Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo nioe?ieia??

Iaoiiaa Ia?oa TH???aia

OAeE 316.33

NIOe?AEUeIA CIAIIss A NO?OEOO?? EIIOI?EAOe??

22.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y nioe?ieia??

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa

nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a ( 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Einoaiei Iaoae?y A?eoi??aia, ?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Noaeaeia Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/,
Iaae?aa?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii, ea??aiee iaoeiaeo
i?iaeo?a

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, Noaiaiaiei A?eoi? Iao?iae/, ?inoeooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a ?noi??? oa oai???
nioe?ieia??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 29 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.229.01 a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a 21, aoe. Oiaeiae/ia, 12

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a 21, aoe. Oiaeiae/ia,
12

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 27 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Nooeaei N. I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?e inieneaii? nioe?ieoeueoo?ii?
neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i? cacae/ae aiaeththoue aei ?? iaaecia/aiino? e
iaona?aeiieaiino?, a?aenooiino? aai iaaaeaeaaoiino? io?oe?eieo
iii?iaoe?e, neeaaeiino? i???ioaoe?? a aaaaoiaei??ieo aa?n?yo
nioe?aeueii? ?aaeueiino?, ye? a?aeoai?ththoueny iaae?a. I?ioa i?ooi ia
caia?a/o? oiai, ui nioe?aeueiee ca’ycie ?nio? ? ia?iaiaioii
a?aeoai?th?oueny.

Iinoa? ieoaiiy: ca ?aooiie /iai i?aeo?eio?oueny a?aeiinia
noaa?euei?noue oe?a?inueeiai nioe?oio, yeei /eiii ethaeeia i???ioo?oueny
? aeaeeaa? a oeueiio na?o?, yeui no?oeoo?e eieeoiuei? ?aaeyinueei?
na?aeiiino? ?noioii aeaoi?iiaai?, a iia? aecia/aiiy caaaeueii?
nioe?aeueii? neooaoe?? aai a?aenooi?, aai ia iaaoee noaoono nioe?aeueii
aen?iiaoe/iiai ciaiiy? Ca an??? aacneeino? ?aeaieia?/ieo iaeiaioaaiue,
aa??aoeaiino? iieniaeo iiaeaeae ?aaeueiino? e ia/?oeino? ?aoeaen??
iaa?yae /e iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i ii?iaei?noue na?aeiiino? aai
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? neooaoe??, yeo i?eeiyoi iaceaaoe aiii??th. A
iacaeaoi?noue aei aecia/aiue ? aa?aae?caoe?e c aieo ea??oeiieo oai?oe?a
naino iaa?yae /e iiaeia oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye e?eco ?aoe?iiaeueiino?,
aaeaea i?i?iaeueia ?aei?noue naino, iaiao?aeia aeey i?aeo?eiee
nioe?aeueii? ?ioa?aeoe??, caaacia/o?oueny aae i?ye ia ca ?o ?aooiie.
I?ino?? ni?eueieo nain?a ii?iaeaeo?oueny ia a?oio? eiai?oeaieo
eiino?oeo?a eiiaaioe?iiaeueiiai ciaiiy ( ni?eueieo i?eioeei?a aa/aiiy,
ioe?iee oa ae??.

Ca?aene ( aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiaoe/ii coiiaeaiiai
nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy, yea ia i?aenoaa? noai eeaneo?eaoe?e, ui
iiae?eythoueny iaaiith eiioi?eaoeaiith ni?eueiioith, caaacia/o?
i?aeo?eiaiiy ?ioa?noa’?eoeaieo cia/aiue. Noaa?eueiee nioe?oi nie?a?oueny
ia aei??iaio a no?oeoo?ao nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy i?e?iaeio onoaiiaeo,
a?aeiia?aeii aei yei? na?o ni?eeia?oueny ye naiii/aaeaeia aeai?noue, a
?aaeuei?noue iianyeaeaiiy ( ye oii?yaeeiaaia e iai?iaeaiaoe/ia.
Caei?iaee aeocae ? aeii?aaeeeaoeai? oi?ie i?aeoe/iiai ieneaiiy iiaeia,
oaeei /eiii, ?icaeyaeaoe ye iianthaeia ? /e ia ?aeeia aeaea?aei
nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino?. Aei oiai ae, ie?aeia iaa?oue o nooo?ai
ci?uaieo eii?aeeiaoao.

Ioaea, iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo no?oeoo?, ye?
i?aai?cothoue nioe?aeueiee aeina?ae ?iaeea?aea ? ia?aaeothoue
aoaeue-ye?e nioe?aeuei?e i?aeoeoe?, coiiaeaia no/anieie i?iaeaiaie
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? oa oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?. A?aenooi?noue
/?oeeo oyaeaiue i?i iniaeeaino? aaiace ? oa?aeoa? eiiaaioe?iiaeueieo
nioe?aeueieo ciaiue oneeaaeith? aeo?ae ?c ?aeaieia?/ii? e?ece ? caaaeii
iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia i?eeiyoo? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.

C iaoeiai? oi/ee ci?o aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
ciaiiy coiiaeaia ianooiiei. Ii-ia?oa, a?eueo?noue no/anieo oai?aoe/ieo
i?ia?ai na?aeiii caaaeathoue ia iaiao?aei?noue i??i?eoaoiiai a?aooaaiiy
a nioe?ieia?/iiio aiae?c? “ethaeeiiaei??ieo” e?eoa???a, ye?
a?aeaeaathoue niaoeeo?eo aeeoo?aiai na?oo. Oaea “iiaa?iaiiy aei
ethaeeie” ye aei nioe?aeueiiai aaaioa, eio?ee naiiaecia/a?oueny ?
aiaeii/an eiinoeooth? ae?eni?noue, aeiaaa? a?aooaaiiy aecenoaioe?eieo
ia?aiao??a ( ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo e?eoa???a eiai inieneaiiy ? ioe?iee,
iniaenoi? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa ?eceeo o aeai?? no?aoaa?? ae?? o na?o?.
? ooo aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiace “nioe?aeueieo oyaeaiue”, ye? eiinoeooththoue
oea?eio caei?iaiai aeocaeo, ui neeaaea?oueny c i?e?iaeieo, oo?i aae i?ye
ia ia?aieo iiaeyae?a aaaio?a, ui ia?aaeothoue ?o iianyeaeaiiei
i?aeoeeai, iaaoaa? nooo?aiai cia/aiiy. Aea/aiiy eiai?oeaieo iiaeaeae
nainiooai?aiiy, i?ioean?a ii?iaeaeaiiy ?ioa?noa’?eoeaieo nioe?aeueieo
cia/aiue, a ioaea e oaoi?e naii?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ? eiino?othaaiiy cia/ouiai
nioe?aeueiiai na?oo, a?aee?eaa? ia?niaeoeae ia?aoi?ioethaaiiy oaie
nioe?aeueiiai ii?yaeeo, ine?eueee ia?aaeaa/a? aea/aiiy ia o?eueee
noanoaioe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee, a e eiai ae?yeuei?nieo oa
aecenoaioe?eii-iniaeno?noieo aei???a. O oeueiio ?aeo?n? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioean?a ii?iaeaeaiiy, noaiaea?oecaoe?? oa iioe?aiiy caaaeueieo
nioe?aeueieo cia/aiue (nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy), ye? oanoothoueny ?
eaa?oeiothoueny a eiioi?eaoe?? ia ??cieo ??aiyo, aiiaeeeaeth?
ia?aoi?ioethaaiiy ? aena?oeeiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?iaeai
nioe?ieia?/iiai oai?aoecoaaiiy.

Ii-ae?oaa, iaoeiaa aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui
a no?oeoo?? caei?iaiai aeocaeo, ye iaii?ooiiai, caeaaaeiny a, aeaea?aea
“caaaeueiicia/oueo”, i?aeoe/ii iaae?eieo oyaeaiue, iei? a?aeaoaathoueny
nooo?a? c?ooaiiy. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui nenoaie i/aaeaeiinoae aai
iai?iaeaiaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia’?eo?a, ae?e, aniaeo?a neooaoe?e, oiaoi
i?eiouaiue i?e?iaeii? onoaiiaee na?aeiiino?, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
a?eueoith ?ooeea?noth o cao?aieo noni?euenoaao. A naia oaeei ? no/ania
oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai. C iaeyaeo ia oea iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino?
iaaoaa? aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee eiiaaioe?iiaeueieo nioe?aeueieo cia/aiue, a
oaeiae iaoai?ci?a ?o cae??ieaiiy aai noaiaea?oecaoe?? ye
?ioa?noa’?eoeaieo c?ace?a nainiooai?aiiy. Ioaea, iaoeiaa i?iaeaia
iieyaa? a iaiao?aeiino? aecia/aiiy noaoono nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy a
eiioaeno? ?ioa?aeoe??: eiai ?ie? a i?ioeanao nioe?aeueiiai nai?iceno, a
oaeiae eiai cia/aiiy ye i?aai?coth/iai oa ?aaoethth/iai i?eioeeio
??ciiiai?oieo i?aeoee.

I??a iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie. Oaiiiai nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy ua
ia noaaaa o a?o/eciyi?e nioe?ieia?? i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai
oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acii ?c oeei, i?e aea/aii? ??cieo
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a, i?iaeai ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??, a?iiaaenueei?
aeoiee, iniaeeainoae ianiai? na?aeiiino? o noni?euenoa?, ui
o?ainoi?io?oueny, aoee ?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aianee
?noioiee aianie o oi?ioaaiiy iecee iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe?iiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe i?aoe? A. E. Inianueeiai, I.A.
Einoaiei, N.A. Iaea?aa, A. ?. Oiaeueea, A.I. ?o/ee, ?.?. Aieiaaoe, I.A.
Iai?iie oa ?i. Aaoi? nie?aany oaeiae ia e?eoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
nioe?ieia?/ii? oai?aoe/ii? o?aaeeoe?? ? no/anieo eiioeaiooae?caoe?e A.
A. Oai/a?a, A.?. Iiai??eiai, A.A. Ei?ieueei, A.?. Noaeaeiaa oa ?i.

