I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

OA?E?ANEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?AAe?IAEAEO?II?EE

IAO?AIEI OAOssIA A?EAI??AIA

OAeE 658.012.011.56

NEOOAOe?EI? NENOAIE OI?AAE?IIss ?AAEUeIIAI *ANO IA AAC? AAAAOI??AIAAEO
IIAeAEAE OssAEAIIss CIAIUe

05.13.03 — nenoaie oa i?ioeane ea?oaaiiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee -aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Ea?a?i Aiaoie?e
Ieaen?eiae/, Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Nainiie?i Aaea??e
Ieeieaeiae/, Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo,
aeaeai oaeoeueoaoo aaoiiaoeee oaeaiaoai?ee oa ca’yceo;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oaeiaaiei Na?a?e A?eai?iae/,
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee,
aeioeaio eaoaae?e AII

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?ieini?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i. I.?.AEoeianueeiai “OA?” I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “30”eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.052.02 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee ca aae?anith:
310726, i. Oa?e?a,

i?. Eai?ia, 14.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee ca aae?anith:

310726, i. Oa?e?a, i?. Eai?ia, 14.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 29 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aacei?iaaeiee A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

Inoaii?i /anii ?icaeoie oai??? ? i?aeoeee nenoai aaoiiaoe/iiai
oi?aae?iiy ?aea oeyoii noai?aiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo NAO. C’?aeiaiiy
ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo c oai???th ? i?aeoeeith aaoiiaoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy
i?ecaaei aei oi?ioaaiiy iaoeiaiai iai?yieo — oai??? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
iaoei. A?eueo?noue iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?iieneiaeo ?aae?caoe?e
?ioaeaeooaeueieo iaoei (?I) i?enay/aia noai?aiith ?ioaeaeooaeueieo ?
ia/?oeeo ?aaoeyoi??a. Oe?iea i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy ciaoiaeyoue aeoeai?
aenia?oi? nenoaie i?e oi?aae?ii? neeaaeieie aaaaoi??aiaaeie ia’?eoaie.

No/ani? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? oa ?ic?iaee a aaeoc? ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo
?icoe?ththoue eiei caaea/ ea?oaaiiy neeaaeieie aaaaoi??aiaaeie
ia’?eoaie. Caniae neooaoe?eieo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo iaoei (N?I), ye iai?yiie
oai??? ?I, aaea ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy a ??cieo aaeocyo: a
iaoeiiaiaeoaaii? i?e noai?aii? aaoiiaoe/ieo e?i?e oa aacethaeieo
ae?iaie/eo ae?eueieoeue, a oaeiae ?iaioioaoi?/ieo eiiieaen?a; i?ae /an
??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo caaea/; a nenoaiao oi?aae?iiy i?nueeei
aeaeo?io?ainii?oii; a oi?aae?ii? a??eaie ia cae?cie/ieo ni?ooaaeueieo
noaioe?yo. ?ioaeaeooae?caoe?y nenoai ea?oaaiiy aeicaiey? iie?ioeoe
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaae?eiino? oa oaoi?ei — aeiiii?/i? iieacieee oaeeo
nenoai. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy a oiiaao
iaiiaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oa?aeoa?enoeee ia’?eoo oi?aae?iiy aeiaaa?
iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc? oi?iae?ciaaiiai iiaeaiiy ciaiue i?i
neooaoe?? a N?I, ?ic?iaoe? iiaeaeae ? cania?a ia?iaee neooaoe?? oa
neooaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy.

Iaoeiaith i?aenoaaith aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?iaioe Ae??aa ?.A., Aiaeyinueeiai
?.A., Aieeiae/a A.E., ?an??aa I.A., Caaea E.A., Iiiiaa A.A., Ioieiaa
E.A., ?oaeaiei I.A., N??iaeae? ?.A., O?iio??aa A.A., O?e?iiaiei ?.A.,
Oinoaea A.O., Harris C.J., Hirota K., Hussu A., King K.-H., Mahmoud M.,
Mamdani E.A., Yang H. o aaeoc? aeoeaieo aenia?oieo nenoai ?
?ioaeaeooaeueieo NAO; Ai?ueeiaa E.I., Ea?a?ia A.I., Eeeeiaa TH.?.,
Iae?oiaa A.I., I?eianueeiai I.I., Iini?eiaa Ae.I. o aaeoc? neooaoe?eiiai
oi?aae?iiy; Aaa?ia A.I., ?n?aecoea I., Inoaa N., Nainiie?ia A.I., Oyii
O. o aaeoc? io?eiaiiy, iiaeaiiy ? iiaeaethaaiiy aenia?oieo ciaiue.

