5

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo nioe?ieia??

Iiaea?ianueeee Aieiaeeie? Aiaoae?eiae/

OAeE 316 (091)

NIOe?AEUeIEE EIIOE?EO ? EIINAINON: ?NOI?EEI-NIOe?IEIA?*IEE AIAE?C

22.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y nioe?ieia??

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

eaiaeeaeao ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ao?aaa Aaea??e Aaneeueiae/,
Aeiiaoeueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oi?aae?iiy, i?i?aeoi? ii iaa/aeuei?e
?iaio?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Aa?anei/oe Aiae??e Aiae??eiae/,
Oe?a?inueei-o?inueeee ?inoeooo iaiaaeaeiaioo ? a?ciano, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i ? i?aaa

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Naeaaea
Ieeiea Iieneiiae/, ?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

?inoeooo o?einio?? ?i.A.C.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e nioe?aeueii?
o?einio??, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 23 ea?oiy i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.229.01 a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a-21, aoe.Oiaeiae/ia, 12.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a-21, aoe.Oiaeiae/ia,
12.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 22 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Nooeaei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie
coiiaeaia ?ieeth, yeo nioe?aeueiee eiioe?eo ? eiinainon a?ae?a?athoue o
noni?eueiiio aeeoo?. Nioe?aeueiee eiioe?eo ? ?iaiaioiith neeaaeiaith
nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei. Ieie i?inyeiaia any nioe?aeueia oeaieia, aiie
iianthaei? e a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue o noni?eueiiio i?ioean?:
?iiiaaoi??a iiiaeaiiy, neeaaeiai? aaeaioeaieo iaoai?ci?a, /eiiee?a
?iiiaaoe?? oiui. Aac eiioe?eo?a iaiiaeeeaee ?icaeoie. ?acii c oei
noni?eueia aeeooy iaiiaeeeaa ? aac iaaiiai eiinainono. Iiiceoe?y
eiioe?eo-eiinainon — iaeia c “iaea?/ieo i?iaeai” nioe?ieia?/iiai
i?ciaiiy. Aea/aiith aca?iia?aeiinei eiioe?eoo e eiinainono i?enay/aii
aaaiio /anoeio ?noi??? nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai ieneaiiy. Ia no/aniiio
?noi?e/iiio aoai? oey iiiceoe?y ia? naith niaoeeo?eo. Iniaeeai oea
i/aaeaeii a ia??iae o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo ci?i, ye? ia?aaeeaa? oe?a?inueea
noni?euenoai. Aoaeue-ye? ci?ie ooo noi?iaiaeaeothoueny nioe?aeueiith
iai?oaith, e?ecaie, c?oeiaiiyie, aeaaaeueaaoe??th oe?iiinoae,
iaaeia??ith, iacaiaeith oiui. Aac aiae?co oeeo yaeu aaaeei c?icoi?oe
nooi?noue iniaeeainoae ? ioe?ieoe ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny.

Ia oa?aiao iino?aaeyinueeiai i?inoi?o ia auooathoue ? caa??aathoue
cia/iee iioaioe?ae eiioe?eoiino? i?aeaoi?/i? nooe/ee, ??ciiiai?oi?
aeoe?? nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo. Oae, a Oe?a?i? nenoaiaoe/ii
a?aeaoaathoueny iania? no?aeee oaooa??a (cie?aia, iaaani? oa ae?oeo
1993, 1996, 1998 ?ie?a), ui ii?aeiothoueny c aeieoaaiiyi aaoi- ?
cae?cie/ieo iaa?no?aeae, oeaio?aeueieo aoeeoeue aaeeeeo i?no,
i?eaooaaiiyi o?yaeiaeo onoaiia, aoaeeie?a iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?? oiui.
Aiie aoee iaei??th c i?e/ei a?aenoaaee iecee o?yae?a Oe?a?ie.

Aeya nioe?aeueii? iai?oae na?ae/eoue oaeiae, ui ca no/anieo oiia
iaieio/a c?inoaoeia e?euee?noue a?aee?eoeo eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e a
ie?aieo noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy, ia i?aei?e?inoaao, a i?aai?caoe?yo
oa onoaiiaao uiaei iia??oaiiy oiia o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?, cao?eiee
ca?ia?oii? ieaoi?, ieoaiue iaeio oa ca?eueiaiiy, nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy oiui.

Iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaia ?ica’ycoaai?noue ? eieae?caoe?y ??ciiiai?oieo
eiioe?eo?a na?ae/eoue i?i iaa?aeiia?aeiee ??aaiue ?ic?iaee oai???
nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo, iniaeeai o??? ?? /anoeie, ui iiynith? iaoai?ci
?icaeoeo eiioe?eoo, oi?aae?iiy iei oa eiai onoiaiiy. Oaeee iai?yi ye
eiioe?eoiee iaiaaeaeiaio, oiaoi oi?aae?iiy e ?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eo?a, o
iaaeao nioe?ieia?? acaaae? ia ?icaeyaea?oueny. Caiaei oaaae
i?eae?eythoue oai?aoe/iiio inieneaiith oaeiai nioe?aeueiiai oaiiiaia ye
eiinainon, /eiiee?a eiai anoaiiaeaiiy oa cania?a ?aae?caoe??. Caaaeii
oea na?ae/eoue ia o?eueee i?i iaaeinoaoith oai?aoe/io i?aeaioiaeo
oi?aae?ioe?a (oi?aae?ioe?a-iaiaaeaea??a) aei ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo
eiioe?eo?a, a e i?i iaai?iiy canoiniaoaaoe ia i?aeoeoe? iayai? ciaiiy c
oai??? nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy e iaiaaeaeiaioo, a oiio /ene? e c oaeiai
?? ?icae?eo, ye “Oi?aae?iiy eiioe?eoaie, ci?iaie oa no?anaie”.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iiiio? oai?aoe/io iniiao iaoiaeee ?ica’ycaiiy oa
a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eo?a, a oaeiae oiia aeinyaiaiiy eiinainono. ?acii c
oei aiii ia? ia eeoa oai?aoe/iee oa?aeoa? oa ni?yiiaai?noue ia ?icaeoie
oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo e eiinainono, a e oi?uo? iaaiee
i?aenaieia?/iee aniaeo, iicaye i???ioiaaia ia aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee
no/anieo iaiaaeaea??a aeey ?ica’ycaiiy eiioe?eo?a, ui aeieeathoue a
i?aai?caoe?yo.

Aaaeeeaith noa?ith oai??? eiioe?eoo ? ?noi??y ?? aeieeiaiiy, o?nii
iia’ycaia c aaiacith e eiino?othaaiiyi nioe?ieia?/ieo eaoaai??e,
/eiiee?a oa oiia i?ciaaaeueii? neooaoe?? uiaei nioe?aeueieo yaeu
eiioe?eoo e eiinainono. A aeaiiio ?ac? ?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/iee ?icaeyae
i?iaeaie ? iaiao?aeiith aa?enoe/iith ia?aaeoiiaith ?icaeoeo no/anieo
iaoiae?a aiae?co e ?ica’ycaiiy eiioe?eo?a, a oaeiae ona?aeiieaiiy oiia
anoaiiaeaiiy eiinainono.