A ?ic?iaoe? cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aaoi? ianaiia?aae nie?aany ia
eeane/i? oai??? nioe?aeueii? ae?? oa ?aoe?iiaeueiino? M. Weber (I.
Aaaa?a), G. Zimmel (A. C?iiaey), T. Parsons (O. Ia?niina), F. Znaniecki
(O. Ciaiaoeueeiai), W. Thomas (O. Oiiana); ia o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueio
i?aaiaoeeo K.-O. Apel (E.-I. Aiaey) oa, aieiaiei /eiii, ia “oai??th
eiioi?eaoeaii? ae??” J. Habermas (TH. Oaaa?iana).

Ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy o oi?ioaaii? aeine?aeieoeueei? a?iioace iaeaaeeoue
o?einionuee?e eeaneoe?, yea caeeaea iaoiaeieia?/i? e eiioeaiooaeuei?
canaaee aeey caii/aoeoaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ??ciiiai?oieo aa?n?e ?icoi?th/i?
nioe?ieia??: E. Husserl (A. Aona?ey), A. Bergson (A. Aa?aniia), M.
Heidegger (I.Aaeaeaaaa?a), M. Merleau-Ponty (I. Ia?ei-Iiio?), M. Scheler
(I. Oaea?a).

Canaaeie/ei aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai?aoe/iee aia?ao, ?ic?iaeaiee A.
Schutz (A. Ooooeai) o eiai oaiiiaiieia?/i?e eiioeaioe?? noaiiaeaiiy
aeeoo?aiai na?oo, oai??? iianyeaeaiiiai ieneaiiy ? ae?yeueiino?, a
oaeiae aeina?ae eiai ianooiiee?a: aaoi??a eiioeaioe?? “nioe?aeueiiai
eiino?othaaiiy ?aaeueiino?” P. Berger, T. Lnckmann (I. Aa?aa?a oa O.
Eoeiaia), “no?oeoo?ii? nioe?ieia??” E. Tiryakian (A. O???ae’yia),
eiai?oeaii? nioe?ieia?? A. Cicourel (A. N?eo?aea), aoiiiaoiaeieia??
G.Garfinkel (A. Aa?o?ieaey) oa ?ioeo aa?n?e nioe?ieia?? iianyeaeaiiy, ye
ni?ia inieneeoe nioe?aeueiee na?o, nie?ath/enue ia oyaeaiiy, aeoiee,
iioeae, oe?e? i?aeoe/ii ae?th/eo aaaio?a.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe oe?ii?noue ?ic?iaie D. Silverman (Ae. N?eaa?iaia), P.
Sandau (I. Naiaeao), P. McHugh (I. Iae-Oueth), H. Sacks (?. Naena), D.
Walsh (Ae. Oieoa) a aaeoc? nioe?ie?iaa?noeee ? eiai?oeaieo aniaeo?a
nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae??, a oaeiae ?oiy oaaaa aei i?eoiaaieo,
ia?aoeaeniaaieo iaoai?ci?a ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? nioe?aeueieo oaiiiai?a ?
eiioi?eaoe?? caaaeii.

Aei oaeeo eiioeaiooaeueieo ?aiie aoee caeo/ai? a?aeii? oai??? ianiai?
eiioi?eaoe?? G. McLuhan (I. Iaeeoaia), A. Moll (A. Iiey), D. Kellner
(Ae. Eaeia?a) i?e c’ynoaaii? iniaeeainoae nai?ioe/ieo i?ioean?a o
eoeueoo?? oa eiioi?eaoeaieo aniaeo?a oi?ioaaiiy cia/aiue. Aaoi? nie?aany
oaeiae ia aei?iaie oaeeo aeine?aeiee?a ye A. Ia?aoiinueeee, N.
E?einueeee, A. ?oio?aoia, A. Iiaei?iaa, H.-G. Gadamer (A.-O. Aaaeaia?),
P. Ricoeur (I. ?ee??).

Ne?ae oaeiae a?aecia/eoe aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy iecee iieiaeaiue
aeena?oaoe?? o?aaeeoe?? no?oeoo?ae?cio oa iinono?oeoo?ae?cio (K.
Levi-Strauss, J. Lakan, R. Barth, J. Derrida, M. Foucalt ( E.
Eaa?-No?inn, ?. Aa?o, AE. Eaeai, AE. Aea??aea, I. Ooei), noiniaii
aiae?co aeeneo?neaieo oaiiiai?a, ?ie? ciaeiai-neiaie?/ieo iaoai?ci?a o
ia?iaiaioiiio a?aeoai?aii? nioe?aeueiino?, oa aienaiino? o iiao
eaoaioiiai eoeueoo?iiai eiaeo (noaiaoeci?a ni?eeiyooy, ioe?iee oa ae??).
Aacoiiaiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy aeine?aeieoeueei? eiioeaioe?? ni?aaeea
oai??y “aeaaee-ciaiiy” I. Ooei, eiai aiae?c aca?iicoiiaeaiino?
aeeneo?neaieo i?aeoee ? no?aoaa?e aeaaee. Oeae i?aeo?ae aeaa ciiao
i?iynieoe (ia?aeiiaoeny) oeaio?aeuei?noue ciaiiy o ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo i?ae
iiaith, nioe?aeueiith ?aaeuei?noth ? i?aeoeeaie aaaio?a.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oaeiae ?aea? no/anii?
o?einio?? iaoee, yea ?aoeaeno? ci?ie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
caaaeueiiiaoiaeieia?/ieo onoaiiaeao i?e?iaeiciaanoaa oa iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy caaaeii, a naia: oaiaeaioe?y aei eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/iiai
ia??oiooaaiiy iaoeiaiai ciaiiy (R. Rorty, T. Kuhn, G. Agassi, S.
Toulmin, W. Sellars, W. Quine ( ?.?i?o?, O.Eoi, Ae Aaan?, A. Ooei?i, ?.
Naeea?n, ?. Eoaei); oace aaoi??a, i?enay/ai? aecia/aiith “neooaoe??
iinoiiaea?io” a eoeueoo?? (I. Eiceianueeee, AE.-O. E?ioa? (J.-F.
Lyotard), AE. Aiae??ey? (J.Baudrillard), AE. Aeae?c (J.Deleuze), ?.
?eue?i) oa nioe?aeueiiio i?ciaii? (Z. Bauman, A. Giddens, P Bourdieu (
C. Aaoiai, ?. A?aeain, I. Ao?aeuea). Aaaiio ?ieue a inieneaii? aaoi?ii
aaaaoueio oaiaeaioe?e ? i???ioe??a no/aniiai nioe?ieia?/iiai
oai?aoecoaaiiy a?ae?a?aee iia? neioace I. Ao?aeue?, A. A?aeaina (E.
Giddens), Aeae. Aeaenaiaea?a (J. Alexander)., I. Eoiaia (N. Luhmann).

Aiaeii/an o i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a a?aenooi?
eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy noaoono nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy a eiioi?eaoeaieo
i?ioeanao; ia aecia/aii ?ieue noai eiiaaioe?eiiai ciaiiy a i?ioeanao
nainiooai?aiiy ? eiinoeoothaaiiy cia/ouiai nioe?aeueiiai na?oo; a?aeo?
oaeiae ?ic?iaie, i?enay/aieo iaoai?ciai cae??ieaiiy, noaiaea?oecaoe?? ?
o?aini?n?? nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy oa eiai ?aaoeyoeai?e ooieoe?? noiniaii
??ciiiai?oieo i?aeoee aaaio?a.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?ic?iaea aaco?oueny ia inieneaii? ??cieo aa?n?e
?icoi?th/i? nioe?ieia?? (oaiiiaiieia??, aoiiiaoiaeieia??) oa nioe?ieia??
iianyeaeaiiy o ?aeiino?othaaii? i?ioean?a aeieeiaiiy ? a?aeoai?aiiy
?ioa?noa’?eoeaiiai ai?eciioo nioe?aeueieo cia/aiue; ia no/anieo
oai?aoe/ieo neioacao o aecia/aii? i?aeoe/iiai ciaiiy aaaio?a ye
i?eioeeio ii?iaeaeaiiy i?aeoeee; ia ?ioaioe?yo iinoiiaea?io a aiae?c?
on?o nioe?aeueieo i?aeoee ye aeeneo?neaieo, a oaeiae ia aea/aii? oiia
aeieeiaiiy, ni?a?nioaaiiy, eiieo?aioe?? ? no?oeoo?ii? aeaoa?i?iaoe??
??ciiiai?oieo aeeneo?neaieo i?aeoee.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aecia/aiiy
noaoono nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy a eiioaeno? ?ioa?aeoe??.

?aae?caoe?y oe??? iaoe aeiaaa? iine?aeiaiiai ?ica’ycaiiy ianooiieo
caaaeaiue:

Ni?aa?aeianoe iniaeeaino? ?icaeyaeo ? niaoeeo?eo eiioeaiooae?caoe??
iianyeaeaiieo nioe?aeueieo oyaeaiue o eeane/i?e ? iinoeeane/i?e
nioe?ieia?/ieo ia?niaeoeaao.

