Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

OAeE 368:338.14.87

EICUeIAIEI Ieueaa Aieiaeeie??aia

Nenoaia no?aooaaiiy

aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a

Niaoe?aeuei?noue

08.08.01. — Aeiiii?ea i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ? ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

i. Noie — 1998 ?.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Noinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aieeeaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

AEoeaanueeee A?eaae?e TH???ae/

Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, aeioeaio eaoaae?e oi?aae?iiyIo?oe?ei?

iiiiaioe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iaoiaieiaa Na?oeaia Aaeaioei?aia

Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y aaie?anueei? ni?aae,

caa. eaoaae?ith o?iain?a

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iaianianueeee TH??e Aaneeueiae/

Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, aeioeaio eaoaae?e oi?aae?iiy

?inoeooo i?iaeai ?eieo oa aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI
Oe?a?ie, i. Iaeana

a?aeae?e aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai i?eii?nueeeo ?aa?ii?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “27 ” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. i 12-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E55.051.01 a Noinueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 244007, i.Noie, aoe.
?.-Ei?naeiaa, 2, aoae. I412

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Noinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 244007, i.Noie, aoe.
?.-Ei?naeiaa, 2.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 24 ” aeiaoiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Eeneee A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

?aae?caoe?y iniiaieo i?eioeei?a ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua, caeeaaeaieo o ??oaiiyo i?aeia?iaeieo oaiae ? eiioa?aioe?e,
o a?o/eciyieo caeiiao ? caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao, iae/ano?oa iaiiaeeeaa /a?ac
iaaecae/aeio iaiaaeai?noue ?ano?n?a. Caaaeaiiy ua a?eueoa
oneeaaeith?oueny, eiee ni?aaa noino?oueny eaoano?io?/ieo iiae?e ?
?ano?ne ia caiia?aaiiy ?oiueiai ?icaeoeo, ia e?ea?aeaoe?th iane?aee?a ?
eiiiainaoe?th iiianaieo caeoe?a iio??ai? a oa?i?iiaiio ii?yaeeo ? o
a?aeiinii aaeeeeo ?ici??ao. Eaoano?io?/i? e aeieia?/i? ?eceee aeey
Oe?a?ie — aei?noea ?aaeuei?noue ia o?eueee /a?ac aaa??th ia
*i?iiaeeuenuee?e AAN, aea ? oiio, ui a ciiao iiaeeeaiai ca?aaeaiiy
neeueiiae?th/eie io?oeieie ?a/iaeiaie i?iaeeaa? 15 iei. /ieia?e, o ciiao
naeni?/ii? aeoeaiino? — 11 iei., o ciiao iiaeeeaiai eaoano?io?/iiai
caoiieaiiy — 7,4 iei., a ??aaiue ciino iniiaieo oiiae?a neeaaea? a?ey
36%.

Neooaoe?y aeiaaa? noai?aiiy iaae?eiiai ? aoaeoeaiiai iaoai?cio caeo/aiiy
cania?a o i?e?iaeiioi?iio. I?e oeueiio, i?e?iaeii, aeey a?eueoino?
noa’?eo?a aeiiii?ee iniiaiei iioeaii, ui niiioea?, aei o?iainiai? o/ano?
a i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e ae?yeueiino? iiaea aooe aai iaoai?ci aeaaeii?
iioeaaoe??, ?aae?ciaaiee /a?ac aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaei? iaoiaee ?
i?iaeeeoiaaiee oo?aioith i?i aaciaeo ethaeae, aai aeiiii?/ia aeaiaea.
Aaaeeeaa ?ieue o oeueiio iiaea aooe a?aeaaaeaia ?icaeoeo ? caaacia/aiith
aeiiii?/ii? noaa?eueiino? ? aaciaee ianaeaiiy, oa?eoi??e ? i?aai?caoe?e
ia iniia? oaeineiiaeaiiy no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo
?ecee?a.

No?aoiaee ?eiie a Oe?a?i? aei oeueiai /ano ?icaeiaiee aeoaea
o?aaiaioa?ii. Ieoaiiy no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a,
iaa?oue a oiiaao noi?iiaaii? ?eieiai? nenoaie, ? i?iaeaiaoe/ieie. A
oiiaao Oe?a?ie ia ana oea ua iaeeaaeathoueny o?oaeiiu? aeiiii?ee
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.

Oei /anii, iacaaaeath/e ia aeeeaaeai? i?iaeaie, oaea ca?ac ? iaaia
oai?aoe/ia ? aenia?eiaioaeueii-i?aeoe/ia iniiaa, ui aeicaiey? i?enooieoe
aei oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a ioe?iee cacia/aieo ?ecee?a, aei ?ic?iaee
caeiiiaeaa/eo, ii?iaoeaieo ? iaoiaee/ieo iieiaeaiue o aeai?e aaeoc?
no?aooaaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?iaea iniiaieo iieiaeaiue nenoaie oa aeiiii?/ieo
iieaciee?a aeey no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a, ia?aia
a yeino? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ? a aeinoaoiueiio nooiai?
iaiao?aeiith ? aeooaeueiith.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Ia?aiee iai?yiie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaiaeaeo?oueny c
?iaioaie, ui cae?eniththoueny aea?aeaaieie a?aeiinoaaie ? i?ia?aeieie
iaoeiaeie onoaiiaaie, cie?aia, I?i?noa?noaii ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua ? yaea?ii? aaciaee, ?AIN Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie,
?inoeoooii i?iaeai ?eieo oa aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI
Oe?a?ie oa ?i.

Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? i?e aeeiiaii? oaeeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o: “Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ianaeaiiy, yea cacia? aieeao caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua” ?0194U046178; aea?aeathaeaeaoia oaia “?ic?iaea
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a ? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii
ieaioaaiith ? ?aae?caoe?? noaeiai ?icaeoeo oa?eoi???”, o?iaino?oueny
I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe Oe?a?ie; ooiaeaiaioaeueia oaia “Aeiiii?ea noaeiai
?icaeoeo: iae?i- ? i?e?iaeiiii?/i? iaoai?cie caaacia/aiiy”,
o?iaino?oueny aea?aeaaiei oiiaeii ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
Oe?a?ie (?84/21). ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeei?enoai? oaeiae i?e aeeiiaii? i?iaeoo ?95-06-17260 “Oai?aoe/aneea e
yenia?eiaioaeueiua i?iaeaiu no?aoiaaiey ?enea caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu” a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai ?eieo ?AI, ui o?iaino?oueny
?in?enueeei oiiaeii ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeaeoie i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
o/aiai-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a ii aeenoeeie?iao “?icaeoie ? ?ici?uaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee”, “Aeiiii?ea i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy”, “Aaciaea
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?” (ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean o Noinueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ? Oe?a?inuee?e aeaaeai?? aaie?anueei? ni?aae).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iniiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? ae?iaeaiiy i?iiiceoe?e ii
noai?aiith caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? nenoaie no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a, iaoiiaeaieo ye i?e?iaeieie i?ioeanaie, oae ?
aio?iiiaaiieie oaeoi?aie, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?
aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a, ui caaacia/othoue ?aae?caoe?th oeeo i?iiiceoe?e.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ae??oothoueny
ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe eaoaai??eiee ? iiiyo?eiee aia?ao caaaeueii? oai???
no?aooaaiiy, aeieia?/iiai no?aooaaiiy, no?aooaaiiy eaoano?io?/ieo
?ecee?a, oai??? ?ecee?a;

