EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

OOE?IIAA EA?ENA AANEE?AIA

OAeE 883.08 (Oe?a?iea Eany)

NEIAANIA IIAOEEA EAN? OE?A?IEE

(iiaoecaoe?y naiaioeee eieuei?o)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.01 – oe?a?inueea iiaa

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? iiae Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – Aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eaaeiioeaaa
Ea?ena Ieaenaiae??aia, Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe

Aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ionoia?o Ethaia Iiaeyi?aia, ?inoeooo
oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

Eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe Oaa/aiei Ea?ena Eaii?ae?aia, Oe?a?inueeee
iiaii-?ioi?iaoe?eiee oiiae IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – eaoaae?a noee?noeee oe?a?inueei? iiae
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ieoaeea Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ( 27 ( o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.19 o Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ( 252017, i. Ee?a, aoeueaa? Oaa/aiea,
14 ).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ( i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58, e. 10 ).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii ( 26 ( ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio Oaoiaa E.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aea/aiiy i?ioean?a iiaiiai ?icaeoeo, cie?aia a
aniaeoao aeyao aeni?aneaieo iioaioe?e iiae, ? aeooaeueiith aoiai?oa?iith
i?iaeaiith, oiio ui a oe?eiio noino?oueny iiae ye aeyao aeooiaii?
eoeueoo?e ia?iaeo. Aoaie oeueiai ?icaeoeo yne?aai iinoathoue,
iaoa??ae?cothoueny o oai?/ino? ienueiaiiee?a, ye? ?noi?e/ii iathoue
i?aai caaoeny iiaieie iniaenoinoyie, ?icaoaeiaieeaie iiae. Naia oaeith
iiaiith iniaeno?noth ? Eany Oe?a?iea. ?ae?inoeeue ienueiaiieoe? –
yne?aaa na?ae/aiiy aaiethoe?? oe?a?inueei? iiae o noa?ao ? aeooiaiiai ??
?noaa, e ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai aa?oo. A?aeoae, aea/ath/e iiai? ia?niiae??
aeaeaoieo iiaioai?oe?a iiaeia i?inoaaeeoe ca aa?oeiaie ?icaeoeo iiae o
ieei? /ano e o ia?niaeoeaao ua ia ?aae?ciaaieo iiaeeeainoae.

Aea?? oaie aiioeaiaaii oei, ui eieuei?iiaeiaioaaiiy ? iaeieie c
iaeae?aci?oeo iieaciee?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? aaoi?a, ?ice?eaathoue
iniaeeaino? ni?eeiyooy e a?aeia?aaeaiiy iei iiaii? ea?oeie na?oo. Naia
eieuei?iiaeiaioaaiiy ? ae?aciith ao?eaooeaiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith oe?ieiai
eiea aaaeeeaeo aeey ieooey ia?ac?a, o oiio /ene? e eeth/iaeo, ui
i?ioiaeyoue iane??cii /a?ac onth oai?/?noue.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy eieuei?iiaca o e?iaa?noeoe? ia? aeaaith o?aaeeoe?th,
iaeiae i?iaeaie, ui iinoathoue i?ae /an ?icaeyaeo naiaioe/iiai iiey
ne?a-eieuei?iiaeiaioaaiue, – iaae/a?ii?. Aea/aiiy i?ioean?a
a?aeia?aaeaiiy eieuei?ia?ae/oooy a iia? ?icii/aoi ua ca /an?a A??noioaey
e iei? o?eaa? a ??cieo e?iaa?noe/ieo aaeocyo: aoeiieia?? oa ?noi???
eieuei?iiaeiaioaaiue (I. Aao?e?ia, ?. Ae?ii??aa, A. Ai?iaaoeue,
I. *?eaei oa ?i.); neiaioai?? (I. Eeeiaiei, I. Aec?aae, A. O??ae?ae);
e?iaainoaoenoeoe? (A. Iineiae/); ineoie?iaa?noeoe? (?. O?oie?ia,
I. Aaneeaae/, A. Caeaanueea); iaeiiai?oa i?aaenoaaeai? a iiaiciaanoa?
aeine?aeaeaiiy eieuei?iiaca o nenoai? iiaii-ae?aaeaeueieo cania?a iiae
ienueiaiiee?a (A. A?eee, A. E?eoaiei, E. Ionoia?o, E. Noaaeoeueea oa
?i.).

Eieuei?iiicia/aiiy a e??eoe? Ean? Oe?a?iee ?icaeyaea? o nai?e i?aoe?
I. ?enae, i?ioa aaoi? ia aeyaey? iayaieo nenoaiii-no?oeoo?ieo ca(yce?a o
iaaeao naiaioe/iiai iiey eieuei?iiaca onueiai ooaeiaeiueiai iiaeaiiy
Ean? Oe?a?iee, aeineoue noaiaoe/ii aecia/a? eieuei?iao neiaie?eo, eio?a
? iaa?ae(?iiith aeanoea?noth iiaoe/iiai iiaeaiiy, ia caa?oa? oaaae ia
cia/aiiy naiaioe/ii? niieo/oaaiino? a aeii?iaioieo a?oiao
eieuei?iiaeiaioaaiue.

Ioaea, aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe coiiaeaia a?aeii nenoaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
naiaioe/iiai iiey eieuei?iiaca o oai?/ino? iaeno??a ooaeiaeiueiai neiaa,
o oiio /ene? e Ean? Oe?a?iee – iaei??? c iaeyne?aa?oeo iinoaoae a
oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo??, iiaa yei? ? iaeiei ?c iaea?eueo oe?iieo
caeiaooe?a a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae.

Iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue aea??ea eieuei?iiaca (iiiaae 2
oeny/? iiaieo neooaoe?e) ca iiaiei aeaeaiiyi oai??a Ean? Oe?a?iee
(Oe?a?iea Eany. Oai?e o 12-oe o., O. 1-7) ? ie?aiei aeaeaiiyi
ae?aiaoe/ii? iiaie (Aiy?eiy(.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? nenoaiia aeine?aeaeaiiy naiaioe/iiai iiey eieuei?iiaca
a ?ae?inoee? Ean? Oe?a?iee. Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a?
?ica(ycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

– aecia/eoe iae?o?o eieuei?iaeo iii?iaoe?e o iiaoe/iiio iiaeaii? Ean?
Oe?a?iee;

– c(ynoaaoe ooaeiaeiuei-noee?noe/i? ooieoe?? eieuei?iiaeiaioaaiue o
iiaoe/i?e iae?o?? neiaanieo ia?ac?a ienueiaiieoe?;

– aeine?aeeoe nenoaiii-no?oeoo?i? iciaee iaca eieuei??a oa ?o ooieoe?? a
eiioaeno? ooaeiaeiueiai iiaeaiiy Ean? Oe?a?iee;

– aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? aaeeaaiiy eieuei?iiaeiaioaaiue o ca(yceo c
aaoi?nueeith ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noth.

Iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy aecia/athoue ye eiiiiceoe?th ?iaioe, oae ? i?eeiie
oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeia?? iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a, canoiniaaieo o
cai?iiiiiaai?e aei ?icaeyaeo ?iaio?, coiiaeaiee oaeiae niaoeeo?eith e
ianyaii ia?aiiai aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoa??aeo. Ioaea, iniiaieie ?
iaoiae ii??aiyiiy oa c?noaaeaiiy, iieniaee iaoiae, iaoiae eiiiiiaioiiai
aiae?co oa iaoiae i?ae?aooie?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia e oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iieyaathoue o oiio, ui aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e noee?noeoe? nenoaiii
aeine?aeaeaii naiaioe/ia iiea eieuei?iiaca onueiai ooaeiaeiueiai
iiaeaiiy Ean? Oe?a?iee ye iaeei c aniaeo?a oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ae?inoeeth
ienueiaiieoe? ? ye can?a a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? iiaii? ea?oeie
na?oo; aia?oa c?iaeaia ni?iaa oeeanoe neiaiee niieo/oaaiino?
ne?a-eieuei?iiaeiaioaaiue o iiaioai?/ino? ienueiaiieoe? e
aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe a?oie ca naiaioe/iith niieo/oaai?noth a iaaeao
aeii?iaioieo eieuei?iiicia/aiue, iienaaoe ?o caaaeath/e ia aeio?eiaiiy
o?aaeeoe?e oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aaoi?nueea aeei?enoaiiy anioe?aoeaii?
neiaie?ee a iiaoe/iiio oa i?iciaiio iiaeaii?, ui iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia?oei
e?ieii aei noai?aiiy Neiaieea iiae Ean? Oe?a?iee, yeiai e aein? ia
oeeaaeaii.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe aeyaey?oueny a oiio, ui ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a oai?aoe/ieo i?aoeyo c ?noi???
iiai? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, ?ae?inoee?noeee, noee?noeee, a
oaeiae o i?iaaaeaii? niaoeeo?n?a ? niaoenai?ia??a ?c cacia/aieo
aeenoeeie?i, aeey iaienaiiy i?ae?o/iee?a ? iin?aiee?a c ?noi??? iiae oa
?ae?inoee?noeee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeaoaaeany ia
eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (1993, 1994, 1996, 1998); ia
tha?eaei?e eiioa?aioe?? aei 120-oe ??//y a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy
?. O?aiea (Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 1996); ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? iiae o?eieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea; oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aeia?aaeai? a /ioe?ueio ioae?eaoe?yo,
ai?iaaaeaeothoueny a i?aeoeeo aeeeaaeaiiy noee?noeee ia o?eieia?/iiio
oaeoeueoao? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

C?a?aiee iaoa??ae aoei aea/aii, eeaneo?eiaaii oa ?icaeyiooi a ??cieo
aniaeoao, i?aaenoaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?ei?e i?aoe?.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
(189 iiceoe?e), aeiaeaoeo A (Neiaiee niieo/oaaiino? eieuei?iiaeiaioaaiue
– 45 n.). Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe – 186 n.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? oaie, aeooaeuei?noue a aniaeo?
?ae?inoee?noe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii iaoo e caaaeaiiy,
aiioeaiaai? iath, iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy oa i?aeoe/ia
canoinoaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe, aeacaii ia ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – (Eiei?enoe/i? iii?iaoe?? ye
ooaeiaeiuei-cia?aaeaeueiee can?a iiae( – ?icaeyiooi iacae eieuei??a ye
ciaee a?aeia?aaeaiiy, anioe?aoeai? iii?iaoe?? a iacaao eieuei??a,
o?aaeeoe?? iieno ?ie? eieuei?iiaca o ooaeiaeiueiio iiaeaii?.

