I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

OAOIIEIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO IIAe?EEss

(i. Oiaeueieoeeee)

OAeE
621.891+539.375.6

AIEEINUeEEE

Ai?eneaa Naaae?eiae/

NE?A*-IAOIAe

AECIA*AIIss O?EAIEIA?*IEO AEANOEAINOAE

IIAA?OI?

05.02.04 — oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy a iaoeiao

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oiaeueieoeueeee — 1999

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oaoiieia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? Iiae?eey (i.
Oiaeueieoeueeee)

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe , i?ioani?

Eocueiaiei Aiaoie?e A?eai?iae/,

Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey

(i.Oiaeueieoeueeee), caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

ciinino?eeino? oa iaae?eiino? iaoei.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, no. iaoe.ni?a?ia.

No?aeueieeia Aaea??e
Iaaeiae/,

?inoeooo i?iaeai
iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoei ?

nenoai IAI Oe?a?ie
(i.Ee?a),

cano. aee?aeoi?a.

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aeaaeeee ss?ineaa Ieeieaeiae/,

Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey

(i. Oiaeueieoeueeee), aeaeai cai/iiai

oaeoeueoaoo ? 1.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea

iie?oaoi?ea», eaoaae?a
o?ceee iaoae?a oa

iaoa??aeiciaanoaa, i.
Euea?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 29 aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 10-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 70.052.02 a Oaoiieia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iiae?eey ca aae?anith: 280016, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, aoe. ?inoeooonueea,
11.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (280016, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, aoe.
Eai’yiaoeueea, 110/1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 26 na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E?ieoeueeee ss.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Iaae?ei?noue oa aeiaaia?/i?noue iaoei iia’ycaia a
cia/i?e i??? c iii?ii ia? oa?oy ciiooaaiith.

Ia iie?ioaiiy neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae, ye? aecia/athoue ciinino?ee?noue
iaoa??ae?a, iino?eii ni?yiiaai? coneeey a/aieo, ?iaeaia??a oa
oaoiieia?a. Aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ?ic?iaethaaieo oaoiieia?e
iaea?eueo oe?iei canoiniaothoue iaoiaee aei??thaaiiy oaa?aeino? ?
iiaeaeuei? aei?iaiaoaaiiy ia ciiooaaiiy. I?yiee iaoiae aenieoaoaoe?eii?
ia?aa??ee neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae ? o?oaeii?noeei ? iaoa??aei?iiei.

Aecia/aiiy oaa?aeino? iaoiaeii aaeaaethaaiiy aea? oa?aeoa?enoeeo
eieaeueieo ia’?i?a iiaa?oiiue oa?oy ? aeoaea /ooeeaee aei ianooaaiiai
oaeoi?a.

Aecia/aiiy oaa?aeino? iaoiaeii ae?yiaiiy a aeaiee /an aea? a?eueo ye?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, i?ae e?euee?ni?. Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo a oaeiio aeaeyae?,
ye oea ?iaeeinue ?ioeie aeine?aeieeaie: I.I.Oaiaaaoiii,
A.E.A?eai?iae/ai, I.I.Ia?eiaoeai oa ?i., ia? ?yae iaaeie?e?a. Oiio
?ic?iaea iiaeo iaoiae?a ioe?iee yeino? iiaa?oiiue ?, oei naiei,
aoaeoeaiino? ?ic?iaethaaieo caoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino?
iaoa??ae?a ia? oa?oy ? aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue: 1) ?ic?iaeoe iaoiae aecia/aiiy
iaoai?/ieo oa o?eaieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaa?oi? oa?oy i?e ae?yiaii?,
yeee onoaaa ae iaaeie?ee a?aeiieo i?aeoiae?a ? canoiniaoaaany a aeey
aei?iaoaaiiy oiieeo ? oaa?aeeo iie?eoo?a ia ieanoe/i?e iniia?; 2) aeaoe
oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ? i?eeaaeia caaacia/aiiy iaoiaeo; 3)iieacaoe
i?aeoe/io canoiniaoaaii?noue oa ia?aaaae eiai a ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie
i?aeoiaeaie.

?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue ca ieaiaie IAe? eaoaae?e ciinino?eeino? oa
iaae?eiino? iaoei Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey
(i.Oiaeueieoeueeee).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo ?
o?eaieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaa?oi? i?e ae?yiaii?, ui io?eiaa iacao
ne?a/-iaoiae. Iniiai? eiiiiiaioe iaoeiaiai ?acoeueoaoo iieyaathoue o
ianooiiiio:

; 3) aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee iaiaeii??aeiino? no?oeoo?e iaoa??aeo iiaa?oi?
cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? a?aieoe? i?oeiino?
iiaa?oi? i?e ae?yiaii?; 4) anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano a iiiaio
cnoao ?iaeaioi?a i?e ae?yiaii?; 5) anoaiiaeaii ei?aeyoe?th i?ae
no?oeoo?iith iaiaeii??aei?noth iaoa??aeo iiaa?oi? ? ci?iaie nee oa?oy
i?e ae?yiaii?; 6) io?eiai? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy a?aieoe?
i?oeiino? iiaa?oi? oaa?aeiai iie?eooy oa iniiae i?e aeaie?aoiiio
aaeaaethaaii? ? ae?yiaii? c ??cieie iaaaioaaeaiiyie; 7) aaaaeaia
oa?aeoa?enoeea a?aieoe? i?oeiino? iiaa?oi? i?e eiioaeoiiio noeneo ye?nii
oa?aeoa?eco? ciinino?ee?noue oaa?aeiai iie?eooy.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. Ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia
i?ea?iaeueia onoaiiaea NI-01 aeey aei?iaoaaiiy iiaa?oi? ? iie?eoo?a
ne?a/-iaoiaeii. Ia oe?e onoaiiaoe? aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy 16 ??cieo
iaoa??ae?a oa iie?eoo?a c aecia/aiiyi i?oei?nieo ? o?eaieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a iiaa?oi?.

Oaeineiiaeaia oaoiieia?y aiiaeii-?ne?iaiai iie?eooy o iai?yieo noai?aiiy
eiia?iiaaiiai aeainooi?i/aoiai ?aaeeio ? ?ic?iaee aeaeo?e/ii? noaie aeey
?iioeueniiai oi?ioaaiiy iie?eoo?a, canoinoaaiiy aeeiai?/ii?,
a?a?aoe?eii? aeoeaaoe?? aeaeo?ie?oo a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy.

Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aiiaeieo iie?eoo?a ia aeaoaeyo aaciaeo
e?/eeueiee?a ii cayaeao Aa?aaaoiiai caaiaeo (i. E?anee?a) ? AI «Iiaaoi?»
(i. Oiaeueieoeueeee) c iaoith aeei?enoaiiy ia ?oi?o ae?iaieoeoaao
?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?? oi?ioaaiiy aiiaeii-?ne?iaeo iie?eoo?a.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. Ne?a/-iaoiae ai?iaaaeaeaii a o/aiaee i?ioean a
oi?aa?neoao? i?e aea/aii? aeenoeeie?i o?eaieia?/iiai oeeeeo
niaoe?aeueiino? «Oaoiieia?y oa iaeaaeiaiiy a?aeiiaeaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy
ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae iaoei oa eiino?oeoe?e», a oaeiae a iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? oaoiieia?? ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy
oa oaoiieia?? ssIA i?e ci?oeiaii? ?ino?oiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a
(oaeaeei??aeo/? noae?, oaa?ae? nieaae).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
io?eiai? aaoi?ii iniaenoi. Iinoaiiaea caaea/ oa iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeeiiai? ni?eueii c iaoeiaei ea??aieeii ?, /anoeiai, ?c ni?aaaoi?aie
ioae?eaoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ie?ai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia: iaeani?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?eiaiaiea
eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia a oceao o?aiey oaoiieiae/aneiai
iai?oaeiaaiey» (Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1986a.); i?ae?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «sse?noue oa iaae?ei?noue aoce?a oa?oy»
(i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1992 ?.); iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? e?a?i NIAe
«Aei??thaaeueia oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao ? eiiaa?n??
ae?iaieoeoa» (i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1992 ?.); iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? c iaaiaee i?acaioaoe?? OOI «Iaoeia? iniiae no/anieo
i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?e» (i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1994 ?.); i?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Ciinino?ee?noue oa iaae?ei?noue iaoei» (i.
Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1996?.), 4-iio i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? oe?a?inueeeo
?iaeaia??a-iaoai?e?a o Eueaia?, INOOE-4 — (i.Euea?a,1999?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 3 iaoeiaeo
?iaioe.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 5
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e ? aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ia’?i
?iaioe 150 noi??iee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, yeee i?noeoue 34 ?enoie?a, 15
oaaeeoeue oa a?ae?ia?ao?/iee nienie c 142 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, i?aaenoaaeai? a?aeiiino? i?i
iaoeiao iiaecio, i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue oa ?aae?caoe?th ?acoeueoao?a,
iiaeaii ei?ioeo aiioaoe?th ci?noo aeena?oaoe??.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c a?aeiieo ?ia?o c ioe?iee i?oeiino?
oa yeino? iiaa?oi? iaoiaeaie i?e?ioaa?aeino? e ae?yiaiiy.
Aeine?aeaeaiiyie A.O.?iooa, I.A.?aa?iaea?a, E.E?aia?a, A.E.Oaaae?ia,
A.I.Aeueio?ia oa ?i. aeieacaii, ui iiaa?oiy — ia’?eo c iniaeeaeie
iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie. Ia?o ca ana, iiaa?oiaaee oa? oiaueiith
100…200 iei ia? a?eueo iecueeo a?aieoeth oaeo/ino? ? a?eueo aenie?
aia?aaoe/i? oa ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino?. A inoaii?e /an ?ic?iaeaia
(?.A.Iai?i oa ?io?) iaciiaoai?ea iiaa?oi?, yea iieno? ?oo no?oeoo?ieo
o?aaiaio?a i?e aeaoi?ioaaii?. A?oioiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii canoinoaaiith
i?e?ioaa?aeino? oa ae?yiaiiy aeey aea/aiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
aeeiiai? a ?iaioao I.I.Oaiaiaaoia, I.I.O?ouiaa, I.A.Aaae/aaa,
I.I.Ia?eiaoey, A.E.A?eai?iae/a, A.Oaiiaia, A.I.Ni?ieiia oa ?io. Cia/iee
ia’?i ?ia?o c aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoeainoae iiaa?oi? iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a
iaoiaeii ae?yiaiiy aeeiiaii oeieith aeaae. A.I.A?eiai. Iaoiae
ae?yiaiiy aai neea?iiao??? aeei?enoiao?oueny, ye i?aaeei, aeey
aecia/aiiy oaa?aeino?. A oie aea /an, a?i ? a?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaiei ? iiaea
aooe aeei?enoaiee ye iaoiae ioe?iee i?oei?nieo oa o?eaieia?/ieo
aeanoeainoae iiaa?oi? oa iie?eoo?a.

Aeaoaeueiee aiae?c iaoai?ee eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? ?iaeaioi??a, aeeiiaiee
o ?iaioao ?.ss.Ooa??iaia, A.N.Eiaaeuenueeiai, E.I.Ea/aiiaa,
A.A.Niei-eianueeiai, E.Aeaeiiniia, Ae.Io?a, ?.I.Iaiooea oa ?i., ia aea?
a?aeiia?ae? ia ieoaiiy uiaei iaoai?ee ?iaeaioi?a, yeee ?ooa?oueny i?e
ae?yiaii? A?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee eieeaaiue ?iaeaioi?a, ui
?ooa?oueny (A.A.Caii?iaeaoeue), iathoue ?ioaa?aeueiee noaoenoe/iee
oa?aeoa?, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/aiiy iaiaeii??aeiino? no?oeoo?e. Ia
iniia? i?eaaaeaiiai aiae?co c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaaeinoaoi?noue
aea/aiiy iaoiaeo ae?yiaiiy oa i?i aacoiiaio ia?niaeoeai?noue eiai
canoinoaaiiy.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny eiioaeoia iaoai?ea aaeaaethaaiiy
i??ai?aee oa ae?yiaiiy iath iiaa?oi? ye iniiaa ?ic?iaethaaiiai iaoiaeo
i?oei?nieo oa o?eaieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaa?oi?. Oi/iee ?ica‘ycie
eiioaeoieo caaea/ aaeaaethaaiiy ? cnoao aino?eo ?iaeaioi??a a
i?oaeii-ieanoe/ia na?aaeiaeua ia no/aniiio ??ai? iaoai?ee aeaoi?iiaaiiai
o?ea ? neeaaeiei.