— eeaneo?eoaaoe iai?yiee ?icaeoeo no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a, aeaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith nenoaie
no?aooaaiiy a ?aieao iniiaieo ?c oeeo iai?yie?a;

— onoaiiaeoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ? caeaaeiino? i?ae iniiaieie iaoiaeaie
ioe?iie aeiiii?/iiai caeoeo ? no?aoiaiai caeoeo, cai?iiiioaaoe eiie?aoi?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ioe?ioe? aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a ianoaiiy no?aoiai?
iiae?? oa ioe?ioe? no?aoiaiai caeoeo aeey aeayeeo aeae?a no?aooaaiiy;

— ?ic?iaeoe iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ii aecia/aiith oa?eoieo noaaie o
no?aooaaii? oa aaeaiooaaoe ?o aeey no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a;

— noi?ioethaaoe iniiai? eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy nenoaie no?aooaaiiy
aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a, a oaeiae ae?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? ii
oaeineiiaethaaiith caeiiiaeaa/i? ? ii?iaoeaii? aace no?aooaaiiy
cacia/aieo ?ecee?a;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii i?aai?caoe?? no?aooaaiiy
ie?aieo eiie?aoieo aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Iiaecia iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— ia aac? ?icaeoeo ? oaeineiiaeaiiy ie?aieo i?aeaaeocae ? aeae?a
no?aooaaiiy, i?iiiio?oueny nenoaia caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
noaa?eueiino? i?aei?e?inoa ? aaciaee ianaeaiiy a?ae
i?e?iaeiuei-aio?iiiaaiieo eaoano?io, ui aeicaieeoue caeo/eoe aeiaeaoeia?
o?iainia? ?ano?ne a ?aae?caoe?th i?aaaioeaieo caoiae?a ? i?i?i?coaaoe
aeieia?/i? ? eaoano?io?/i? ?eceee;

— oaeineiiaeai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oai??? ?ecee?a ? ae?iaeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?icaeoeo iaoai?cio a?aooaaiiy eaoano?io?/ieo ?
aeieia?/ieo ?ecee?a o no?aooaaii?;

— ?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? ii ioe?ioe? aeiiii?/iiai caeoeo a?ae
?aae?caoe?? aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a, a oaeiae ii ioe?ioe?
no?aoiaiai caeoeo aeey nenoaie no?aooaaiiy;

— ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii iaa?oiooaaiith ? ?ic?aooieo oa?eoieo
noaaie a ie?aieo aeaeao aeieia?/iiai no?aooaaiiy ? no?aooaaiiy
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a;

— cai?iiiiiaaii ii?yaeie ? i?aaeea no?aooaaiiy eiie?aoieo aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny iaa?oioiaaieie
i?iiiceoe?yie uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy i?eioeei?a, iaoiae?a, aeiiii?/ieo
iieaciee?a, a oaeiae no?oeoo?e ea?oaaiiy no?aooaaiiyi aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ioe?ioe? aeiiii?/iiai caeoeo a?ae
i?e?iaeiuei-aio?iiiaaiieo eaoano?io, ii ioe?ioe? no?aoiaiai caeoeo ?
aecia/aiith no?aoiaeo oa?eo?a aeicaieeoue ?noioii ni?inoeoe iniiai?
i?ioeaaeo?e a ?aieao ?icaeyiooeo iai?yie?a no?aooaaiiy. Aoaeoeaia
iie?oeea aeoioethaaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a
no?aooaaeueiee?a aeanoue iiaeeea?noue iiia?aaeaeaoe ?aae?caoe?th
no?aoiaeo iiae?e aai, i?eiaeii?, i?i?i?coaaoe ?oi? iane?aeee.

?ic?iaeai? ? oaeineiiaeai? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee no?aoiaiai
caeoeo ? aecia/aiith oa?eoieo noaaie iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ?aieao
?ioeo i?aeaaeocae ? aeae?a no?aooaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia
canoinoaaiiy a oaeeo aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao ye Oe?a?inueea
aeaaeai?y aaie?anueei? ni?aae ? Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, a
oaeiae a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai ?eieo ?AI. Aiie oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a
?iaio? Ooaao OeI ? IN Noinueei? iaeanii? aea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, io?eiai? iniaenoi
aaoi?ii. Aeaia ianoaaeia ciaeoea a?aeaeoie a iioae?eiaaieo ?iaioao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee iia?aeiieai? ? noaaeai? ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo o i.Ea?en?o? (Technological
civilization impakt on the environment. Situation in the post-Soviet
area/ International Symposium. Karlsruhe, Deutschland, 22-26 April
1996), i.A?aoeneaaa (Third International Conference on Ethics and
Environmental Policies “The new Europe: transformation and environmental
issues”, Slovak Republic, Bratislava, 1996, September 26-28), i.Noie
(iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? eiioa?aioe??: “Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea e
yeieiaey”, 1992; “Iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey i?e?iaeiiieueciaaieai”, 1993;
“Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu yeiiiieee i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey”, 1996), i.Iinea?
(Ana?in?enuee? eiioa?aioe?? “Oai?ey e i?aeoeea yeieiae/aneiai
no?aoiaaiey”, 1995, 1996), i.?ec? (15 th International Conference of
WACRA-EUROPE e.V. “Environmental Management in States with Coastal, July
8-12, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 11 ?ia?o,
o eio?eo iniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue a?eueo 3,0 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 3 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoea. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? — 184 noi??iee, o oiio /ene? ia 24 noi??ieao ?ici?uaii 7
oaaeeoeue, 9 ?ethno?aoe?e ? aeiaeaoee. Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae neeaaea? 126 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O “Anooi?” iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai? iaoa ?
iniiai? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, ioa?aeoa?eciaai? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iiaeai? a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “No?aooaaiiy ye iaoai?ci caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
noaa?eueiino? oa aeieia?/ii? aaciaee ianaeaiiy, i?aai?caoe?e ?
oa?eoi??e” i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c iioaioe?eieo ? oaeoe/ieo iane?aee?a
?aae?caoe?? eaoano?io?/ieo ? aeieia?/ieo ?ecee?a.

A aeaiee /an, iacaaaeath/e ia an? aeinyaiaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
i?ia?ano, ianaeaiiy, i?aai?caoe?? oa ie?ai? oa?eoi??? ye ? ?ai?oa
i?aeaeathoueny aeoaea na?eici?e iaaaciaoe? /a?ac noeo?ei? eeoa, a
?iia??i?noue iieieoeny a cii? aieeao cia/ii? oaoiiaaiii? aaa??? ?noioii
c?inea. I?e/iio, o neeo oe?eiai ?yaeo i?e/ei, eiee iiaa eaea i?i
aeiaaeuei? eaoano?ioe, oaea iaiiaeeeai aeae?eeoe nooi i?e?iaei? aai
aio?iiiaaii?. I?aeoe/ii an? eaoano?ioe ca?ac ?
i?e?iaeiuei-aio?iiiaaiieie. Caeoie, ui iaiineoueny oeeie eaoano?ioaie,
aaaeei iaaeiioe?ieoe, oiio ui a?i neeaaea? aei 4% AAI e?a?ie.