Iaei??th c iniiaieo ooieoe?e iiae ? ia?aaea/a ci?iai? ?ioi?iaoe??, yea
? ?acoeueoaoii ni?eeiyooy i?aaiaie /oooy iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo. A?aeiii,
ui aeecueei 90% ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i na?o ethaeeia io?eio? /a?ac ci?ia?
a?ae/oooy oa aeeaa niiaeyaeaiiy. Caeaoi?noue ethaeeie ?ic??ciyoe
eieuei?e ae??ciy? ?? c-iii?ae a?eueoino? aeeaeo ?noio, ? oiio o aeoie?a
eoeueoo?e eie?? /anoi aei??aithaaany neiao. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ethaenueea
iei caeaoia ?ic??ciyoe a niaeo?? a?eiai eieuei?o aeecueei 120
eieuei??a, ?o a?aeo?ie?a ? eiia?iaoe?e, oiio caeiiii??iith ? iio?aaa
aeyaeoe niiniae aeae?eaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie eieuei?iaeo iii?iaoe?e.
Aeath/e iacao eieuei?ia?ae/oooth, ca aecia/aiiyi E. Aoeaoianueeiai,
ethaeeia cae??ieth? ca aeiiiiiaith ne?a caaaeuei? iciaee i?aaeiaoa,
yaeua, ye? iaa?iiaaeaeothoueny a i?ioean? ni?eeoaaiiy ?c ciai?oi?i
na?oii. Ni?eeiath/e na?o, ethaeeia a?aeoai?th? eiai aa?aaeueieie
caniaaie, aeania, a?aeia?aaea?, a ia eii?th?.

Ia iaeii/anio oioiaei?noue ? a?aei?ii?noue o a?aeiioaiiyo ciaea aei
iicia/oaaiiai ia(?eoa, iniaeeai a aniaeo? eiai cia?aaeaiiy, caa?oaa
oaaao ?. sseianii, iaaieiooth/e ia a?aeia?aaeaii? oeeo a?aeiioaiue o
iiaoe/i?e neiaie?oe?.

O no/ani?e e?iaa?noeoe? aeooaeueiei ? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaii? ea?oeie
na?oo, iniaeeai ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? iiaii? ea?oeie na?oo ienueiaiieea, yea
? eiiieaenii aaaaoueio /eiiee?a: eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo,
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo, ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo,
ooaeiaeiuei-ae?aaeaeueieo, coiiaeaieo o?aaeeoe??th, oaiaoeeith oiui.

Na?aae cania?a ia?aaea/? /ooo?aiai ni?eeiyooy na?oo oa eiai
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ciaeiaei niiniaii iaea?eueo ?icaeiaia, /?oei
no?oeoo?iaaia naiaioe/ia iiea eieuei?iiaca, yea a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue
a anoaoe/iiio ni?eeiyoo?.

?niothoue ??ciiiai?oi? eeaneo?eaoe??, a?oioaaiiy ne?a-eieuei?iiaca: ca
o?ce/ieie ia?aiao?aie (E. Ie?iiiaa); ca neiaioai?/ith no?oeoo?ith
(I. Aec?aae); ca no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ieie oeiaie (A. Ee?e/aiei); ca
aiioeaiaai?noth cia/aiiy (A. Ee?e/aiei, I. Aec?aae); ca /anoioi?noth
aaeeaaiiy (A. Iineiae/); ca iiae?ai?noth o ineoie?iaa?noe/iiio aniaeo?
(?. O?oie?ia); ca iiae?ai?noth a ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo? (I. Aao?e?ia).

I?iaiae?coaaaoe an? iaaaaeai? eeaneo?eaoe??, c?noaaeaoe ?o, ie
?ic?iaeee aeanio aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy eieuei?iiaca a ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e
ooaeiaei?e iiai?e ea?oei? na?oo Ean? Oe?a?iee. Aiia aaco?oueny ia
o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoyo eieuei??a ? ia iiae?aiino?:

1) ao?iiaoe/i? eieuei?iiacae:

– a?oia a?eeo eieuei??a;

– a?oia /i?ieo eieuei??a;

– a?oia n??eo eieuei??a;

2) o?iiaoe/i? eieuei?iiacae:

– a?oia /a?aiieo eieuei??a;

– a?oia aeiaoeo eieuei??a;

– a?oia aeiaoiaa?y/eo eieuei??a;

– a?oia caeaieo eieuei??a;

– a?oia nei?o ? aeaeeoieo eieuei??a;

– a?oia a?oiaoieo eieuei??a;

– a?oia o?ieaoiaeo eieuei??a.

I?aenoaaith aeey aeae?eaiiy a?oi ca iiae?ai?noth ? iayai?noue
neiii?i?/ieo eieuei?iiaeiaioaaiue o iaaeao ye o?iiaoe/ieo, oae ?
ao?iiaoe/ieo eieuei??a. I?ioa ?niothoue oae? eieuei?iiicia/aiiy, ye?
neeaaeii a?aeianoe aei iaaiiai eieuei?o /a?ac ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
iniaeeaino? ?o ni?eeiyooy (iai?., neaee, n??aiee, i?aeyiee, ?oaeee oa
?i.). O iioeaaoe?? a?aeianaiiy oaeeo eieuei?iiaca aei iaaieo a?oi ca
iiae?ai?noth aeei?enoaii ineoie?iaa?noe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
eiioaenooaeueio niieo/oaai?noue.

Neiaa oeio na?oeee, aa?aenoee, oueiyiee, aeeneo/ee, yniee ? iiae?ai? ia
aaaaea?ii eieuei?iiacaaie, oi/a ?o naiaioeea e ia?aoeia?oueny c?
cia/aiiyi eieuei?o. Ia ae?aaeath/e aeania eieuei?iaino?, aiie aeacothoue
eeoa ia iayai?noue /e a?aenooi?noue caaa?aeaiiy, eiai ?ioaineai?noue,
iane/ai?noue, yne?aa?noue.

A?aeiii, ui nenoaia eieuei?iiaca o iia? ? a?aee?eoith ? oiio caeaoia
iiiiaithaaoeny iiaeie iii?iaoe?yie, ia?aaaaeii anioe?aoeaieie,
oi?iaeueii ae?aaeaieie eiiieaenii eaenai ?c eiiiiiaioii (eieuei?o…(
aai ?c cacia/aiiyi i?aaeiaoa, yeiio aeanoeaee oaeee eie??. Ioaea,
eieuei?iiicia/aiiyie aoaeaii aaaaeaoe ? niieo/aiiy oeio aa?aa ioeo,
aa?aa iaeo, eie?? neiiiai? e?noee oa iiae., a oaeiae ii??aiyiiy (a?eee ,
ye ni?a(, (/i?i? i/?, iia o aacae?(, (i/?, iia aa?a?iie, a eine, iia
i?ii?iue niioey( oiui.

O ?icaeiaieo iiaao naiaioe/ia iiea eieuei?iiaca neeaaea?oueny ye ?c
aeania eieuei?iiicia/aiue, oae ? c anioe?aoeaieo, iaoaoi?e/ieo,
iiaoaeiaaieo ia neeaaeieo aca?iica(yceao iaca i?aaeiao?a /e yaeu c ?o
caaa?aeaiiyi ? ia?acii, ui aeieea? a oya? iin??a iaaii? iiae ia ??cieo
aoaiao ?? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Cacia/eii, ui, ye i?aaeei, ia?ainieneaiiy i?yiiai iii?iaoeaiiai
cia/aiiy ?icoe?th? anioe?aoeai? iio?aei?, ooai?thth/e aanue niaeo?
eiiioaoe?e, iiaeo i?aaiaoe/ieo ? iiaeaeueii-ioe?iieo cia/aiue.