?iaioe oeeo oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo aaoi??a noai?eee iaoiaee/i? oa oai?aoe/i?
ia?aaeoiiae iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oai??? N?I. Iaiaaeaiiyi iaaaaeaieo a
e?oa?aoo?? iiaeaeae N?I ? a?aenooi?noue iaoai?cio noai?aiiy iiaeaeae
iioi/ieo neooaoe?e, oa ?oiy noaoe/ia i?e?iaea. Aeaeyae ? aeanoeaino?
iiaeaeae iieno ciaiue i?i aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee neooaoe?e ia
ina?oeai?. ?icaeyioo? iniaeeaino? no/aniiai aoaio aeine?aeaeaiue o
aaeoc? N?I, aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe aeooaeueiith iaoeiai — oaoi?/io
caaea/o, ui iieyaa? a iiaeaeueoiio oaeineiiaeaii? ? ?ic?iaoe? N?I ia
iniia? aaaaoi??aiaaeo noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo iiaeaeae iiaeaiiy ?
ia?iaee neooaoe??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii c aea?aeathaeaeaoiith oaiith Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea iiaeaeae iiaeaiiy ?
ia?iaee ciaiue a neooaoe?eieo nenoaiao oi?aae?iiy ?aaeueiiai /ano”,
aeeth/aii? aei eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ieaio ?10 “?ic?iaea oai???, cania?a,
iiaeaeae ? aeai?eoi?a aeey noai?aiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo nenoai ia?iaee
?ioi?iaoe??” iai?yieo “Oaoi?/ia e?aa?iaoeea” iaoeiai — oaoi?/ii?
i?ia?aie “Ia?niaeoeai? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, i?eeaaee eiiieaenii?
aaoiiaoecaoe?? ? nenoai ca’yceo”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? iaoiae neooaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy
?aaeueiiai /ano ia aac? aaaaoi??aiaaeo iiaeaeae iiaeaiiy noaoe/ieo ?
aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee neooaoe?e. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoee
iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaea/?:

1. ?ic?iaeoe iaoai?ci neooaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy aeey ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
iaoei ia aac? aaaaoi??aiaaeo no?oeoo?iaaieo iiaeaeae iiaeaiiy ? ia?iaee
neooaoe?e, aeey /iai aecia/eoe aaciaee iaa?? iia?aoe?e iiaoaeiae
o?aaiaio?a neooaoe?e oeyoii ciaoiaeaeaiiy ia/?oeeo iiiaeei,
?iaeooe?eiaaieo a?aeia?aaeaiiyi. Aaanoe iiaeae? iiaeaiiy ciaiue i?i
no?oeoo?o neooaoe?e, aeneiaeaoe ?o /a?ac ia?aiao?e iia?aoe?e
?iaeooe?eiaaiiy.

2. Iiaoaeoaaoe iaoai?ci neooaoe?eiiai aeniiaeo, ye iia?aoe?th
aaoiiaoe/ii? iiaoaeiae aaaaoi??aiaai? no?oeoo?iaaii? iiaeae? neooaoe??.

3. ?ic?iaeoe iiaeae? iiaeaiiy ? ia?iaee aeeiai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
neooaoe?e aei N?I, aeey /iai aaanoe ia/?oee iiiaeeie c
aaaaoieiiiiiaioieie ooieoe?yie i?eeaaeaey. Iiaoaeoaaoe iiaeaeue
neooaoe?eii? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? iaoeie c oaeeie ooieoe?yie i?eeaaeaey. Ia
?oi?e iniia?:

3.1. Aeine?aeaeoaaoe aeeiai?/i? iiaeae? N?I c e?ioeaaeie ??cieoeyie ?
noiaie ooieoe?e i?eeaaeaey.

3.2. ?ic?iaeoe ? aeine?aeaeoaaoe no?aoaa?? neooaoe?eiiai aeniiaeo ia
aeeiai?/ieo aacao ciaiue.

4. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiae?eo neioaco neooaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy.
Aeine?aeaeoaaoe can?a iiaeaiiy aeeiai?/ieo aeanoeainoae neooaoe?e
ye?nieie ioe?ieaie iiae?e (oi/eiaeo ? ?ioa?aaeueieo), a?aeiioaiue i?ae
iiae?yie ? i?ioeanaie.

5. Ia?aa??eoe cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae neooaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy o
eiie?aoi?e i?aaeiaoi?e iaeano? — oi?aae?iiy oaeaee?noth nei/oaaiiy
a?ae/ai?a ia cae?cie/ieo a??eao ni?ooaaeueieo noaioe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

1) Aoa aaeineiiaeaiee ? io?eiaa iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaoiae
neooaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy ?aaeueiiai /ano, o yeiio ?ioaa?iaai?:

a) neooaoe?eia nai?ioe/ia oi?aae?iiy, ui iieno? aeai?eoie ? caeiie
oi?aae?iiy ia ye?niiio ??ai?; a) iaoai?ci aeniiaeo o ?aaeueiiio /an?
iiaeae? neooaoe?? o aeaeyae? e?iaa?noe/ieo ye?nieo no?oeoo? ca
iieacieeaie aeao/ee?a.

2) Aia?oa, ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaiiai a ?iaio? iaai?o iia?aoe?e
?iaeooe?eiaaiiy ia/?oeeo iiiaeei, oi?iae?ciaaia neooaoe?eia oi?aae?iiy,
ui aeeth/a? o?e iaoai?cio aeniiaeo: aaaaoi??aiaai? no?oeoo?iaaii?
iiaeae? iioi/ii? neooaoe??; oi?aaeyth/iai ??oaiiy ca e?iaa?noe/ieie
i?aaeeaie; eiaeo oi?aae?iiy c eiai e?iaa?noe/iiai iieno.

3) Aia?oa aaaaeaia aeeiai?/ia ia/?oea iiiaeeia c aaaaoieiiiiiaioiith
ooieoe??th i?eiaeaaeiino?; iiaoaeiaai? ye?ni? ioe?iee aeeiai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae neooaoe?? ia iniia? cai?ioieo ??cieoeue ooieoe?e
i?eeaaeaey.

4) Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae neioaco neooaoe?eieo nenoai oi?aae?iiy c
aaaaoi??aiaaeie iiaeaeyie neooaoe?e.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — neeaaei? neaaei oi?iae?ciaai? oaoi?/i?
eiiieaene. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caniae aaoiiaoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy
neeaaeieie aaaaoi??aiaaeie ia’?eoaie, cie?aia neooaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy
?aaeueiiai /ano.

I?e ?ica’ycaii? caaea/ aeei?enoai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue, caniiaai? ia
iaoaiaoe/ieo aia?aoao: oai??? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo iaoei, oai??? ea?oaaiiy,
oai??? ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo, oai??? ia/?oeeo iiiaeei, oai??? a?ao?a ?
eia?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

N?I ia iniia? aaaaoi??aiaaeo iiaeaeae iieeaaeaia aei iniiae i?aenenoaie
iiaeaiiy ? ia?iaee ciaiue ?ino?oiaioaeueiiai eiiieaeno, i?ecia/aiiai
aeey aaia?aoe?? neooaoe?eieo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo iaoei (EIACA-N?I).
Eiiieaen EIACA-N?I, ?ic?iaeaiee o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ia eaoaae?? eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e, ia?aaeaiee aei
aeina?ae/aii? aenieoaoaoe?? Aeiiaoeueeiio ?inoeoooo ?iaeaia??a
cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, ?inoeoooo i?eeeaaeii? iaoaiaoeee oa iaoai?ee
IAI Oe?a?ie, NEOA i?e AeiiAeO, a oaeiae ai?iaaaeaeaiee a o/aiaee i?ioean
ia eaoaae?? eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e AeiiAeO.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iaea?aeai? aaoi?ii iniaenoi. Caeiaoaa/
?ic?iaea: o ?iaioao [2,3,6,8] — oi?iae?ci iiaeaiiy iia?aoe?e
?iaeooe?eiaaiiy, no?oeoo?o iiaeaiiy ? iia?aoe?? ia?iaee i?aaee ?iaeooe??
? i?iaeoeoe??, oi?iaeueia aecia/aiiy noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae neooaoe?e; o ?iaioao [1,7] — oaoiieia?th neioaco ciaiue i?i
no?oeoo?o neooaoe?? o aeaeyae? i?aaee ?iaeooe?? ? i?eeeaaee iieno
o?aaiaio?a neooaoe??, ye? aeei?enoai? i?e oi?aae?ii? oaeaee?noth
nei/oaaiiy a?ae/ai?a; o ?iaio? [5] — i?eeeaaee neooaoe?eieo iaoei o
ae?iaieoeoa?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ?
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia i?aeia?iaei?e oeie? — nai?ia?? “Ia?niaeoeai? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy ia cae?cie/iiio, i?iieneiaiio ? i?nueeiio o?ainii?o?”
(Aeoooa, 1996-1999 ?iee), /aoaa?o?e i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai — oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Eiio?ieue ? oi?aae?iiy a oaoi?/ieo nenoaiao” (A?iieoey,
1997 ??e), oino?e oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aaoiiaoeea — 99” (Oa?e?a,
1999 ??e).

Ioae?eaoe??

Ii ?acoeueoaoai ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii aeaa’youe iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, na?aae
yeeo aea? noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, /ioe?e noaoo? o ca??ieeao
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oa a?nieeao ? o?e a iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 150 noi??iie, 39 ?enoie?a, 1 oaaeeoeth,
ia’?aeiaieo a no?oeoo?o, ui aeeth/a?: anooi, 4 ?icae?ee, aeniiaee,
nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 120 iaeiaioaaiue, aeiaeaoie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Anooi i?noeoue iaa?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? oaie, oi?ioethaaiiy iaoe ?
iniiaieo caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiue, oa?aeoa?enoeeo iiaecie ? i?aeoe/i?e
oe?iiino? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th oa
ioae?eaoe?? iniiaieo iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? ia iniia? aiae?co aeanoeainoae ?ioaeaeooaeueieo iaoei
(?I) aea?oueny ?o eeaneo?eaoe?y c oi/ee ci?o neeaaeiino? nenoai
oi?aae?iiy ? oi?ioeth?oueny caaea/a neioaco ?I. Iieacaii, ui aei iniiae
?ioaeaeooaeueieo iaoei aeey neeaaeieo ia’?eo?a iiaea aooe iieeaaeaia
neooaoe?eia oi?aae?iiy, ui aaco?oueny ia ianooiieo i?eioeeiao.
Neooaoe?eia ?ioaeaeooaeueia iaoeia (N?I) ia ia?o?e oac? iaea?aeo?
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i neooaoe?th /a?ac eaiaee ca’yceo a?ae aeao/ee?a ? ia
iniia? ciaiue I1, ui caa??aathoueny o A3, aoaeo? ?? iiaeaeue wmetafile0
. Iaoai?ci aeniiaeo ia ae?oa?e oac? ia?iaey? iiaeaeue iioi/ii? neooaoe??
wmetafile0 c iaoith aecia/aiiy ea?oth/iai ??oaiiy. Inoaii?
i?aaenoaaeaia ia iia? iieno iiaeae? neooaoe?? wmetafile0 . Ia o?aoueiio
aoai? neooaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy iaoai?ci F3 ia?aoai?th? iien oi?aae?iiy,
ui ? o?aaiaioii iiaeae? wmetafile0 , aei eiie?aoiiai cia/aiiy eiae?a, ui
ia?aaeathoueny ia aeeiiaa/? iaoai?cie:

wmetafile0 , (1)

aea F1 — iaoai?ci iiaoaeiae iiaeae? neooaoe?? (ia?oa eiiiiiaioa
neooaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy, ui ?iaeoue aeniiaie iiaeo ciaiue, ye? ia
iiaeia aaciina?aaeiuei aeoyaoe c eiio?ieueii-aei??thaaeueii?
?ioi?iaoe??); F2 — iaoai?ci i?eeiyooy oi?aaeyth/iai ??oaiiy (ae?oaa
eiiiiiaioa, yea ?c iiaeae? iioi/ii? neooaoe?? ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i
oi?aae?iiy).

Iaa?oioiaothoueny ia?aaaae cania?a neooaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
i?iaeooaaii? N?I oeyoii iiaeaiiy iiaeae? neooaoe?? ia/?oeeie iiiaeeiaie.

Aeey i?ioeano nei/oaaiiy a?ae/ai?a ia ni?ooaaeueieo cae?cie/ieo a??eao
aeeiiaiee aiae?c i?aeoiae?a ? cania?a ??oaiiy caaea/? oi?aae?iiy.
Caaea/a oi?aae?iiy a?aeianaia aei eeano N?I. ?icaeyaeathoueny ?nioth/?
iiaeae? N?I ? caaea/? ?? neioaco. Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue
neioaco aeeiai?/ieo N?I. Iiaeae? iiaeaiiy neooaoe?e i?iiiio?oueny
aoaeoaaoe ia aac? no?oeoo?iaaii? aaaaoi??aiaai? ia/?oei? iiiaeeie, a
iaoai?ci neooaoe?eiiai aeniiaeo — ca?aeii c i?eioeeiaie ia/?oeiai
neooaoe?eiiai aeniiaeo. Ia iniia? aiae?co iiaeaeae N?I noi?ioeueiaai?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?noeoue iien N?I ia aac? iiaeaeae iiaeaiiy ? ia?iaee
noaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae neooaoe??. I?noea N?I a ?ioi?iaoe?eii -ea?oth/?e
nenoai? i?eionea? oi?ioaaiiy oaaec?o?eaoi?ii iiaeae? neooaoe??
ioeueiaiai ??aiy — ia/?oei? iiiaeeie wmetafile0 . ?icaeyioo? iaoai?cie
iiaoaeiae wmetafile0 . Noai ia’?eoo oi?aae?iiy ? ioi/aiiy eiaeiiai
iiiaioo /ano ? iiaeaeeth neooaoe??, iiaeaii? no?oeoo?iaaiith ia/?oeith
iiiaeeiith:

wmetafile0 , (2)

aea wmetafile0 — iiaeae? neooaoe?? ia?oiai, ae?oaiai ? o.ae.,
wmetafile0 ai ??ai?a ocaaaeueiaiiy, i?e/iio ie?ai? o?aaiaioe iiiaeaie
oi?iothoueny ca ?iaeooe?eieie i?aaeeaie c aace ciaiue oeyoii ia/eneaiiy
ia/?oeeo iiiaeei, ?iaeooe?eiaaieo a?aeia?aaeaiiyi. Nenoaiaoeciaaia
?iaeooe?eiaaiiy a?aeia?aaeaiiyie MIN, MAX, MAX-MIN, iaaaaeaieie a
e?oa?aoo??, iieacaia iaiaaeai?noue ?o iaeano? canoinoaaiiy aei N?I, ye?
ii?aoeueiaothoue o?eueee no?oeoo?ii a?aei?ii? eeane neooaoe?e.
Iaa?oioiaaii aaaaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a ?iaeooe?eiaaiiy aeey ia?aiao?e/ii
a?aei?iaieo eean?a neooaoe?e, ye? iacaai? oiiaieie.

Oiiaia MAX-?iaeooe?eiaaiiy (3)

wmetafile0 .

Oiiaia MIN ?iaeooe?eiaaiiy

wmetafile0 .

Oiiaia MAX-MIN- ?iaeooe?eiaaiiy

wmetafile0 .

Oiiaia SUM- ?iaeooe?eiaaiiy

wmetafile0 ,

aea wmetafile0 — ooieoe?y i?eeaaeaey ia/?oei? ioe?iee i?eiaeaaeiino?
o?aaiaioa iioi/ii? neooaoe?? wmetafile0 aei eeano neooaoe?e wmetafile0
.

Neooaoe?eiee aeniiaie ia ia?o?e oac? oi?aae?iiy — iia?aoe?? oiiaiiai
?iaeooe?eiaaiiy (3) — aaco?oueny ia eeaneo?eaoe??, eio?a aeeiio?oueny ii
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeecueeino? aeaio ia/?oeeo iiiaeei. Noai?iue aeecueeino?
ia/?oei? iiiaeeie wmetafile0 , yea ? aoaeiiii eeano neooaoe?e, oa
ia/?oei? iiiaeeie wmetafile0 , yea i?aaenoaaey? ae?enio neooaoe?th,
ioe?ith?oueny, ye cae/aeia iiiaeeia wmetafile0 -??aiy, iaeaeeae/a aei
ia/?oei?:

wmetafile0 , (4)

aea wmetafile0 — aaniethoia ??cieoey aeaio ia/?oeeo iiiaeei, aeey yeeo
wmetafile0 .