Oei /anii, a?eueo-iaio aoaeoeaii? nenoaie iaoa??aeueii-o?iainiaiai
caoenoo a?ae ?aae?caoe?? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a, o oiio /ene? a?ae
aeiaaeueieo aeieia?/ieo ?ecee?a, ia ?nio? ia o?eueee o ian, aea e o
e?a?iao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. I?e?iaeii, aea?aeaa? iae/ano?oa ia i?ae neeo
naiino?eii cae?enithaaoe caoiaee ii iiia?aaeaeaiith
i?e?iaeiuei-aio?iiiaaiieo eaoano?io ? e?ea?aeaoe?? ?oi?o iane?aee?a.

C?iaeaiee o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aiae?c iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
caei?aeiiieo ? a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a a aaeoc? no?aooaaiiy eaoano?io?/ieo ?
aeieia?/ieo ?ecee?a iieacaa ianooiia.

No?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ?ecee?a ia caoiae? ?icaeaaeiny a ?aieao
no?aooaaiiy iaeiiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, iia’ycaii? ?c caeoeii a?ae
caa?oaeiaiiy. No?aooaaiiy a oeeo e?a?iao ? iiaooi?i o?iainiaei
iaoai?ciii, ui ?aaoeth? oe?eee ?yae i?iaeai, ui noinothoueny aacia/ii?
?iaioe i?aei?e?inoaa oa eiai a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia?aae o?aoueith
noi?iiith, a oaeiae ieoaiue ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Caa?oaoenue aei no?aooaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iioaioe?eieo ii?ooiee?a
ciooo?, ianaiia?aae, aei?noe?noue noaeiaeo ??oaiue o aeiaaeeo ii?ooaiiy
i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. I?e oeueiio aeineoue iioe?aia
aeia?ia?eueia no?aooaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoeo
a?ae aaa??eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua a ?aieao
caaaeueiiai no?aooaaiiy oeea?eueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa.

Ii?yae ?c no?aooaaiiyi ca caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua a
?aieao caaaeueiia?iiaaeyinueei? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ?aca?aoaaiiy
cania?a ia oe?e? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoeo a?ae aaa??eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy
cae?enith?oueny oeyoii aca?iiiai no?aooaaiiy i?iieneiaeo eiiiai?e
(noai?aiiy ieie ia’?aeiaieo no?aoiaeo oiiae?a) aai oeyoii noai?aiiy
aeanieo ?aca?aieo oiiae?a (?c a?aeiia?aeiith a?aeiiaith a?ae iineoa
no?aoiaeo eiiiai?e ? a?ae ni?eueiiai no?aooaaiiy).

A aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui no?aooaaiiy eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a
?icaeiaii aeineoue neaaei ? a aea?aeaaao c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith. sse
ie?aiee aeae no?aooaaiiy eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a ?icaeyaea?oueny o?eueee
no?aooaaiiy a?ae caeoeo, iaianaiiai ao?ath, a /anoeia eaoano?io?/ieo
?ecee?a no?aoothoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei Caaaeueieo oiia no?aooaaiiy a?ae
aiaith.

A Oe?a?i? eaoano?io?/i? ?eceee a aeaiee /an ia no?aoothoueny acaaae?,
oi/a a ie?aieo ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaioao oae? aeaee no?aooaaiiy
ia?aaeaa/ai?. I?aeoe/ii ia i?aeeyaathoue no?aooaaiith ? aeieia?/i?
?eceee, ui iaoiiaeaii: ii-ia?oa, a?aenooi?noth oa?i?iieia?/ii?
onoaeaiino? a aeai?e aaeoc? no?aooaaiiy; ii-ae?oaa, iaiaai?noth
no?aoiaee?a ? no?aooaaeueiee?a o iiaiiio aeio?eiaii? oiia aeiaiai?o i?e
i?ioiaeaeaii? iiciao a noae?; ii-o?ao?, neeaaei?noth a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
aeo?ao ia onoiaiiy iane?aee?a ii?ooaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua;
ii-/aoaa?oa, a?aenooi?noth iaoiaeee ioe?iee eiia??ieo caeoe?a a?ae
aaa??eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa ?ioeo
i?e?iaeiuei-aio?iiiaaiieo eaoano?io, a oaeiae a?aenooi?noth
a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiaeee ?ic?aooieo oa?eoieo noaaie; ii-i’yoa,
a?aenooi?noth iiaiioe?iiiai ? noaa?eueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa a aaeoc?
no?aooaaiiy acaaae?, o oiio /ene? a aaeoc? no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a oa ?i.

Oaeei /eiii, ia iniia? aiae?co caei?aeiiiiai oa a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo
aeiiii?ee i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy, i?iiiio?oueny ?icaeaaoe nenoaio
caeo/aiiy eioo?a ia iiia?aaeaeaiiy iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e ?
eiiiainaoe?th iiianaieo ao?ao, oeyoii oaeineiiaeaiiy no?aoiaiai ?eieo,
aeey /iai ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe iia? iai?yiee no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a. I?iiiceoe?? uiaei iiaeo aeae?a no?aooaaiiy
iaaiaeyoueny o oaaeeoe? 1.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy i?ioeaaeo?e no?aooaaiiy
aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a” cae?eniaia aeine?aeaeaiiy
no?aoiaiai ?eceeo ye eaoaai??? eiia??iino? ? ye ooieoe?? ao?ao.

Iaea?eueo neeaaei? ? aaaeeea? i?iaeaie a no?aooaaii? aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a ia nueiaiaei?oi?e iiiaio iaoiiaeai? a?aenooi?noth
iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie uiaei eiia??iinoii? ioe?iee aeaieo ?ecee?a ?
ioe?iee ao?ao i?e ?oi?e ?aae?caoe??.

Oaaeeoey 1

Eeaneo?eaoe?y no?aooaaiiy

ii aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo ?eceeao

?eceeOi?ia

no?aooaaiiyAaeocue I?aeaaeocue AeaeAeieia?/iee iaia’yceiaano?aooaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?ia aeiaaeie a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?aoeea?eueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia aeiaaeie iaianaiiy caeoe?a a i?ioean?
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?aeia?ia?eueiaiaeiiaa on?o aeae?a

aeaniino?cania?a o?ainii?oo, iaeia, oaa?ei, aoae?aaeue, a?iaeath n/a
eoeueoo? oa ?i.??aiy aeeooyiniaenoaia aeiaaeie ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino?,
ia aeiaaeie nia?o?, ia aeiaeeooy aei aecia/aii? e?eueeino? ?ie?a a cii?
caa?oaeiaiiyEaoano?io?/iee i?e?iaeieeiaia’yceiaaiaeiiaaon?o aeae?a

aeaniino?cania?a o?ainii?oo, iaeia, oaa?ei, aoae?aaeue, a?iaeath n/a
eoeueoo? oa ?i.aeia?ia?eueiaiaeiiaaon?o aeae?a

aeaniino?cania?a o?ainii?oo, iaeia, oaa?ei, aoae?aaeue, a?iaeath n/a
eoeueoo? oa ?i.??aiy aeeooyiniaenoaia aeiaaeie ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino?,
ia aeiaaeie nia?o?Eaoano?io?/iee oaoiiaaiieeiaia’yceiaano?aooaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?ia aeiaaeie a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?aoeea?eueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia aeiaaeie iaianaiiy caeoe?a a i?ioean?
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?aeia?ia?eueiaiaeiiaa on?o aeae?a

aeaniino?cania?a o?ainii?oo, iaeia, oaa?ei, aoae?aaeue, a?iaeath n/a
eoeueoo? oa ?i.??aiy aeeooyiniaenoaia aeiaaeie ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino?,
ia aeiaaeie nia?o?