Aoaeue-yeee eie?? nai ii nia?, acyoee ie?aii, ia ae?aaea? aeni?an?th, ?
eeoa ca iaaiiai ii?aeiaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei nthaeaoo, eiiiiceoe??,
aaoi?nueeiai caaeoio, ooaeiaeiuei? oeiee aai eiioaenooaeueiiai ioi/aiiy
? (i?iyaeaiiy( eiiioaoe?e, caeeaaeaieo ?noi?e/iei aeina?aeii, aeina?aeii
eiaeiiai iiaiiai eieaeoeao, iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e, a?i
(eie??( iiaea noaoe /e i?ae?aniei, /e iai?e?iiei, /e iaa?oue iioai?iei.
I?iaeaia eieuei?iai? neiaie?ee iia(ycaia c i?iaeaiaie
ineoio?c?ieia?/ieie oa e?iaa?noe/ieie.

Neiaa ia iicia/aiiy eieuei?o aeoeaii c(yaeythoueny a iia? ia oiio aoai?
?icaeoeo, eiee noai?ththoueny ooo/i? aa?aieee, nooo?ai ??ciiiai?oi?o? ca
i?e?iaei?, eiee iaaoaa? ?icea?oo ienoaoeoai e iiaa. Eieuei?e, ui
aenooiathoue yae?ii o nenoai? eieuei?iiicia/aiue, aeeiiothoue ooieoe??
aeaiioaoe?? e aeni?an??. Aiie ? caniaaie i?yii? iii?iaoe??, oiaoi
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo a onueiio eiai ??ciiiai?oo?, ?
caniaaie ?aae?caoe?? neeaaeieo anioe?aoeaieo ca(yce?a – ye ?acoeueoao
ieneeoaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, ui ? ae?aaeaiiyi noa(?eoeaiiai noaaeaiiy
ethaeeie aei na?oo /a?ac ii/oooy oa aiioe??, ye? ? nai???aeiith oi?iith
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ae?eniino?.

Anioe?aoeai?, neiaie?/i? cia/aiiy eieuei?iiaeiaioaaiue ia?aaeon?i
iia(ycai? c ioe?ieith, ui ? oi?aa?naeueiith eaoaai???th. Aaeaea ia ?nio?
iiae, a ye?e a?aenooi? oyaeaiiy i?i (e?aneaa/iioai?ia(,
(i?e?iia/iai?e?iia( oiui. Naia ca ioe?iieie aeanoeainoyie a a?eueoino?
eoeueoo? ? iia na?oo aeieeee naiaioe/i? iiiceoe?? a?eee-/i?iee,
/i?iee-/a?aiiee, a?eee-/a?aiiee. Anioe?aoeai? iii?iaoe?? ni?eythoue
aeyaeaiith e ?aae?caoe?? aia?aaeaioiino? eie??ieo iciae, neiaie?a, oiaoi
caeaoiino? iaeiiai eieuei?o aeeeeeaoe iiceoeai? ? iaaaoeai? anioe?aoe??,
anoaoe/i? ioe?iee, aiioe?eiee aieea.

Oae, iai?eeeaae, a?eee eie?? aenooia? neiaieii nayoino?, iaaeiiino?,
?aaeino?, aeeooy, e?ane, aea a?i iiaea neiaie?coaaoe no?ao,
anioe?thaaoeny c oai?iaith, nia?oth (e?ea?iyi? ao?eaooe, naaai, iaeya
nia?o?). *a?aiiee eie?? oaeiae iiaea aeeeeeaoe ??ci? anioe?aoe??. Oea ?
i?eiaeaaei?noue aei aeuiai noni?eueiiai noaio (/a?aiiee iaeya), ?
caaa?aeaiiy aiaith, ? eie?? e?ia?, a ioaea, neiaie i?eno?ano? oa nia?o?,
neiaie ?aaiethoe?? oiui.

Aeine?aeeaoe o?aaeeoe?? iieno ?ie? eieuei?iiaca o ooaeiaeiueiio
iiaeaii? oaeeie a/aieie, ye A. Aaneeaae/, ?. Eo?eaiae ? E. Iaoon,
A. E?eoaiei, E. Ionoia?o, E. Coaiaa, I. ?enae, aeoeaioo?ii
iaiao?aei?noue aiae?coaaoe i?ioeane e ?acoeueoaoe ia?ainieneaiiy
caaaeueiiiiaii? naiaioeee oa o?aaeeoe?eii? neiaie?ee eieuei?iiicia/aiue,
ui aeyaey?oueny /a?ac iacae/aeia e iaaeanoeaa caaaeueiii?eeiyoiio
eiioaenooaeueia ioi/aiiy; oaeiae oi?iiy aeei?enoiaoaaoe ienueiaiieeii
neiaa a i?yiiio cia/aii? aeey noai?aiiy i?ea?iaeueieo ia?ac?a, o yeeo
o?aaeeoe?eia eieuei?iiciaea iinoa? a iiiaeaieo ca(yceao. Iniaeeaa
i?noea, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaeiii iaeaaeaoe neioaaiaoeoe?
eieuei?iiicia/aiue, cie?aia aeine?aeaeaiith iniiaieo i?e?ia?oi,
aeae?eaieo ca eiie?aoiith naiaioeeith ? niieo/oaai?noth a iaaeao
aeii?iaioieo a?oi eieuei?iiaca, ui ni?eyoeia c(ynoaaiith i?noey e ?ie?
eieuei?iiicia/aiue o a?aeia?aaeaii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? iiaii? ea?oeie
na?oo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – (Eieuei?iaa iae?o?a ooaeiaeiueiai iiaeaiiy Ean?
Oe?a?iee oa caniae ?? ae?aaeaiiy( – aecia/aii ianya ? a?ai? iiaii?
eieuei?iai? iae?o?e ienueiaiieoe?, aeyaeaii no?oeoo?ii-neiaioai?/?
ia?aaeeaie iaca eieuei??a.

Iiea eieuei?iiaca o iiaioai?/ino? Ean? Oe?a?iee ?icaeyiooi ye
noeoii?noue iiaieo iaeeieoeue, ia(?aeiaieo ci?noiaith ni?euei?noth.
Aaaaea?ii ca aeioe?eueia ?ic??ciyoe naiaioe/ia iiea ye caaaeueio
noeoii?noue eaenai ia iicia/aiiy eieuei?o ? eaeneei-naiaioe/i? a?oie,
aeae?eai? ca iiaeeea?noth eaenaie iicia/aoe eiie?aoio niaeo?aeueio /e
anioe?aoeaio eie??io iciaeo.

Naiaioe/ia iiea eieuei?iiaca o ooaeiaeiueiio iiaeaii? Ean? Oe?a?iee
neeaaea?oueny c 52 eiiiiiaio?a: a?eee – 347, /i?iee – 259, /a?aiiee –
172, cieioee – 107, caeaiee – 99, aeaeeoiee – 70, ?iaeaaee – 56, n??aiee
– 55, nei?e – 53, neaee – 48, aeiaoee – 32, n??ee – 32, aaa?yiee – 21,
e?eaaaee – 21, aiaiaiiee – 14, io?io?iaee – 14, ea?ee – 8, e?aniee – 7,
?oaeee – 7, aeiaoiaa?y/ee — 5, ?oi(yiee – 5, ?onee – 5, ?oa?iiaee – 4,
necee – 4, e?aiiaee – 3, a?iiciaee – 2, a?oiaoiee – 2, ea?iaceiiaee – 2,
e?ia? aa?aa – 2, i?aeyiee – 2, iiiaeynoee – 2, neiiiai? e?noee – 2,
nioaeyaee – 2, ni?aeiee – 2, aaaoiaee – 1, aeaaano?iaee – 1, ao?y/eiaee
– 1, aeei/anoee – 1, cieioa noa?iai aa?aa – 1, eaooaiiaee – 1, ei?aeiaee
– 1, ei?e aa?aa – 1, e?eiaee – 1, iaeo c?a(yeiai aa?aa – 1, iaeeiiaee –
1, ia?io?iaee – 1, iiei/iee – 1, ioeo aa?aa – 1, iiaeiaee – 1,
nia?aaaeiaee – 1, niieia?eee – 1, o?aeeiaee – 1 (onueiai – 1484
neiaiaaeeaaiiy). O aeine?aeaeaii? a?aoiaaii neiaa c ei?aiai eieuei?iaiai
cia/aiiy, iacaeaaeii a?ae /anoeiiiiaii? i?eiaeaaeiino?, o oiio /ene? e
eiiiiceoe (iai?.: io?io?, io?io?iaee, aaa?yiaoeue, /a?aii?oe, neai,
ni?aeii-a?eee, cieioi?ne?enoee oiui), ? iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o aeei?enoaiiy
a i?yiiio, ia?aiiniiio, neiaie?/iiio cia/aii?. A?aeiini? i?eeiaoieee
oeio ei?aeiaee, aeaaano?iaee, a?iiciaee a?aoiaaii o?eueee ca iayaiino?
?o ye?niiai cia/aiiy. I?ioa aeeaiienaiiy neiaii o iiaioai?/ino?
ienueiaiieoe? ia iaiaaeaia eeoa aeae?eaieie eieuei?iiacaaie. Aiia
aeei?enoiao? ii??aiyiiy c ??ciiiai?oieie i?aaeiaoaie, yaeuaie, ui ni?ey?
caeo/aiith aeoeaiiai ieneaiiy /eoa/a (iai?.: (i/? ai??ee, iia aea?(;
(iia o?iyiaea, ony iaeai?ea(; (ei?iaaa o ieo ia?, ia/a aiaiiue( ?
iiae.).