Aaaaeaiiy oaei? ioe?iee aeicaieeei aio/ei caaeaaaoe eeane neooaoe?e
aaciina?aaeiuei a i?aaeeao ?iaeooe??, ye? ae?aaeai? /a?ac iia?aoe??
oiiaiiai ?iaeooe?eiaaiiy ? iathoue aeaeyae:

wmetafile0 (5)

Canoinoaaiiy i?aaeea (5) aei iiiaeeie wmetafile0 oeyoii
?iaeooe?eiaaiiy oi?io? ia/?oeo iiiaeeio, ui ? iienii neooaoe?? ia
ye?niiio e?iaa?noe/iiio ??ai?.

A ?iaio? iaaaaeai? iia?aoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? aeaio oei?a, ye? iiaoaeiaai? ia
aac? aaaaeaieo iia?aoe?e ?iaeooe?eiaaiiy

wmetafile0 ; (6)

wmetafile0 , (7)

aea wmetafile0 , wmetafile0 — o?aaiaioe iioi/ii? neooaoe?? oa
oi?aae?iiy, a?aeiia?aeii;

wmetafile0 — aoaeii oi?aae?iiy;

wmetafile0 — ia/?oea iiiaeeia, eiaeooeeiaaia ca i?aaeeii wmetafile0 ;

wmetafile0 (8)

I?iaeoeoe?y (6) ? o?aaeeoe?eia i?aaeei cai?ie o?aaiaioa neooaoe??
wmetafile0 ia o?aaiaio wmetafile0 , yeui iioi/ia neooaoe?y wmetafile0
iaeaaeeoue aei eeano wmetafile0 . I?iaeoeoe?y ii i?aaeeo (7) ? iaoai?ci
iineeaiiy ooieoe?? i?eeaaeaey i?e oiia?, ui wmetafile0 iaeaaeeoue aei
eeano wmetafile0 . Oea aeicaieeei ?iciianthaeeoe iaeii??aeiee
iaoaiaoe/iee aia?ao ?iaeooe?eiaaiiy ia on? o?e iaoai?cio neooaoe?eiiai
oi?aae?iiy.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iiaeae? neooaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy,
caaaeath/e ia aeeiai?/i? aeanoeaino?. I?e neioac? e?iaa?noe/ieo cania?a
oi?aae?iiy iia?othoue ??ciiai ?iaeo ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny ethaeeiith. I?eeeaaeaie ciaiue i?i aeeiai?/i?
aeanoeaino? neooaoe?e ?:

1. A?aeiioaiiy /ano ia iine?aeiaiino? oi/eiaeo aai ?ioa?aaeueieo iiae?e
oeio iiae?y A a?aeaoeany o?ioe ?ai?oa, i?ae iiae?y A, aai iiae?? A ? A
c’yaeeeny iaeaea iaeii/anii.

2. Aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioean?a oeio i?ioean A aeeiio?oueny
aeoaea iia?eueii (oaeaeei).

3. Aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?aeiioaiue, caaeaieo ia i?ioeanao oeio
i?ioean A aeeiio?oueny oaeaeoa, i?ae i?ioean A.

A aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaiee iiaee i?aeo?ae aei iiaeaiiy ciaiue i?i
aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oaeiai ?iaeo ? oi?iae?ciaaiee iaoai?ci F1
aaoiiaoe/iiai oi?ioaaiiy a ?aaeueiiio /an? iiaeae?, ui iieno? neooaoe?th
oaeeie ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

C iaoith caa?aaeaiiy iaeii??aeiino? aia?aoo iiaeaiiy ciaiue, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoai?ciii aeey oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?iaaii? iiaeae?
iioi/ii? neooaoe??, ?icaeyioo? a ae?oaiio ?icae?e? N?I ?iciianthaeaeai?
ia eean nenoai c iai’yooth. C eiaeiei aeaiaioii c noaoe/ii? iiaeae?
wmetafile0 ca’yco?oueny ia iaeia eiiiiiaioa ooieoe?? i?eiaeaaeiino?, a
n+1:

wmetafile0 , (9)

aea wmetafile0 — cia/aiiy ooieoe?? i?eiaeaaeiino? aei iioi/iiai /ano t,
wmetafile0 — a iiiaio /ano (t-T); wmetafile0 — a iiiaio /ano (t-2T) ?
o.ae.; wmetafile0 — ooieoe?? i?eiaeaaeiino? a iiiaio /ano (t-nT), aea n
-aeeaeia iai’yo? nenoaie.