Aecia/eoe ? aca?iini?anoaaeoe eaoaai??? nioe?aeueiino? oa nioe?aeueiiai
ciaiiy a oa?i?iao eiiaaioe?iiaeueieo nenoai cia/aiue.

I?iynieoe (c’ynoaaoe) i?ioeane ia?aeiiiai nai?iceno ? ae??cieoe ??ai?
nieneiai? iiaoaeiae nioe?aeueiiai oi?aa?noio.

Aeaoe oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?e?iaeii? onoaiiaee na?aeiiino? e ia??oiooaaoe ??
no?oeoo?o.

I?iaiae?coaaoe iaoai?cie nioe?aeueii? noaiaea?oecaoe?? oa
?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?? iiaoaeiae nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy.

Aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? aenie?eaoe?? c?ace?a nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy ?
oaoi?ee eiai eiaeeo?eaoe?? ia aeeneo?neaiiio ??ai?.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noa?a
nioe?aeueii? eiioi?eaoe??. I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy ( eiai?oeai? aniaeoe
nioe?aeueii? ?ioa?aeoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii
eiioeaiooaeueio iiaeaeue aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiiiaia nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy,
aecia/aii eiai iioieia?/iee noaoon ye i?aai?caoi?a iianyeaeaiieo
i?aeoee, ia??oioiaaii aiinaieia?/iee noaoon nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy a
oai?aoe/iiio aeeneo?n? nioe?ieia??. O oiae? aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? i?aoaiaeothoue ia iiaecio
? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a naia:

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy, yeee aea? ciiao eiioeaiooae?coaaoe oaiiiaie eiai
ii?iaeaeaiiy, noaiaea?oecaoe?? oa o?aini?n?? (n. 35-42, 59-61, n.
96-103)

Aeoiaey/e c ia?niaeoeae ?icoi?iiy nioe?aeueiino? ye ?ioa?noa(?eoeaii
ni?yiiaaii? aca?iiae??, ia??oioiaaii nai?ioe/io no?oeoo?o nioe?aeueiiai
oi?aa?noio, yea neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio ??ai?a: 1) ia?aeiieo
naiaioecaoe?e nioe?aeueiiai; 2) i?e?iaeii? onoaiiaee; 3) aeeneo?neaieo
iiaeaeae icia/oaaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?aaeueiino? (n. 63-71)

?aeiino?oeiaaii iaoai?ci ia’?eoeaaoe?? oa ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe??
noaiaoeci?a nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy ye c?ace?a ni?eeiyooy oa iiaaae?iee
aiane?aeie “no?oeoo?ieo i?eiooaiue”; i?iaiae?ciaaii ??ciiiai?oi? oaoi?ee
oa ??ai? aenie?eaoe?? nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy; iieacaii ?ieue ia??aoea?a o
eiaeeo?eaoe?? oa ea??oeiaoe?? c?ace?a caaaeueiiai ciaiiy, a oaeiae
aei??iai?noue neeaaeieo eaa?oeiaoe?eieo aeeneo?neaieo nenoai o
nioe?aeuei?e i?aaiaoeoe? (n. 104-108, n.126-130)

I?iaiae?ciaaii e ia??oioiaaii cia/aiiy aeieiioeaiooaeueiiai ciaiiy ye
?aaoeyoi?a i?aeoeee; aecia/aii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?aeoe/ieo noaiaoeci?a oa
aenie?oeeoieo i?aaee ye i?eioeei?a, ui ii?iaeaeothoue ??ciiiai?oi?
nioe?aeuei? i?aeoeee (n. 109-119)

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co oi?aa?naeueieo oi?i aa/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai (
i?ino??o ? /ano ( aia?oa ?icaeyiooi naiaioecaoe?? o?eaniiai a no?oeoo??
nioe?aeueii? eiioi?eaoe?? (n. 160-169)

Aeiaaaeaii ?iciiae?e noaiaea?o?a ni?eeiyooy, ioe?iee oa ae?? caeaaeii
a?ae iiceoe?? aaaioa a nioe?aeueiiio i?inoi?? (n.120-123).

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaiee o ?iaio?
eiioeaiooaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy oaiiiaia nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy
iiaea neoaoaaoe (caeaoiee i?eneoaeeoeny) oai?aoe/iith aacith ?ic?iaee
iaoiaeeee aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiaaioe?eieo ciaiue.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?ioean?
aeeeaaeaiiy ?noi??? ? oai??? nioe?ieia??.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth a?aeae?eo nioe?ieia?? eoeueoo?e
? ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? ?inoeoooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie a oea?ei?
aeine?aeaeaiue eoeueoo?ieo ?aeaioe/iinoae oa ?o eaa?oeiaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoei aeeeaaeaii o
aenooi? ia Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo “Oe?a?inueea
noni?euenoai ia oeyoo aei oeea?e?caoe?? OO( noie?ooy” (Eooeuee, 1997) oa
?V Oeie? iieiaeeo nioe?ieia?a Oe?a?ie “No/ania nioe?ieia?y ia iaae?
oeny/ie?oue” (Aa?aeyinuee, 1997).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? ( 191 n.; nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (216 iaeiaioaaiue)
caeia? 18 n.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? aeeeaaeaii aeooaeuei?noue oa i??a iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy
i?iaeaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo, caaaeaiiy, ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee, iaoeiao
iiaecio ? i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeaii
ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ( “Nioe?aeueia ciaiiy: ni?iaa eiioeaiooae?caoe??” (
?icaeyaea?oueny ci?no ? aaiaaeia?y iniiaiiai iiiyooy aeine?aeaeaiiy (
nioe?aeueia ciaiiy. Nioe?aeueia ciaiiy ie?aneaia o aeaio ?aeo?nao (
?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/iiio oa aiinaieia?/iiio.

?icaeyaea?oueny aiinaieia?/iee noaoon eiioeaioo nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy o
iiaea?i?nonueeeo nioe?ieia?/ieo no?aoaa?yo ? no/anieo nioe?ieia?/ieo
eiioeaiooae?caoe?yo. I?oiaeienaeuei? nioe?ieia?/i? oai???
aeaiiino?othoue nooe?eueio ciaaaao aei ciaiiy, ii?iaeaeaiiai
iianyeaeaiiei nioe?aeueiei aeina?aeii, ye aeaea?aea aaeaeaaoii?
eiioeaiooae?caoe??. Ei??iiy oaeeo oyaeaiue e?e?oueny o ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aiinaieia?/ieo i?eiouaiiyo iiaea?i?nonueei? iaioaeueiino?, ca?aeii yei?:
1) an? a?aeiineie c? na?oii iiaeaeththoueny ia ??oio? ?aeeii?
i?ea?eaeiaaii? cae?aiino?, ( caeaoiino? ?icoio ae?noaaaoe “aeinoia??i?,
aaniethoi?” ?noeie i?i aenoa??i?i? oaiiiaie; 2) iaaeaaiiy iaoee noathoue
ia?aaaaeieie i?eioeeiaie eiinoeoothaaiiy ea?oeie na?oo, a ??
iaoiaeieia?y, caaaeaia (iiaoaeiaaia) ia aeenoaioe?thaaii? niinoa??aa/a
oa i?aaeiaoa niinoa?aaeaiiy, ia’?eoeaoth/iio oa eaocaeueii-aiae?oe/iiio
noee? ieneaiiy noa? aeii?ioth/ith i?ciaaaeueiith i?ioeaaeo?ith. O
aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioo?oueny, ui oae? ?ioaioe?? oai?aoe/ieo i?aeoee
“I?iaeoo iiaea?io”, ye? iaea?eueo /?oei a?aeaeeenue o iaoiaeieia??
i?e?iaeie/i-iaoeiaeo aeenoeeie?i, ia iieioee e nioe?aeueia ciaiiy.
Iaoeiaee noaoon nioe?ieia?? caeaaeaa a?ae canoinoaaiiy iath i?ioeaaeo?
aei??thaaiiy oa aa?eo?eaoe??, aiae?co ae i?aeeyaaee eeoa oaeoe,
aeinooii? aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy oa aei??thaaiiy. Oiio an? noa’?eoeai?
noaie iathoue cia/aiiy eeoa oiae?, eiee iiaeooue aooe iia?aoe?eii
aecia/ai? a oa?i?iao iciae, ui niinoa??aathoueny. Cae/aeii, oaeee i?iaeo
ia i?a a?aoiaoaaoe oyaeaiiy, iiaeyaee, aeoiee aaaio?a, ye?
ia?iaeaeothoueny aaciina?aaeiuei a ?ooei? iianyeaeaiiy ? neeaaeathoue
ei?ion nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy, e i?aai?cothoue ??ciiiai?oi? nioe?aeuei?
i?aeoeee. Nie?ath/enue ia oea, aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui
iiaea?i?nonueea nioe?ieia?y caia?a/oaaea aaoi?eoao iai?ioan?eieo
noaeaeaiue aaaio?a i?i na?o, a?aoiaiooth/e oea oei, ui ethaee
caeaa?eueoiai ia ?icoi?thoue, ui aiie ?iaeyoue ? /iio. Caaaeii oaea
no?aoaa?y eeane/ii? nioe?ieia?? neoaoaaea oa?/iaiith ?ioaeaeooaeueii?
ceeaeaiiino?, aei yei? aoee caaiai? caei?iaee aeocae ? iai?ioan?eia
ciaiiy.