Aeioe?eueii iaaieineoe, ui aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeeeaei aoei ia o?eueee
aeyaeoe /anoioi?noue neiaiaaeeaaiue, a a i?ioean? aiae?co ?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiue – ???a?o?/io iiaoaeiao naiaioe/iiai iiey. Oea aeeeeeaii
iio?aaith ?icaeyaeo naiaioe/ii? niieo/oaaiino? e eiioaenooaeueiiai
ioi/aiiy, ui ? iaa?ae(?iiith /anoeiith naiaioeee oaenoo, iniaeeai
ooaeiaeiueiai, o yeiio a?aeia?aaea?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith aa?aaeueieo
cania?a iaaii? iiaii? nenoaie iaaeieeoiy ae?eni?noue /a?ac
noa(?eoeai?noue aaoi?nueeiai na?oini?eeiyooy.

Naiaioe/ia iiea eieuei?iiaca neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo
a?oi: c? cia/aiiyi a?eiai, /i?iiai, n??iai, /a?aiiiai, aeiaoiai,
aeiaoiaa?y/iai, caeaiiai, neiueiai oa aeaeeoiiai, a?oiaoiiai,
o?ieaoiaiai eieuei??a.

O iaaeao eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo a?oi ?icaeyiooi neiii?i?/i? ?yaee
eieuei?iiaca ?c iioeaaoe??th a?aeianaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo
eieuei?iiaeiaioaaiue aei eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai ?yaeo. Noi?iiaaii oae?
neiii?i?/i? ?yaee:

– /i?iee, aaaoiaee, ai?iiee, /i?iia?eaee;

– a?eee, aeaaano?iaee, ia?io?iaee, iiaeiaee, neaee, ni?aeiee, n??aiee,
aeaeeoii-a?eee, aeaeeoii-n??aiee, n??aii-aeaeeoiee;

– n??ee, n??aiee, neaee, necee, aeei/anoee, iiiaeynoee, necie?eeee,
aa?aa ioeo;

– /a?aiiee, ?iaeaaee, aaa?yiee, e?eaaaee, io?io?iaee, aiaiaiiee,
?oi(yiee, e?aniee, ?oa?iiaee, ao?y/eiaee, ei?aeiaee, ea?iaceiiaee,
iaeeiiaee, aa?aa c?a(yeiai iaeo, aa?aa e?ia?;

– aeiaoee, cieioee, niieia?eee, e?aiiaee, aa?aa noa?iai cieioa,
ae?aei-aeiaoee, iaoiai-aeiaoee, eaeaiooii-aeiaoee, aeiaoiaiaeee,
ae?aei-cieioenoee, ceioieinee, cieioieoae?ee, ceioi?ne?enoee,
cieioioeaiee, aeaeeoii-cieioenoee, cieioi-aeaeeoiee;

– aeiaoiaa?y/ee, ?oaeee, i?aeyiee;

– caeaiee, nia?aaaeiaee, oaiii-caeaiee, y?icaeaiee, a?/iicaeaiee,
ia?oai-caeaiee, ynii-caeaiee;

– nei?e, aeaeeoiee, aeaeeoii-ia?eenoee, ae?aei-aeaeeoiee,
aeaeeoii-ceioenoee, aeaeeoii-n??aiee, aonoi-nei?e, cieioi-aeaeeoiee,
n??i-aeaeeoiee, oaiii-nei?e;

– a?oiaoiee, ea?ee, ea?iieee, eaooaiiaee, a?iiciaee, nioaeyaee, ?onee,
aa?aa ei?e;

– o?aeeiaee, e?eiaee.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e o nai?e iiai?e iae?o?? neiaa, ui aoiaeyoue aei
neiii?i?/ieo ?yae?a c? ni?eueiei cia/aiiyi iaaiiai eieuei?o, ii?aeioth/e
?o i?ae niaith ? c aeaiaioaie ?ioeo naiaioe/ieo iie?a, Eany Oe?a?iea
oieea? i?inoi? iii?iaoeaiino?, noai?th? iaoaoi?e/i? e neiaie?/i? ia?ace,
iaeth? ci?iai-/ooo?ao ea?oeio na?oo, aea ? i?noea ?aaeino?, iaae??,
i?aaiaiith e?ane e aa?iii??, o?eaic?, ?ic/a?oaaiith, aaciaaeiiio ae?o
i?eno?anoae, aeia?o ? ceo – anueiio oiio, ui iaceaa?ii aeeooyi.

A?aeiii, ui ia ?nio? caaaeueiiiiaiiai neiaioai?/iai oeio/iiaeae?, yeiai
ia iiaeia aoei a aeei?enoaoe a ooaeiaeiueiio iiaeaii? a?aeiia?aeii aei
aaoi?nueeiai caaeoio, aea naia a ooaeiaeiueiio iiaeaii? ?icaeaathoueny e
iaaoaathoue iniaeeaiai iaiiaiaiiy aeaye? caaaeueiiiiai? neiaioai?/?
oeie/iiaeae?. Oiio ae?aaeaeueia oe?ii?noue cania?a neiaioai?o, ?o
aeni?aneai?noue ? iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo aniaeo?a ?ae?inoee?noe/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ni?ey? aeyaeaiith iniaeeainoae iiaeaiiy iaaiiai
aaoi?a. O aeine?aeaeaii? no?oeoo?ii-neiaioai?/eo oei?a ia?aaeeai iaca
eieuei??a o oai?/ino? Ean? Oe?a?iee aeyaeaii, ui i?aaenoaaeaiee
i?aeoe/ii aanue noee?noe/iee ? caaaeueiiiiaiee neiaioai?/ee iioaioe?ae
aeey ooai?aiiy ne?a-eieuei?iiaca. Aea a?aeaeca?eaeaiiyi iiaoe/ii?
na?aeiiino? ? iniiai-, neiaineeaaeaiiy e ao?enaeuei? a?aeaae(?eoeai?
ae??neiaa, i?ene?aieee oa ?iaiieee. Naia aiie, i?aeii?yaeeiaoth/enue
iaaiiio ci?noia? e iao? aeneiaethaaiiy, oai?/iio caaeoio, na?oiaa/aiith
oa na?oia?aeia?aaeaiith, aenooiathoue caniaaie neiaaniiai aeeaiieno.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – (Naiaioe/ia iiea aeii?iaioieo iii?iaoe?e.
Ao?iiaoe/i? eieuei?iiacae( – ?icaeyiooi eaeneei-naiaioe/i? a?oie c?
cia/aiiyi /i?iiai, a?eiai oa n??iai eieuei??a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii
a aniaeo? aiae?co e aeae?eaiiy i?e?ia?oi, /eaie eio?eo ii?aeiai? ca
aeiiiiiaith c?noaaeaiiy naiaioe/ii? niieo/oaaiino?.

*i?iee eie?? – iaeei c iniiaieo iii?iaio?a o iiaioai?/ino? Ean?
Oe?a?iee, ui anioe?th?oueny c iaeo?aeueiith naiaioeeith, ye can?a aeania
iii?iaoe?e, aai c iaaaoeaieie a?ae/oooyie, c? nia?oth, ooaith, niooeii,
o?eaiaith e aeyaey?oueny a eiioaeno? /a?ac naiaioe/io niieo/oaai?noue,
yea ni?ey? oae?aciaiith, ?icoe?aiith oa caaaa/aiith iaae
ci?iai-/ooo?aiai aa/aiiy, ni?eeiyooy e a?aeia?aaeaiiy.

Ca naiaioe/iith niieo/oaai?noth aeae?eaii oae? i?e?ia?oie a iaaeao
eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie c? cia/aiiyi /i?iiai eieuei?o: 1) eie?? i/ae,
aieinny, iaee//y, o?ea; 2) eie?? iaeyao, oeaiei, i?aaeiao?a, iaoae?a; 3)
eie?? e?ia?; 4) eie?? ?ineei, oaa?ei, ioao?a; 5) eie?? caie?; 6) eie??
iiaea?eu, caa?eu, ?oeioaaiue; 7) eie?? aano?aeoieo iiiyoue, yaeu
aioo??oiueiai (aeooaaiiai) e o?c?ieia?/iiai noaio ethaeeie; 8) eie??
na?oea, i?e?iaeieo noeo?e, ?aeue?o?a, /aniaeo aei???a.

Ao?eaoo (/i?iee(, aenooiath/e caniaii ii?o?aoieo oa?aeoa?enoee
ia?niiaae?a, aeeiio? ia eeoa nooi iii?iaoeaio ooieoe?th, a e ni?ey?
?ice?eooth aioo??oiueiai noaio aa?i?a, ?o aaea/?, iaoe?iiaeueii?
i?eiaeaaeiino?, a?aeia?aaea? o?aaeeoe?? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? oiiaeiaaiiy.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ae??ne?aieo eiino?oeoe?e ia?aaeaii ia eiinoaoaoe?th
?acoeueoaoo o?aaaae??, a o?eaae?noue ?? a /an?, iane?i/aii?noue ? ye
?acoeueoao – i?aeaeuo?oueny ae?aci?noue, neea aieeaiaino? ooaeiaeiueiai
neiaa, ia?aco ia /eoa/a/neooa/a: (caiey any ooaith /i?i??( (1, 295);
(O??oea. Iin?yii ? c?a?aii aeaaii, / ia a/i?a e ia nueiaiaei?, – ii
noa?iath / /i?i?? ii aeieaao oe?iea iiea. (Iieaco? ia iiea, ae?eoa
?o?iaie e aacaeiiiei ethaeii)( (3, 180) oa ?i.