Iiaeaeue aeeiai?/ii? neooaoe?eii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeeth/a?:

1. No?oeoo?iaaio aeeiai?/io ia/?oeo iiiaeeio c aaaaoieiiiiiaioiith
ooieoe??th i?eiaeaaeiino? (AOI), ui oa?aeoa?eco? neooaoe?th ia iioi/iee,
iiia?aaei?e ? oae aeae? iiiaioe /ano.

wmetafile0 . (10)

2. Aeeiai?/io aaco ciaiue wmetafile0 , aei yei? aeeth/ai? ?iaeooe?iiii —
i?iaeoeoe?ei? i?aaeea ?ic?aooieo aeeiai?/ieo ia/?oeeo iiiaeei wmetafile0
. A caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? aeeiai?/ia i?aaeei aiaeia?/ii noaoe/iiio (5)
ia? aeaeyae:

wmetafile0 , (11)

aea wmetafile0 — iaeia c a?aeia?aaeaiue AMIN-, AMAX, AMAX-MIN, ASUM,
AProd ?c aeaoi??iith iaeanoth a?aei?aaeaiiy (r-oa eiiiiiaioa ?-ai
aeaiaioo) ? iaeiiaei??iith iaeanoth i?eaoooy (0-aa eiiiiiaioa g-ai
aeaiaioo);

wmetafile0 — aoaeii, ui iieno? eean neooaoe?e, iaaaaeaiee o?aaiaioii
aeeiai?/ii? ia/?oei? iiiaeeie i-ai ??aiy.

I?e oaeiio i?aeoiae? iia?aoe?y aeeiai?/iiai ?iaeooe?eiaaiiy aiaeia?/ia
noaoe/iiio ?iaeooe?eiaaiith. Iniaeea?noue ia/eneaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
cacaeaeaa?aeue ia?iaeythoueny iaioeueia? eiiiiiaioe ?iaeooe?eiaaii?
ooieoe?? i?eiaeaaeiino?.

Aiaeia?/ii oiio, ye oea i?eeiyoa a oai??? nenoai aaoiiaoe/iiai
ea?oaaiiy, aaaaeai? e?ioeaa? cai?ioi? ??ciino? ? iiai? noie ooieoe??
i?eiaeaaeiino? aeey AOI. Iai?eeeaae, ia?oa cai?ioia ??ci?noue

wmetafile0 . (12)

sse?ni? ioe?iee aeeiai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aaaaeai? ia oi?aa?naeuei?e
iiiaeei? cia/aiue cai?ioieo ??ciinoae. Oa?i- iiiaeeia

wmetafile0 (13)

ia? ianooiio ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th: wmetafile0 — i?aeoe/ia ia? ioeueiaa
cia/aiiy ; wmetafile0 — iiceoeaia iaea cia/aiiy; wmetafile0 — iiceoeaia
na?aaei? cia/aiiy; wmetafile0 — iiceoeaia aaeeea cia/aiiy; wmetafile0 —
a?aeiia?aeii aeey a?ae’?iieo cia/aiue.

Ooieoe?y i?eiaeaaeiino? ? noa’?eoeaiith ioe?ieith, cia/aiiy yei?, ie??i
oeueiai, aee?eaey?oueny i?e ?? oi?ioaaii? iaoai?ciii neooaoe?eiiai
aeniiaeo i?e ia?iaoe? ca i?aaeeaie ?iaeooe??. Aee?eaeaiiy ia ?
nenoaiaoe/ieie. Oe? caoaaaeaiiy coiiaeee iaiao?aei?noue anooio iniaeeai?
i?ioeaaeo?e oaaec?o?eaoe?? aeey iiaioaaiiy wmetafile0 . Ia i?aenoaa?
aiae?co aeeiai?ee eiie?aoieo o?aaiaio?a neooaoe?e aecia/athoueny aea?
ooieoe??: wmetafile0 ca aeiiiiiaith yei? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aiaaiai?noue
a oiio, ui ca iaeei e?ie /ano iiaeeeai io?eiaoe cia/aiiy wmetafile0 ?
wmetafile0 aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee oiai, ui cai?ioio ??cieoeth iiaeia
ia/enethaaoe ia o?aaeeoe?eii aei ?ioa?aae?a /ano T, aea ? aei ?ioa?aae?a
rT. Ooieoe?y i?eiaeaaeiino? e?iaa?noe/ii? ioe?iee wmetafile0 aeey
oaeoe/ii ciaeaeaiiai cia/aiiy cai?ioii? ??cieoe? wmetafile0
ciaoiaeeoueny:

wmetafile0 , (14)

aea wmetafile0 — ooieoe?y i?eiaeaaeiino? ioe?iee wmetafile0 , caaeaia
?ic?iaieeii ia iiiaeei? iiaeeeaeo cia/aiue cai?ioii? ??cieoe?.

Aeeiai?/ia i?aaeei (11) aeey oeueiai eeano iiaeaeae caieno?oueny o
aeaeyae?:

wmetafile0 , (15)

aea wmetafile0 -r-oa eiiiiiaioa aeaiaioo aeeiai?/ii? ia/?oei? iiiaeeie.