I?e ?ica’yceo caaea/? aaeaaethaaiiy aei?noei? eaaae?aoii? i??ai?aee aac
oa?oy a ieanoe/ia na?aaeiaeua i?eeiyoi aeiiouaiiy i?i ??aiii??iee
?iciiae?e oene?a ii ii?iaeyo aei a?aiae. Aa??aoe?eii-aenia?aiaioaeueiei
iaoiaeii iieacaii, ui eiao?oe??io eiioeaio?aoe?? oene?a caeaaeeoue a?ae
iieacieea noaiaiy i a caeaaeiino?:

, (1)

-ia?aiao?e ai?ieneiaoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueii? caeaaeiino?.

??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e oene?a ia? i?noea eeoa i?e n = 2. I?e i<2 iaeneiaeuei? eiioaeoi? oenee iathoue i?noea o aa?oei? i??ai?aee,a i?e n >2 — ia a?aieoe? eiioaeoo ?iaeaioi?a c aei?iaiaoaaiith iiaa?oiath.

C o?aooaaiiyi i?eeiyoeo aeiiouaiue io?eiaia oi?ioea aeey aecia/aiiy oeeo
oene?a, yea ca?aa?oueny c oi?ioeith Ia?oaey oa Ia??a:

. (2)

:

. (3)

Aiae?c caeaaeiino? (3) iieaco?, ui i?e ci?i? eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy
aei??thaai? eiioaeoi? oenee (i?e?ioaa?ae?noue) iiaeooue ?ic??ciyoenue.
I?i oea ye?nii na?ae/eoue aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii aei??thaai?
oaa?aeino? ii Ia??o, i?iaaaeaieo aeey eaooi? E70 oa a?iei-cae?ca o
??cieo ianoeeueieo na?aaeiaeuao (oaaeeoey 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Ci?ia oaa?aeino? II, IIa ii Iaea?o (Q=1I) a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia
ciauaiiy eiioaeoo

Iaoa??ae II ca oi?io-

eith (2) II

Ca oi?io-

eith(3) II aecia/aii ca oi?ioeith (2)

Ianoeei

Ae?oea??i Nee?eii E-20

Eaooiue

E-70 1349 f = 0.29*

1208 1227 1127 1080

A?iei-

cae?ci 2174 f = 0.31*

1932 1922 1811 1674

*cia/aiiy eiao?oe?aioa oa?oy f aecia/aii aenia?eiaioaeueii
ne?a/-iaoiaeii

?icaeyiooi iaoai?eo ae?yiaiiy iiaa?oi? /ioe?ea?aiiith i??ai?aeith
a?aiith aia?aae. Aanue i?ioean ae?yiaiiy ?icae?eaii ia o?e noaae??
(?en.1):

i??ai?aea iiaea ni?eeiyoe ??ci? ?ooe: IIIa — c iieiaeaiiy II ii/aoe
ai?eciioaeueia ia?ai?uaiiy; IIIb — i?aeiyoeny oai?o aei iieiaeaiiy, i?e
yeiio ii?iaeuei? eiioaeoi? oenee ca?eueoaoueny; IIIn — ae?yiaiiy c
iieiaeaiiy IIIb. Oae ye noaae?y III — oea iaia?a?aiee i?ioean, oi
iaeii/anii iiaeooue a?aeaoaaoenue ?ooe ii aa?oeeae? oa ai?eciioae?.

Aeey eiaeii? c noaae?e aecia/ai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae on?ia ia?aiao?aie
eiioaeoo c o?aooaaiiyi nee oa?oy. Oae, coneeey iii?o i?e iiaiiio cnoa?
aecia/a?oueny ii caeaaeiino?:

. (4)

C aiae?co ni?aa?aeiioaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ney aaeaaethaaiiy oa ae??
aeioe/ii? neee, oa?aeoa? ?ooo ii ii?iae? caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy
ci?oeiaiiy iiaa?oi?.

aecia/a?oueny ye ??cieoey

. (5)

C o?aooaaiiyi iaoeeo a?ai? aecia/a?oueny eiao?oe??io oa?oy i?ae
aeiaciith a?aiith ? iaoa??aeii iiaa?oi?:

.
(6)

:

. (7)

Iieacaii, ui i?eioeeiiai iaa??ii ye neeiaee oaeoi?, ui aecia/a?
i?oei?noue iiaa?oi?, ?icaeyaeaoe o?eueee neeo aai ?iaioo ae?yiaiiy, ia
a?aoiaoth/e oeneo a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e aaeaaethaaii? ?iaeaioi?a.
Iai?ee?ioe? ?icae?eo iienaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy i?oeiino? iiaa?oi? i?e
ae?yiaii? c o?aooaaiiyi ci?ie ?ici???a o?aeo i?e ae?oaiio i?ioiae?. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo caeaaei?noue ia? aeaeyae:

. (8)

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iienai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaa?oi? ne?a/-iaoiaeii oa iaoiaeeea aei?iaoaaiue i?oeiino? ae?yiaiiyi
aeiaciith i??ai?aeith. Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith iaoiaeo ? iaoai?ea
ae?yiaiiy ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, io?eiai? o ?icae?e? 2. Iniiaiei i?eeaaeii
i?iiiiiaaiiai iaoiaeo ? ?ic?iaeaiee ne?a/iao?-onoaiiaea aeey
aei?iaoaaiue iiaa?oi? ae?yiaiiyi. A ne?a/iao?? NI-01 (?en.2)
/ioe?ea?aiia aeiacia i??ai?aea c aeaia?aiiei eooii 1360 ae?yia?
noaiaea?oiee iie??iaaiee i?e?ioe?o.