*a?ac c?noaaeaiiy, aca?iiia?aoiaee oa ci?ie eieuei??a ia?aae /eoa/aie
iinoathoue iaecaaei? caiaeueiaee, o yeeo a?aeia?aaeaii iaoaoi?e/i?
ia?ace ethaenueei? aeie?, ii/ooo?a, ia?aaeeaaiue. Iai?eeeaae:
(Iaaeoiaeeoue aaaeea a?ea oia?a, ? ii/eia? eoe ni?a. Oooei e??cue a?eee
canoee ni?aiaee ia noa? i?eiai aeaeei, o?eueee aaa?yia i?ieeaa ieyia
iieaco?, aea iiaeaaea. Caiaeii aaa?yia ieyia aania, ? eiee ni?a ??aeoa?,
oi aeaeei /i?io iiaea?eio, ui aeeio? ? ne/eoue iae aiaeino?( (5, 288).
*i?iee eie?? iiaea?ie, iiaeeioaoe a?eee ni?ao oa aaa?yiee iiaeaae?, noaa
i?iaaeii o iioiea?/i?noue, o iaaoooy, ye ? eioaiiy oa aeeooy aa?i?a
ae?aie “E?niaa i?niy” – Iaaee e Eoeaoa.

Oa?aeoa?iei aeey iiaioai?/ino? Ean? Oe?a?iee ? naiaioeei-neiaie?/i?
iiiceoe?? a?eee – /i?iee.

O iaaeao eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie c? cia/aiiyi a?eiai eieuei?o
aeae?eaii oae? i?e?ia?oie ca naiaioe/iith niieo/oaai?noth: 1) eie??
aieinny, iaee//y, i/ae, o?ea oa eiai /anoei; 2) eie?? iaeyao, oeaiei,
nii?oae, i?aaeiao?a oiui; 3) eie?? ?ineei, oaa?ei, eaiaeoaooo; 4) eie??
na?oea oa iiaa?oiiue, ina?oeaieo iei; 5) eie?? i?e?iaeieo yaeu, noeo?e,
/aniaeo aei???a; 6) eie?? nia?o?, iaaoooy, iiiyoue ? ia?ac?a
???aaeueiiai na?oo.

O i?ioean? aiae?co oe??? a?oie aeaoaeueii aeine?aeaeaii oae? aniaeoe:
caiice/aiiy oieueeei?ieo ia?ac?a; iioeaaoe?y aeei?enoaiiy
ienueiaiieoeath a?eiai eieuei?o ia iicia/aiiy ?aaeoe?? i?aai?cio
aiane?aeie ae?? iaaiiai iiae?acieea, oiaoi cai?noue o?aaeeoe?eieo –
(ae?aeee( oa (ae?aeiooe(; iiiyooy (a?eiai( ye eiio?anoo aei nthaeaoo
oai?o a oe?eiio (ineoieia?/iee i?aeoaeno).

Aeyaeaii, ui any oai?/?noue Ean? Oe?a?iee iiaoaeiaaia ia canoinoaaii?
eaoa?neno anoaoe/ii? ?aaeoe??. Ienueiaiieoey iineoaiao?oueny
??ciiiai?oieie ooaeiaei?ie caniaaie oa i?eeiiaie, a iniia? yeeo
eieuei?ia? anioe?aoe?? e neiaie?ea. Iai?eeeaae, a?eee eie?? ?c eiai
o?aaeeoe?eieie iiceoeaieie anioe?aoe?yie, neiaie?eith /enoioe, nayoino?,
i?ici?ino?, e?ane, iinoaaeaiee o iacae/aeiee aeey iueiai eiioaeno,
ni?e/eiy? aei (c?oeiaiiy aoaeo?a(, a ioaea, ? eaoa?neno (a?ea ?oea –
i?aenooiia ?oea; /a?aiii acooa a?ea iiaa oa iiae.).

Ia?aaeienaeuei?noue, iacae/i?noue o ii?aeiaii? eieuei??a ? i?enai?iiy
iaaiioeaiaaii? iciaee i?aaeiaoo /e yaeuo noai?ththoue yne?aa?,
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aaoi?nuee? ia?ace, ui, aeania, ? iaaeaaiiyi iiae,
iiooiaoii aei ?ice?eooy ?? iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae. Oae, ye a iien?
ciai?oiino? aeeoeie: (ae?aea, aeiaoa ee/ei aae i?aeiooei, a nea? i/?
yeinue iia?e?ee( (7,204).

Noai?thth/e caoei-eieuei?ia? ia?ace, Eany Oe?a?iea c?noaaey? i?ny/ia
i?ii?iiy c? no?oiaie, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue ?icaeiooe caoei-ci?ia?
anioe?aoe?? /eoa/?a (n??ai? i?iiai?, iia no?oie).

Eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia c? cia/aiiyi n??iai eieuei?o i?aaenoaaeaia
oaeeie i?e?ia?oiaie: 1) eie?? i/ae; 2) eie?? aeeio, eo?yae; 3) eie??
eaiaeoaooo, eai?iiy, aeeaeo ?noio, oaa?ei; 4) eie?? iaeyao; 5) eie??
i?e?iaeieo yaeu, noeo?e, /aniaeo aei???a; 6) eie?? aano?aeoieo iiiyoue,
yaeu oai?/i? oyae.

N??? e nea? i/? aenooiathoue caniaaie ii?o?aoii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
ia?niiaae?a, i?ioa neaee eie?? noiniaii caaa?aeaiiy i/ae ia ?
oa?aeoa?iei, a oiio a?eueo aeni?aneaiee.

Ao?eaooii a?eiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa aeyaii aioo??oiueiai noaio ethaeeie
? neaa aieinny. Iaeiae ienueiaiieoey canoiniao? oaeo ao?eaooeeo ? aeey
cia?aaeaiiy i?e?iaeieo yaeu. Iai?eeeaae, noa??iiy /a?ac ci?io eieuei??a
? iniiaith iaoaoi?e/iiai iieno cai?aiiy aoa?eey: (/i?iee aoa?eue
neaeciith ae?eaaany, ia/a noa??a( (1,353).

N??ee ? neaee eieuei?e aeeio e eo?yae – caniae noai?aiiy iaecaaeieo
caiaeueiaie o ?on?. Naia oe? aa?ae caeaoi? ia?ae?eaaoe ?io?,
ciaaa?aethth/e ana aeiaeiea, iie?eaath/e iaae?aci?noth, iaaecia/ai?noth.

Nea? oa n??? oia?e a ienueiaiieoe? caeaaeii a?ae eiioaenooaeueiiai
ioi/aiiy aenooiathoue ao?eaooaie, i?ia?nieeaie iaaiaee, inai?,
iaaeaa/??(y, ?aieo.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e aano?aeoi? iiiyooy, yaeua oai?/i? oyae, eaenaie neaee ?
n??ee ae?aaeathoue iaaaoeaia naiaioe/ia oa aeni?aneaia caaa?aeaiiy.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – (Naiaioe/ia iiea aeii?iaioieo iii?iaoe?e.
O?iiaoe/i? eieuei?iiacae( – aeine?aeaeaii eaeneei-naiaioe/i? a?oie c?
cia/aiiyi /a?aiiiai, aeiaoiai, caeaiiai, neiueiai oa aeaeeoiiai,
a?oiaoiiai eieuei??a.

Eaeneei-naiaioe/i? a?oie c? cia/aiiyi aeiaoiaa?y/iai oa o?ieaoiaiai
eieuei??a aeaoaeueii ia ?icaeyiooi. Aiie ia/eneaii? oa noee?noe/ii iaio
ae?aci?.

?yae c? cia/aiiyi /a?aiiiai eieuei?o neeaaea?oueny c 6 a?oi: 1) eie??
iaee//y, aoa, u?e, i/ae oiui; 2) eie?? iaeyao, oeaiei, i?aaeiao?a,
?a/iaei; 3) eie?? ?ineei ? eaiaeoaooo; 4) eie?? noiaeo – caoiaeo niioey,
i?ny/iiai nyeaa, ieiuei ? i?aaeiao?a, ina?oeaieo ieie; 5) eie?? e?ia?;
6) eie??, iia(ycaiee ?c i?ioeanii ai??iiy (eie?? aiaith, ieiuei,
ina?oeaieo iei, ?a/iaei, ioiieaieo aiaiai).

Aeyaeaii, ui eiiioaoe??, iia(ycai? c iii?iaoe??th /a?aiiiai eieuei?o o
oai?ao Ean? Oe?a?iee, ? naiaioe/iith iniiaith aeey a?eueoino? ia?aiinieo
? neiaie?/ieo cia/aiue (iaae??, aeaaee, e?iaii?ieeooy, i???, ii/aoeo
aeeooy, o?eaiae, iai?oaeaiiy, i?eno?ano?, inai? oiui).

