?a?ii-oaoi?/ii? aeaaeai??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaiaaeaeiaio, ineoieia?y, aca?iiae?y, aeaaea, aieea,
e?aea?noai, nioe?aeueia a?oia, nioe?ioei, iioeaaoe?y.

Eiaaeue/oe A.A. Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou yooaeoeaiiai
iaiaaeaeiaioa (ia iaoa?eaeao AIE Oiaeueieoeeie iaeanoe) — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.02 — i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iaiaaeaeiaio e
ia?eaoeia. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aeooaeueiui aii?inii nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee
nia?aiaiiuo aa?ioi?ie?iaaiee. Enneaaeiaaiu i?e/eiu e neaaenoaey
oi?ie?iaaiey iaaeaaii?eyoiie nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneie n?aaeu
inouanoaeaiey ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i a io?anee, ii?aaeaeaiu ia?ii?eyoey ii
?aoaieth aeaiiie i?iaeaiu a nenoaia i?eaiia e iaoiaeia aa?a?iiai
iaiaaeaeiaioa. Iaoa?eaeu e auaiaeu enneaaeiaaiee eniieuecothony
oicyenoaaiiuie i?aaiaie Oiaeueieoeeie iaeanoe a ?aaoee?iaaiee
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia a AIE, a oaeaea i?e i?aiiaeaaaiee
eo?na «Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa» a oaoieeoia Iiaeieueneie ainoaea?noaaiiie
aa?a?ii-oaoie/aneie aeaaeaiee.

Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea oaeoi?ia iaaa-n?aaeu ia oi?ie?iaaiea a AIE
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Naeaeai auaiae i oii, /oi e?eceniia ninoiyiea
aa?a?iie yeiiiieee ii?aaeaeyaony iaaeaaii?eyoiui aeeyieai noiiu oaeoi?ia
– yeiiiie/aneeo, iieeoe/aneeo, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo, nioeeaeueiuo, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii ?aaoee?iaaoue a ?aaeeia aioee?eceniiai oi?aaeaiey.

Aiaae?aiea iiauo oicyenoaaiiuo oi?i AIE iaaaoeaii io?aceeinue ia
ia?ae/iii caaia i?iecaiaenoaa – oi?acaeiythony caaiuey a
?anoaieaaiaenoaa, i?iecaiaenoaa iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ?aaio, /oi ia
niinianoaoao yooaeoeaiiio iaaeee/iinoiiio acaeiiaeaenoaeth a
eieeaeoeaao. Nioeeiiao?e/aneeie enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaii oneeaiea
iaaea?oiiiaie aeene?eieiaoeee iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeyuae a?oiiie e inoaeueiie
/anoueth eieeaeoeaa. Oa?aeoa?iua eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo a ineoieiaee
?oeiaiaeyuae aeayoaeueiinoe. N?aaee oeaiiinoae i?aiaeaaeatho
nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u – caaioa i caei?iauea, aeaaiiieo/ee naiuee.

Aieueoia cia/aiea eiatho nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou
niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u i?aaei?eyoee AIE.

Ai aeanoiuo ioiioaieyo i?aiaeaaeatho i?aeiouanoaaiii yoaeiiiua,
yenia?oiua oi?iu ?aaeecaoeee aeanoe e aeeyiey. I?aoa?iaaaao eciaiaiea e
iioeaaoeey o?oaeiaie aeoeaiinoe – oneeeeinue aeeyiea iaoa?eaeueiuo
noeioeia, a oaeaea aiaea/aiea ?aaioieeia a i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeyie.

Iaoa?eaeu e auaiaeu enneaaeiaaiee eniieuecothony oicyenoaaiiuie i?aaiaie
Oiaeueieoeeie iaeanoe a noa?a ?aaoee?iaaiey nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia a AIE, a oaeaea a i?aiiaeaaaiee eo?na «Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa»
a oaoieeoia Iiaeieueneie ainoaea?noaaiiie aa?a?ii-oaoie/aneie aeaaeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaiaaeaeiaio, ineoieiaey, acaeiiaeaenoaea, aeanoue,
aeeyiea, eeaea?noai, nioeeaeueiay a?oiia, nioeeioei, iioeaaoeey.

Kovalchuk V.G. Social-psychological aspects of effective management
(based on the agrarian-industrial complex of Khmelnitskaya region —
Manuscript.

The thesis for the scientific degree of the Candidate of Sciences
Economic by specialty 08.06.02- business, management and marketing.
National Agricultural University, Kiev, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the acute problems of social psychology of
modern agricultural formations. The causes and consequences of the
formation of the social-psychological environment for the market reforms
are studred in this thesis.

There are tasks and mays of solving this problem in the system of
methods and ways of the agrarian management. The materials and
conciusions ave used by the economic institutions of Khmelnitskaya
Region for regulating social-psychological processes in the Agrarian
Industrial Complex and also in the teaching course «The Foundations of
management» in Podilsky Agricultural Technical Academy.

Basic words: management, psychology, integration, power, influence,
leadership, social group, motivation.

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