I??a iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie. ?noi??y nioe?aeueii? aeoiee
i?noeoue /eiaei oaeo?a, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei /e iiina?aaeeiaaii
noinothoueny ca?iaeaeaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy ie?aieo iieiaeaiue oai???
eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono, iieno oa ?ice?eooth nooiino? oaeeo oi?i eiai
i?iyao ye a?eie, iianoaiiy, noai ie?o, ia?aaiai?e, aeiaiai?e,
eiii?ii?ne, ceaaiaea, ni?a?ia?oieoeoai. Oeei ieoaiiyi i?enay/ai? ?iaioe
oaeeo aeine?aeiee?a, ye TH.I.Aeaaeaeia, A.A.Naiia, A.A. Cae?aaiieneia,
A.TH.Nieiaeia, A.?.E?aa/aiei, O.?.Ieca?iai oa ?ioeo. Aiaeii/an ?aea?
aaaaoueio nioe?aeueieo ieneeoae?a ieioeiai, na?aae yeeo iiaeia iacaaoe
I.Ethoa?a, I.Iae?aaaee?, A.Ni?oa, noiniaii ?icaeoeo oai??? nioe?aeueiiai
eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono iaaeiioe?ithaaeenue ? aea/aeeny iaaeinoaoiuei.
Iaeaea ia caaaeaee e ia ?ic?iaee no/anieo ca?oa?aeieo eiioe?eoieia?a.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae oai??? eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono, ui ?o
?ic?iaeee E. Ia?en, A. Aeth?eaaei, A. C?iiaeue, I. Aaaa? oa ?io? eeaneee
?icaeyaeaeenue o a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? A. Oai/a?ii, A.
?o/eith, I. Ieoaeue/aieii, A. Aiae?ouaieii, ?. Aaeaoe?iith, ?.
Aieiaaoith oa ?ioeie.

Eiioeaiooaeueiiio ?icoi?iith nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo, eiai nooiino?,
oiia, /eiiee?a, iaoai?ci?a ia?aa?ao e ?ica’ycaiiy i?enay/aii ?iaioe
a?aeiieo eiioe?eoieia?a E.Eica?a, ?.Aea?aiaei?oa, Aeae.?aena,
?.Eiee?ica, A.Oo?aia, E. Aioeae?iaa, E. E??naa?aa, N. Oaio?iaoiia, *.
O?ee?, A. Aeei?ia?i oa ?ioeo. O naith /a?ao ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y iiaeyae?a
aeuaiacaaieo aaoi??a, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i oa
??ciiaeae?a eiioe?eoo i?noeoueny a i?aoeyo E.Ia/eii?aiea,
A.Cae?aaiieneiaa, A.Oaeaiea, A.Eoae?yaoeaaa, A.Aeieo???aa, A.Oeoeiaa,
?.Aaeaoe?ii?, ?.Aieiaaoe, I.Iai?ii?, I.Ieoaeue/aiea, ?.Oiaeiai?, I.
Iieeyea, A.Aaiaeo?ee, A. Ae?ocy, A. ?oio?aoiaa oa ?ioeo.

Aiaeii/an o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? aca?iica’ycie eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono e
aein? aena?oeth?oueny ia iaeaaeiei /eiii. A?eueoa oiai, eaoaai??y
“eiinainon” ?icaeyaea?oueny nii?aaee/ii, nenoaiaoe/iee aiae?c ??
i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?e. Oaiiiai nioe?aeueiiai eiinainono a eiioaeno?
iaoai?cio ia?aa?ao eiioe?eoo ia aea/aany ye eiai ?noioiee aeaiaio oa ye
iaeei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo cania?a oi?aae?iiy eiioe?eoii.

O iaaeao eiioe?eoiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, ui caeia?oueny aea/aiiyi eiioe?eo?a
ia ??ai? i?aai?caoe?e, ?ic?iaeith iaoiaeee ?o ?ica’ycaiiy ? aecia/aiiy
iiaeaeae iiaaae?iee iaiaaeaea?a, eiinainon ?icaeyaea?oueny o?eueee ye
iaeei c aeaiaio?a oaoiieia?? ae?yeueiino? aaei?i?no?aoi?a (A.I.*oieeia,
A.I.Oaeaiei, O.I.Ieaenaiae?ia) aai ye ?acoeueoao ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aaa
(A.I.Eaceie?/oe). O iaaeao oai??? iaiei?ii?aoecio eiai aea/athoue ye
nai???aeiee i?iya o aeaeyae? “nioe?aeueiiai iaeoo” (O.Oi?ooa?, O.THia,
N.?ieeai). I?ioa iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy eiinainono (eiai ??ciiiai?oieo
oi?i oa ??ciiaeae?a, iaoai?cio anoaiiaeaiiy /e aeinyaiaiiy) naia a
iaaeao oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo ? aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith ?icaeoeo
inoaiiuei?.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaee aca?iia?aeiinei eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono ye
nioe?aeueieo oaiiiai?a. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? iaoe aenoaathoueny
ianooii? aeine?aeieoeuee? caaaeaiiy:

· i?iaiae?coaaoe eeane/io niaaeueio ieneeoae?a ieioeiai (Iae?aaaee?,
Ethoa?, Aiaan, Eiee) oa a?oeeoethaaoe iniiai? eiioe?eoi? e eiinainoni?
?aea?;

· ?icaeyiooe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe eiioeaioe?? iniiaiiieiaeiee?a
nioe?ieia?? (Eiio, Ia?en, Aeth?eaaei, C?iiaeue), ye? noai?eee caaaeuei?
ieth?ae?noe/i? i?aeaaeeie no/anii? oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo ?
eiinainono;

· i?iaiae?coaaoe iniiai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy eiioe?eoo (Eica?,
Aea?aiaei?o) oa ?o ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? o no/ani?e nioe?ieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo??;

· anoaiiaeoe iniiai? i?e/eie nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a ? aena?oeeoe ?o
?noi?e/ia i?aea?oioy;

· c’ynoaaoe nooi?noue, oi?ie, ?ene, iciaee oa ?ieue eiinainono a
iaoai?ci? ia?aa?ao eiioe?eoo;

· anoaiiaeoe iniiai? oi?ie ? ??ciiaeaee eiinainono, cae?enieoe
eeaneo?eaoe?th e iieacaoe ?o ?noi?e/io coiiaeai?noue;

· cai?iiiioaaoe aa??aioe aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a o
aeine?aeaeaiiyo eiioe?eoieo ? eiinainonieo neooaoe?e a Oe?a?i?.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooiathoue
yaeua eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono a nioe?aeueiiio aeeoo?, ?o aca?iiae?y ?
aca?iia?aeiineie, a oaeiae oeyoe aeinyaiaiiy iioei?caoe?? oa
caaeainoaaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aoe? ieneeoae?a ieioeiai ?
no/anieo nioe?ieia?a, i?enay/ai? aea/aiith yaeu eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa ? aii??e/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? oai??? nioe?aeueieo
ci?i, nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo ? nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. Aeena?oaio
nie?aany ia a?aeiia?aei? i?aoe? ieneeoae?a ieioeiai, a oaeiae i?aoe?
eeanee?a nioe?ieia??, iniiaiiieiaeiee?a oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo
Ia?ena, C?iiaey, Aaaa?a, Eica?a, Aea?aiaei?oa oa ?i., oao?aoe?a c oai???
iaiaaeaeiaioo Aaea?aeoa, Ianeiia, Ia?na?a, Ae?oea?a, Iiiiaa; ia ?ic?iaee
no/anieo noni?euenoaiciaaoe?a, i?enay/ai? i?iaeaiai ci?i nioe?aeueiiai
eiioe?eoo, eiinainono ? nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. Oe?iea canoinoaaiiy
ciaeoee caaaeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee cynoaaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aaiaceno oa
aaiethoe?? eiioeaiooaeueieo ?aeae eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono;
ii??aiyeueii-?ao?iniaeoeaiiai ?o ?icaeyaeo; nenoaiiee oa
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae.