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiio?oueny ioe?ithaaoe ?iia??i?noue eaoano?io?/ieo,
oiaoi ??aee?nieo, iiae?e a?aeiia?aeii aei iaea?eueo iioe?aii? ?oiuei?
iiaeae? — ?iciiae?eii Ioaniia, ui ? a?aie/iei aeiaaeeii a?iii?iaeueiiai
?iciiae?eo (?iciiae?ee Aa?ioee?).

Aecia/athoueny iniiai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey ia/eneaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ? a?oiiaiai oaoiiaaiiiai ?eceeo aeey aeeooy ethaeae.
I?e oeueiio i?eeia?oueny aei oaaae, ui a ?icaeyiai?e aaeoc? iiaeooue
a?aeaooeny ??ci? ?ioeeaeaioe, eiaeiee ?c yeeo, a naith /a?ao, iiaea
ii?iaeeoe eaoano?io?/i? ?aae?caoe??.

?icaeyiooi eaoano?io?/i? ?eceee i?e?iaeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ui c?iaeaii ia
i?eeeaae? naeni?/ieo ?ecee?a. O ?acoeueoao? iiaeai? oi?ioee ?iia??i?nieo
ioe?iie ?oeioaaiiy aeayei? e?eueeino? aoaeeie?a ?c ?oiueiai aecia/aiiai
/enea, iaoaiaoe/iiai i/?eoaaiiy ? na?aaeiueiai eaaae?aoe/iiai
a?aeoeeaiiy aeiaaeeiaiai ?ici??o e?eueeino? ethaeae, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a
aoaeeieao ??cieo oei?a.

I?iiiio?oueny aaanoe a i?aeoeeo ioe?iee oei/aniao ooieoe?th
eaoano?io?/iiai ?eceeo, ui ? aeiaaeeiaith ooieoe??th ? aei??aith?
e?eueeino? ethaeae, ui ciaoiaeyoueny o cii? ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai ?eceeo.

O ?iaio? ?iaeoueny ioe?iea ?ie?, i?noey, iniiaiiai ci?noo ? aca?iieo
ni?aa?aeiioaiue aeey iieacieea aeiiii?/iiai caeoeo a?ae eaoano?io?/ieo
iiae?e (ye ie?aiiai aeiaaeeo — aeieiai-aeiiii?/iiai caeoeo) ? no?aoiaiai
caeoeo (iae. 1).

Onoaiiaeaii, ui cia/iee aeina?ae ioe?iee aeieiai-aeiiii?/iiai caeoeo, ui
iaeiie/aiee o noa?? aeiiii?ee i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ? ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, oaeoe/ii ia aeei?enoiao?oueny a oai??? ?
i?aeoeoe? no?aooaaiiy. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, cai?iiiiiaai? iiaeeea?
iai?yiee ?ioaa?aoe?? iaoiaeieia?e ? iaoiaeee i?ae cacia/aieie aaeocyie
ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Aeey aeieiai-aeiiii?/iiai
caeoeo anoaiiaeai? iioaioe?ei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ici???a caeoeo ye
caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ii? eaoaai??? ? ye iieacieea, aeei?enoiaoaaiiai a
no?aoiaeo a?aeiioaiiyo.

?noioia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ioe?ioe? aeiiii?/iiai caeoeo a?ae
eaoano?io?/ieo iiae?e. Aeey oeueiai ?icaeyaea?oueny ioe?iea iaae?aie
iaeneiaeueiiai caeoeo a?ae iaeeie/ii? iiae?? ca ?ioa?aae /ano O. Iioie
eaoano?io aaaaea?oueny ioaniiianueeei ?c na?aaeiueith ?ioaineai?noth
iiae?e o ??e. I?e oeueiio ioe?ith?oueny cae/aeiei niiniaii: yeui ca /an
niinoa?aaeaiue t a?aeaoeiny N eaoano?io, oi iaea?aeeii ioe?ieo
?ioaineaiino? o aeaeyae?:

wmetafile8? ??d???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy ??oe?? ???&? ?MathType??@?
???u?????????»????-?????ha???L ???u??
???????»????-????T???Oe[???-?????Oec???R?A???
R?A???R?% ???u?th??????

Aeey ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo caeoeo a?ae eaoano?io U(x) ooieoe?y ?iciiae?eo
iaeneiaeueiiai caeoeo Umax(x) ca O ?ie?a (ca oiiae, ui a?aeaoeany,
i?eiaeii?, iaeia iiae?y) ia? aeaeyae

Umax (x) = exp(TU(x)) – 1 / (exp(T) – 1) (2)

Oiae? iaae?aia iaeneiaeueiiai caeoeo aei??aith? ei?aith ??aiyiiy

Umax (x) = (T)-1 ln (eT + 1) / 2 (3)

Iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iei ? ie?aiee aeiaaeie, eiee iaeneiaeueiee caeoie
iiaeia iienaoe ?iciiae?eii Ia?aoi. Oiae? ia iaia’yceiai, uia oea
iaaeeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeiny aeey on??? ooieoe?? Umax (x). Aeineoue, uia
aiii aeeiioaaeiny aeey cia/aiue, ui ia?aaeuothoue aeayeee ii??a, ia
?ici?? yeiai iaeeaaea?oueny iaiaaeaiiy aeiiaith noaoenoe/ii? iaae?eiino?
ioe?iee ia?aiao??a iiaeaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo Ia?aoi.

Oai?aoe/iith aacith no?aoiaiai a?ciano ? aeooa?i? ?ic?aooiee, oiaoi
nenoaia iaoaiaoe/ieo ? noaoenoe/ieo caeiiii??iinoae, ui ?aaeaiaioothoue
a?aeiioaiiy i?ae no?aoiaeeii ? no?aooaaeueieeii (?ic?aooiee ii
ooai?aiith ? aeo?ao? no?aoiaiai oiiaeo a aeiaaino?ieiaeo no?aoiaeo
iia?aoe?yo, aai a a?eueo oe?ieiio oeoia/aii? — ?ic?aooiee oa?eo?a ii
aoaeue-yeiio aeaeo no?aooaaiiy).