?en.2. Caaaeueiee aeaeyae ne?a/iao?a NI — 01

0.002 I ia?aaea?oueny /a?ac nenoaio aaaeae?a 11 ieaaii /a?ac eoea/ie
15, ui iaa?oa?oueny niaoe?aeueiei aeaeo?iaeaeaoiii 14. Ia?ai?uaiiy
c?acea i?yiie?i?eia, c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth 3.35 i/oa cae?enith?oueny
?aaa?neaiei aeaeo?iaeaeaoiii 4 /a?ac i?oaeio ioooo 3. Aeey caiia?aaiiy
aieeao a?a?aoe?e i?eaiaeo ia aei?iaoaaiee c?acie ? nenoaio aei??thaaiue
aeaeo?iaeaeaoi ciiioiaaii ia aoiiaeo aii?oecaoi?ao, cae??ieaieo ia
ieeo? 1. Neee ae?yiaiiy, oa?oy ? aa?oeeaeuei? ia?ai?uaiiy aei??thaaeenue
c aeiiiiiaith nenoaie oaiciaaeea — i?aeneethaa/ — naiiienaoeue.
Oi/i?noue aeey nee neeaaea? SYMBOL 177 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ± 0.002 I,
aeey ia?ai?uaiue SYMBOL 177 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ± 1 iei. ?ici??e o?aeo
aei??ththoueny ia i?e?ineii? i?e ca?eueoaii? o462

?acoeueoaoe ae?yiaiiy caienoaaeenue o aeaeyae? inoeeeia?ai: ne?a/aa?ai
(ia?oee i?io?ae) oa o?eaia?ai (ae?oaee, o?ao?e i?ioiaee) (?en.3).
Ia?iaea inoeeeia?ai aeeiioaaeanue iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee c
aecia/aiiyi na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy, aeenia?n?? ? eiao?oe??ioa aa??aoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaii aeaa‘youe ii-aa?oiiue ??cieo iaoa??ae?a: 1 —
a?iei-cae?ci;2 — noaeue 45; 3 — noaeue OO15, aa?-ooaaiiy ? iecueeee
a?aeione; 4 — noaeue OO — 15, acioiaa-ia ca ?aaeeiii A; 5 — noaeue OO
15, acioiaaia ca ?aaeeiii A; 6 — n??ee /aaoi N*20; 7 — aeo?aethi?i
Ae16O; 8 — eaooiue E70; 9 — oaa?aeee nieaa AE15.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaa?oiiue
aeacaieo iaoa??ae?a ne?a/-iaoiaeii (oaaeeoey 2).

Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? ii/aoeiaiai ?ooo i??ai?aee
i?e ae?yiaii? a iiiaio c?oooaaiiy.

I?aeeii i??ai?aee a ii/aoeiaee iiiaio eaea, ye i?aaeei, i?e iaeeo
aa?oeeaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo

aeey ieanoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a ? , i?aeoe/ii, i?e on?o iaaaioaaeaiiyo aeey
oaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a. Aeyaeaiee aoaeo iiynith?oueny ??ciei nooiaiai
ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo i?ae a?aiith i?e ii/aoeiaiio cnoa? i??ai?aee: yeui
ci?oeiaiiy iiaa?oi? a ii/aoeiaee iiiaio cnoao ia?aaeuo? 15%
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia cnoa c ae?yiaiiyi, a cnoa ii iioee?e ieiuei? ?
«nieeaaiiy» i??ai?aee. I?e oeueiio eiioaeo? oenee ca?eueoothoueny ?
ianooia? iiiaio ae?yiaiiy; yeui ci?oeiaiiy ??aia 15%, cae?enith?oueny
ia?ai?uaiiy i??ai?aee i?e ae?yiaii? ii ai?eciioae? ?, yeui ci?oeiaiiy
iaioa 15%, i??ai?aea iionea?oueny ca?eueoaiiy oene?a, a iio?i
ia?aoiaeeoue a ?aaeei ae?yiaiiy.

Oaaeeoey 2

?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue iiaa?oiiue ??cieo iaoa??ae?a.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Aeo?aethi?i Ae16O aac iie?eooy

7.1 40 24,0 9,68 0,054 586 0,18 0,24

7.2 50 29,5 12,06 0,06 816 0,17 0,24

7.3 70 31,4 24,31 0,056 1020 0,31 0,34

7.5 100 45,5 40,31 0,037 722 0,34 0,40

Na?aaei?

0,052 786 0,25 0,30

A?I aeo?aethi?io Ae16O ca ?aaeeiii A

11.5 100 28,0 29,4 0,279 1903 0,200 0,294

11.6 150 29,17 38,0 0,228 2599 0,185 0,259

11.7 200 34,42 55,64 0,176 2453,5 0,222 0,278

11.8 300 41,20 68,88 0,132 2217,1 0,283 0,276

Na?aaei?

0,225 2293 0,223 0,277

A?I aeo?aethi?io Ae16O ca ?aaeeiii A

10.5 100 21,25 27,78 0,236 3617,8 0,264 0,278

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

10.7 200 32,00 62,45 0,098 3208,3 0,302 0,312

10.8 250 38,00 88,60 0,072 2921,1 0,335 0,354

Na?aaei?

0,136 3249,1 0,3 0,315

A?I aeo?aethi?io Ae16O ca ?aaeeiii N

13.5 100 26,25 34,82 0,096 2113,7 0,35 0,348

13.7 200 34,50 63,30 0,061 2704,8 0,290 0,317

13.8 250 41,20 84,35 0,039 2382,8 0,32 0,337

na?aaei?

0,058 2400,6 0,32 0,334

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ? c?noaaeaiiy ne?a/aa?ai oa oioia?ao?e
i?e?ino?oeoo? aeey aeayeeo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a (a?iei-cae?ci, aaa?o A83)
iieacaee, ui eieeaaiiy nee ae?yiaiiy ? oa?oy ca?aathoueny ii eii?aeeiao?
c iaiaeii??aei?noth no?oeoo? (??ci? oace, e?enoaeia?ao?/ia i???ioaoe?y
ca?ai, a?aieoe? ca?ai). Oaeei /eiii, ne?a/aa?aie i?noyoue ?ioi?iaoe?th
i?i no?oeoo?o iaoa??aeo iiaa?oi? ? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i nooi?iue iaiaeii??aeiino? aoaeiae iaoa??aeo. Ca i??o
iaiaeii??aeiino? no?oeoo?e i?eeia?oueny eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? a?aieoe?
i?oeiino? iiaa?oi? oa nee ae?yiaiiy.

Oae, iai?eeeaae, aeey o?ueio iaoa??ae?a a iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao —
aeo?aethi?i Ae16O, a?iei-cae?ci ? n??ee /aaoi N*20 — io?eiaii
eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? nee ae?yiaiiy, a?aeiia?aeii, 0,06; 0,119; 0,155.

Eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee a?ae iaiaeii??aeiino?, aea ?
a?ae iiia?a i?ioiaeo — eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? ia ae?oaiio ? o?aoueiio
i?ioiae? aeuee, i?ae i?e ia?oiio. Oea yaeua iiaea aooe iiyniaii ye
aeaiiooth/ei oa?aeoa?ii aeaoi?iaoe?? ia ia?oiio i?ioiae?, oae ?
?oeioaaiiyi oa ooai?aiaie i?e oeueiio o??ueiaie.

Cai?iiiiiaaia oa?aeoa?enoeea — a?aieoey i?oeiino? iaoa??aeo iiaa?oi?
i?e noeneoth/eo eiioaeoieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo i?ae /an ae?yiaiiy a?aiith
aia?aae — ca aeaeyaeii aeaoi?iaoe?? iaaeeaeaia aei i?e?ioaa?aeino?
(a?aeoeeaiiy 10-30%). Iaeiae oea a?eueo oi/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea, oae ye
aiia a?aoiao? oa?oy ii a?aiyo, ? noaoenoe/ii a?eueo aeaaaeaia, ine?eueee
aea? ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i i?oei?noue ii on?e aeiaaeei? o?aeo.

= 0.145 — aeey noae? OO15, aciooaaiiy, ?aaeei A. Caeaaei?noue
eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaea aooe c?inoath/ith
(aeo?aethi?i Ae16O), niaaeath/ith (noaeue 45) oa noaa?eueiith (noaeue
OO15, n??ee /aaoi N*20).

Eiao?oe??io iii?o ae?yiaiith, aecia/aiee oai?aoe/ii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii,
aeuee eiao?oe??ioo oa?oy a na?aaeiueiio ia 30%.

Io?eiai? ia?aiao?e noaiaiaai? caeaaeiino? aeeaeie i?iieeiaiiy
?iaeaioi?a i?e ae?yiaii? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ii?iaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.
Na?aaei? cia/aiiy iieacieea noaiaiy caeaaeiino? aeey on?o iaoa??ae?a i?e
i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?aooieao iiaeia i?eeiaoe SYMBOL 97 \f «Symbol» \s 12 a
SYMBOL 64 \f «Symbol» \s 12 @ 0.5. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e iiaeaethaaii? oa ?ic?aooieao aa?aceaiiai ciiooaaiiy

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iaa?oioiaaii canoinoaaiiy ne?a/-iaoiaeo aeey ioe?iee
yeino? iiaa?oi? aiiaeii-?ne?iaeo iie?eoo?a.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue ? aiiaeii-?ne?ia? iie?eooy (A?I), noi?iiaai? ia
aethi?i??aeo nieaaao. I?eioeeiiaa a?aei?ii?noue oaoiieia?? A?I a?ae
oaoiieia?? cae/aeieo aaeueaai?/ieo iie?eoo?a iieyaa? a aeaeo?e/iiio
?aaeei? oa neeaae? aeaeo?ie?o?a. O oe?e oaoiieia?? ?iai/? iai?oae
ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao 120 — 300 A, ui noai?th? oi?niaaiee ?aaeei c
?ne??iiyi a iaeano? aiiaea (aeaoae?). Oaoiieia?y A?I a?aeiia oa a
aeaye?e i??? aeine?aeaeaia. A aeai?e ?iaio? aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii
aaeineiiaeaiith ?aaeei?a oaoiieia?e A?I c iaoith iie?ioaiiy
o?eaieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae noai?thaaiiai iie?eooy. Aaeineiiaeaiiy
oaoiieia?? A?I aeeiiaii o ianooiieo iai?yieao:

1. ?ic?iaeai? eiia?iiaai? ?aaeeie oi?ioaaiiy iie?eoo?a. Ia ii/aoeia?e
noaae?? iie?eooy oi?io?oueny o aaeueaaiinoaoe/iiio ?aaeei?, noai?thth/e
caoenio aa?’??io ie?aeo. Ia ae?oaiio, iniiaiiio aoai?, i?ioean
i?ioiaeeoue o iioaioe?inoaoe/iiio ?aaeei? c aeoeaiei ?ne??iiyi.
Eiia?iiaaiee ?aaeei caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy a?eueo ye?niiai iie?eooy.

2.?ic?iaeaia i?ea?iaeueia aeaeo?e/ia noaia onoaiiaee A?I, yea aeicaiey?
oi?ioaaoe eiia?iiaai? iie?eooy a ?iioeueniiio ciaeici?iiiio aeaeo?e/iiio
?aaeei?.

Aaeineiiaeaia nenoaia aeoeaaoe?? aeaeo?ie?oo ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy
no?oiaiaaiai ia?ai?ooaaiiy oa iaoai?/ieo eieeaaiue aiiaea. Iniiaiei
iaoa??aeii, ia yeiio aoei i?iaaaeaii a?aei?aoethaaiiy oaoiieia?? oa ??
ioe?iea ne?a/ — iaoiaeii, aoa aeo?aethi?i Ae16O.

I?e aecia/aii? i?oeiino? oiieeo iie?eoo?a ne?a/-iaoiaeii iiaeeeaa ?o
i?i??coaaiiy ?iaeaioi?ii. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, io?eiai? o
ae?oaiio ?icae?e?, iai?eaeaoi?. A ca’yceo c oeei ?ic?iaeaii iaoai?eo
aaeaaethaaiiy oa ae?yiaiiy iaiaeii??aeiiai iie?eooy c i?i??coaaiiyi.

?icaeyiooa iaoai?ea aaeaaethaaiiy aei?noei? i??ai?aee a iiaa?oith c
oiieei iie?eooyi c o?aooaaiiyi eiai i?i??coaaiiy (?en.4).

. A ?acoeueoao? io?eiaii caeaaeiino?

, (9)

, (10)

,

ca?aathoueny c oaa?ae?noth ii A?ea?no. Aiaeia?/i? caeaaeiino? io?eiaii
c o?aooaaiiyi oa?oy a?aiae ii iie?eooth oa iniia?.

aecia/a?oueny c ae?aco:

. (11)

i?ioiae?a a?aeiia?aeathoue ??ci? ?ici??e o?ae?a, oi aeey ooi/iaiiy
ia?aiao??a i?oeiino? aoea cai?iiiiiaaia a?eueo oi/ia caeaaei?noue:

, (12)

a?aeiinyoueny aei ia?oiai oa ae?oaiai i?ioiae?a.