Io?eiaia iaoiaeeea aeai?o aeeaeie iai’yo?, aeeiiaia ioe?iea
ia/enethaaeueieo ?ano?n?a. Iieacaii, ui aeey cai?iiiiiaaii? a ?iaio?
i?aai?caoe?? aeeiai?/ieo iiaeaeae, ianya iai’yo?, ii??aiyii ?c
noaoe/ieie ca?eueoo?oueny ia 10-15%, ianya ia/eneaiue — ia 1.5%

Aeine?aeaeai? no?aoaa?? neooaoe?eiiai aeniiaeo o aeeiai?/ieo aacao
ciaiue. A caaaeuei?e iaaiae?, aaca ciaiue neooaoe?ei?e nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy eiie?aoiei ia’?eoii iiaea aeeth/aoe ye noaoe/i?, oae ?
aeeiai?/i? i?aaeea; ye i?aaeea ?iaeooe??, oae ? i?aaeea i?iaeoeoe??. Ia
aeeaey/enue ia oaeo ??ciiiai?oi?noue, caaaeyee iaeii??aeiino? aia?aoo,
no?oeoo?o A3 iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe o aeaeyae? ia?aae? ?iaeooe??, a ye?e
aa?oeiai a?aeiia?aeathoue o?aaiaioe eean?a neooaoe?e, aei yeeo
aeei?enoiaothoue i?aaeea, a aeoaai — i?aaeea. Cai?iiiiiaaia ?
aeine?aeaeaia aoaeoeaia no?aoaa?y, canoiniaaia ia aeeiai?/iiio
aeae?eaii? o?aaiaioo AC, ui i?noeoue “i?aeic??e?” i?aaeea. O?aaiaio
aecia/a?oueny aeoiaey/e c neooaoe??. Ca oaeaee?noth ae?? aeai?eoi aei 15
?ac?a aoaeoeai?oa iiaiiai ia?aai?o i?aaee AC.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeaia aecia/aiiy aano?aeoe?e no?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaio?a, ia yeeo aoaeo?oueny aaaaoi??aiaaa iiaeaeue neooaoe?? —
ia’?eoe, iiae??, i?ioeane oa ?o a?aeiioaiiy. I?eaiaeeoueny iiiaeeia
no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? oi?aae?iiy nei/oaaiiyi
a?ae/ai?a.

Any iiiaeeia ia’?eo?a ?icaeoa ia aea? a?oie: a?ae/ai, noai yeiai
oa?aeoa?eco? ia?aiao?e eiie?aoiiai a?ae/aio oa ioi/aiiy, ui oa?aeoa?eco?
noai ? ia?aiao?e ciai?oi?o oiia aei oeueiai a?ae/aio. Aei a?oie
a?ae/ai?a aeeth/ai? ia’?eoe: oaeaee?noue nei/oaaiiy a?ae/aio, iana
a?aeoeaia, aeiaaeeia a?ae/aia, oiaeia? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?ae/aia,
aaiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?ae/aia, ai?no aaaii?a a?ae/aio, aeenoaioe?y
aei iaeaeeae/iai a?ae/aio, noai ? noaoon a?ae/aio. A iiai?e iiaeae?
neooaoe?? e?euee?noue ia’?eo?a iiaeiia aei??aithaaoe /eneo a?ae/ai?a a
ia?iaoe? o aeia?eueiee iiiaio /ano. Caeaaeii a?ae eiie?aoii? a??ee oea
/enei aa??th?oueny a iaaeao a?ae 80 aei 300. Ae?oaa a?oia ? a?eueo
“aaaaoith” ca neeaaei?noth no?oeoo?, i?ae ia?oa. Aei ia? aeae?eai?
ianooii? ia’?eoe: caiiaiaiiy i?aea??i/iiai oeyoo, iayai?noue “a?eii” a
a?oi? a?ae/ai?a i?aea??i/iiai oeyoo, noaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo a?ae/aio,
oaoi?/iee noai oeyoo, noai aoiinoa?e, ui a?aeaeaa? neeo ? iai?yiie
a?o?o, oaiia?aoo?o, iiaaee, iaeaeaaeue oa ?io?.

Aei iiae?e, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny N?I oi?aae?iiy oaeaee?noth nei/oaaiiy
a?ae/ai?a, a?aeianai?: ia?cae a?ae/aio ia aaeueiiao iiceoe?th
aaaiiicai?aeethaa/a, ia?cae/c’?cae a?ae/aia ia aeao/eee ?aeueniaeo
oeyo?a, ia?aeeaae no??eie, ni?aoaea?e a?ae/ai?a, a?aeiiae aia?aoo?e
eiio?ieueii-aei??thaaeueieo i?eeaae?a.

A?aeiioaiiy, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny o i?aaeeao oi?aae?iiy ?aaeeiaie
aaeueioaaiiy, ianooii?: a?aenoaiue i?ae non?aei?ie a?ae/aiaie, ui
nei/othoueny (i?inoi?iaa); /ania? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae iiae?yie -?ai?oa,
i?ci?oa, iaeii/anii ? aeae?; a?aeiiae aia?aoo?e eiio?ieth caiiaithaaiiy
oeyoo (ECO) — a?aeiioaiiy i?ae iiae?yie ia?caeo ia aeao/eee.

Aeeiai?/i? aeanoeaino? i?ioean?a — nei/oaaiiy a?ae/aio ? aaeueioaaiiy
a?ae/aio- aieeaathoue ia i?aaeea aaeueioaaiiy.

Aeey eiaeiiai c ia?a?aoiaaieo no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a iaaiaeyoueny i?aaeea
?iaeooe??, ui iienothoue ?o; a?ao?/ia iiaeaiiy, ui ?ethno?o? no?oeoo?o
aeaiaioo, ? aeathoueny i?eeeaaee oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ciii neooaoe?eiiai
oi?aae?iiy iiaeae? neooaoe?? ca i?aaeeaie.