Aei e?eueeino? iniiaieo iieaciee?a, c yeeie iia?o? aeooa?ia iaoaiaoeea a
?icaeyiooeo aeaeao no?aooaaiiy, aa?oi a?aeiineoe: e?euee?noue ia’?eo?a
no?aooaaiiy; e?euee?noue no?aoiaeo iiae?e; e?euee?noue ia’?eo?a, ui
iino?aaeaeaee a ?acoeueoao? no?aoiaeo iiae?e; noia c?a?aieo no?aoiaeo
ieaoaae?a; noia aeiea/aiiai no?aoiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy; no?aoiaa noia
aeey aoaeue-yeiai ia’?eoa no?aooaaiiy; no?aoiaa noia, ui i?eiaaea? ia
ooeiaeaeaiee ia’?eo noeoiiino?, ui niinoa??aa?oueny; ye?noue ? ??aaiue
caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua ia oa?eoi??yo, aea
ciaoiaeeoueny ia’?eo no?aooaaiiy; nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy i?iaeeaath/iai ia
oa?eoi??yo, ui caa?oaeiththoueny; ?iia??i?noue ianoaiiy no?aoiaiai
aeiaaeeo ii iaeiiio aeiaiai?o no?aooaaiiy oa ?i.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy a no?aooaaii? iaaea?oueny ia/eneaiith oa?eoii? noaaee,
oiaoi oe?ie no?aoiaiai ?eceeo oa ?ioeo aeo?ao ii eiie?aoiiio aeiaiai?o
no?aooaaiiy. Oa?eoia noaaea, ii ye?e ioi?iey?oueny aeiaia?? no?aooaaiiy
— ? a?oooi-noaaea, ui neeaaea?oueny c iaooi-noaaee ? iaaaioaaeaiiy. Naia
iaooi-noaaea ae?aaea? oe?io no?aoiaiai ?eceeo (iiaeaae?, iiaai?,
aaa??eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy oa ?i.). Iaaaioaaeaiiy ae iie?eaa? aeaeaoee
no?aoiaeea ii i?aai?caoe?? ? i?iaaaeaiith no?aoiai? ni?aae, aeeth/a?
a?ae?aooaaiiy a caiani? oiiaee ? i?eaooie.

I?e no?aooaaii? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a o oa?eoio noaaeo aeeth/athoue
?eceeiao iaaeaaaeo, i?ecia/aio aeey noai?aiiy ui??/iiai no?aoiaiai
oiiaeo.

I?e aeia?ia?eueiiio aeieia?/iiio no?aooaaii? (iaeiiaiio) ? no?aooaaii?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a (iaeiiaiio), iaooi-noaaea a?aeiia?aea? na?aaei?i
aeieaoai no?aoiaeea ? aecia/a?oueny a ?ic?aooieo c aeayei? e?eueeino?
iaeeieoeue no?aoiai? noie (iai?eeeaae, 100 a?ioiaeo iaeeieoeue) ye
a?aeiioaiiy ?ici??o na?aaeiueiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ii iaeiiio aeiaiai?o
no?aooaaiiy iiiiiaeaiiai ia ?iia??i?noue ianoaiiy no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo
aei na?aaeiuei? no?aoiai? noie ii iaeiiio aeiaiai?o.

Iaea?eueo? i?iaeaie i?e i?aai?caoe?? aeaiiai aeaeo no?aooaaiiy ca’ycai?
c ia/eneaiiyi no?aoiaeo noi, a, ioaea, ? c ioe?ieith aeiiii?/iiai ?
no?aoiaiai caeoe?a, ui caiiae?ththoueny a ?acoeueoao? ii?ooaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua no?aooaaeueieeai.

I?e iaia’yceiaiio aeieia?/iiio no?aooaaii?, oiaoi no?aooaaii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa — aeaniee?a aeaea?ae iioaioe?eiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, o yeino? no?aoiai? noie iiaea
aenooiaoe i?eaooie i?aei?e?inoaa, ni?aa?aeianaiee ?c nooiaiai iaaaciaee
aeaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? iiiiiaeaiee ia ei?eaoaaeueiee eiao?oe??io.

Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an i?aaenoaaey? ia/eneaiiy aeiiii?ei-no?aoiaeo iieaciee?a
aeey cai?iiiiiaaiiai a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? oaeiai aeaeo
aeieia?/iiai aeia?ia?eueiiai iniaenoiai no?aooaaiiy, ye ci?oaia
no?aooaaiiy aeeooy, ui iiaeiii aooe iiaeeo?eiaaiith oa oaeineiiaeaiith
oi?iith cae/aeiiai ci?oaiiai no?aooaaiiy aeeooy ? aoaea neeaaeaoe:
no?aooaaiiy ia aeiaeeooy aei aecia/aii? e?eueeino? ?ie?a o cii? c
aecia/aiei ??aiai ? ye?noth caa?oaeiaiiy, no?aooaaiiy ia aeiaaeie nia?o?
a ?acoeueoao? aieeao caa?oaeiaiiai na?aaeiaeua, no?aooaaiiy ia aeiaaeie
oai?iae ? ao?aoe caei?ia’y.

Iniiaith iiaoaeiae oa?eoieo noaaie ooo iiaeii? noaoe ia o?eueee oaaeeoe?
nia?oiino? ? o?eaaeino? iaeaooiueiai aeeooy, o?aaeeoe?eii
aeei?enoiaoaai? a no?aooaaii? aeeooy, aea ?, cai?iiiiiaai? a ?iaio?,
oaaeeoe? caoai?thaaiino? a caeaaeiino? a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua.

Nenoaia no?aooaaiiy ii aeaiiio aeaeo aoaeo?oueny ia aeaio iniiaieo
iieiaeaiiyo: aeey ethaeae i?iaeeaath/eo (i?aoethth/eo) o cii?
i?aeaeuaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ?iia??i?noue
caiaaeoaeaoe aeayeeie niaoeeo?/ieie oai?iaaie iaaaaaoi aeua, /ei aeey
oeo, ooi aeeaa o a?aeiinii aeaaiiieo/ieo ?aeiiao; aeaea?aeii
aeiaaeeiaino? ? iaaecia/ai?noue iiiaioo oai?iae ?/aai nia?o?
?aoeei??ioa.

??/i? iaooi-noaaee ia aeiaeeooy aei aecia/aiiai oa?i?io n o
caa?oaeiaiiio ?aeii? ? ia aeiaaeie nia?o? a ?acoeueoao? aieeao
caa?oaeiaiiai iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua i?iiiio?oueny
aecia/aoe ii oi?ioeao:

wmetafile8? ??¦???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy??????yyy¶yyy???6?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????@????@???@O???@~
???u?th??????

wmetafile8? ??6???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?A???&??yyyy??????yyy¶yyy°??6?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????@u???@ue???@D???@[???u
?th??????

aea nExj – ??/ia iaooi-noaaea ii no?aooaaiith ia aeiaeeooy iniae o
a?oe? o aei n-? e?eueeino? ?ie?a o oa?eoi??aeuei?e cii? caa?oaeiaiiy c
oiiaiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi j;

lx+n – e?euee?noue in?a, ui aeiaeeee aei cae?i/aiiy oa?i?ia no?aooaaiiy;

lx — e?euee?noue in?a, ui oeeaee aeiaiai?e no?aooaaiiy o a?oe? o ?ie?a;

v — eiao?oe??io aeeneiiooaaiiy;

S — no?aoiaa noia;

nAxj — ??/ia iaooi-noaaea ii no?aooaaiith ia aeiaaeie nia?o? a
?acoeueoao? aieeao ia cano?aoiaaio iniao caa?oaeiaiiai iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua;

dx, dx+1 … dx+n-1 – e?euee?noue in?a, ui aie?athoue i?ioyaii oa?i?io
no?aooaaiiy;

1/nax — eiao?oe??io ?icno?i/ee, ui yaey? niaith aa?o?noue aiane?a o
?ici??? 1 a?ioiai? iaeeieoe?, ui aiinyoueny i?ioyaii aecia/aiiai oa?i?ia
iai?ee?ioe? aai ia ii/aoeo eiaeiiai no?aoiaiai ?ieo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “I?aai?caoe?y no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a” noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? eiioeaiooaeuei?
iieiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo
?ecee?a.