.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oeiino? iie?eoo?a aeeiioaaeenue ia
onoaiiaoe? NI-01 ca?aeii iaoiaeeee, iienaii? o o?aoueiio ?icae?e?.
Aei?iaiaoaaeenue A?I aeo?aethi?io Ae16O c iaoith aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai
?aaeeio oaoiieia?? ?o oi?ioaaiiy. Aeai? aei?iaoaaiue oa oa?aeoa?enoeee
iie?eoo?a i?e o?ueio ??cieo ?aaeeiao A,A,N iaaaaeai? o oaaeeoe? 2.
Aieiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaieo A?I caiaeyoueny aei ianooiiiai:

=3249,1 IIa, ui a 1.5 ?ace i?oei?oa iie?eooy, io?eiaiiai ca ?aaeeiii A.
Oaeei /eiii, ne?a/-iaoiae aea? aeai? aeey iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a ca
e?eoa???i i?oeiino? iie?eooy.

=241,5 aiae/a.

2. Ei?eniei ? oaeiae ae?oaee e?eoa??e — eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? nee
ae?yiaiiy aai oa?oy, ye aaee/eia, ui iia’ycaia c i?oei?noth iiaa?oi?.

3. Ne?a/-iaoiae aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ye eiao?oe??io iii?o ae?yiaiith, oae
? eiao?oe??io oa?oy aeiaco ii iie?eooth.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ne?a/-iaoiaeo aoee aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oeiino?
iie?eoo?a aeaoaeae aaciaiai e?/eeueieea ?E4 (?ioi?a oa oanoa?i?),
aeaioiaeaieo c nieaa?a AAe31 oa A95O c ieneaeieie iie?eooyie,
noi?iiaaieie ca noaiaea?oiith oaoiieia??th, ui canoiniao?oueny ia AI
«Iiaaoi?» (i. Oiaeueieoeueeee).

iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee

1. Noai?aii (?ic?iaeaii, iaa?oioiaaii ? ?aae?ciaaii) aoaeoeaiee iaoiae
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo ? o?eaieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaa?oiiue oa?oy,
ui io?eiaa iacao ne?a/-iaoiae. Aeei?enoiao?oueny ae?yiaiiy aei?iaoaaii?
iiaa?oi? /ioe?ea?aiiith aeiaciith i??ai?aeith a?aiith aia?aae ?c caienii
ne?a/aa?ai oa o?eaia?ai.

2. Aeeiiaii aiae?c eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? aa?oeie aei?noei? aeiacii?
/ioe?ea?aiii? i??ai?aee c ieanoe/iith iiaa?oiath. ?acoeueoaoe oeueiai
aiae?co ? oai?aoe/iith iniiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo.

Io?eiaia caeaaei?noue eiioaeoieo ii?iaeueieo oene?a a?ae caaaeueiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ?iaeaioi?, ?ici??o a?aeaeoea oa eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy.

Cai?iiiiiaaii ii?iaeuei? eiioaeoi? oenee, ui aeieeathoue ia a?aiyo
i??ai?aee i?e ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?yo aaeaaethaaiiyi, iaceaaoe
a?aieoeath i?oeiino? aai a?aieoeath oaeo/ino? iiaa?oi? i?e eiioaeoieo
iaaaioaaeaiiyo noeneo. A?aeiia caeaaei?noue oaa?aeino? a?ae ?ici???a
ieiu? eiioaeoo iiyniaia aieeaii ianooaaiiai oaeoi?a ia a?aieoeth
i?oeiino? iiaa?oi?.

Io?eiaia caeaaei?noue neee iii?o ae?yiaiith a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy,
eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy ? eooa i??ai?aee. Cai?iiiiiaaii a?aie/iee noai
iiaa?oi? i?e ae?yiaii? iienoaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith a?aieoe? i?oeiino?
iiaa?oi? oaeith ae, ye ? i?e aaeaaethaaii?.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiae aecia/aiiy a?aieoe? i?oeiino? iiaa?oi? i?e ae?yiaii?,
yeee a?oioo?oueny ia aeaeaeaii? oa?oy ii aieiaeo a?aiyo ? c caaaeueii?
neee ae?yiaiiy. Neee oa?oy aecia/athoueny i?e iiaoi?iiio i?ioiae?
?iaeaioi?a ii o?aeo.

3. ?ic?iaeaii onoaiiaeo (ne?a/iao? NI-01) ? iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy
o?eaieia?/ieo oa iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaa?oi? cai?iiiiiaaiei
ne?a/-iaoiaeii. Onoaiiaea aeicaiey? caienoaaoe c aenieith oi/i?noth
ne?a/aa?aie ? o?eaia?aie. Iaoiaeeea noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a a
ii?aeiaii? c oai?aoe/ieie caeaaeiinoyie aea? i?ioeaaeo?o aecia/aiiy
i?oeiino? iiaa?oi? i?e ae?yiaii?. Aeine?aeaeaii 16 ??cieo iaoa??ae?a ?
iie?eoo?a, aeey yeeo aecia/aii ia?aiao?e o?eaieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae.

4. Aei?iaoaaiiyie ??cieo aa??aio?a iiaa?oiiue ne?a/-iaoiaeii anoaiiaeaii
eiai aoaeoeai?noue aeey o?eaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Na?aaei? cia/aiiy a?aieoe? i?oeiino? iiaa?oi? oa eiao?oe??io aa??aoe??
oe??? aaee/eie ? a?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iiaa?oi?, i?ae
oaa?ae?noue aai a?aieoey i?oeiino? ia ?inoya iaoa??aeo iiaa?oi?. Oe?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, io?eiai? i?e ae?yiaii? iiaa?oi? i??ai?aeith a?aiith
aia?aae, a?aeia?aaeathoue iniaeeaino? i?oeiino? i?e eiioaeoiiio
aeaoi?ioaaii? noeneii.

sseui a iiiaio c?oooaaiiy i??ai?aee ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo iiaa?oi?
aeinoaoiuei aaeeea(~>15%), oi ia?aae ae?yiaiiyi i??ai?aea
i?aei?ia?oueny. A i?ioeaiiio ?ac? i??ai?aea iionea?oueny aai ?ooa?oueny
ii ai?eciioae?.

Eieeaaiiy nee ae?yiaiiy ? oa?oy ia ne?a/aa?aiao ? o?eaia?aiao ?
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iaiaeii??aeiino? no?oeoo?e iiaa?oi?. Oea ia iaoai?/iee
eieeaaeueiee i?ioean.