Oa?aeoa?ii, ui aeeiai?eo ci?ie ii/ooo?a, oaeaeeo ?aaeoe?th ia /eneaii?
iiae?acieee ienueiaiieoey ia?aaea? ca aeiiiiiaith ae??ne?aieo oi?i
(/a?aii?oe, c/a?aii?oenue, ii/a?aii?oe oa ?i.) ? eiio?anoieo caaa?aeaiue
(a?eee, ae?aeee). Oea iaeei ?c iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaieo oei?a
ci?iai-/ooo?aiai cia?aaeaiiy o oai?ao Ean? Oe?a?iee.

I?ei?oiei ? oa, ui ? no?ae, ? cao?ae niioey a iiaioai?/ino?
ienueiaiieoe? caaa?aeai? a iiae?ai? eieuei?e (/a?aiiee, ?iaeaaee), oea
aeiiiiaaa? aeine?aeeoe yaeua ia?aoiaeo iaeiiai eieuei?o a ?ioee, oiaoi
nai???aeia ia?aao?eaiiy eieuei??a. Oae, /i?ia i?/, /a?ac i?ii?aei?, aeey
oaeiai eiioaenoo, eieuei?e – aeaeeoiee, n??ee, ?iaeaaee – ia?aoiaeeoue o
/a?aiiee no?ae niioey, ui o naith /a?ao noa? a?eei aeiai, aeae? /a?aiiee
cao?ae niioey /a?ac ?iaeaaee, nei?e, o?aeeiaee, iiaeiaee eieuei?e
ia?aoiaeeoue o /i?io i?/ (aeey ocaaaeueiaiiy aeei?enoaii an? iacae
eieuei??a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo Eany Oe?a?iea o nai?o oai?ao iaeth? no?ae
? cao?ae niioey, aeaiue ? i?/).

?ae?inoeeth ienueiaiieoe? aeanoeaa aeei?enoaiiy ?iaeaaiai e /a?aiiiai
eieuei??a aeey ciaethaaiiy i?ny/iiai na?oea, ui neiaie?co? o
a?aeiia?aeieo eiioaenoao niie?e, iaae?th, o?eaiao, ia?aae/oooy eeoa.

Aeine?aeaeaii, ui a iiai?e iae?o?? Ean? Oe?a?iee ia?aaaaeathoue
iiina?aaeeiaai?, iaoaoi?e/i?, neiaie?/i? eieuei?iia?ace cia?aaeaiiy
e?ia?, e?iaii?ieeooy, iia(ycaiiai c a?eiaie, iianoaiiyie, ?aaiethoe?yie.
Aeanoeaei oai?/?e oya? ienueiaiieoe? ? yaeua o?ainoi?iaoe?? eieuei?o
e?ia? (?iaeaaa – /a?aiia – /i?ia), aea ?iaeaaa e?ia – aeeoy/a, neiaie
ii/aoeo aeeooy, aeooaaii? /enoioe, iaii?i/iino?; /a?aiia e?ia – aeeaa
e?ia, neiaie i?eno?anoae, aeeooy; /i?ia e?ia – i?ieeoa aea?aiia, ia?oaa,
neiaie no?aaeaeaiiy oa nia?o?.

O eaeneei-naiaioe/i?e a?oi? c? cia/aiiyi aeiaoiai eieuei?o ca
naiaioe/iith niieo/oaai?noth aeae?eaii 6 i?e?ia?oi: 1) eie?? ?ineei ?
oaa?ei; 2) eie?? i?neo, eaiaeoaooo, aiaee; 3) eie?? iaeyao, i?aaeiao?a,
?a/ae; 4) eie?? aieinny, o?ea oa o?ce/iiai noaio ethaeeie; 5) eie??
na?oea, na?oee, aiaith; 6) eie?? aano?aeoieo iiiyoue, yaeu.

Aeyaeaii, ui ? aeiaoee, ? cieioee eieuei?e a iiai?e ooaeiaei?e iae?o??
Ean? Oe?a?iee aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey a?aeia?aaeaiiy ye iiceoeaieo, oae
? iaaaoeaieo aiioe?e, oiaoi aeyaeythoue aia?aaeaioi?noue naiaioe/ieo
anioe?aoe?e.

Oa?aeoa?iith ?ae?inoeeth ienueiaiieoe? ? iayai?noue aeeiai?/ieo,
niiaiaieo ?ooo eiioaeno?a, o yeeo aeei?enoaii cieioee eie??, ?
noaoe/ieo, o yeeo aeei?enoaii aeiaoee eie??. Iniaeeai ae?acii oea
a?aeia?aaeaii a i?e?ia?oi? ia iicia/aiiy na?oea, na?oee, aiaith.

Caaaeath/e ia iniaeeaino? ao?eaooa (cieioee( o ooaeiaeiueiio iiaeaii?
Ean? Oe?a?iee, a?eueo aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooi eiai iaoaoi?e/ia, neiaie?/ia
cia/aiiy. Aecia/aii, ui ia aeuiio, ii??aiyii c anioe?aoeaiei ieneaiiyi,
??ai? na?aeiiino? ooai?ththoueny neiaie?/i? ia?ace (cieioa i??y(,
(cieio? nie(, (cieioee a?iaoeue aeoi(, (cieioee ni?o( ? iiae. Aiie
aeieeee a ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e aaoi?nuee?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? neiaie?/ii?
naiaioeee ao?eaooa (cieioee(, ia?aaaaeii c iiceoeaiith aiioe?eiith
ianoaiiaith, ui caeeaeo? ?acoeueoao ooaeiaeiueiai ia?aciiai ieneaiiy
ienueiaiieoe? c? cia/aiiyi ao?eaooa (cieioee( o o?enoeyinuee?e ?ae?a??,
eoeueoo??, aea a?i ? iaeiei ?c aeya?a aeui? noanoaioe??.

Eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia c? cia/aiiyi caeaiiai eieuei?o neeaaea?oueny c
oaeeo i?e?ia?oi: 1) eie?? ?ineei ? eaiaeoaooo; 2) eie?? ii?y; 3) eie??
iaeyao, i?aaeiao?a, ?a/iaei; 4) eie?? aano?aeoieo iiiyoue, /aniaeo
aei???a; 5) eie?? caoeo.

Eiioaenooaeueia ioi/aiiy e naiaioe/ia niieo/oaai?noue aeathoue ciiao
aeiaanoe, ui o na?oiaa/aii?, na?oini?eeiyoo? e iiaioai?/ino?
ienueiaiieoe? caeaiee eie?? anioe?th?oueny ia?aaaaeii c iiceoeaieie
aiioe?yie. A?i aenooia? neiaieii aeeooy, aanie, iaae??, oiniaeaiiyi
aaouee?aueie e Oe?a?ie.

Caeaiee eie?? ii?y o oai?/?e oya? Ean? Oe?a?iee ae?aaea?
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-o?c?ieia?/ia ni?eeiyooy caaa?aeaiiy ii?nueei? aiaee ca
iaaiiai ina?oeaiiy, a?aeiia?aeii aei iano?ith /e aeei?enoiao?oueny c?
noee?noe/iith iaoith.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a iiaioai?/ino? ienueiaiieoe? iin?aeathoue
ci?iai-neooia? anioe?aoe??, ae?acieeaie yeeo ? caeaiee, /anoeiai n??aiee
? neaee eieuei?e. Caoei-eieuei?iaee ia?ac caeaiiai ooio aeaoaeoaaii ca
anioe?aoe?yie aei oaeano?iiy caeaiiai eenoy, ni?ao ioao?a o caeaieo
e?iiao aea?aa. Caeaia eenoy – aeeaa, ieanoe/ia, ?ooeeaa; a?ae a?o?o,
ia?aeueioo ioao?a aiii ooai?th? caoeia? eieeaaiiy, i?e?ii? e /ooi?
ethaenueeiio aooo. Ioaoeiee aii?i, iaeiae?eiee ni?a iae/ooi?o?
iai?ee?ioe? aanie – ii/aoeo e?oa, oiaoi, eiee aea?aaa iaeyaiai? a caeai?
oaoe, oiio e aeiee, ia iaoo aeoieo, naia oaeee ia?ac – caeaiee ooi.

O iaaeao eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie c? cia/aiiyi neiueiai oa aeaeeoiiai
eieuei??a ca naiaioe/iith niieo/oaai?noth aeae?eaii oae? i?e?ia?oie: 1)
eie?? aiaee; 2) eie?? iaaanii? noa?e, na?oea, /ano aeiae; 3) eie?? i/ae,
o?ce/iiai noaio; 4) eie?? iaeyao, ?a/ae, i?aaeiao?a; 5) eie?? ?ineei,
eaiaeoaooo; 6) eie?? aano?aeoieo iiiyoue, yaeu.

Nei?e eie?? ia iicia/aiiy ii?y ia? oa?aeoa? iino?eiiai ai?oaoa,
aeanoeaiai oieueeei?o, aea ia?aeiia eieuei?iaa cia/aiiy oeueiai ai?oaoa
a eiioaenooaeueiiio ioi/aii? ?icoe?th? eiai naiaioe/i? iaae?.