No/ani? nioe?ieia?/i? i?iaeoe, ia a?aei?io a?ae i?oiaeienaeueieo
oai??e, ni?yiiaai? ia oae ia caaaeueiee neioac i?ciaaaeueieo ai?eciio?a,
ye ia ?o iioe?aiiy, aeaiiino?oth/e i?eoaiaiiee ?i aca?iiaeiiiaithth/ee,
a ia aca?iiaeeeth/iee oa?aeoa?. Ia?aaeon?i oea noino?oueny aeciaiiy ca
?ooeiieie iienaie ? iiyniaiiyie iianyeaeaiiiai na?oo, ui aacia?a?aii
cae?enith?oueny aaaioaie, ??aiii?aaiiai noaoono c a?eueo ?icaeiaieie
nenoaiaie aeeneo?n?a (iaoeiaee, e?oa?aoo?iee, iie?oe/iee oiui). Oea
aeaiiino?o? aaaeeeaee aiinaieia?/iee cnoa, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny o no/anieo
nioe?ieia?/ieo i?ia?aiao, a yeeo iianyeaeaiia iai/ia ciaiiy, ui
ni?eeia?oueny ia a??o /eaiaie noni?euenoaa ia o?eueee ?aaa?e?oo?oueny ye
oaea, ui ia? i?aai ia ?nioaaiiy e ia iio?aao? aei?aaaeaiiy, a e
iinooeth?oueny ye canaaeie/a noa?a aeieeiaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iieniaeo ?
iiynithaaeueieo iiaeaeae ?aaeueiino?, oiaoi an?o ?iia??ieo nenoai ciaiiy
a noni?euenoa?.

Aeae? aecia/a?oueny iioieia?/iee noaoon nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy ii??aiyii
?c o?aaeeoe?eiei eiioeaioii ciaiiy nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?iiai ciaiiy.
Iaaieioo?oueny ia oiio, ui a noni?eueiiciaanoa? aeioaia? aenieoaoo?oueny
noanoaioe?eia oyaeaiiy i?i ciaiiy, ca?aeii c yeei: 1) ciaiiy, ye?
a?eueii oee?eoeththoue o nioe?aeueiiio i?inoi??, a?eueo-iaio iiaii ?
a??ii a?aeaeaathoue ciai?oith uiaei na?aeiiino? “ia’?eoeaio”
?aaeuei?noue; 2) ciaiiy yaey? niaith noanoaioe?th, yea i?noeoue o nia?
iaaio ?ioi?iaoe?th, aeayeo aaea ?nioth/o ?aei?noue naino, ui cacae/ae,
ia?aaeaa/a? ?? oe?eeiaeoo ona?aeiieai?noue; 3) o nioe?aeueiiio iie?
ciaiiy aeeiiothoue ?aaoethth/o ooieoe?th oeyoii ii?iae?caoe?? a?aeiinei
i?ae ??cieie nioe?aeueieie iaeeieoeyie, caaacia/oth/e iaiao?aeiee aeey
i?aeo?eiee nioe?aeueiiai ca’yceo “eiioi?eaoeaiee i?i?ioi”; 4)
??ciiiai?oi? aeeneo?neai? nenoaie, a yeeo ia’?eoeao?oueny ana ?nioth/a o
eoeueoo?? ciaiiy, ?icaeyaeathoueny ye i?eioeeiiai noi??i?, oiaoi
ocaiaeaeai? c iaei??th ? o??th ae iiiaeeiith i?aaee. Aaoi? i?aee?aneth?,
ui oaeee i?aeo?ae i?iaieioo? ciaiiy ye oae?, ui eeoa o?aineththoue
cia/aiiy e ia ? nainiii?iaeaeoth/eie ( aiie ? eeoa iaae?aoi?ii, yeee
ia?aaea? nain. O oeueiio ?one? o?eueee ia’?eoeaiaai? o aeeneo?n? aai
neiaie?/ieo ia’?eoao ciaiiy, ye? oe?eeii ona?aeiieththoueny aaaioii ?
neeaaeathoue iioeaaoe?eio aeeiai?eo eiai ?aoe?iiaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?,
i?aeiaaeathoue i?ae eiioeaio ciaiiy.

Oaea eiioeaiooae?caoe?y, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, aeeeth/a? c? noa?e
aeine?aeieoeueei? oaaae oe?eo ieceo oaiiiai?a, cie?aia i?aeoe/i?
?ioi?iaoe?ei? noaie, eiai?oeai? eiino?oeoe ( ye? ni?yiiaothoue
iianyeaeaii? i?aeoeee nioe?aeueieo aaaio?a. Oae? eaoaai??? ni?eeiyooy,
ioe?iee oa ae??, ye? i?aoeththoue ia aeiaa?aaeueiiio ??ai?, ca iaaeaie
ona?aeiieaiiy ? aeeneo?no oaeiae iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe a eaoaai??yo
ciaiiy: ye ni?eueia aeey iaaii? eaoaai??? nioe?aeueia ciaiiy. Oaeei
/eiii, nioe?aeueia ciaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny o aeena?oaoe?? ye eia?oaeueiee
oaiiiai, aea ?ioi?, niaoeeo?/ii?, ia a?aei?io a?ae eeane/iiai ?aeaaeo
?aoe?iiaeueiino?, iiaeaeueiino?. Aaoi? aeie?aieth? oae? i?eioeeiia?
iiiaioe oeueiai ae??ciaiiy: 1) ?iie?oeeoi? eiino?oeoe nioe?aeueiiai
ciaiiy aeieiioeaiooaeuei? oa aei?aoeaeneai?, ? oiio ia nenoaiaoe/i? e ia
i?aaeiaoi?, ia a?aei?io a?ae eiioeaiooaeueii-aeeneo?neaieo oi?i ciaiiy;
2) iicaye nioe?aeueia ciaiiy aeooae?co?oueny a iiiaio? ii?iaeaeaiiy
naino, aiii a?aeoai?th? neooaoeai? cia/aiiy, ye? ? oi?eaeueieie e eeoa
/anoeiai ia’?eoeaothoueny; 3) nioe?aeuei? ciaiiy ia iiaeooue
?icaeyaeaoeny a aeaiioaoeaiiio iiaeon?, oiaoi a oa?i?iao
?noeie/oeaiino?. ?aeeiei e?eoa???i aaeaeaaoiino? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo noai
neoao? ?o iaae?ei?noue ( oni?oia caaa?oaiiy i?aeoeee.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ( “Noaoon nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy a eiioaeno?
?ioa?aeoe??” ( ?icaeyaeathoueny i?ioeane naiaioecaoe?? nioe?aeueii?
?aaeueiino? e ii?iaeaeaiiy cia/ouiai nioe?aeueiiai oi?aa?noio ia iniia?
iaoa?i?a nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy, a oaeiae ?o cia/aiiy ye ii?iaeaeoth/iai
i?eioeeio ??ciiiai?oieo i?aeoee.

Aaoi? iaaiaeeoue e?eoe/i? a?aoiaioe uiaei eaoaai??? “/enoiai” aeina?aeo
ye aaciina?aaeiueiai niiaeyaeaiiy ia?oeaioeaieo, aenoa??i?ieo oaiiiai?a,
yea yaey? niaith oeaio?aeueia iiiyooy o oaiiiaiieia?/i?e o?aaeeoe??.
Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui “/enoa, ia?aeiia, aaciina?aaei?” niiaeyaeaiiy
i?e?iaeieo ? nioe?aeueieo oaiiiai?a iiina?aaeeiaaia nenoaiith
?ioa?noa’?eoeaieo niene?a: nioe?aeueii eiinoeooeiaaieo, nioe?aeueii
a?aeoai?aieo ? nioe?aeueii ?iciiae?eaieo. Aecia/a?oueny, ui an? oi?ie
aeina?aeo aei??iai? o ia?aeiieo naiaioecaoe?yo nioe?aeueii? ?aaeueiino?.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aaoi? o no?oeoo?? nieneiaiai ono?ith nioe?aeueiiai
oi?aa?noio ae??ciy? o?e ??ai?, eiaeiiio c yeeo a?aeiia?aea? iaaiee oei
?iaioe nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy:

1) Ia?aeii? naiaioecaoe?? nioe?aeueii? ?aaeueiino? neeaaeathoue aaciaee
??aaiue inieneaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ia aaciina?aaeiuei /ooo?ai-i?aaeiaoiiio
??ai?. Oeae ??aaiue icia/oaaiiy oa?aeoa?ecothoue ia o?eueee
aei?aoeaeneai? ee?oa ? eaiiie nainiii?iaeaeaiiy; a?i aecia/a? no?oeoo?e
ni?eeiyooy, aa/aiiy, eio?? aienai? a aaaioa, iaeaaeaoue eiio, ye ?
aoaeue-yeiio i?aaenoaaieeo ethaenueeiai ?iaeo, ? oi?iothoue aacenio
no?oeoo?o i?aai?caoe?? noa’?eoa. Oeae oa? iaoa?i?a icia/oaaiiy iaea?eueo
noaoe/iee ? iai?aeaeaaeiee o?ainoi?iaoe?yi o neeo nai?? aeeaeiii?
aei??iaiino? o i?aena?aeiieo no?oeoo?ao.

2) Ianooiiee ??aaiue neeaaea?oueny c a?eueo ?ooeeaeo nenoai cia/aiue,
i?ioa oaeiae ia?aoeaeneaieo. Eaeaoueny i?i no?oeoo?e i/aaeaeiiai, ye?
eiinoeooththoue i?e?iaeio onoaiiaeo na?aeiiino? ? yaeythoue niaith
naieoe?iiiaai? ii?iaoeaieie nenoaiaie eoeueoo?e oyaeaiiy i?i i?eionoei?
e ii?iaeuei? cia/aiiy ia’?eo?a, ae?e (ye nai?o iniaenoeo oae ? ?ioeo) ?
i?eeiyoi? naine aeaiaio?a ??ciiiai?oieo nioe?aeueieo neooaoe?e. Oeueiio
??aith ?iaioe noaiaoeci?a nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy a?aeiia?aeathoue oae?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, ye aaciina?aaei?noue, iaoaiaoeciaai?noue,
naiic?icoi?e?noue.