A aeaiee /an a Oe?a?i? ia?aaeaa/aia aaei?i?no?aoeaia, e?ei?iaeueia,
aeenoeeie?ia?ia ? oeea?eueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ii?ooaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua (nooe?euei? e?i?? ia iae. 2).

Ca caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua noyao?oueny a?aeiia?aeia
ieaoa. Noai?aii ?aeeio nenoaio iicaathaeaeaoieo aeieia?/ieo oiiae?a, o
ye? iinooiathoue: ieaoa ca aeeeaee, neeaeaiiy caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei o
iaaeieeoi? i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua, ?ici?uaiiy a?aeoiae?a ? ?io? aeaee
caa?oaeiaiiy; aaei?i?no?aoeai? oo?aoe. Aeey aiae?co oe??? nenoaie, a
aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ?icaeyaea?oueny a?iioaoe/ia neooaoe?y.

I?eionea?oueny, ui i?iieneiaa i?aei?e?inoai (A) caa?oaeith? iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua, aeiioneath/e ia o?eueee ii?iaoeaiee aeeeae, aea ?
iaaeii?iaoeaiee, ? aaa??eiee. Eiai aieeao i?aeaea?oueny i?aei?e?inoai
(A) ? i?eaaoia aeiiiaieiae?iiy (N). Ii ?nioth/?e noai? ieaoaae? ca
ii?iaoeaia ? iaaeii?iaoeaia caa?oaeiaiiy, a oaeiae oo?aoe ca aaa??eia
caa?oaeiaiiy iaae?eaeooue o i?noeaaee aeieia?/iee oiiae. Aeae? oe? eiooe
?iciiae?eyoueny ia ?aae?caoe?th i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo caoiae?a i?noeaaiai,
iaeaniiai ? aea?aeaaiiai cia/aiiy. “Caoiaee i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai
i?ecia/aiiy” — oea aoae?aieoeoai i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo ia’?eo?a, IAe? ? IE?,
?icaeoie iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace i?noeaaeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
i?aai?a, iiia?aaeaeaiiy ? e?ea?aeaoe?y iane?aee?a noeo?eieo eeo ?
aaa??eieo neooaoe?e, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeieia?/ii /enoeo oaoiieia?e,
aeaea/a e?aaeeo?a ? iice/ie i?ae i?e?iaeiioi?iiia aoae?aieoeoai ? o.ae.
O aeiaaeeo, yeui iicia i?i caiiae?yio oeiaeo i?aae’yaeoue ooinue ?c
noa’?eo?a A, N, oi oeae iicia aoaea caaeiaieaiee o noae?, ? i?e oeueiio
aoaea anoaiiaeaii, ui naia A caiiae?ya caeoee, oi aiie oaeiae iiaeii?
aooe a?aeoeiaeiaai? ?i, oiaoi i?aei?e?inoaii ui caa?oaeith? aeiae?eey.
Aea, ia i?aeoeoe? iiae?aia ia canoiniao?oueny.

Eiee ie ia?ii no?aoiao eiiiai?th, ui caeia?oueny aeieia?/iei
no?aooaaiiyi, ? i?iiiio? aeanieeai A, N cano?aooaaoe nai? iaeii a?ae
ii?ooaiiy a ?acoeueoao? caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
i?aei?e?inoaii A aai ae i?iiiio? A cano?aooaaoeny ia aeiaaeie
i?aae’yaeaiiy eiio iiciao a?ae o?ao?o in?a, oiaoi a?ae A, N. O oe?e
neooaoe?? A iaea?aeo? iiaeeea?noue ?icina?aaeeoe a /an? aeieaoe ii
iioaioe?eieo iiciaao i?i caiiae?yio oeiaeo, /anoeiai ia?aeeaaoe ?oi?e
oyaa? ia no?aoiao eiiiai?th, a A, N ciaoiaeyoue ?aaeueiee oain
eiiiainaoe?? iiianaieo caeoe?a, aenooiath/e a ?ie? no?aooaaeueiee?a aai
o?ao?o in?a, noni?euenoai – iiaeeea?noue caa?aaoe ? iie?ioeoe aeieia?/io
ianoaiiaeo. Aeeeaaeaia iiaeaii ia iae. 2 oo?eoiaeie e?i?yie.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iieiaeaiiy, eiee
i?aei?e?inoai- caa?oaeithaa/ o caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo ciaia’ycothoue
aea?/? aeiea/oaaoe caeoie, ui aiie iaiinyoue, iai?eionoeii. ?nioth/a
nenoaia cai?o ieaoaae?a ca caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua aaea
canoa??ea ? iiaeiia aooe oe?eeii o?ainoi?iiaaia. Iaeiei ?c aa??aio?a
iiaea aooe ?? ia?aoai?aiiy a iaia’yceiaee aeieia?/iee iiaeaoie, ui, ye ?
?ai?oa, iiaea iinooiaoe a iicaathaeaeaoi? oiiaee ? aeo?a/aoeny ia
i?aaaioeai? i?e?iaeiioi?iii? i??e.

Oaeei /eiii, ?icaeoie nenoaie no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo
?ecee?a aeicaiey?: ciaioeoe aeo?aoe i?aei?e?inoa ii caaeiaieaiith
i?aoaic?e o?ao?o in?a o ca’yceo c? caeoeii, iaianaiei ?i caa?oaeiaiiyi
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua; aeaoe aa?aio?th iino?aaeaeaeei a iaea?aeaii?
iaeaaeieo ?i ca caeiiii noi a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy iacaeaaeii a?ae o?iainiaiai
iieiaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoaa-caa?oaeithaa/a; aeeiioaaoe ooieoe?? eiio?ieth
ca cae?eniaiiyi i?aei?e?inoaaie i?? aaciaee; aooe iaeiei ?c aeaea?ae
o?iainoaaiiy caoiae?a uiaei caaacia/aiiy aaciaee ? o.i.

I?e iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo nenoaie no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a iiaeooue aooe i?eeiyo? ??ci? no?aoaa?/i?
iai?yiee: no?aooaaiiy aeaieo ?ecee?a o ?aieao iayaieo o?aaeeoe?eieo
aeae?a no?aooaaiiy; oi?ioaaiiy naiino?eieo aeae?a no?aooaaiiy aeaieo
?ecee?a; eiia?iaoe?y ia?oeo aeaio iai?yie?a. Ae?oaee iai?yiie ?
iaea?eueo ?aaeeeaeueiei, iio?aaoth/ei oa?i?iiaiai i?eeiyooy aeae?eueeio
caeii?a i?i iaia’yceiaa no?aooaaiiy, ? aiii a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie iiaea aeyaeoeny iaeaoaeoeai?oei .