Nei?e eie?? iaaa ia oa?aeoa?eco? eiai ca ii?ith ?ieo /e /anii aeiae,
aaeaea a Ean? Oe?a?iee ? aaniyia iaai, ? e?oi?, ? in?ii?, ? ?aieiaa, ?
iaaeaa/??i? – nei?, ??aeoa aeaeeoia. Ioaea, aeaeeoue, neiyaa iaaa – noai
aeoo?, aeya /enoioe e aaciaaeaey i?inoi?o, iica/aniaino?; eiiioaoe??
ao?eaoo?a (aeaeeoiee( ? (nei?e( aeyaeythoueny /a?ac naiaioe/io
niieo/oaai?noue oa eiioaenooaeueia ioi/aiiy.

?ae?inoeeth ienueiaiieoe? aeanoeaa ii?aeiaiiy cieioiai oa aeaeeoiiai
eieuei??a. Cieioi-aeaeeoia aaia o oai?/?e oya? ienueiaiieoe? aenooia?
neiaieii iaae??, niieith, aeaaeainoaa, aeui? aeooiaiino?.

Ca naiaioe/iith niieo/oaai?noth a a?oi? a?oiaoieo eieuei??a aeae?eaii
oae? i?e?ia?oie: 1) eie?? i/ae, aieinny, iaee//y; 2) eie?? iaeyao.

O i?ioean? aiae?co oe??? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie aeyaeaii, ui
aeiaeiiai ?aco ienueiaiieoey ia aeei?enoiao? ao?eaoo (ei?e/iaaee(, yeee
? naiaioe/ii iaio ae?aciei, i?ae (a?oiaoiee(, (ea?ee(, (?onee(,
(a?iiciaee(, (eaooaiiaee(, (aa?aa ei?e(.

Aeine?aeaeaii, ui e eiiiiiaioe-eieuei?iiicia/aiiy, ia(?aeiai? ca
ni?eueiith iciaeith a a?oio a?oiaoieo eieuei??a, iaaoaathoue
aiioe?eii-aeni?aneaiiai caaa?aeaiiy caeaaeii a?ae eiioaenooaeueiiai
ioi/aiiy.

AENIIAEE

Ia iniia? aiae?co oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii oae?
caaaeuei? aeniiaee:

1. Iiaa oai??a ienueiaiieea ? ?aaeueiith aeai?noth, yea aea? i?aenoaae
aeey ?icoi?iiy na?oini?eeiyooy, oa?aeoa?o, niinia?a ? cania?a
a?aeia?aaeaiiy aaoi?ii ae?eniino?. Neiai ye aeaiaio ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o
iaaoaa? iiaeo aeanoeainoae, cie?aia ia? caeaoi?noue anooiaoe a
naiaioe/i? a?aeiioaiiy c aeaiaioaie ??cieo naiaioe/ieo iie?a, aiaeii/an
?aae?ciaoaaoe aeae?eueea cia/aiue. Ieoaoeue aeeaaea? a neiai aaaeeea?
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aaoi?nuee?, anioe?aoeai?, ioe?ii? eiiioaoe??, ui ni?ey?
?icoe?aiith iaae ooaeiaeiueiai iiaeaiiy. A?aeia?aaeaiiy na?oo a ci?iaeo
? /ooo?aeo ia?acao o ooaeiaeiueiio oai?? a?aeaoaa?oueny aaaaoi a /iio
caaaeyee eieuei?o. A?i ? ae?acieeii iaaieo ?aaeueieo aeanoeainoae
ia(?eoa, iien yeiai ni?ey? aiioe?eiiio aieeao ia /eoa/a, na?ae/eoue i?i
niinoa?aaeeea?noue ? eiei?enoe/io iaenoa?i?noue ieooey.

2. Iiaia iaenoa?i?noue ienueiaiieea, yeui a?i ? iiaiith ia?niiae??th, ia
/an eiai oai?/ino? iaiaei?iii noaiiaeoue aa?oeio a ?icaeoeo iiae,
cie?aia ia eeoa ia ??ai? ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ?? (?oioo, a e ia ??ai?
aeni?aneaii? iiooaeiino?. C oeueiai iiaeyaeo iiaiee eiioaeno Ean?
Oe?a?iee ? ia(?eoeaii yne?aaei na?ae/aiiyi aeni?aneaiiai aaaaonoaa
oe?a?inueei? iiae a ?? ae?acii iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aiyo.

3. Nooi?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui iiaeaeue naiaioe/iiai
iiey, aeyaeaia i?ae /an aiae?co ooaeiaeiueiai iiaeaiiy iaeiiai aaoi?a,
iaiaei?iii a?aei?iia a?ae o??? ae iiaeae?, ui ?? iiaeia aeaoaeoaaoe ia
i?aenoaa? aiae?co ooaeiaeiueiai iiaeaiiy ?ioiai aaoi?a. Naia iiai?
ia?niiae?? ienueiaiiee?a ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? noai?ththoue iiooiaoe o
ieeiiiio ?on? iiae. O aeine?aeaeaii? iiey eieuei?iiaca o iiaioai?/ino?
Ean? Oe?a?iee ye noeoiiino? iiaieo iaeeieoeue, ia(?aeiaieo ci?noiaith
ni?euei?noth, aeyaeaii, ui, c?noaaeaoe ?ioaa?aeueio naiaioe/io iciaeo e
?ic??cithaaeuei? aeeoa?aioe?ei?, iiaeia aeae?eeoe ie?ai? eiiiiiaioe iiey
aeey aeeaoiai e aeaoaeuei?oiai aiae?co.

4. Iiaioai?/ino? ienueiaiieoe? aeanoeaa aia?aaeaioi?noue ni?eeiyooy e
aeei?enoaiiy eieuei?iiaca, oiaoi iaeei eie?? caeaoiee ae?aaeaoe
iiceoeaio e iaaaoeaio naiaioeeo. Oea noino?oueny i?aeoe/ii an?o
eieuei?iiicia/aiue (ca aeiyoeii aeaeeoiiai, n??iai oa a?oiaoiiai).

5. Oai?/ino? Ean? Oe?a?iee oa?aeoa?ia neianoac?y a?aaeaiue eieuei?o oa
caoeo. Oae, o ?? ni?eeiyoo? oa oai?/iio a?aeia?aaeaii? na?oo
i?aaenoaaeai? oae? ia?ace: caeaiee ooi; neaee ooi ii?y; n??ai? i?iiai?,
iia no?oie; n??aeeno? oaee? a??nueeiai iioieo.

6. ?ae?inoeeue ienueiaiieoe? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeeiai?eith cia?aaeaiue
ye iaecaae?a, oae ? ii?o?aoieo iien?a, aioo??oiueiai noaio aa?i?a.
Nai???aeia (e?iaiaoia?ao?/i?noue( na?oia?aeia?aaeaiiy aeinyaa?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith a?aeaae(?eoeaieo ae??ne?aieo oi?i ? aca?iiia?aoiaeo oa ci?ie
eieuei??a.

7. Aiae?c eieuei?iiicia/aiue o oai?/ino? Ean? Oe?a?iee aea? i?aenoaae
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ienueiaiieoe? aeanoeaa anoaoe/ia noaaeaiiy aei
eieuei?o. Ca aeiai?ii ? canoinoaaiiyi eieuei??a o ooaeiaei?o eiioaenoao
?e aeanoeaee ?ii?an?ii?ci o a?aeia?aaeaii? ea?oeie na?oo, oiaoi Eany
Oe?a?iea a?aeoai?th? ia oie eie??, yeee ? iino?eiith iciaeith yaeua,
i?aaeiaoa, a aeanoeaee yaeuo /e i?aaeiaoo a eiie?aoiee iiiaio ca iaaieo
oiia (ina?oeaiiy, ?icoaooaaiiy oiui).

8. Ienueiaiieoey aeoeaii iineoaiao?oueny o?aaeeoe?eieie oieueeei?ieie
iino?eieie ai?oaoaie, aeei?enoiao? neiaie?eo, eio?a ? caeiaooeii on???
?noi??? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, oai?/i ii?aoeueiao? ?o ?
noai?th? aeani? neiaie?/i? eieuei?iia?ace.

9. Iiaioai?/?noue Ean? Oe?a?iee – iaeei ?c e?aueo c?ace?a aoooy
oe?a?inueei? iiae. O ?? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e ooaeiaei?e ea?oei? na?oo
i?aai?/ii ii?aeiai? ?ioaeaeooae?ci ? i?inoioa, aeinooii?noue,
iaoe?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe?? oa caeiaooee na?oiai? oeea?e?caoe??, naia
caaaeyee oaeiio neioaco oai?eoueny aaaaoiaa?aia iiaia iae?o?a. Aiae?c
eiei?aoeaii? eaeneee a iiaeaii? ienueiaiieoe? a?aeia?aaea? iiaio ea?oeio
na?oo a iaoe?iiaeueieo ia?acao, o yeeo eiei?enoe/ia naiaioeea
neiaie?co?oueny e ae?aaea? ioe?iee ii/ooo?a, noaio i?e?iaee, yaeu
aioo??oiueiai na?oo, oai?/i? oyae oiui.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia c? cia/aiiyi /a?aiiiai eieuei?o o
iiaioai?/ino? Ean? Oe?a?iee // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai. Iiaiciaanoai. Oieueeei?enoeea. – 1995. – Aei. 3. –
N. 162-170.

2. Neiaie?/ia cia/aiiy ao?eaooa (cieioee( o iiaoe/i?e iae?o?? Ean?
Oe?a?iee // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai.
Iiaiciaanoai. Oieueeei?enoeea. – 1996. – Aei. 4. – N. 172-178.