3) O?ao?e ??aaiue naiaioecaoe?e nioe?aeueii? ?aaeueiino? neeaaeathoue
??cii??aei? ca nooiaiai i?aai?ciaaiino?, iioe?aiino?, nooiaiai
?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?? “aeeneo?neai? oi?iaoe??”. ??ciiiai?oi? “iiai?
?a?e” yaeythoue niaith aeineoue aaoiiiii? aieeaae, ye? aecia/athoue nai?
i?aaeea ii?iaeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaiiai a ?o iaaeao oeio aeeneo?no
(iaoeiaiai, iie?oe/iiai, anoaoe/iiai oiui). Ao?i, oi/ yeeie a neeaaeieie
aoee aeeneo?neai? i?aeoeee, an? aiie a oie oe ?ioee niin?a aenie?eothoue
aei?aoeaeneai? i?aeoe/i? noaiaoecie.

Aeae? aeaoaeueii oa?aeoa?eciaaii eiaeai c oeeo ??ai?a nioe?aeueiiai
nai?iceno, cie?aia i?inoi?o i?e?iaeii? onoaiiaee na?aeiiino?. A ??
no?oeoo?? aaoi? ae??ciy? o?e ??ai?: 1) ciaiiy i?i oei?ciaai? ia’?eoe, ?o
yeino? oa i?ia?aie ooieoe?iioaaiiy a ??ciiiai?oieo i?aaiaoe/ieo
eiioaenoao; 2) oyaeaiiy aai iecea i?eiouaiue noiniaii i?eeiyoii?
iiaaae?iee ?ioeo ? iiaeeeainoae aca?ii?icoi?iiy, ?iaeoa eaaeo/e,
“eiioi?eaoeaia eiiiaoaioi?noue” aaaioa; 3) iayaia ciaiiy ?aoeaio?a
i?aeoe/ieo ae?e ? aecia/aiiy ??cieo eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ieo neooaoe?e
o oa?i?iao iai?iaeaiaoe/ieo i/aaeaeiinoae ( aoaeaiieo ?ooeiieo yeinoae
? i?e?iaeieo, i?eeiyoieo iia?aoe?e.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e ia?oee ae??ciaiee o no?oeoo?? i?e?iaeii? onoaiiaee
eiiiiiaio, aaoi? ?ice?eaa? ?ieue aoaeaiieo oei?caoe?e o i?ioeanao
nioe?aeueiiai nai?iceno ? ooieoe?iioaaii? i?aaiaoe/ieo eaiii?a
nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy. Ae?aaeath/e nai? ia?aaeeaaiiy a oa?i?iao ?
eaoaai??yo caei?iaiai aeocaeo, aeoi? oei?co? ?o ? aiaeii/an iicaaaey? ?o
niaoeeo?/iino? e oi?eaeueiino?, i?eoaiaiieo ?i ye eiai iniaenoiio
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio aeina?aeo. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, nioe?aeueia ?nioaaiiy
oaeo?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeina?aeo, i?ciaaaii?noue ?o o oiio ?icoi?ii?,
ui aiie iiaeooue aooe i?aeoaa?aeaeai? e ia??oioiaai?, anoaiiaeth?oueny
eeoa caaaeyee ?o oei?caoe??. ? i?ioean ?o i?ciaiiy oeyoii oei?coth/iai
ae?aaeaiiy nai ii nia? aeyaey?oueny i?eioeeiii i?aai?caoe?? aeina?aeo.
Ioaea, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iniiaith nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy ?
nioe?aeueii naieoe?iiiaai? eeaneo?eaoe?? ia’?eo?a ae?eniino? aai nenoaie
i?eeiyoieo oei?caoe?e, ui ?o iiae?eythoue /eaie iaaii? ni?eueiioe.

Aiae?cothoueny aacia? i?eiouaiiy i?e?iaeii? onoaiiaee, ye? ae?inoathoue
c iaiao?aeiino? aca?ii?icoi?iiy oa aca?iiae??, a naia ( oei?caoe??
iniaenoinoae ? ae?e. Iianyeaeaiia ieneaiiy aeiea? a?aei?ii?noue
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ia?niaeoea ca aeiiiiiaith aeaio iniiaieo
?aeaae?caoe?e: 1) aca?iicai?i?aaiino? oi/ie ci?o oa 2) ca?ao nenoai
?aeaaaioiinoae (A. Ooooe). O iaaeao “ie-a?oie” a?eueo?noue iniaeno?nieo
? iiaaae?ieiaeo oei?a ni?eeiathoueny ye uinue oe?eeii c?icoi?ea ( ye
iaa?? i?aaee ? i?eien?a, ye? aein? ia ni?inoiaai? ?, eiia??ii ia
aoaeooue ni?inoiaai? a iiaeaeueoiio.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, a iniia? iianyeaeaiieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e, eaaeaoue
nioe?aeueii i?aai?ciaai? e ?iciiae?eai? nenoaie cia/aiue, ye? a nai?e
noeoiiino? ooai?ththoue caaaeueio nenoaio a?aee?eo (aai nenoaio oiiiaeo
i/?eoaaiue). Oey nenoaia i?eeia?oueny ye uinue ia?a?nii caaeaia, oa ca
aeiiiiiaith /iai ni?eeiathoueny e i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny iiae??, ae?? oa
yaeua nioe?aeueiiai na?oo. Oae? oei?ciaai? eiino?oeoe /anoi
?inoeoooe?iiae?cothoueny ye noaiaea?oe iiaaae?iee, ui i?aeo?eiothoueny
cae/ayie ? o?aaeeoe??th, a ?iiae? ( e caniaaie nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth.

Aeae? ?icaeyiooi, yeei /eiii oe? eiiaaioe?ei? i?aaeea ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
nioe?aeueii noaiaea?oecothoueny, ia’?eoeaothoueny, a?aeoai?ththoueny,
i?aai?cothoueny a nenoaie oa “i?eioniai” iaiao?aeii canaiththoueny
?iaeea?aeii. Eiiaaioe?ei? cia/aiiy ni?aaae? aeeeth/athoue iiaeeea?noue
iacaiaee aiane?aeie aeaio i?e/ei: ii-ia?oa, /a?ac ?o i/aaeaei?noue,
oiaoi ni?eeiyooy ye ia’?eoeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee neooaoe??, ye? ia
?aoeaeoothoueny; ii-ae?oaa, aoaeue-yeee noii?a a ?o ?noeiiino?,
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeiaaeaiiy ca iaae? o?aaeeoe?eieo oyaeaiue a?oie, a
ioaea noaaeoue aaaioa a ia???iaeueia noaiiaeua. A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e?
?icaeyaeathoueny i?ioeane, ui ? aeaiaioaie iaoai?cio i?aeo?eiee
?nioth/iai “ii?yaeeo ?a/ae”, a naia:

1) a oa?i?iao nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy ?icaeyiooi ?inoeoooe?iiaeuei?
i?ioeane, ine?eueee a oaeee niin?a noaiaea?oecothoueny iaecia/ou?
oi?ioee ni?eeiyooy oa aca?iiae??. Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui ?inoeoooe?ei?
ii?iaoeae noathoue oeaio?aeueieie eiino?oeoaie, ye? ai?uothoue o nia?
anth nenoaio eiiaaioe?eieo oyaeaiue, ? aiaeii/an, iiina?aaeeiaothoueny
eiino?oeoaie ni?eueiiai ciaiiy, noaiaoecie yeiai aiie eaaae?cothoue ?
ia?aoai?ththoue ia ii?iaoeaii anoaiiaeaiee “eiioi?eaoeaiee i?i?ioi”
cia/aiue, ye? iiae?eythoueny o/anieeaie eiioi?eaoe??. Iieacaii, ye ia
aac? aoaeaiieo oei?caoe?e, ?aeaaaioi?noue yeeo i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
?aaoey?iith i?aeoeeith, ia?iaeaeo?oueny nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo ? ye,
nai?th /a?aith, nioe?aeueia ciaiiy ia’?eoeao? ?inoeoooe?iiaeuei?
cia/aiiy. Oaea noaiaea?oecaoe?y ia icia/a?, ui aaaio iane?aeo? ac??oeyi
ia i?aenoaa? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai, na?aeiiiai aeai?o. ?inoooe?iiae?ciaaia
iiaaae?iea aaco?oueny ia ia ?ic?aooieo, a ia aei?aoeaeneaiiio ii/ooo?,
a?ae/ooo? aei?a/iino?, ii?iaeueiino?, aoaeoeaiino? ae??, oiaoi “ii/ooo?
a?e”. Ana oea ni?aaaaeeeai noiniaii aaea nioe?ae?ciaaiiai noa’?eoa.
Eiee ae ?aeaoueny i?i iaiao?aei?noue ?ioa??i?ecaoe?? ?iaeea?aeii nenoai
“aaa?ooae?ciaaieo” nioe?aeueieo cia/aiue, iinoa? iio?aaa ia o?eueee a ?o
aenie?eaoe??, a e o oiio, uia c?iaeoe oe? ia’?eoeaaoe?? i?aaiaoe/ieo
oi?ioe “ia’?eoeaii aeinooiieie ? noa’?eoeaii a??ia?aeieie”. ?iaeoa
eaaeo/e, aeieea? iio?aaa a eea?oeioth/iio ?o aeeneo?n?.