Aii??e/iith aacith ?iaioe ? aeai? nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
i?iaiaeeeenue ?inoeoooii nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, eiiiai??th NIOe?N,
oiiaeii “Aeaiie?aoe/i? ?i?oe?aoeae”, Ee?anueeei i?aeia?iaeiei ?inoeoooii
nioe?ieia??, a oaeiae aiae?oe/i? iaoa??aee cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii
eiioeaioe?th i?aai?/iiai aca?iica’yceo yaeu eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono a
nioe?aeueiiio aeeoo?. Aiia aea? ciiao ?icaeyaeaoe eiinainon ye
iaiao?aeiee no?oeoo?iee aeaiaio ia?aa?ao nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo ? ye
oi?io ?ica’ycaiiy eiai.

Cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaioe?y eiie?aoeco?oueny a ianooiieo iieiaeaiiyo:

· eaoaai??y “eiinainon” ? iaei??th c ooiaeaiaioaeueieo o oai???
nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo (c. 179);

· ?nio? o?e iniiaieo ??ciiaeaee eiinainono: aioo??oi?e eiinainon
noa’?eoa /e noi?iie eiioe?eoo, eiinainon iaoai?cio ? eiinainon
?ica’ycaiiy eiioe?eoo; ia?oee c ieo ? ci?iiith ?icaeoeo eiioe?eoo: /ei
aeuee aioo??oi?e eiinainon on?o noi??i eiioe?eoo, oei oaeaeoa e
oni?oi?oa iiaeia ?ica’ycaoe eiioe?eo (aenoaineai?noue eiinainono);
ae?oaee ? iaiao?aeiei aeaiaioii iaoai?cio ?icaeoeo eiioe?eoo, i?iyaii
cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo e caniaii eiai oi?aae?iiy; o?ao?e ? neeaaeiaith
?ica’ycaiiy aai eieae?caoe?? eiioe?eoo(n. 65, 133-134);

· eiinainon ia? ?noi?e/i? oi?ie i?iyao caeaaeii a?ae ??aiy ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa( n.80-81, 160-176);

· eiinainon o an?o nai?o i?iyaao (??ciiaeaeao ? oi?iao) ? aaaeeeaei
caniaii oi?aae?iiy eiioe?eoii ( n.160-170);

· iaei??th ?c no/anieo i?e/ei eiioe?eoo e ii?ooaiiy eiinainono ?
iaaaeaeaaoi?noue iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy (iaiaaeaeiaioo)
i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/i?e no?oeoo?? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie( n.91, 107,
153, 176);

· i?e/eiith eiioe?eoo ? iaa?aeiia?aei?noue oai?/i-ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ?ia?oieea aei oiia eiai o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?( n.91, 150,
176).

· ci?uaiiy no/anieo eiioe?eo?a c iae?i- ia iaci- oa i?e?i??aaiue
i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy iana?aeiiiai ye iaei??? c ?o i?e/ei
(148,153,176).

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? o aeine?aeaeaii?
?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? a oai??? oa i?aeoeoe?
iaiaaeaeiaioo, o aeeeaaeaii? noni?euenoaiciaa/eo aeenoeeie?i. ?o iiaeia
aeei?enoaoe a yeino? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? iniiae aeey iiaeaeueoi?
?ic?iaee oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo ? iaiaaeaeiaioo, aeey
eiioe?eoiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, i?e i?iaaaeaii? eiie?aoieo nioe?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy e ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ia i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoea ? nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie
noni?euenoaa” (Oa?e?a, 1998), iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Ineoieiaey e oi?aaeaiea: nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneay eiiiaoaioiinoue
nia?aiaiiiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey” (Aeiiaoeuee,1997); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “No/aniee iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia: oai??y oa i?aeoeea,
i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a” (Ee?a, 1996).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? — 178 noi??iie, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (204
iaeiaioaaiiy), caeia? 15 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/a?oueny nooi?iue ??
iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee, oi?ioeththoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ie?aneththoueny ia`?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee, iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, a oaeiae ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae nioe?ieia?/iiai
aiae?co eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono” aiae?cothoueny iieiaeaiiy, ye? a
aeine?aeaeaii? aenooiathoue aeiiii?aeiei caniaii io?eiaiiy iiaiai
ciaiiy, i?aai?caoe?? ? iiaoaeiae oai??e, ci?no yeeo aecia/a?
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?i? ia?aiao?e i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cie?aia,
aeaco?oueny, ui aeey oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo ieie ? oai??y
nioe?aeueieo ci?i.

Eiioe?eo ? iaeiei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeaea?ae ci?i, nooo?aith ?
iaia’yceiaith ?enith ooieoe?iioaaiiy noni?euenoaa. A?i ia i?inoi
iianthaeiee, a e oioaeueiee, ui aeyaey?oueny a eiai anacaaaeueiino?,
iacaeaoiino? cieueoe /e caeieaoe eiai. Aeieeiaiiy eiioe?eoo
coiiaeth?oueny noeoii?noth n-e?eueeino? ??cieo ca ye?noth oa i??ith
cia/ou?noth /eiiee?a, na?aae yeeo ia eeoa caeiiii??i? oa iaiao?aei?, a e
iaeicia/ou? e aeiaaeeia?.

?icaeoie eiioe?eoo aaeeeith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae yeino? noa’?eoa oa
eiai ae?e, i??e eiai i?aai?ciaaiino?, ?inoeooae?caoe??, ona?aeiieaiiy oa
iai?oanoaoe?? iei nai?o ?ioa?an?a oiui.

Oai??y nioe?aeueieo ci?i aeaco? ia no?oeoo?io neeaaei?noue eiioe?eoo, ia
neeaaei?noue iaoai?cio eiai ?icaeoeo, iayai?noue o iueiio cai?ioi?o
ca’yce?a, oi/ie a?oo?eaoe??, aaaaoiaa??aioieo iane?aee?a, ?nioaaiiy
neooaoe?? “iioaioe?eiiai eiioe?eoo”. Eiee c?oeiaiiy iaia?, aea i?e/eie
aeey eiioe?eoo ?niothoue, iathoue i?noea neooaoe?? aeayei? “??aiiaaae”,
“eiinainono”, yeee caiaeii ia?aoai?th?oueny ia c?oeiaiiy.

Oai??y nioe?aeueieo ci?i aea? ciiao ona?aeiieoe neeaaei?noue aeayeeo
i?iaeai oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo, i???ioo? ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o,
aeiiiiaaa? iiaoaeoaaoe naio oai??th, neeaaeia? yei? ?icaeyaeathoueny.
Aaaeeea?oei na?aae ieo ? aeie oai???, ui ?ice?eaa? i?e/eie eiioe?eoo.

Aaaaeathoue, ui ?nio? o?e iniiai? a?oie i?e/ei: aeao?oeeo iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a, ?iciiae?e aeaaeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue, na?oiaeyaei? oa oe?ii?ni?
noia?a/iino?. O iaaeao oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo ia iaaoa iioe?aiiy
? ?icaeoeo oae?e i?aeo?ae, yeee iaei??th c i?e/ei eiioe?eoo aaaaea?
iana?aeiio oa iaaiioeaiaaio aa?aneai?noue ?iaeea?aea, ii?iaeaeoaaio
i?aena?aeiiei.

Ae?oaei aaaeeea?i aeieii oai??? ? /anoeia, i?enay/aia no?oeoo??
nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo o aoae/iio nain?: iaoai?cio eiai ?icai?oaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy eiinainono cae?enithaaeinue o ??cieo aaeocyo
nioe?aeueiiai i?ciaiiy, a oiio /ene? e o nioe?ieia??. Eiinainon
i?iyaey?oueny ii-??ciiio, a?i caeaaeeoue ?, a naith /a?ao, aecia/a?
nioe?aeueio no?oeoo?o nenoaie.