Iaaaaeaii i?eeeaae ia’?eoo i?e a?aooaaii? a?aeiia a nenoai? ECO “a?eia
i?aea??i/iiai oeyoo”, noai yeiai caeaaeeoue a?ae iayai?no? “a?eii” a
a?oi? a?ae/ai?a i?aea??i/iiai oeyoo. I?iya a?aeiia iieyaa? a oiio, ui
aai i?e iayaiino? a?ae/aio ia i-e ?aeueniai? ae?eueieoe? nenoaia ECO
oi?io? neaiae m(0ci)=0, aai, iaaiaee, i?e a?aenooiino? a?ae/aio
iaaeoiaeeoue neaiae m(0ci)=1. C o?aooaaiiyi caith iiaeaeue neooaoe??
?aeaioeo?eo?oueny iaiaeiicia/ii. Ii-ia?oa, oea iiaea aooe neooaoe?y,
a?aeiia?aeia iayaiino? “a?eia” i?e ae??caeaoiino? nenoaie ECO, aai
neooaoe?y a?aeiia?aeia caith a nenoai? ECO. Oaeaee?noue aeoiaeo a?ae/aio
c aaeueiiai? iiceoe?? III iiaeiia aooe aeua i?e iayaiino? “a?eii”. Oiio,
a aaoiiaoe/iiio ?aaeei? nenoaia neooaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy oaeaee?noth
?icioneo iiaeiia ?ic??ciyoe oe? neooaoe??. Ae??caeaoi?noue nenoaie ECOi
i?iiiio?oueny aecia/aoe a aeeiai?oe? a i?ioean? nei/oaaiiy a?ae/ai?a.
I/aaeaeii, ui i?e nei/oaaii? a?ae/aio a?i iine?aeiaii ieia? ?aeuenia?
ae?eueieoe? ?Aei+1, ?Aei, ?Aei-1 i?e oiia?, ui aiie ia caeiyoe ?ioeie
a?ae/aiaie. Iaoae aei iiiaioo /ano t1 a?ae/ai, ia?aeaeath/e ia ?Aei+1,
oi?io? ci?io cia/aiue ooieoe?? i?eeaaeaey c m(0ci+1)=0 o m(0ci+1)=1.
Aiaeia?/ii a?aeaoaa?oueny o iiiaio /ano t2>t1 ia ?aeuenia?e ae?eueieoe?
?Aei, oa a iiiaio /ano t3>t2 ia ?Aei-1. sseui cao?eniaaia
iine?aeiai?noue icia/aieo iiae?e aei t1, t2 ? t3 (aecia/ai? o?e iiae??
? /ania? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae ieie), oi iiaeia aecia/eoe noai ia’?eoo, ye
i?aoeacaeaoi?noue ?Aei. sseui ae cao?eniaaia ?ioa iine?aeiai?noue
iiae?e, iai?eeeaae, aei t1 a?ae ?Aei+1 ? aei t2 a?ae ?Aei-1, aea ia aoei
iiae?? ci?ie cia/aiiy m(0ci)=0 a m(0ci)=1, oiae? iiaeia caoaa?aeaeoaaoe,
ui aia?aoo?a ?Aei a?aeiiaeea. Ine?eueee a?ae/aie ?ooathoueny c ??ciith
oaeaee?noth, ?ioa?aaee /ano D1=t1-t2 oa D2=t2-t3 ??ci?. ?oi? cia/aiiy
aa?’th?oueny aeey ??cieo a?ae/ai?a. Oiio iaiao?aeii nie?aoeny ia ia/?oe?
?icieo? ?ioa?aaee. No?oeoo?a o?aaiaioo neooaoe??, ia yeiio aoaeo?oueny
aecia/aiiy ia’?eoo “a?eia i?aea??i/iiai oeyoo” ia? i’youe ??ai?a:

wmetafile0 (16)

Aaaaeai? ianooii? aeaiaioe: 0ci iieno? iieacieee nenoaie ECOi; 1ci
iieno? noaoon iiae?? ia?caeo a?ae/aio ia i-oo ?aeueniao ae?eueieoeth;
2ci iieno? noaoon /aniaiai a?aeiioaiiy i?i oa, ui ?ai?oa ia ?ioa?aae?
/ano [t-T, t-nT] iaea i?noea iiae?y ia?caeo a?ae/aio ia i-oo ?aeueniao
ae?eueieoeth; 3ci iieno? noaoon ia’?eoo “a?aeiiaa ?Aei; 4ci iieno? a?eii
?ici??ii j ?aeueniaeo ae?eueieoeue, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei e?ai?o/ a?ae
?Aei; 5ci iieno? ye?nio ioe?ieo ?ici??o a?eia (iaia?, iaea, aaeeea,
aeoaea aaeeea). Ieae/a iaaaaeaii i?aaeei, ui aea? aecia/aiiy ia’?eoo
“a?aeiiaa ?Aei”. O i?aaee? (17) iiae?? ia?caeo a?ae/ai?a ia ?aeuenia?
ae?eueieoe? ia ia?oiio ??ai? iiaeae? aecia/athoueny c o?aooaaiiyi
cai?ioieo ??cieoeue ia?oiai ii?yaeeo.

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