Ea??oeiaoe?y ye i?ioean “aei?aaaeaiiy” ? “iiyniaiiy”
?inoeoooe?iiae?ciaaii? o?aaeeoe?? ia?aaeaa/a? oai?aoe/io ?iaioo c
eiai?oeaiiai ? ii?iaoeaiiai ia??oiooaaiith ?nioth/iai nioe?aeueiiai
ii?yaeeo. Ia oeueiio ??ai? aeieeathoue aeeneo?neai? oi?iaoe??, ye?
aaia?othoue ciaiiy, ui iaaeaoaeiaothoueny iaae “ia?aeiieie i?aaiaoe/ieie
eiino?oeoaie” nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy o aeaeyae? ?aoeaeneaieo iaoyaeaieo
noia?no?oeoo? “ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo”. Eaeaoueny ia i?i cae/aei?e
aenie?eaoe?? no?oeoo? “aeii?aaeeeaoeaiiai” i?aaiaoe/iiai ciaiiy ca?aaee
eiai oi?iae?caoe?? oa, ia’?eoeaaoe??, oiaoi aeaaaeaiiy ia ??aaiue
na?aeiiino? oa ianooiii? eiaeeo?eaoe??, ye? aiiaeeeaeththoue eia?/iee
eiio?ieue iaae i?aeoeeaie. Aaoi? iaaieioo?, ui eaa?oeioth/? aeeneo?neai?
nenoaie ii?iaeaeothoue iia? nenoaie cia/aiue, ye? neoaothoue aeey
?ioaa?aoe?? cia/aiue, i?eoaiaiieo ??ciiiai?oiei ?inoeoooe?iiaeueiei
i?ioeanai. Ioaea, ea??oeioth/? i?aeoeee ( oea i?ioeaaeo?e, ye?
i?aeo?eiothoue neiaie?/iee ii?yaeie ia o?eueee caaaeyee aeyaeaiith ?
c’ynoaaiith ?iie?oeeoieo i?eioeei?a i?aeoe/iiai ii/oooy, a e ca
aeiiiiiaith eiino?othaaiiy aaoiiiiiiai i?inoi?o niene?a, ye? iioiaeyoue
a?ae ia?aeiieo nieneiaeo eiino?oeo?a ?inoooe?iiae?ciaaieo ae?e.

2) ?icaeyaeathoueny i?ioeane, ye? ? iniiaith aoaeue-yei?
?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?? ( iaoai?cie ia’?eoeaaoe??, eiaeeo?eaoe??
i?aeoe/ieo noaiaoeci?a. I?iaeaia noi?ioeueiaaia ianooiiei /eiii:
iane?eueee iiaii (aei?noei) eiaeeo?eiaai? ii?iaoeae aeaoa?i?iothoue
ae?yeuei?noue nioe?aeueiiai noa’?eoa, oiaoi ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy
uiaei i??e i?eiono, oeneo eiaeo ia aaaioa. A ?iaio? aecia/a?oueny
iiiyooy eiaeeo?eaoe?? ? iaaiaeyoueny iniiai? ?? i?eioeeie. Eiaeeo?eaoe?y
( oea ia?ao?ae eeaneo?eaoe?eieo noai nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy, noa?aioei?a
icia/oaaiiy a ia’?eoeaiaaiee noai. Oaea ia’?eoeaaoe?y iiaea
cae?enithaaoenue ye o aeii?aaiaeo aa?aaeueieo oi?ioeao: “oea ?iaeoueny
oae”, ye? caae/ae, i?noyoue o nia? oe?ii?niee ?iia?aoea “oea ia?
a?aeaoaaoeny oae”, oae ? o aei?noeeo th?eaee/ieo ?a?eaiaioaoe?yo. C
oeueiai aeieeaa? ianooiia i?iaeaia: yeith i??ith ?aaoey?i?noue i?aeoeee
aeaoa?i?iiaaia oi?iaeueieie i?aaeeaie, aenie?eiaaieie ii?iaie?
Eiaeeo?eiaai? ii?iaoeae yaeythoue niaith ia’?eoeaaoe?? i?aaiaoe/ieo
noaiaea?o?a ni?eeiyooy, ?icoi?iiy, ioe?iee oa ae??, ye? iiae?eythoueny
/eaiaie a?oie. Aea, ine?eueee eai?oae “?ioi?iaoe?eieo noai” eeoa
/anoeiai aenie?eo?oueny, a ia?aaaaeia /anoeia ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?
a?oiiaeo aeeniiceoe?e i?eiee ia nyaa? aeeneo?neaiiai ??aiy, iiaeia
i?eionoeoe, ui ia’?eoeaiaai? ii?ie ianooue neiaie?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy.
?inoeoooe?iiae?ciaai? ii?iaoeae iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe, ?aaeoa ye io?oe?ei?
i???ioe?e, ui aecia/athoue ai?eciio on?o iiaeeeaeo ( i?eeiyoieo,
ii?iaeueieo oa ia???iaeueieo ( ae?e ia?aaeaa/aiiai, aai c?aooith
c?icoi?eiai aaaioa.

3) ?icaeyaea?oueny i?iaeaia nioe?aeueiiai ?iciiae?eo ciaiiy. Iani?aaae?
ye iaia? aeaio ?iaeea?ae?a ?c aaniethoii iaeiaeiaei caianii iayaiiai
ciaiiy, oae ia ?nio? e a?aie/ii aeecueeeo eiai?oeaieo no?oeoo?, ye?
aecia/athoue i???ioaoe?? aaaioa. Ao?i iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i a?aeiinio
aiiieia?/i?noue nenoai aeeniiceoe?e o aaaio?a, eio?? iin?aeathoue noiae?
iiceoe?? o nioe?aeueiiio i?inoi??. Nioe?aeueia ?aaeuei?noue
?ioa?i?aoo?oueny aaaioaie ii??ciiio, caeaaeii a?ae aa??aoeaieo
eiai?oeaieo eaoaai??e, noai, aai no?oeoo?, ye?, a naith /a?ao caeaaeaoue
a?ae nioe?aeueii? iiceoe??, iniaenoiai aeina?aeo oiui. Ioaea, iiaeia
aiai?eoe i?i nioe?aeueiee ?iciiae?e ciaiiy. Ana ?icia?ooy oyaeaiue i?i
?aaeuei?noue coiiaeaia ?ica?aei?noth ia?niaeoea aa/aiiy, ye? iiaeia
aecia/eoe ye a?aei?iiino? a iayaiiio caian? ciaiiy, iaeia /anoeia yeiai
?aeaaaioia aeey on?o /eai?a nioe?oio, a ?ioa ( eeoa aeey aeayeeo
eaoaai??e. ?c eiaeiith iiceoe??th a nioe?aeueiiio i?inoi?? iia’ycai?
a?aeiia?aei? noaie ni?eeiyooy, ioe?iee ? aeneiaethaaiiy. Oaeee ?iciiae?e
ciaiue ? nioe?aeueiei, oiaoi coiiaeaiei no?oeoo?iei ni?eeiyooyi
nioe?aeueiiai aaaioa, /e? aeeniiceoe?? ? “i?aeoe/i? noaie” aecia/ai?
ia’?eoeaieie noinoieaie, ui coiiaeththoue eiai iiceoe?th o nioe?aeueiiio
i?inoi??.

O ?iaio? oaeiae ?icaeyiooi nioe?aeueio ai?ioueao ca iaa’ycoaaiiy naiai
aa/aiiy na?oo, oiaoi ca ea??oeii?noue eiino?othaaiiy na?oo caei?iaiai
aeocaeo. Eiaeai nainiaee noaoi?aa?noi, nieneiaa nenoaia ii?iaeaeo? nai?
i?aaeea, ii?ie icia/oaaiiy ? eiino?othaaiiy aeneiaethaaiue ? ?
?aeaaaioiith aeey ?? nioe?aeueiiai iin?y, oiaoi aeey iaaii? nioe?aeueii?
eaoaai???. Aea yeui a nioe?oi? ?niothoue ?cieueiaai? nieneia? nenoaie,
aeieea? ieoaiiy: ye caanoe ??ciiiai?oi? ?ai?acaioaoe?? aei ?aeeiiai
nieneiaiai eiioeiooia? ?inoeoooe?eiee ii?yaeie ia? aooe oe?eeii
c?icoi?eei ye nieneiaa ?aei?noue, a ioaea eiai ne?ae ea??oeioaaoe
“iii?noeaoe”, o neiaie?/iee oi?aa?noi. Neiaie?/i? oi?aa?noie
aecia/athoueny ye nenoaie oai?aoe/ii? o?aaeeoe??, eio?? iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ye iao?eoe? an?o nioe?aeueii ia’?eoeaiaaieo ? noa’?eoeaii
?aaeueieo cia/aiue. E?enoae?caoe?y neiaie?/ieo oi?aa?noiia
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ney i?ioean?a ia’?eoeaaoe??, naaeeiaioaoe?? ?
aeoioeyoe?? ciaiiy. Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui a iniiaith aoaeue-yei?
aeeneo?neaii? oi?iaoe??, neiaie?/iiai oi?aa?noio ? o?aaeeoe?eia
nioe?aeueia ciaiiy, oiaoi ??ciiiai?oi? iiai? ?a?e. Oe? e?ioeaa? iaeano?
cia/aiue iathoue i?aaiaoe/io aaeaioi?noue, iicaye caa’ycai? ia
nioe?aeuei?e i?aaiaoeoe?. Iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii niaoeeo?oe?
ia??aoeaiiai ciaiiy ye iniia? iianyeaeaiiiai aeeneo?no, yea, c iaeiiai
aieo, aenie?eo? iianyeaeaii? i?aaiaoe/i? noaiaoecie, a c ?ioiai ( ?
aacith ea??oeiaoe?? ?ioeo neeaaeieo (oai?aoe/ieo) nieneiaeo nenoai.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ( “Oi?aa?naeuei? oi?ie niiaeyaeaiiy
nioe?aeueiino?“ ?iaeoueny ni?iaa ae??cieoe iaeooiaeaiaioaeuei?o?
iaoa?ie, ye? no?oeoo?othoue nioe?aeueiee aeina?ae ?iaeea?aea ( i?ino?? ?
/an, a oaeiae ?icaeyaea?oueny i?iaeaia o?eaniiai nai?iceno.