Iaoiae iiaoi?ieo i?ioiae?a ii iaeiiio o?aeo /ioe?ea?aiiith i??ai?aeith
a?aiith aia?aae ? iaoiaeii aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy i?e ae?yiaii?.

Io?eiaia noaiaiaaa caeaaei?noue aeeaeie ae?yiaiiy a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy ?
iniiaith aeey iiaeaethaaiiy aa?aceaiiai ciiooaaiiy.

5. Ne?a/-iaoiae ?icaeiooi ia aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo oa o?eaieia?/ieo
aeanoeainoae oiieeo oaa?aeeo iie?eoo?a ia ieanoe/i?e iniia?.

Oaoiieia?y oi?ioaaiiy aiiaeii-?ne?iaeo iie?eoo?a (A?I), ye aoaeoeaiee
iaoiae noai?aiiy ciinino?eeeo iiaa?oiiue, aaeineiiaeaia a iai?yieao: 1)
noai?aiiy eiia?iiaaieo ?aaeei?a oi?ioaaiiy iie?eoo?a; 2) ?ic?iaee
i?ea?iaeueii? aeaeo?e/ii? noaie aeey ?aae?caoe?? ?iioeuenieo
ciaeici?iieo ?aaeei?a; 3) ?ic?iaee aeeiai?/ii? aeoeaaoe?? aeaeo?ie?oo
no?oiaiaaei ia?ai?ooaaiiyi.

I?e ?icaeyae? iaoai?ee aaeaaethaaiiy aei?noeiai ?iaeaioi?a o oi?i?
i??ai?aee a ieanoe/io iniiao c oiieei oaa?aeei iie?eooyi io?eiaii
caeaaeiino? aeey iaeii/aniiai aecia/aiiy i?oeiino? ye iie?eooy, oae ?
iniiae i?e aeai?aciaiio aaeaaethaaii? c o?aooaaiiyi oa?oy iiaa?oiiue.

I?e ?icaeyae? iaoai?ee ae?yiaiiy aei?noei? /ioe?ea?aiii? i??ai?aee
a?aiith aia?aae oaa?aeiai oiieiai iie?eooy io?eiaii caeaaeiino?
a?aieoeue i?oeiino? iiaa?oi? iie?eooy ? iiaa?oi? iniiae ye aacia?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey canoinoaaiiy ne?a/-iaoiaeo c iaoith ioe?iee yeino?
iie?eoo?a. I?e aecia/aii? iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaa?oiiue iie?eoo?a
oaeiae aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoiae iiaoi?iiai i?ioiaeo ?iaeaioi?a ii
iaeiiio o?aeo.

Aei?iaoaaiiy aiiaeii-?ne?iaiai iie?eooy aeo?aethi?io Ae16O
ne?a/-iaoiaeii iieacaee:

1) ne?a/-iaoiae ? aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii ioe?iee noaio iie?eooy; a?aieoey
i?oeiino? iie?eooy ? eiai eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? ? aecia/aeueieie
e?eoa??yie i?oeiino? ? yeino? iiaa?oi?;

2) ne?a/-iaoiae aeei?enoaii aeey aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeio oi?ioaaiiy
A?I aeo?aethi?io Ae16O, yeee caaacia/o? iaea?eueoo i?oei?noue iie?eooy;

3) aecia/aii eiao?oe??io iii?o ae?yiaiith ? eiao?oe??io oa?oy aeiacii?
i??ai?aee ii iie?eooth c ieneaeo aethi?i?th.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ne?a/-iaoiaeo aeeiiaii ii??aiyiiy ??cieo oaoiieia?e
oi?ioaaiiy iie?eoo?a c ieneaeo aethi?i?th ia aeaoaeyo aaciaeo
e?/eeueiee?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui na??eia oaoiieia?y, canoiniaoaaia ia AI
«Iiaaoi?» (i.Oiaeueieoeueeee), ca iieacieeaie i?oeiino?, noaa?eueiino?
oa aa?oino? iinooia?oueny ?ic?iaeai?e oaoiieia?? aiiaeii-?ne?iai?
ia?iaee.

Oaoiieia?y aiiaeii-?ne?iai? ia?iaee ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeey aeei?enoaiiy
ia ae?iaieoeoaao, ye? aeaioiaeythoue aacia? e?/eeueieee.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? II IAOA??AEAO AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

1. Eocueiaiei A.A., Aieuineee A.N., Caaieioiay E.A. Ne?y/-iaoiae
ii?aaeaeaiey iaoaie/aneeo naienoa iiaa?oiinoe. A 3-o /anoyo. // I?iaeaiu
o?eaieiaee. — 1998. — ?1. — N. 3 — 82.

2. Eocueiaiei A.A., Aieuineee A.N. ?aoaiey caaea/e i aaeaaeeaaiee
aeanoeie ie?aieaeu a oi?oai-ieanoe/aneith ieineinoue
aa?eaoeeiiii-cenia?eiaioaeueiui iaoiaeii // I?iaeaie o?eaieia??. -1999.
— ?1. — N. 63-68.

3. Eocueiaiei A.A., Aieuineee A.N E aii?ino i i?i/iinoe iiaa?oiinoae
o?aiey //A?niee Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey-1999.- ?3. -N.
41-44.

4. Aieuineee A.N. Cenia?eiaioaeueiay onoaiiaea aeey enneaaeiaaiey
eciaoeaaiey e ceaeo?e/aneeo naienoa eiioaeoia // Oac. aeiee. iae. iaoe.
-oaoi. eiio. «I?eiaiaiea eiiiiceoeeiiiue?o iaoa?eaeia a oceao o?aiey
oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey». — Oiaeueieoeeee, 1986 . — N. 24 — 25.

5. Aieeinueeee A.N. Ne?a/-iaoiae aecia/aiiy o?eaieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae
iiaa?oi? // 4-e i?aeia?iaeiee neiiic?oi oe?a?inueeeo
?iaeaia??a-iaoai?e?a o Eueaia?, INO?IE-4, 19-21 o?aaiy 1999?. -Euea?a.
1999. – N. 117.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aieeinueeee A.N. Ne?a/-iaoiae aecia/aiiy o?eaieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae
iiaa?oi?. — ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy
eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe c niaoe?aeueiino? 05.02.04 — oa?oy oa
ciiooaaiiy a iaoeiao. — Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey.
Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1998.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiae aecia/aiiy o?eaieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae oeyoii ae?yiaiiy
iiaa?oi?, ui io?eiaa iacao ne?a/-iaoiae (NI).