O iie?oieia?? (iie?oe/i?e nioe?ieia??) aea/aee oae? eiai oi?ie, ye
“eiinoeoooe?eiee” ? “aaceniee” eiinainon, a oaeiae oiiae eiai
aeinyaiaiiy: aeiiii?/i? oni?oe, ye? caaacia/othoue caaeiaieai?noue
aaniethoii? a?eueoino? a?iiaaeyi iie?oeeith o?yaeo, ia?niaeoeaaie
?icaeoeo e?a?ie; ?oith aiaaiai?noue o eiiiaoaioiino? o?yaeo, a
iicaeeaniaiio oa?aeoa?? aea?aeaae, caeaoiino? an? i?iaeaie ?ica’ycoaaoe
eaaaeueieie iie?oe/ieie caniaaie; iayai?noue ? ?icaeoie eiinanoaeueiiai
na?oiaeyaeo.

Aeae? aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?ieue iaiaaeaeiaioa o i?ciaii? oaiiiai?a
eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono. Ine?eueee a?i ?icaeyaeaany ye niaoeeo?/ia
i?ioan?eia ae?yeuei?noue, ni?yiiaaia ia iaoeiao i?aai?caoe?th i?aoe? a
?iaeono??aeueiiio noni?euenoa?, ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a on?o oeo, ooi
aa?a a iueiio o/anoue, anoaiiaeaiiy eiinainono ? iai?eiouaiiy
eiioe?eo?a, oi ae a?i aenooia? caniaii, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai naia e
cae?eniththoueny aeacai? oe?e?.

O iaaeao iaiaaeaeiaioo aecia/a?oueny ia o?eueee iaieio/?noue eiioe?eo?a,
a e ?o iaiao?aei?noue, aaaeai?noue, aaeaea aiie ni?eythoue a?eueo
aoaeoeai?e oa oaeaee?e aaeaioaoe?? nenoaie aei c?ooaiue, ye? iino?eii
a?aeaoaathoueny a ciai?oiueiio na?aaeiaeu?. Ca oaeiai i?aeoiaeo eiioe?eo
ia ? ?acoeueoaoii aai iciaeith “iiaaiiai” iaaoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy. A?i
ia iiaea aooe “iiaaiei” aai “aa?iei”, oaeeie iiaeooue aooe eeoa eiai
iane?aeee. Oiaoi ci?ith?oueny naia ?icoi?iiy eiioe?eoo: a?i oaa/a?oueny
ia ye nooi aeaoa?i?iiaaiee i?ioean, a ye i?ioean, ea?iaaiee ethaeeiith.

Aeeeaaeai? a ia?oiio ?icae?e? iieiaeaiiy aeiiiiaaathoue ona?aeiieoe
?aea? ieneeoae?a ieioeeo aiio, ui ?o aeine?aeaeaii a ae?oaiio ?icae?e?
“?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/ia aaiethoe?y nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono”
aiae?cothoueny iiaeyaee i?aaenoaaiee?a na?aaeiueia?//y oa ia??iaeo
noaiiaeaiiy eai?oae?cio ia eiioe?eo oa eiinainon.

Ca?aeii c Iae?aaaee?, iniiao iacaiae noaiiaeyoue ei??noue ? neea. A
aea?aeaaa — oea neeaaeiee iaoai?ci a?aeiia?aeiei /eiii i?aai?ciaaii?
aeaaee, iaoai?ci, ui iino?eii ci?ith?oueny ? yeei oi?aaeythoue ca
caeiiii a?aeiiniino?: iaoa, caniae oi?aae?iiy, neooaoe?y iiaeii?
ni?aa?aeiineoenue iaeia c iaeiei.

Ethoa? noai?thaaa a?aei?iia a?ae eaoieeoeueeiai i?ioanoaionueea
?icoi?iiy i?e?iaeiuei? a??oiaiino?: ethaeeia caeaoia ona?aeiieoe, ui
a??oeoue (eiioe?eoo?), oiio aeooiaii no?aaeaea?, aea aiia iiaea aooe
i?iuaia o ?ac? ue?iai ? oe?eeiaeoiai eayooy. Aea eayooy ia ia?aae
noni?euenoaii, a ia?aae naiei niaith, eayooy ye aeinyaiaiiy
aioo??oiueiai aeooiaiiai eiinainono. Oiio, ia?o i?ae eiioe?eooaaoe c
noni?euenoaii /e aea?aeaaith, ethaeeia ia? ?ica’ycaoe na?e aioo??oi?e
eiioe?eo, aeinyaoe aioo??oiueiai eiinainono. Oiaoi aioo??oi?e eiinainon
o/anieea eiioe?eoo aieeaa? ia eiai ?icaeoie.

Aiaan, oi/a e aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui ethaeeia — “cea oaa?thea”, i?ioa
i?e/eiaie iacaiae (eiioe?eo?a) aaaaea? aeao?oeeo iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a,
?iciiae?e aeaaeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue, ?ica?aei?noue iiaeyae?a, a?aenooi?noue
ceaaiaee. Oiaoi a?i i?ioenoaaey? eiioe?eo ? eiinainon, iaeiae aaaaea? ?o
iaiao?aeieie. Nooi?noue eiinainono — iaiaaeaiiy aaniethoii? naiaiaee,
aca?iia aeciaiiy i?aa. Eiai iiaeia aeinyaoe canoinoaaiiyi neee
ciai?oiuei? iaaaciaee, caaaeueii? ceaaiaee an?o. Aea?aeaaa caaacia/o?
eiai aeeiiaiiy neeith, ? naia oea noa? iniiaith oae caaiiai “ia?aaeieno
ineaaeai?eiai Aaaaiioa”, eio?ee ia?oei iiaa/ea Eiee: neea aea?aeaae
ioioiaeith?oueny c neeith caeiio, yeo i?aei?ith? caeii neee.

Eiee aeaco? ia oiiae ?ica’ycaiiy ia?aaeieno: ni?aaaeiy aa?oiaia aeaaea —
/eiiiio caeiio; noai?aiiy i?aaiaiai noni?euenoaa, a yeiio an? aoaeooue
??ai? ia?aae caeiiii; aeaaea — ?? ni?aaaeiueiio aeaea?aeo — a?iiaaeyiai.
Oea eeoa aeaye? oiiae aeinyaiaiiy eiinainono, yeee ? iaeiei c aieiaieo
ia`?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a/aiiai.

Aeae? aeine?aeaeothoueny iaoiaeieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae iniia niaoe?aeueii?
oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo. Eiio, cie?aia, aecia? iayai?noue
eiioe?eo?a o noni?euenoa?, aea aiie, ca?aeii eiai aeoiee, iathoue
ae?oai?yaeia cia/aiiy ? ? iane?aeeii iiaaii? i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa.
Ia caia?a/oth/e ?ie? aeao?oeeoo iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a ye i?e/eie
eiioe?eo?a, a?i iaeiei ?c ia?oeo iii?oea, ui iiaaia oi?aae?iiy —
iaeaaaeeea?oa i?e/eia eiioe?eo?a. Aea a?eueoo oaaao a?i i?eae?ey?
eiinainono. Eiai i?aea?oioyi, aaaaea? a/aiee, ? ?ae?a?y ?aeiino?
ethaenoaa (caiaea oi?a), a ?? a?aenooi?noue ni?e/eith?oueny aei
e?eciaiai noaio noni?euenoaa, aeey aeoiaeo c yeiai iaiao?aeiee eiiieaen
ia`?aeioth/eo ?aeae.