Aaoi? ia??oioiao? oaco noiniaiiai oiai, ui eeaneo?eaoe??, iieeaaeai? a
iniiao nioe?aeueii? ia?oeaioe??, aei??iai? a ??cieo aecia/aiiyo i?inoi?o
? /ano. Iieacaii, yeeie /eiii eiinoeooththoueny cia/ou? oiiieia?/i? ?
oaiii?aeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee neooaoe?? aca?iiae?? ?? o/anieeaie ia iniia?
eiinainonieo oi?i aecia/aiiy neooaoe??. Ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo ?ano?n?a
nioe?ieia?? i?inoi?o aeiaiaeeoueny cia/ou?noue i?inoi?iaeo
eeaneo?eaoe?e.

Aeae? ?icaeyaeathoueny o?eani? oi?ie naiaioecaoe?? nioe?aeueiiai.
Aeiaiaeeoueny ui ia?aeiiee aeina?ae o?ce/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai na?o?a
aeiyoeiai o?eaniee. Aoaeue-yeee o?eaniee aeina?ae oii?yaeeiao?oueny
a?aeiinii o?eanii? noaie, yea caaea?oueny eoeueoo?ith e
?ioa??i?eco?oueny aaaioii. O?eania noaia ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ciaiiy, ye?
aeathoue ciiao a?aeiia?aeii aei eiie?aoii? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??
?ioa?i?aooaaoe aeania o?ei ? o?ea ?ioeo, aecia/athoue i?eeiie aieiae?iiy
o?eii, ye ciaiiy yea aenie?eo? o?aaeeoe?ei? o?eani? eaiiie aieiae?iiy ?
ni?eeiyooy o?ea. I?eioeeie ni?eeiyooy e aeei?enoaiiy o?ea neeaaeathoue,
?acii ?c i?inoi?iaeie ?ioo?oe?yie, aaciaee ei?ion noai nioe?aeueiiai
ciaiiy. Ioaea o?ei oea ia’?eo, ?ici?uaii?noue o i?inoi??, ?, ?acii c
oeei, aiii ? aeaea?aeii ?ioa?noa’?eoeaieo ?aaeoe?e. Aaoi? aeie?aieth?
o?eani? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ye? oei?cothoueny o ia?oo /a?ao: 1) oea
iaea?eueo i/aaeaei? ? i?e?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?ea ( ?ici?? (aaaa,
c??no) ? oi?ie; 2) oea oaeiae oa?aeoa?enoeee, ye? ia i?aeaeathoueny
aei??thaaiith: noaaeaiiy aei o?ea caaaeii iaaeyae ca iei (einiaoeea,
iaeya), ?iaioa c iei, eiai aaeineiiaeaiiy, eoeueoeaoaaiiy (nii?o) oiui;
3) i?aoa?aioe?? o oa?/oaaii?: aea?? ?ae?, a oaeiae eoeueoo?a ? ?eooaee
?? niiaeeaaiiy; 4) ?iaioa o?ea acaaae?, eiai iioi?eea.

AENIIAEE

O aeniiaeao i?aeaeoi iniiai? i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii
ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie. Iniiaiei ?acoeueoaoii
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea eiioeaiooaeueii? iiaeae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiiiaia nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy, yea aiiaeeeaeea aecia/aiiy
eiai iioieia?/iiai noaoono ye ?aaoeyoi?a iianyeaeaiieo i?aeoee aaaio?a,
oa iaa?oiooaaoe eiai aiinaieia?/iee noaoon o oai?aoe/iiio aeeneo?n?
nioe?ieia??. ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aea? ciiao ?icaeyiooe
nenoaio eiiaaioe?eieo ciaiue ye aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiee oaiiiai ?
iaa?oiooaaoe ieceo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue, a naia: 1) aeiaaaeaii, ui a
iniia? a?eueoino? iianyeaeaieo i?aeoee eaaeeoue ia na?aeiiee aea??
aaaioa, a i?aeoe/i? noaie, ye? ? aeiaeeneo?neaieie nenoaie aai
eiino?oeoaie i???ioaoe?? o nioe?aeueiiio i?inoi??; 2) iaa?oioiaaii, ui a
iaoa?iao nioe?aeueiiai (caaaeueiiai) ciaiiy in?aeathoue cia/aiiy, ye?
eiinoeooththoue nenoaie iai/iiai, iai?iaeaiaoe/iiai ? naiic?icoi?eiai
aeina?aeo ( naiic?icoi?eeo ia’?eo?a oa ?o oa?aeoa?enoee, oeiiaeo
iniaenoinoae ? ?ieae, an??? noeoiiino? ia?aoeaeniaaieo i/?eoaaiue, ui
neeaaea? i?ino?? “i?e?iaeii? onoaiiaee” na?aeiiino?; 3) ?aeiino?oeiaai?
iaoai?cie eiaeeo?eaoe?? oa ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?? nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy
i?ae oeneii “no?oeoo?ieo i?eiooaiue”; 4) aeiaaaeaii, ui ?iciiae?e
noaiaea?o?a ni?eeiyooy, ioe?iee oa ae?? caeaaeeoue a?ae iiceoe?? aaaioa
o nioe?aeueiiio i?inoi??; 5) iaa?oioiaaii, ui a iniia? aoaeue-yei?
aeeneo?neaii? oi?iaoe??, neeaaeiiai neiaie?/iiai oi?aa?noio ia?aaoaa?
o?aaeeoe?eia nioe?aeueia ciaiiy, ioi?ieaia ia?aaaaeii o ia??aoeaao; 6)
ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?aa?naeueieo oi?i niiaeyaeaiiy
nioe?aeueiino? ( i?ino??o oa /ano ( aoee ?icaeyioo? naiaioecaoe??
o?eaniiai ye aaciaiai oa?o icia/oaaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?aaeueiino?.

IOAE?EAOe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a 1 a?ioo?? oa 4 noaooyo:

Iaoiiaa I. Nioeeaeueiia ciaiea: iiuo eiioeaiooaeecaoeee. ( E.: Ei-o
nioeeieiaee IAIO, 1999. ( 58 n.

Iaoiiaa I. Nioe?aeueia ciaiiy: ni?iaa eiioeaiooae?caoe?? // Nioe?ieia?y:
oai??y, iaoiaee, ia?eaoeia. ( 1999. ( ? 2. (

N. 106-117.

Iaoiiaa I. Iianyeaeaiia ciaiiy a eeane/i?e oa iinoeeane/i?e
nioe?ieia?/ieo ia?niaeoeaao // Nioe?aeuei? aei??e noni?euenoaa: Ca.
iaoe. ?ia?o ani??aio?a ? 1. ( E.: ?i-o nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. (
N.3-10.

Iaoiiaa I. Oeaio?aeuei?noue nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy a no/anieo
nioe?ieia?/ieo eiioeaiooae?caoe?yo // Nioe?aeuei? aei??e noni?euenoaa:
Ca. iaoe. ?ia?o ani??aio?a ? 2. ( E.: ?i-o nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie,
1999. ( N.24-33.

Caoa?/aiei I.A., Iaoiiaa I. TH. Oai?aoe/i? i?eiouaiiy iinoiiaea?ii?
oai?aoe/ii? ia?niaeoeae // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. ( 1997. (
Aei. 4. Nioe?ieia?y. Ineoieia?y. Iaaeaaia?ea. ( N. 18(25.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O ioae?eaoe?? ?5 iniaenoi aaoi?ia?
iaeaaeaoue iieiaeaiiy, ui aaciina?aaeiuei oa?aeoa?ecothoue iinoiiaea?i?
?ioaioe?? nioe?ieia?/iiai oai?aoecoaaiiy.

Iaoiiaa I.TH. Nioe?aeueia ciaiiy a no?oeoo?? eiioi?eaoe??. ( ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.01. ( oai??y oa ?noi??y nioe?ieia??. (
?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie. ( Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?noeoue eiioeaiooae?caoe?th oaiiiaia
nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy ye iniiae nioe?aeueiiai nai?iceno ?
aeii?aaeeeaoeaiiai ?aaoeyoi?a i?aeoee. O ?iaio? aecia/a?oueny
iioieia?/iee ? aiinaieia?/iee noaoon nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy a eiioaeno?
?ioa?aeoe??, iaoai?cie eiai ia’?eoeaaoe?? ? noaiaea?oecaoe??, ??ai?
eiaeeo?eaoe??, a?ae ia?aeiieo noai icia/oaaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?aaeueiino?
aei neeaaeieo aeeneo?neaieo oi?iaoe?e.