3. Ooaeiaeiuei-aeni?aneaia ooieoe?y caa?oaiue o iiaoe/iiio iiaeaii? Ean?
Oe?a?iee // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai.
Iiaiciaanoai. Oieueeei?enoeea. – 1997. – Aei. 5. – N. 64-67.

4. Noee?noe/i? caniae neiaioai?o: Ia iaoa??ae? ooaeiaeiueiai iiaeaiiy
Ean? Oe?a?iee // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai.
Iiaiciaanoai. Oieueeei?enoeea. – 1998. – Aei. 7. – N. 65-67.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ooe?iiaa E.A. Neiaania iiaoeea Ean? Oe?a?iee (iiaoecaoe?y naiaioeee
eieuei?o). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe c? niaoe?aeueiino? 10.02.01 – oe?a?inueea iiaa, Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aiae?co?oueny ooaeiaei? iiaeaiiy Ean? Oe?a?iee a
aniaeoao iii?iaoeaieo ? neiaie?/ieo ooieoe?e eieuei?iiaca. Iniaeeao
oaaao i?eae?eaii iienia? eieuei?enoe/ieo aa?aaeueieo ia?ac?a, ye?
a?aeoai?ththoue iiaio ea?oeio na?oo a ?? iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aiyo.
Eiei?aoeaio eaeneeo a iiaeaii? Ean? Oe?a?iee iienaii a oa?i?iao oai???
naiaioe/ieo iie?a, ye? no?oeoo?iaai? ca i?eioeeiii eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo
a?oi (ca 10-ia aeii?iaioieie eiei?enoe/ieie iciaeaie, ui a
niieo/oaaiino? eaenai noaiiaeoue 1484 neiaiaaeeaaiiy). O aeniiaeao
noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui ca iniaeeainoyie neiaioai?o, aeni?an??,
niieo/oaaiino? ne?a-eieuei?iiicia/aiue iiaeaiiy Ean? Oe?a?iee ae?aaea?
aanue iioaioe?ae noee?noe/ieo iiaeeeainoae oe?a?inueei? iiae, i?ioa a
?ae?inoee?noeoe? ienueiaiieoe? aiie a?aeoai?ththoueny a iciaeao
?ii?an?ii?cio, ?ioaeaeooae?cio – ye na?ae/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-iiaii? ?
na?oiai? eoeueoo?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?ae?inoeeue, eieuei?iiacae, eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia,
iiaia ea?oeia na?oo, naiaioe/ia iiea, nenoaii?noue, no?oeoo?a.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ooeeiiaa E.A. Neiaaniay iiyoeea Eane Oe?aeiee (iiyoecaoeey naiaioeee
oeaaoa). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.01 – oe?aeineee ycue, Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee aiaeece?oaony ooaeiaeanoaaiiue ycueiaie eiioaeno
i?iecaaaeaiee Eane Oe?aeiee a aniaeoao iiieiaoeaiuo e neiaiee/aneeo
ooieoeee oeaaoiiaicia/aiee. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeaii iienaieth
aa?aaeeciaaiiuo ia?acia oeaaoiaie aaiiu, ainnicaeathueo ycueiaoth
ea?oeio ie?a a aa iaoeeiiaeueiuo a?aiyo, /oi niaeanoaony n
yoiieeiaaenoe/aneie oai?eae iaoeeiiaeueii-ia?aciiai ycueiaiai iuoeaiey.
Eiei?aoeaiay eaeneea a iiyoe/aneeo e i?icae/aneeo i?iecaaaeaieyo Eane
Oe?aeiee enneaaeiaaia ii i?eioeeio naiaioe/aneeo iieae,
no?oeoo?e?iaaiiuo a 10-oe eaeneei-naiaioe/aneeo a?oiiao n aeiieiaioiuie
eaenaiaie e neiiieie/aneeie eo aa?eaioaie (1484 neiaioiio?aaeaiey). A
auaiaeao ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi ycueiaia oai?/anoai Eane Oe?aeiee
iieiinoueth io?aaeaao aiaaonoai ?ano?nia oe?aeineiai ycuea
ioiineoaeueii noeeenoe/aneie ooieoeee oeaaoiiaicia/aiee, iaeiaei a
eaeeinoeea iiyoannu yoei yaeaieyi naienoaaiiu i?eciaee eii?anneiiecia,
aunieiai eioaeeaeooaeecia, oi anoue i?eciaee oai?/aneie anneieeyoeee
aeinoeaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiie e ie?iaie eoeueoo?u.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eaeeinoeeue, eaeneei-naiaioe/aneay a?oiia,
naiaioe/aneia iiea, nenoaiiinoue, no?oeoo?a, oeaaoiiaicia/aiea, ycueiaay
ea?oeia ie?a.

ANNOTATION

Shulinova L.V. Verbal poetics of Lesya Ukrayinka (poetization of
semantics of colour). The manuscript.

The dissertation is for obtaining a scientific degree of the candidate
of philological sciences on the speciality 10.02.01 – the Ukrainian
language. – Taras Shevchenko Kyiv university, Kyiv, 1999.

In the dissertation the art language of Lesya Ukrayinka in aspects of
nominative and symbolical functions of the names of colours is analyzed.
The special attention is given to the description of colour verbal
images, which reflect a language picture of the world in its national
sides. Colour lexicon in laguage of Lesya Ukrayinka is described in the
terms of the theory of semantic fields structured by a principle of
lexical-semantic groups (till 10 dominant colour attributes, that makes
1484 uses of words in connection of lexemes).

In the research, the words with a root of colour meaning, irrespective
of belonging to a part of speech, including composites, and irrespective
of their use in direct, portable, symbolical meaning were taken into
account.

Within te limits of lexical-semantic groups synonymic lines of the
colour names with motivation of reference of this or that colour names
to each particular line are considered.

The relative adjectives were taken into account only with presence of
their qualitative meanings. But painting by a word in the language
creativity of Lesya Ukrayinka is not limited only to allocated colour
names. She uses comparisons with various subjects, phenomenas, that
favours to involving of active thinking of the reader. Among means of
formation of words, the addition of bases, addition of words and affixal
deverbative verbs, adverbs and nouns are the reflection of poetic
consciousness. Just they, submitting the certain contents and purpose of
the statement, creative plan, perception of the world and reflection of
the world, act by means of verbal painting.

In the conclusions affirms, that the language of products of a writer
is a reality, which gives the bases for understanding of perception of
the world, character, ways and means of reflection by the author of the
validity. The master puts in a word important individual author(s,
associative, estimated connotations, that promotes expansion of borders
of art speech. The display of the world in visual and sensual images in
art product occurs in many respects due to colour. It acts as a
mouthpiece of certain real properties of object, which description
emotional influence on the reader, testifies about keenness of
observation and colour skill of a writer. The essence of research is,
that the model of a semantic field revealed during the analysis of art
speech of one author, is necessary differs from the same model, which
can be built on the basis of the analysis of art speech of other author.
Just the language persons of writers as the individualities create
pushes in current development of language. The ambivalency of perception
and use of the names of colours, that is one colour is capable to
express both positive, and negative semantics is inherent to the
language creativity of Lesya Ukrayinka. It concerns practically all
designations of colours (except for light-blue, grey and brown). The
synestesy of impressions of colour and sound is inherent to the
creativity of the writer. The idiostyle of Lesya Ukrayinka is
characterized by dynamics of the images both landscapes, and portrait
descriptions, internal condition of heroes. Original cinematographicy of
reflection of the world is achieved with the help of the forms of verbs
formed from adjectives, both mutual transition and change of colours.
The analysis of the names of colours in creativity of Lesya Ukrayinka
convinces that the aesthetic attitude to colour is inherent to her. On
selection and use of colours in art contexts is determined, that the
impressionism in reflection of a picture of the world is inherent to the
writer. Lesya Ukrayinka displays not that colour, which is a constant
attribute of the phenomenon, subject, but that one, which is inherent in
phenomenon or subject in the specific moment under certain conditions
(illumination, accommodation and so on). The writer actively uses
traditional folklore and constant epithets, creatively processes and
applies traditions of symbolics, that is an achievement of the whole
history of culture, and also creates her own symbolical colour images.
In a language picture of the world of Lesya Ukrayinka the intellect,
arystocracy and simplicity, availability, the national traditions and
achievement of a world civilization are integrally connected. Just due
to such synthesis there is a multicolour language palette.

Key words: the colour names, idiostyle, language picture of the world,
lexical-semantic group, semantic field, structure, system.

I?ae?enaii aei ae?oeo 21.04.99 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16.

Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,0.

Iaeeaae 100. Cai. 150.

i. Ee?a-5, aoe. *a?aiiia?i?enueea, 57/3, e.201.

Oiaa?enoai “Ciaiiy” Oe?a?ie. Aeaeaaieoeoai oa iia?aoeaia iie?a?ao?y.

227-41-23, 294-71-27.

?enae I.I. Eanei aeeaina?o. – Euea?a: «Na?o», 1992. – 109 n.

Ooo ? aeae? oeeoo?ii ca aeaeaiiyi: Oe?a?iea Eany. Oai?e: O 12 o. – E.,
1975-1979, oeacoth/e a aeoaeeao oii ? noi??ieo.

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