Oai??y Ia?ena i?enay/aia nioe?aeuei?e ?aaiethoe??, a ia eiioe?eoo, aea
eiai ?aea? aeiiiiaaathoue ona?aeiieoe, ui eiioe?eo — oea ia aeo, a
i?ioean, yeee ia? ?noi?e/iee oa?aeoa?, neeaaeio no?oeoo?o, ??ci? oi?ie,
caniae aeinyaiaiiy oa iane?aeee. Ia?en iieacaa ?ieue ethaeeie a
?noi?e/iiio i?ioean?, ?ice?ea i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy i?ieaoa??aoo ye iaeio
c? neeaaeiaeo eiioe?eoo ? aecia/ea eiai i?e/eie. Na?aae ieo —
a?aenooi?noue caeaoiino? oa aioiaiino? iaioth/eo eean?a (nioe?aeueieo
a?oi) ea?oaaoe ae?iaieoeoaii ? aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noth noni?euenoaa;
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue oai?/i-ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ?ia?oieea oiiaai eiai
o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? oiui.

Aeth?eaaei aaaaeaa, ui noni?euenoai caeaoia i?aeo?eioaaoe naith
oe?e?ni?noue ni?eueieie a??oaaiiyie, noni?eueiei eiinainonii. ?o
iineaaeaiiy, a oaeiae iineaaeaiiy ca` yceo ?iaeea?aea c a?oiith
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy eiioe?eoo. O noa?iio noni?euenoa? ?iaeea?aee
ia a?ae??ciythoueny iaeei a?ae iaeiiai, aiie ? /eaiaie iaeiiai
eieaeoeao, iathoue ni?euei? oe?e?, a?ae/oaathoue iaeiaeia? ii/oooy, ?i
aeanoeaa ni?eueia na?aeii?noue, ye?e ?iaeea?ae i?aeei?y?oueny ye aeu?e
nee?. O iiaiio noni?euenoa? cao?oiaai?noue caaacia/o?oueny
aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th, aiie iio??ai? iaeei iaeiiio, i?ioa ni?eueia
na?aeii?noue iiaie? ao?a/a? naith cia/ou?noue. Aiaeii/an iaiao?aeii
i?aeo?eioaaoe i?i?ioi caaaeueieo a??oaaiue, aae caiia?aoe
aeac?ioaa?aoe??. Oeueiio naiiio neoao? i?aai?caoe?y i?ioan?eieo a?oi,
?ioaa?aoe?y ?iaeea?ae?a o ei?ii?aoe??.

C?iiaeue aaaaea? eiioe?eo iaiao?aeiei aeey ci?oeiaiiy nioe?aeueii?
nenoaie i?ioeanii. Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui eiai iniiaiith i?e/eiith ?
“?inoeieo ai?iaeino?”, a?i aeoeaiooaaa oaaao ia noa’?eoeaiiio aioe?
eiioe?eoo, ia ?ie? “ethaenueeiai /eiieea” o eiai ?icaeoeia?. C oeueiai
iiaeyaeo eiioe?eo aaea ia aeaeyaea? iaieio/ei ? iaa?aeai?ioi?i, a
?icaeyaea?oueny eeoa ye “aaeueie iioe?aia ?ena nioe?aeueieo nenoai”.
Noi?iia eiioe?eoo ni?eeia?oueny ia ye ianeaia e niiaeyaeaeueia iana, a
ye aeoeaii ae?th/ee ? iae?ath/ee aeanio e?i?th iiaaae?iee noa’?eo,
caeaoiee eieae?coaaoe eiioe?eo, ni?eyoe eiai ?ica’ycaiith a?aeiia?aeii
aei nai?? iaoe aai aeinyaoe eiii?ii?no. Ia?aa?a eiioe?eoo ia iinoa? aaea
iaeiini?yiiaaiei e?i?eiei i?ioeanii, a aeaeyaea? aeueoa?iaoeaiei ?
aaaaoiaa??aioiei. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aiaiiaeeeaethaaa iaoai?noe/io
aecia/ai?noue ?icaeoeo eiioe?eoo, noai?thaaa oiiae aeey aeieeiaiiy
oai??? eiioe?eoo ye iaoeiaiai iai?yio a iaaeao nioe?ieia??.

Aeae? ?icaeyaeathoueny ?aea? caniiaiee?a oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo.
Cie?aia ?.Aea?aiaei?oa, o oai?/ino? eio?iai iiaeia ae??cieoe aeaa aoaie.
“?aii?e” Aea?aiaei?o aaaaeaa, ui aeaaea e aaoi?eoao — aeao?oeeoi?
?ano?ne, ca ye? oi/eoueny ai?ioueaa ? ye? ? aieiaiith (aeii?ioth/ith)
i?e/eiith eiioe?eo?a. Oi?ia eiioe?eoo, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae iecee ci?iieo
(?ioaineaiino?, ianeeueieoeoaa), ci?ith?oueny. Eiia??ii, cieaeaiith
?ioaineaiino? ?iaeono??aeueieo eiioe?eo?a, ?o iineaaeaiith ni?ey?
?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?y, eaiae?coaaiiy. Aea?aiaei?o a?ia?o?ioo? ?ieue
aeaaee.

“I?ci?e” Aea?aiaei?o aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui ia aeaaea ? i?e/eiith
eiioe?eoo, a ia??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e “aeeoo?aeo oain?a”. Ia?a?nia
ai?ioueaa, i?eoiaaia e oaioe/ia, a caiaeii a?aeaa?oa e aeia?a
i?aai?ciaaia, iieeaea e?ae ye?ni?e ia??aiino? a no/aniiio noni?euenoa?.
Iei? iayaia eeoa e?euee?nia ia??ai?noue. No/aniee eiioe?eo ?icaeaa?oueny
a aeaio ieiueiao: a) ai?ioueaa ca a?iiaaeyinuee? i?aaa a iie?oe/i?e
noa??; a) aacia?a?ai? aeiiae iie?ioaiiy caaacia/aiiy e ia?a?iciiae?eo
iaoa??aeueieo aeaa. Oea “iiaee nioe?aeueiee eiioe?eo”, a?i a?oioo?oueny
ia i?aai?caoe??, canoiniao? oaeoeeo eiinainono, noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
?icaeoeii ei?ii?aoecio, a eeane/iiai eiioe?eoo aaea ia ?nio?.

?ioei caniiaieeii oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo aaaaeathoue E.Eica?a,
eio?ee i?eae?eya aaeeeo oaaao ?ica’ycaiith eiioe?eo?a. A?i aeoiaeea c
oiai, ui niaoeeo?/iith ?enith eiioe?eoo ? iaaia iacaaa?oai?noue:
eiioe?eo iiaea o?eaaoe ne?eueee caaaiaeii aeiaai, yeui o/anieee ia
ae?eaeooue ceaaiaee uiaei oiia eiai caaa?oaiiy. Aca?iicaeaaei?noue
ia’?eoeaii niiioea? eiioe?eooth/eo aeiiiaeyoeny, ae?iaeyoe ?aei?noue
iiaeyae?a noiniaii nai?? iiaaae?iee, ye?nue i?aaeea eiioe?eoo, ui
iineeththoue ?oith caeaaei?noue iaeei a?ae iaeiiai. A?eueo?noue
eiioe?eo?a caaa?oothoueny eiii?ii?nii ia i?aenoaa? eiinainono.