Ii?yae ?c i?ioeanoaeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie nioe?aeueiiai ciaiiy
?icaeyaeathoueny oi?aa?naeuei? oi?ie niiaeyaeaiiy nioe?aeueiino? (
i?ino?? ? /an, a oaeiae o?ei, aoaeue-ye? i?iyae yeiai caaaeaee
iaaaioaaeai? nioe?aeueieie nainaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueia ciaiiy, eiioi?eaoe?y, nioe?aeueia
?ioa?aeoe?y, eiiaaioe?ei? cia/aiiy (oyaeaiiy), i?e?iaeia onoaiiaea,
nioe?aeueiee nai?icen, ii?iaeaeoth/? i?eioeeie i?aeoeee.

Iaoiiaa I.TH. Nioeeaeueiia ciaiea a no?oeoo?a eiiioieeaoeee. (
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa nioeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.01. ( oai?ey e enoi?ey nioeeieiaee. (
Einoeooo nioeeieiaee Iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaaeaiee iaoe Oe?aeiu. ( Eeaa,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiia enneaaeiaaiea niaea?aeeo iiuo ii?aaeaeaiey
iioieiae/aneiai e aiinaieiae/aneiai noaoona nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey a
eiioaenoa eioa?aeoeee. A ?aaioa aeoeaioe?oaony ia?niaeoeaiinoue
enneaaeiaaiey aaiacena “nioeeaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee”, eiinoeooe?othueo
noa?o cae?aaiai niunea, eioi?ay neaaaaony ec anoanoaaiiuo, ii ioithaeue
ia iaeaiuo, aicc?aiee aaaioia, i?aaeoanoaothueo eo iianaaeiaaiui
i?aeoeeai.

Nioeeaeueiia ciaiea ?anniao?eaaaony a ?aaioa eae iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiue
oaiiiai, iaoiaeyueeny a oeaio?a nia?aiaiiuo nioeeieiae/aneeo
eiioeaiooaeecaoeee. A iaooa?iao nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey ii?aaeaeyaony aanue
nioeeaeueiue iiuo eiaeeaeaea, aeeth/ay ia?ae/iua naiaioecaoeee
?aaeueiinoe aei ?acaeouo, neiaeiuo aeeneo?neaiuo nenoai.

Aeey i?iyniaiey iioieiae/aneiai noaoona nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey a eiioaenoa
eioa?aeoeee a aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony niuneiaia no?iaiea
nioeeaeueiiai oieaa?noia. Aeieacuaaaony, /oi a iniiaa anyeiai
niuneiiaaeaeaiey eaaeao oeiece?iaaiiua eiino?oeou (noaiu icia/eaaiey)
nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey. I?aaeiaoii niaoeeaeueiiai aiaeeca noaiiaeony
anoanoaaiiay onoaiiaea niciaiey, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie cia/eiua
iauaeou, “ae?oaea” e ?aciiia?aciua oa?aeoa?enoeee nioeeaeueiiai
ie?oaeaiey eiaeeaeaea aini?eieiathony eae ia/oi naii niaie
?acoiathuaany, ia iiaeaa?aathuaany ?aoeaenee (ii e?aeiae ia?a, a iiiaioa
eiiioieeaoeee) e neaaathuaa nenoaio i/aaeaeiinoae.

Nioeeaeueiia ciaiea ooieoeeiie?oao ca a?aiueth niciaiey e aeeneo?na, ia
aeioai?aoe/aneii o?iaia e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aunooiaao
“aeii?aaeeeaoeaiui”, ii aieueoae /anoe iainiciaaaaiui ?aaoeyoi?ii
i?aeoee. Noaiu nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey iaiaoiaeeii iauaeoeae?othony e
noaiaea?oece?othony a aeeneo?na eee neiaiee/aneeo iauaeoao a ea/anoaa
ia?acoeia aini?eyoey e iiaaaeaiey aneaaenoaea “no?oeoo?iuo
i?eioaeaeaiee”.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony nioeeaeueiia ciaiea eae ?aaoeyoi?
?aciiia?aciuo i?aeoee nioeeaeueiuo aaaioia ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie
ii?iaeaeathueie i?eioeeiaie i?aeoee. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony
niioianaieth yenieeoeeoiuo i?aaee acaeiiaeaenoaey ( noi?ioee?iaaiiuo
th?eaee/aneeo ii?iaoeaia eee aeii?aaiauo i?aaee, o?ainee?othueo ia?acoeu
iianaaeiaaiuo eiiioieeaoeee, ( e aeiaeeneo?neaiuo noaiaoeciia,
eiaieoeaiuo eiino?oeoia aeaeaiey, ioeaiee e aeaenoaey. Iainiiauaaaony,
/oi a iniiaa i?aeoeee eaaeeo iniiaaiiia ia aeii?aaeeeaoeaiuo iaooa?iao
icia/eaaiey nioeeaeueiiai eiioaenoa nioeeaeueiia ciaiea, a ia
eaaeoeiiua, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiua naieoeeyie nioeeaeueiiai eiio?iey,
th?eaee/anee noi?ioee?iaaiiua ia?acoeu. Oaeei ia?acii, nioeeaeueiia
iiaaaeaiea i?iaeaiaoe/ii naiaeeoue e iaeiiio eeoue ?aaeaiaioe?othuaio
i?anneiao einoeoooeeiiaeece?iaaiiuo ii?iaoeaia ( a iniiaa nioeeaeueiiai
aeaenoaey eaaeao oieeaeueii a?aiaee?iaaiiua noaiu eioa?i?aoaoeee,
ninoaaeythuea eaieoae iaee/iiai ciaiey aaaioa. Yoio eaieoae
aeooaeece?oaony a iiiaioa eioa?aeoeee (eiiioieeaoeee) a niioaaonoaee n
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie niuneiia?aciaaiey, a cia/eo, iiaaaeaiea
nioeeaeece?iaaiiiai noauaeoa ia iiaeao auoue i?aaeneacaii ia iniiaaiee
nouanoaothueo a niiauanoaa yenieeoeeoiuo i?aaee.

Aianoa n oai a ?aaioa iiae/??eeaaaony, /oi iaooa?iu nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey
(i?aaiaoe/aneea noaiu eioa?i?aoaoeee) ii?aaeaeytho
einoeoooeeiiaeece?iaaiioth noa?o iiaaaeaiey e ana, iiaeiaaeathuea iiae
a? ?aiee neooaoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, aieueoeinoai cia/aiee
naaeeiaioe?iaaiiuo a noaiaoeciao e eeanneoeeaoeeyo nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey,
nioeeaeueii naieoeeiie?iaaiu e einoeoooeeiiaeueii iiaeaea?aeeaathony,
/oi i?aaeiieaaaao eo eiaeeoeeaoeeth, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao iauaeoeaioth
aeinooiiinoue e noauaeoeaioth aa?iyoiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiuo noai.

A eiaeeoeeaoeee nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey aeiieie?otho ia??aoeaiua oi?iu, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, eae aaciaay oi?ia iauaeoeaaoeee, n ae?oaie ( eae
i?aaiaoe/aneay iniiaa neiaeiie aeeneo?neaiie oi?iaoeee.

A oeaeii eco/aiea eiaieoeaiuo iiaeaeae niuneiia?aciaaiey, i?ioeannia
ii?iaeaeaiey eioa?noauaeoeaiuo nioeeaeueiuo cia/aiee, a cia/eo e oaoiee
naiieioa?i?aoaoeeee e eiino?oe?iaaiey cia/eiiai nioeeaeueiiai ie?a
ioe?uaaao ia?niaeoeau ia?aoi?ioee?iaaiey oaiu nioeeaeueiiai ii?yaeea,
iineieueeo i?aaeiieaaaao eco/aiea ia oieueei aai noanoaioeeiiaeueiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee, ii e aeayoaeueiinoiuo e yecenoaioeeaeueii-ee/iinoiuo
ecia?aiee.

A yoii ?aeo?na aeaeueiaeoaa enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeannia ii?iaeaeaiey,
noaiaea?oecaoeee e o?ainiennee iaueo nioeeaeueiuo cia/aiee
(nioeeaeueiiai ciaiey) iicaieeo ia?aoi?ioee?iaaoue e i?iynieoue
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua i?iaeaiu nioeeieiae/aneiai oai?aoece?iaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueiia ciaiea, eiiioieeaoeey, nioeeaeueiay
eioa?aeoeey, eiiaaioeeiiaeueiua cia/aiey (i?aaenoaaeaiey), anoanoaaiiay
onoaiiaea, nioeeaeueiue naieicen, ii?iaeaeathuea i?eioeeiu i?aeoeee.

Naumova M. Yu. Social knowledge within the structure of communication. (
Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s of sociologic science degree. Specialised field
22.00.01. ( Theory and History of Sociology. ( Institute of Sociology of
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. ( Kyiv, 1999.

The candidate’s thesis contains an analysis of ontological and
gnosiological status of social knowledge within the context of
interaction. The author has analysed a meaning of the term “social
knowledge”, its function in the process of sense creation and regulation
of different social practices. The social knowledge mechanism of
standardisation, institutionalisation and levels of codification – from
initial level of social sense creation to difficult discourse formation
— are also investigated in thesis.

Key words: social knowledge, communication, social interaction,
conventional meaning, natural attitude, social sense creation,
generating principles of social practice.

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 28.05.99. Oi?iao 60×84/16. Iai?? ionaoiee.

Aeae?oeiaaii ia ??cia?ao?. Aa?i?oo?a “Times New Roman”.

Oi.-ae?oe. a?e. 1,3. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,1. Iaeeaae 100 i?ei.

Cai. Aaceiooiaii.

Aeae?oeiaaii NI “?ioa?oaoae?oe”, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aeieo??anueea, 30

Oae.: 216-5431, 216-2910, 216-4298.

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