Aea/aia iaoai?ea eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? oaa?aei? /ioe?ea?aiii? aeiacii?
i??ai?aee c ieanoe/iith iiaa?oiath i?e aaeaaethaaii? oa ae?yiaii?, ye
iniiae NI. Aeaioiaeaii i?eeaae oa ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy
a?aieoe? eiioaeoii? i?oeiino? iiaa?oi? i?e ae?yiaii?. Anoaiiaeai?
caeiiii??iino? ?ooo i??ai?aee i?e cnoa? a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy
ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo. NI ?icaeiooi ? aeei?enoaii aeey ioe?iee yeino?
oiieeo oaa?aeeo aiiaeii-?ne?iaeo iie?eoo?a aeo?aethi?io Ae16O.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ciinino?ee?noue, eiao?oe??io oa?oy, eiioaeoi? oenee,
i?oei?noue iiaa?oi?, oaa?ae?noue, ae?yiaiiy, ne?a/-iaoiae, onoaiiaea
aeey aei?iaiaoaaiiy ae?yiaiiy, aiiaeii-?ne?iaa iie?eooy,
iaiaeii??aei?noue no?oeoo?e.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aieuineee A.N. Ne?y/-iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey o?eaieiae/aneeo naienoa
iiaa?oiinoe. — ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.04 — o?aiea e
eciin a iaoeiao. — Oaoiieiae/aneee oieaa?neoao Iiaeieuey, Oiaeueieoeeee,
1999.

?ac?aaioai iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey o?eaieiae/aneeo naienoa, iniiaaiiue ia
oea?aiaiuee iiaa?oiinoe ie?aieaeie Aeeea?na a?aiueth aia?aae, iacaaiiue
ne?y/-iaoiaeii (NI).

. Iieacaii, /oi iaee/ea o?aiey nieaeaao aaee/eio eiioaeoiuo aeaaeaiee.

. I?e coii neea o?aiey aieiauo a?aiae au/eoaaony ec iauae neeu
nii?ioeaeaiey oea?aiaiueth ia ia?aii i?ioiaea. Neeu o?aiey
ii?aaeaeythony i?e iiaoi?iuo i?ioiaeao ii iaeiiio e oiio aea o?aeo. Eo
noaaeeecaoeey aeinoeaaaony oaea ia o?aoueai i?ioiaea.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee iaoiaea ?ac?aaioaii onoaiiaeo ne?y/-iao? NI-01 e
iaoiaeeeo enneaaeiaaiey o?eaieiae/aneeo e iaoaie/aneeo naienoa
iiaa?oiinoe. Enneaaeiaaii 16 ?aciuo iaoa?eaeia e oaa?aeuo iie?uoee, aeey
eioi?uo ii?aaeaeaiu ia?aiao?u o?eaieiae/aneeo naienoa.

e eiyooeoeeaio aa?eaoeee yoie aaee/eiu yaeythony aieaa
eioi?iaoeaiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, /ai oaa?aeinoue e i?aaeae i?i/iinoe i?e
?anoyaeaiee iaoa?eaea iiaa?oiinoe.

Eieaaaiea nee oea?aiaiuey e o?aiey, oeene?oaiuo ia ne?y/aa?aiiao e
o?eaia?aiiao, anoue io?aaeaiea iaiaeii?iaeiinoe no?oeoo?u iiaa?oiinoe
iaoa?eaea. Ii?aaeaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe aeaeaeaiey ie?aieaeu i?e naeaeaa a
caaeneiinoe io noaiaie oi?i/iaiey iaoa?eaea.

Ne?y/-iaoiae ?acaeo ia ii?aaeaeaiee o?eaieiae/aneeo e iaoaie/aneeo
naienoa oiieeo oaa?aeuo iie?uoee ia ieanoe/iie iniiaa. Eniuoaiey aiiaeii
-ene?iauo iie?uoee, noi?ie?iaaiuo ia aeo?aethieiee Ae16O ii
?ac?aaioaiiie a ?aaioa oaoiieiaee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi:

1) ne?y/-iaoiae yaeyaony yooaeoeaiui iaoiaeii ioeaiee ninoiyiey
iiaa?oiinoe iie?uoey;

2) ne?y/-iaoiae eniieueciaaii aeey auai?a iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeia
oi?ie?iaaiey aiiaeii — ene?iauo iie?uoee ia nieaaao aethieiey,
iaania/eaathuaai iaeaieueooth i?i/iinoue iie?uoey.

=241,5 /an/a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eciininoieeinoue, eiyooeoeeaio o?aiey, i?i/iinoue
iiaa?oiinoe, oaa?aeinoue, oea?aiaiuea, ne?y/-iaoiae, onoaiiaea aeey
eniuoaiee oea?aiaiueai, aiiaeii-ene?iaia iie?uoea, iaiaeii?iaeiinoue
no?oeoo?u

SUMMARY

Volynsky B.S. The scratch-method of determining of tribological
properties of a surface. Typescript. The thesis presented for a master’s
degree of technical sciences. Speciality 05.02.04 — friction and wear in
machines. Technological University Podillya, Khmelnitsky, 1998.

The method of determining of tribological properties by scratching the
surface has been elaborated. It was called the scratch-method.

Mechanics of contact interaction of the hard four edge diamond pyramid
with a plastic surface. When pressing and scratching as a basis of the
scratch-method has been studied. The device has been created and methods
of determining the limit of the contact strength of the surface. When
scratching have been worked out.

The study of surfaces of 16 various materials and coatings has been
fulfilled. Regularities of the movement of the pyramid at the shift
depending on the degree of strengthening material have been found. The
scratch-method is developed and used for valuing of the quality of the
thin hard anode sparking coatings of duralumin D16T.

Key words: strength of a surface, hardness, scratching, scratch-method,
installations for test when scratching, anode sparking coating, method
of calculations of coating, method of tests of coatings.

PAGE

PAGE 14

?en.1.?oo i??ai?aee a iiiaio cnoao i?e ae?yiaii?

?en.4. Cnoa i??ai?aee a i?ioean? ae?yiaiiy iiaa?oi? c iie?eooyi

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