Eica? cacia/a?, ui eiioe?eo niaeaoo? /a?ac a?ae ?ano?n?a, iiceoe?e
i?anoeaeo aai a?aeiinei aeaaee. Aea i?e oeueiio a?i iaaieioo? ia
aaaeeeaino? noii?ao uiaei /eiiino? ?nioth/iai ?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a oa
nooiaiy coaiae?iiy iacaiiaeieo a?oi, caeaoieo ci?ithaaoeny, ni?eyth/e
?icaeoeo eiioe?eoo /e oi eiai eieae?caoe??. Oea aena?oeth?
“noa’?eoeaiee” a?e eiioe?eoo: aieiaiei aeey eiai aeieeiaiiy noa?
ona?aeiieaiiy, ao?aoa aeaaeith nai?? eaa?oeiiino? a i/ao ianaeaiiy.
Eica? aeaco? oaeiae ? ia caeaaei?noue oi?ie eiioe?eoo a?ae nioe?aeueii?
no?oeoo?e, iaiaaath/enue iia’ycaoe ?? oei, ??ciiaeaee i?aai?caoe?? ??,
a?aei?iiino? o aioo??oi?e aoaeia? c eiioe?eoieie a?aeiineiaie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo ? eiinainono
ca no/anieo oiia” ?icaeyiooi iaecia/ou? aeey eiie?aoieo oiia Oe?a?ie
eiioeaioe??. Cie?aia, aeine?aeaeaii oaiiiai oa?oe?a?ecaoe?? eiioe?eoo,
caeo/aiiy aei iueiai o?aouei? noi?iie, yea ia? e ianoith? aeani?
?ioa?ane ? cae?enith? eiioe?eoi? ae?? i?ioe aeaio ia?oeo o/aniee?a. Oea
ye?nii ci?ith? i?e?iaeo eiioe?eoo, iaoo e iioeae ae?yeueiino? o/aniee?a,
oaoi?eo ai?ioueae, no?aoaa?th ? oaeoeeo ??. Cie?aia, oe?e? eiioe?eoo
“?icieaathoueny”, ui iineeth? ?ieue iana?aeiiiai, ia?aoai?thth/e eiai ia
naiino?eio i?e/eio eiioe?eoo. Oa?oe?a?ecaoe?y nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo —
oea ia eeoa i?iya “nioe?aeueii? oecio?ai??”, ao?aoa iaae?? ia caoeno
nai?o i?aa, oi?ia a?ae/ath, a e na?ae/aiiy iaea?iaaiino? eiioe?eoii?
neooaoe??.

Ci?ia nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa ni?e/eieeany aei e?ece
?aeaioeo?eaoe??, naiiioioiaeiaiiy iniaenoino? c iaaiith nioe?aeueiith
a?oiith, yea iineeth?oueny ao?aoith aeia??e iie?oe/iei ?inoeoooai,
?aeaieia?/ii-eoeueoo?iei aaeooiii, aaeaea ethaeeia ao?a/a? caeaoi?noue
aaeaeaaoii ?aaaoaaoe ia ciai?oi?e na?o, a?aeaoaa?oueny
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?y noni?eueiiai aeeooy, a oiio /ene? e oi?i
nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo, eiioe?eo cnoaa?oueny c iae?i- aei i?e?i??aiy.
A?i iaaoaa? ??cieo oi?i “a?aeoiaeo” a?ae iie?oeee, /eiaei c yeeo
iia’ycai? c iana?aeiiei: oaeeaaiiyi ia?eioee?a, aeeiaieth oiui.
Cieaeaiiy nooiaiy ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ca iniiaieie eeaniooai?thth/eie
iciaeaie iaaeaei iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy “iiaeo” onoaeaieo naiinoeieo
a?oi ia canaaeao aoaeue-yei? ?ai?oa ae?oai?yaeii? nioe?aeueii? iciaee, a
aaea ia ?o aac? — aeieeiaiiy “iiaeo nioe?aeueieo ?oo?a” (IN?). I?e/eia
?o i?ioanoiiai oa?aeoa?o iieyaa? ia a aeao?oeeo? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a
oa ia?a?iciiae?e? aeaaeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue, a a iaa?aeiia?aeiino? iaoiae?a
oi?aae?iiy e i?aai?caoe?? iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a iio?aaai,
i?aai?caoe?ei?e no?oeoo??, neeaaeo aeaiaio?a nioe?aeueii? nenoaie
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai noni?euenoaa, ui oi?io?oueny. Oe? i?e/eie ?nioaaee
caaaeaee, a on?o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao, aea a iao /an aiie noathoue
aeii?ioth/eie, iiaie? canooiath/e i?noea “noa?eo” i?e/ei.

Aeae? aea/athoueny aca?iica’ycie oai??? eiioe?eoo c oai???th ?
i?aeoeeith ei?ii?aoecio ? iaiei?ii?aoecio. Ia?oee yaey? niaith iaoai?ci
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, ni?yiiaaiee ia aeinyaiaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
eiinainono a noni?euenoa? oeyoii ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a “i?aoe?” oa
“eai?oaeo”, ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo a?oi ca o/ano? aea?aeaae, ?? ?inoeooo?a,
/eneaiieo io?oe?eieo oa iaio?oe?eieo i?aai?caoe?e. Aeieeiaiiy eiai
ni?e/eiaia c?inoaiiyi ?ie? aea?aeaae, i?ioni?eie, iioe?aiiyi o
?ia?oie/iio na?aaeiaeu? nioe?aeueiiai-ia?oia?nueei? na?aeiiino?, a??e a
ni?eueiee ?ioa?an ?ia?oiee?a ? i?aei?e?ioe?a, ei?ii?aoeaii? eoeueoo?e
caaaeii, ia’?eoeaiei caeeaeaiiyi ?oi?o ?ioa?an?a, aea?? iaoai?cio
ia?aaiai??a ? aeinyaiaiiy ceaaiaee ia i?ioeaaao a?aee?eoiio c?oeiaiith.
Aei iane?aee?a i?aeoeee ei?ii?aoecio iaeaaeaoue ciaioaiiy a?aee?eoeo
eiioe?eo?a, iaae?iiy ??aiy aac?ia?ooy, iie?oe/ia noaa?euei?noue,
ae?iaeaiiy ei?ii?aoeaii? eoeueoo?e, i???ioiaaii? ia aeinyaiaiiy
eiinainono, noai?a aeio?eiaiiy caeii?a, ci?uaiiy eiioe?eo?a ?c iae?i- ia
iaci- oa i?e?i??ai?.

I?iaiae?ciaaii eiioe?eoio neooaoe?th a e?a?i?. Niaoeeo?eith ?? aenooia?
aacia?a?aia a?aeoai?aiiy e?eciaiai noaio, i?ae?ea eaa?oeiiino? aieiaieo
a?eie aeaaee, ao?aoa ieie aeia??e, iino?eia iia??oaiiy oiia aeeooy,
a?ae/oooy iacaaeiaieaiino? nai?i iaoa??aeueiei noaiiaeuai oiui. *e
iiaeeeaee “nioe?aeueiee aeaoo”? C iiaeyaeo ?.?.Aieiaaoe, — i?, aaeaea
iaia? iie?oe/ieo nee, caeaoieo ia?aoai?eoe noeo?eia iaaaeiaieaiiy ia
ianiaee ?oo i?ioanoo, iaia? oaeiae ? ni?eueiiai ?aeaieia?/iiai
i?aea?oioy eiai. Aiaeii/an a?aeo? oaeiae oiia aeey caa?aaeaiiy
eiinainono. Ca?aeii ?ioiai iiaeyaeo: eiioe?eo ia?anoaa?oueny c iae?i- ia
i?e?i??aaiue, iaaoaath/e oi?ie “a?aeoiaeo” a?ae iie?oeee oa a?aeaa?oiai
i?ioanoo. Iaaeie?eii iaio oeeo i?aeoiae?a ? ?aii?oaaiiy eiia??iino?
aeieeiaiiy noeo?eieo aai i?aai?ciaaieo ianiaeo aenooi?a ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? aai o iaaeao ie?aii? cao?oiaaii? nioe?aeueii? a?oie
(i?ei??ii, oaooa?y). Nooi?iue eiinainoaeueiino? a e?a?i? iaaea?: a?ae
i?aai?coth/i? neee ni?ey? caiia?aaiith eiioe?eo?a, aea aiaeii/an
ia?aoeiaeaea? i?iaaaeaiith iie?oeee ei?ii?aoecio, aeinyaiaiith
eiinainono, noai?thth/e oiiae aeey aeieeiaiiy iica?inoeoooe?eieo,
cia/iith i??ith noeo?eieo oa iana?aeiieo, aeoe?e nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo.

AENIIAEE

O aeniiaeao i?aeaeoi i?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? aeniiaee, iae?aneaii iiaeaeueo? ia?niaeoeae
aea/aiiy i?iaeaie, ocaaaeueiaii ?noi?e/iee ? oai?aoe/iee iaoa??ae uiaei
eiioe?eoo e eiinainono.

Cie?aia, iacaaii aaaeeea?o? oiiae aeinyaiaiiy a noni?euenoa? eiinainono:
eaa?oeii?noue aeaaee, oiaoi ia?aeiiaiiy a?iiaaeyi o oiio, ui aiia ae??
ca ?oiueith caiaeith, a ?oi?o ?ioa?anao, ?aae?co? ?oith aieth ? aiie
aeciathoue /eii?noue ?? ?nioaaiiy, ui ia?aoai?th? eiinainon c aeoo ia
i?ioean iino?eiiai eiio?ieth aeaaee c aieo ianaeaiiy; caaeiaieai?noue
a?iiaaeyiaie nai?i iaoa??aeueiei noaiiaeuai; iayai?noue eiinainoaeueiiai
na?oiaeyaeo, “ni?eueieo a??oaaiue”. Nai ii nia? eiinainon ia iiaea
caaaeaee aooe caaaeueiei. Aiane?aeie naiai ?noi?e/iiai oa?aeoa?o a?i
aeinyaa?oueny /a?ac ianeeey (aaciina?aaei? aai iia?/ia), iaoa??aeueia
caioi/aiiy, aeoiaaiiy oa eoeueoo?o (ia?aeiiaiiy). Iniiai? eiai oi?ie —
eiinoeoooe?eia ? aacenia. Ca nai?th nooi?noth a?i ? iaoai?ciii ? caniaii
iiia?aaeaeaiiy eiioe?eo?a oa oi?aae?iiy ieie, a oaeiae aeaiaioii ?o
no?oeoo?e. Ca?aeii inoaiiueiai iiaeyaeo iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i aioo??oi?e
eiinainon noi?iie eiioe?eoo, eiinainon eiai iaoai?cio oa eiinainon
?ica’ycaiiy eiai. Ia?oee ? ci?iiith ?icaeoeo eiioe?eoo: /ei aeuee
aioo??oi?e eiinainon on?o noi??i eiioe?eoo, oei nei??oa e oni?oi?oa
iiaeia eiai ?ica’ycaoe; ae?oaee ? iaiaei?iiei aeaiaioii ?icaeoeo
eiioe?eoo, aeyaii cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo oa caniaii oi?aae?iiy iei; o?ao?e
aenooia? neeaaeiaith ?ica’ycaiiy aai eieae?caoe?? eiioe?eoo.

Iniiaieie i?e/eiaie eiioe?eoo a oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo o?eaaeee
/an aaaaeaee aeao?oeeo iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, ?iciiae?e aeaaeieo
iiaiiaaaeaiue, oe?ii?ni? oa ?aeaieia?/i? a?aei?iiino?. I?ioa a iao /an,
aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy nooiaiy ?aeaioeo?eaoe??, ia?ai?uaiiy eiioe?eoo c
iae?i- ia i?e?i??aaiue oiui, aeii?ioth/eie i?e/eiaie eiioe?eoo aeaaeae?
a?eueoa noathoue iaaaeaeaaoi?noue iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy (iaiaaeaeiaioo)
nioe?aeueiith nenoaiith ?? i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/i?e no?oeoo??,
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iayaiiai a ?ia?oieea oai?/i-ae?iaie/iai e
aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo oiiaai eiai o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? ? ye
iane?aeie — iacaaeiaieai?noue i?aoeath; iineeaiiy ?ie? iana?aeiiiai oa
aa?aneaiino? eiai a iiaaae?ioe? ?iaeea?ae?a.

IOAE?EAOe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai?: a 1 iiiia?ao??,7 noaooyo, 1
oacao aeiiia?ae?:

1. Aaiathiia A. A., Iiaea?ianeee A. A.,Iiaaaeiue N. O. Ia/aea
iaiaaeaeiaioa. — Aeiiaoee: AeiiAAO, 1998. — 200 n.

2.Iiaea?ianueeee A. Iaiei?ii?aoeci // Nioe?ieia?y: oai??y, iaoiaee,
ia?eaoeia. — 1998. — ? 3. — N. 149—150.

3.Iiaea?ianueeee A. Ia oiio noith: Ia?o?i Ethoa? ? oai??y eiioe?eoo //
Ethaeeia ? na?o. — 1998. — ? 4. — N. 42—44.

4.Iiaea?ianueeee A. Eiioe?eo oa eiinainon: aei aeei?enoaiiy ?aeae oa
iiaeaeae eiioe?eoieia?/ii? oai??? E. Eica?a // No?ae. — 1998. — ? 6. —
N. 36—39.

5.Iiaea?ianueeee A. A. Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiue nioe?aeueieo
eiioe?eo?a // Nioe?aeuei? aei??e noni?euenoaa. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue
iieiaeeo iaoeiaoe?a. Aei. 2. — ?N IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. — N. 160—161.

6.Iiaea?ianueeee A.A. I?eioeeie ei?ii?aoecio — i?aea?oioy
aeaiie?aoe/ii? eiinie?aeaoe?? // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee ? 4. Nioe?ieia?y aeione
1. — Oa?e?a: Oeaio? Ina?oi?o ?i?oe?aoea, 1998. — N.66-74.

7.Iiaea?ianueeee A. Aeoe?? nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo oaooa??a a na?o?
oai??? nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo // No?ae. — 1998. — ? 7. — N.27-29.

8.Iiaea?ianueeee A. A. Ei?ii?aoeci oa iaiei?ii?aoeci a no/anieo
oiiaao // O?einio?y, nioe?ieia?y, iie?oieia?y. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.
Aeione 2. — Oa?e?a: OAAeAeOO, 1998. — N. 89—91.

9.Iiaea?ianueeee A. A. Cia/aiea oai?ee nioeeaeueiuo
eciaiaiee aeey enneaaeiaaiey eiioeeeoia // Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoea ? nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie
noni?euenoaa”. — Oa?e?a: OAeO, 1998. — N. 80—83.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a ioae?eaoe?? ? 1 iieyaa? o aecia/ai? ?ie?
iaiaaeaeiaioo a nioe?aeueiiio i?ciaii?, ?ic?iaoe? oa ooi/iaii? oai???
i?aai?caoe??, ?? no?oeoo?e ye nioe?aeueiiai oaiiiaio, o c’ynoaaii? ??
cia/aiiy aeey i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Iiaea?ianueeee A.A. Nioe?aeueiee eiioe?eo ? eiinainon:
?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/iee aiae?c. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y nioe?ieia??. —
?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aca?iia?aeiioaiiy eiioe?eoo e eiinainono ye nioe?aeueieo oaiiiai?a
?icaeyaeathoueny ia iaoa??aeao ?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/ii? aeoiee oa
no/anieo oai??e nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui eiinainon ?
ia o?eueee i?ioeeaaei?noth eiioe?eoo, a e iaiao?aeiei aeaiaioii eiai
no?oeoo?e (aioo??oi?e eiinainon, eiinainon iaoai?cio ? eiinainon
?ica’ycaiiy), caniaii oi?aae?iiy iei, oeyoii ?ica’ycaiiy aai
eieae?caoe??.

I?e/eiaie no/aniiai eiioe?eoo aeaaeae? a?eueo aeii?ioth/eie noathoue ia
aeao?oeeo iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a oa ?iciiae?e aeaaeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue, a
iaaaeaeaaoi?noue iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiith nenoaiith, ??
i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ia no?oeoo?a, iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iayaiiai a
?ia?oieea oai?/i-ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo oiiaai eiai o?oaeiai?
ae?yeueiino?.

Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a aii??e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiae?ciaaii
eiie?aoio nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a Oe?a?i? a noa?? eiioe?eoieo
a?aeiinei ? oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy eiinainono a noni?euenoa?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueiee eiioe?eo, eiinainon, iaiaaeaeiaio,
nioe?aeueia oi?aae?iiy, ei?ii?aoeci.

Iiaea?ianeee A.A. Nioeeaeueiue eiioeeeo e eiinainon:
enoi?eei-nioeeieiae/aneee aiaeec.— ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa nioeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey nioeeieiaee. —
Einoeooo nioeeieiaee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Acaeiiioiioaiea eiioeeeoa e eiinainona eae nioeeaeueiuo oaiiiaiia
?anniao?eaaaony ia iaoa?eaeao enoi?eei-nioeeieiae/aneeo ?ac?aaioie e
nia?aiaiiuo oai?ee nioeeaeueiiai eiioeeeoa e iaiaaeaeiaioa. A /anoiinoe,
oeacuaathony aaaeiaeoea oneiaey onoaiiaeaiey a iauanoaa eiinainona:
eaaeoeiiinoue aeanoe, oi anoue oaaaeaeaiea a?aaeaeai a oii, /oi iia
aeaenoaoao n eo niaeaney, a eo eioa?anao, ?aaeecoao eo aieth e iie
i?eciatho caeiiiinoue aa nouanoaiaaiey, /oi i?aa?auaao eiinainon ia a
aeo, a a i?ioeann iinoiyiiiai eiio?iey aeanoe ni noi?iiu ianaeaiey;
oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue a?aaeaeaiaie naiei iaoa?eaeueiui aeaaininoiyieai;
iaee/ea eiinainoaeueiiai ie?iaicc?aiey, “iaueo aa?iaaiee”. Nai eiinainon
ia iiaeao anaaaea auoue anaiauei, eiay enoi?e/aneee oa?aeoa?, ii
aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao ianeeey (i?yiiai eee einaaiiiai), iaoa?eaeueiie
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe, ainieoaiey e eoeueoo?u (oaaaeaeaiey), iniiaiua aai
oi?iu — eiinoeoooeeiiiay e aaceniay. Ii naiae nooe yoi iaoaieci e
n?aaenoai i?aaeioa?auaiey eiioeeeoia e oi?aaeaiey eie, a oaeaea yeaiaio
aai no?oeoo?u. N iineaaeiae oi/ee c?aiey iiaeii aiai?eoue i aioo?aiiai
eiinainona noi?iiu eiioeeeoa, eiinainona aai iaoaiecia e eiinainona
?ac?aoaiey. Ia?aue ec ieo yaeyaony ia?aiaiiie ?acaeoey eiioeeeoa: /ai
auoa aioo?aiiee eiinainon anao noi?ii eiioeeeoa, oai auno?aa e oniaoiaa
aiciiaeii aai ?ac?aoaiea; aoi?ay yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii
?acaeoey eiioeeeoa, i?iyaeaieai ia?aoiie nayce e n?aaenoaii oi?aaeaiey
ei; o?aoee yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth ?ac?aoaiey eee eieaeecaoeee
eiioeeeoa.

Oi?iie i?iyaeaiey eiinainona, iaoaiecia ?acaeoey eiioeeeoa, n?aaenoaii
aai oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony ei?ii?aoeci e nia?aiaiiue iaiaaeaeiaio.
Ei?ii?aoeci, iai?eia?, iaoeaeai ia aeinoeaeaiea nioeeaeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa iooai niaeaniaaiey eioa?ania “o?oaea” e “eaieoaea”, ae?oaeo
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii i?e o/anoee ainoaea?noaa, aai einoeoooia, ?acee/iuo
ioeoeeaeueiuo e iaioeoeeaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee. Inouanoaeaiea aai eaeae
aaaeao e oiaiueoaieth eiioeeeoia, aac?aaioeoeu, niinianoaoao
iieeoe/aneie noaaeeueiinoe, au?aaioea ei?ii?aoeaiie eoeueoo?u,
i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia aeinoeaeaiea eiinainona.

Iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie nioeeaeueiiai i?ioanoa a oai?ee nioeeaeueiiai
eiioeeeoa onoie/eai n/eoaeenue aeaoeoeeo iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia,
?ani?aaeaeaiea aeanoiuo iieiiii/ee, oeaiiinoiua eee eaeaieiae/aneea
?acee/ey. Iaeiaei a iaoa a?aiy a nayce n oiaiueoaieai noaiaie
eaeaioeoeeaoeee, ia?aiauaieai eiioeeeoa n iae?i- ia iee?io?iaaiue e
o.ae. aeiieie?othueie i?e/eiaie eiioeeeoa ana a aieueoae noaiaie
noaiiaeony iaaaeaeaaoiinoue iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey (iaiaaeaeiaioa)
nioeeaeueiie nenoaiie aa i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoiieiae/aneie no?oeoo?a,
ianiioaaonoaea eiathuaainy o ?aaioieea oai?/anei-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e
yia?aaoe/aneiai iioaioeeaea oneiaeyi aai o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e eae
neaaenoaea iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue ?aaioie; aic?anoaiea ?iee
aanniciaoaeueiiai e aai aa?anneaiinoe a iiaaaeaiee eiaeeaeaeia.

Oeacuaathony iniaaiiinoe nia?aiaiiiai eiioeeeoa: aai oa?oeea?ecaoeey,
aeeth/aiea a noieeiiaaiey “o?aoueae noi?iiu” eae naiinoiyoaeueiiai
o/anoieea, ioe?uoi ionoaeaathuaai naie nianoaaiiua eioa?anu,
niaa?oathuaai eiioeeeoiua aeaenoaey i?ioea ia?auo aeaoo, /oi io?aaeaao
iaoi?aaeyaiinoue eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee; aicieeiiaaiea “iiauo
nioeeaeueiuo aeaeaeaiee” (INAe).

Ia iniiaa ?acoeueoaoia yiie?e/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee aiaeece?oaony
eiie?aoiay nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey a Oe?aeia a noa?a
eiioeeeoiuo ioiioaiee e iooae aeinoeaeaiey eiinainona.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueiue eiioeeeo, eiinainon, iaiaaeaeiaio,
nioeeaeueiia oi?aaeaiea, ei?ii?aoeaeci.

Mozharovskyi V.A. Social Conflict and Consensus: Historio-Sociological
Analysis. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate`s degree in Sociology by speciality 22.00.01 —
Theory and History of Sociology. — Institute of Sociology of National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ky?v, 1999.

A theory of social conflict and interrelations between a conflict and a
consensus as social phenomena are reviewed based upon materials of
historio-sociological thought. Its being demonstrated that a consensus
does not only stay in contradiction to a conflict, but represents a
necessary element of conflict structure (inner consensus, consensus of
procedure, and consensus of resolution), as well as tool of conflict
management, localization, and resolution. The present social conflict is
more caused not by shortage of material resources or authority (power)
distribution, but by disparity of correspondence between methods of
social system management and its organizational and technological
composition; by incompatibility of worker’s creative production
potential with conditions of his labor activity.

Based upon sociological research data the particular sociopolitical
conflict situation in Ukraine and consensus seeking efforts are
analyzed.

Key words: social conflict, consensus, management, social management,
corporatism.

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 12.03.99 ?. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai?? ionaoiee.

Aa?i?oo?a “Arial”. Oi. — ae?oe. a?e. . Oi. oa?ai-a?ae. .

Iae.-a?ae. a?e. . Iaeeaae 100 i?ei. Cai. . Aaceiooiaii.

Aeae?oeiaaii

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