O oe?eiio iiaeiii ia?aaeaa/aoeny i?eeiyooy ? iiaoaiia ?aae?caoe?y
a?aeiia?aeii? Eiioeaioe??, ui, o ia?oo /a?ao, iiaeiia aeeth/aoe:

— i?eeiyooy iaeaoa ianooiieo Caeii?a Oe?a?ie “I?i iaia’yceiaa aeieia?/ia
no?aooaaiiy” (no?aooaaiith a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? in?a — aeaniee?a aeaea?ae
i?aeaeuaii? aeieia?/ii? iaaaciaee), “I?i iaia’yceiaa no?aooaaiiy a?ae
iiaaiae” (iaeiiaa no?aooaaiiy), “I?i iaia’yceiaa no?aooaaiiy a?ae
iaoai?ieia?/ieo iaaacia/ieo yaeu” (iaeiiaa no?aooaaiiy) ? ?i.;

— iaia’yceia?noue noai?aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo
no?aooaaiiy a?ae eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a (o oiio /ene?, aeieia?/ieo),
aaeocaaeo no?aoiaeo oiiae?a, oa?eoi??aeueieo no?aoiaeo oiiae?a ? oiiae?a
naiino?aooaaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao (oea iiaea aooe c?iaeaia ii?yae ?c
iiia?aaeaeaiiyi ?ioeo ?ecee?a o ?aieao noai?aiiy oiiae?a ai?ioueae c
iaaecae/aeieie neooaoe?yie);

— noai?aiiy i?eueaiaeo oiia aeey ?icaeoeo aeia?ia?eueiiai iaeiiaiai
no?aooaaiiy (iaeii on?o aeae?a aeaniino?) ? iniaenoiai no?aooaaiiy
(no?aooaaiiy ia aeiaaeie ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino?, ia aeiaaeie nia?o?, ia
aeiaeeooy aei aecia/ai?e e?eueeino? ?ie?a o cii? aecia/aiiai ??aiy
caa?oaeiaiiy oa ?i.).

sseei /eiii aoaeooue aeaeyaeaoe o?iainiai-aeiiii?/i? aca?iia?aeiineie
i?ae ie?aieie noa’?eoaie aeiiii?ee c ?icaeoeii nenoaie no?aooaaiiy
eaoano?io?/ieo ? aeieia?/ieo ?ecee?a, iiaeaia iaie ia iae. 3.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeoaai? iniaeeaino? iiaoaeiae noaoe/ieo ?
aeeiai?/ieo iiaeaeae no?aooaaiiy ye ?c iiaeyaeo ee??ioa no?aoiai? o??ie,
oae ? c iiceoe?? no?aoiaeea i?e i?eeiyoo? ia no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a. Cie?aia, i?i?ethno?iaai? ??ci? aii??e/i?
i?eioeeie aeai?o no?aoiaeo aiane?a, ?icaeyiooa ooieoe?iioaaiiy no?aoiai?
eiiiai?? ia iniia? oaeiai e?eoa??th, ye ?iia??i?noue ?oeioaaiiy, iiaeai?
noaie ia?a?iciiae?eo ?eceeo.

O yeino? ?ethno?aoe?? io?eiaieo o aeena?oaoe?? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioeaaeo?a no?aooaaiiy ?ecee?a iiaaiae. I?e oeueiio,
caaaeueia noaia aiae?co, ioe?iee ? ea?oaaiiy ?eceeii a?ae iiaaiae
ianooiia: aeyaeaiiy ? i?iaiic iiaaiae, ?oiuei? ?ioaineaiino?,
iiaoi?thaaiino?, ieiu? caoiieaiiy; ?aeiioaaiiy caoiiethaaieo ieiu ii
iieacieeao iiaai?, ii aeaeao ainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy, ii
/enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy; ioe?iea o?aceeaino? ia’?eo?a; i?iaiic ?icaeoeo
aoi?eiieo neia?a?/ieo aoaeo?a; iiaia ea?oia?aooaaiiy ? ?aiaeoaaiiy
?ecee?a; onoaiiaeaiiy i?eionoeieo ??ai?a ?ecee?a ? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ii
oi?aae?iith ?eceeii a?ae iiaaiae.

Ioe?iea nooiaiy iaaaciaee i?ioean?a ? o?aceeaino? oa?eoi??e ? ia’?eo?a
cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? oai?aoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, c iae?eii ?ioi?iaoe?? uiaei o?aceeaino? oa?eoi??e ?
ia’?eo?a i?ae /an ieioeeo iiae?e. Ooo ioe?ith?oueny aea? eiia??iinoi?
oa?aeoa?enoeee: nooi?iue iaaaciae (?ioaineaiino?) caoiieaiiy oa
o?aceea?noue ia’?eoa iaaaciae, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe ?ecee a?ae
i?ioean?a caoiieaiiy, iaiao?aeiee aeey ?ic?aooieo oa?eoieo noaaie ii
no?aooaaiith a?ae iiaaiae.

AENIIAEE

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ?
i?e?iaeiioi?iie oeyoii noai?aiiy nenoaie no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a aeicaieeei c?iaeoe ianooii? aeniiaee.

A oiiaao aeiiii?ee ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo iathoue i?noea na?eici?
i?iaeaie o?iainiaiai oa?aeoa?o, iia’ycai? c iiia?aaeaeaiiyi oaoiiaaiieo
aaa??e ? eieae?caoe??th noeo?eieo eeo, eiiiainaoe??th caeoe?a ?
e?ea?aeaoe??th iane?aee?a. Iac??ea iaiao?aei?noue o noai?aii?
aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio, yeee ae aeicaieea aoyaiooe a ??oaiiy i?iaeaie
yeiiiaa a?eueoa eiei noa’?eo?a aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiioaiue.

Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai aoea iinoaaeaia iaoa ? noi?ioeueiaai? caaaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?acoeueoaoii yeeo noaee ianooii?
aeniiaee:

— ?aaeueiei ? aoaeoeaiei iaoai?ciii caeo/aiiy ?ano?n?a o ae?yeuei?noue
ii caa?aaeaiith aeieia?/ii? aaciaee ianaeaiiy ? oa?eoi??e iiaea noaoe
no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a;

— ?nioth/a i?aeoeea no?aooaaiiy ia ia? aeinoaoiuei? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ?
eeaneo?eaoe??, oiio a ?iaio? aeeiiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy eaoaai??eiiai ?
iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo caaaeueii? oai??? no?aooaaiiy, aeieia?/iiai
no?aooaaiiy, no?aooaaiiy eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a, oai??? ?ecee?a, a
oaeiae ?nioth/i? nenoaie, no?oeoo?e ? eeaneo?eaoe?? no?aooaaiiy, ia
iniia? /iai oaeineiiaeaii nenoaiaoecaoe?th ? eeaneo?eaoe?th no?aooaaiiy;

— ?icaeoie no?aooaaiiy aacnoii?aii caaeaaea? ?ic?iaee ? ?icaeoeo
i?eioeeiiai iiaeo aeae?a no?aooaaiiy, ui ioiieththoue aeieia?/i? ?
eaoano?io?/i? ?eceee;

— no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a, o neeo ?oiueiai
nionoioeeaiai aieeao ? cia/ieo no?aoiaeo aeieao, iiaeeeai o?eueee c
i?eeiyooyi caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? Eiioeaioe?? ? ?icaeoeii nenoaie
no?aooaaiiy a oe?eiio, o ia?oo /a?ao, i?eeiyooy iaeaoa Caeii?a Oe?a?ie:
“I?i iaia’yceiaa aeieia?/ia no?aooaaiiy” (no?aooaaiith
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? in?a – aeaniee?a aeaea?ae i?aeaeuaii? aeieia?/ii?
iaaaciaee), “I?i iaia’yceiaa no?aooaaiiy a?ae iiaaiae” (iaeiiaa
no?aooaaiiy), “I?i iaia’yceiaa no?aooaaiiy a?ae iaoai?ieia?/ieo
iaaacia/ieo yaeu” (iaeiiaa no?aooaaiiy) ? ?i.

— ?icaeoie nenoaie no?aooaaiiy aeiaaa? oaeiae oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaee/ieo
i?aeoiae?a ii eiia??iinoi?e ioe?ioe? ?eceeo, ii ioe?ioe? aeiiii?/iiai ?
no?aoiaiai caeoe?a, ii ?ic?aooieo oa?eoieo noaaie ? noi, ui iaiao?aeii
cae?enithaaoe ii eiaeiiio aeae? i?e?iaeiuei-aio?iiiaaiieo eaoano?io?/ieo
iiae?e, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny a yeino? no?aoiaeo.

Io?eiai? a ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?:

— caeiiiaeaa/eie i?aaiaie i?e ?icaeoeo no?aooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?;

— I?i?noa?noaii ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? IIN i?e ?ioaa?aoe??
nai?? ae?yeueiino? ii iiia?aaeaeaiith iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e ?
e?ea?aeaoe?? ?oi?o iane?aee?a c ?ioeie i?aai?caoe?yie ? a?aeiinoaaie;

— Eii?oaoii ii iaaeyaeo ca no?aoiaith ae?yeuei?noth ? no?aoiaeie
eiiiai?yie i?e i?aai?caoe?? no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo
?ecee?a oa ?i.

Nienie iniiaieo iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o

1). Eicueiaiei I.A. Iaeioi?ua iioeiecaoeeiiiua iiaeaee a
i?e?iaeiio?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoe// Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee “Oi?aaeaiea i?e?iaeiiieueciaaieai a
?aaeiia”, 17-19 iay 1994, Noiu. — N.63-64.

2) Eicueiaiei I.A. Yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea ?enea i?iiuoeaiiuo aaa?ee//
Nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee, yeiiiieea e yeieiaey a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ia
o?ainii?oa e a naeueneii oicyenoaa/ Nai?iee noaoae ii iaoa?eaeai 5-e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneie eiioa?aioeee. – Eeaa-Aeoooa:
Einoeooo niaea?aeaiey e iaoiaeia iao/aiey II Oe?aeiu, 1998. – N.245-247.

3). Iaoiaeieiaey ioeaiee yeiiiie/aneiai oua?aa ii iniiaiui ?aoeeieaioai
e noauaeoai yeiiiieee// A ei.: Ioeaiea iineaaenoaee /?acau/aeiuo
neooaoeee/ A.E.Eioo, A.A.Aonaa, TH.E.Ai?iaueaa, N.I.Eicueiaiei. – I.:
Ecae.-iieeaao. eiiie. ?YOEA, 1997.– N.162-183 (Ni?aaaoi?e – A.E.Eioo,
A.A.Aonaa, TH.E.Ai?iaueaa, N.I.Eicueiaiei, iniaenoi aaoi?a 0,3 ae.a.).

4). Iaeioi?ua iiaeoiaeu e ioeaiea ?enea a no?aoiaaiee// A ei.: Ioeaiea
iineaaenoaee /?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee/ A.E.Eioo, A.A.Aonaa,
TH.E.Ai?iaueaa, N.I.Eicueiaiei. -–I.: Ecae.-iieeaao. eiiie. ?YOEA, 1997.
– N.334-346 (Ni?aaaoi?e – A.E.Eioo, A.A.Aonaa, TH.E.Ai?iaueaa,
N.I.Eicueiaiei, iniaenoi aaoi?a 0,2 ae.a.).

5). Iioeei A.A., Eicueiaiei N.I., Eicueiaiei I.A. Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey e
ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey yeieiae/aneiai no?aoiaaiey a ?innee// Yeiiiieea
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey. Iaci?i. eio. – I.: AEIEOE, 1997. – aui.3. –
N.32-143 (Iniaenoi aaoi?a 1,5 ae.a.).

6). Iioeei A.A., Eicueiaiei N.I., Aieeiaa E.A., Eicueiaiei I.A.
Iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey yeieiae/aneiai no?aoiaaiey//
O?oaeu aoi?ie ana?inneeneie eiioa?aioeee “Oai?ey e i?aeoeea
yeieiae/aneiai no?aoiaaiey” — I.: EI? ?AI, OeYIE ?AI, 1996. – N. 56-61
(iniaenoi aaoi?a 0,3 ae.a.).

7). Volkova L.V., Kozmenko O.V., Kozmenko S.N. Problems and perspective
of ecological systems/ Technological civilization impakt on the
environment. Situation in the post-Soviet area./ International
Symposium. Karlsruhe, Deutschland, 22-26 April 1996 (iniaenoi aaoi?a
0,02 ae.a.).

8). Volkova L.V., Kozmenko O.V., Kozmenko S.N. Making-decision for pure
rationality to ecologically-ethical priorities/ Third International
Conference on Ethics and Environmental Policies “The new Europe:
transformation and environmental issues”, Slovak Republic, Bratislava,
1996, september 26-28 (iniaenoi aaoi?a 0,02 ae.a.).

9). Volkova L.V., Kozmenko O.V. Insurance as basis of catastrophical
risk management in coastal regions // 15 th International Conference of
WACRA-EUROPE e.V. “Environmental Management in States with Coastal
Problems: Through Research, Education & Leadership to Sustainable
Development”, July 8-12, 1998, University of Latvia, Riga. – N.22
(iniaenoi aaoi?a 0,02 ae.a.).

Aiioaoe?y

Eicueiaiei I.A. Nenoaia no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo
?ecee?a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.08.01. — Aeiiii?ea i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ? ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. — Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Noie,
1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ? i?e?iaeiioi?iie oeyoii ?icaeoeo nenoaie
no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a. Aiae?co?oueny nenoaia
no?aooaaiiy, i?iiiiothoueny iia? aeaee no?aooaaiiy ? noaie
oaeineiiaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo aeae?a o aeine?aeaeoaaiiio iai?yieo.
?ic?iaeythoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii eiia??i?ni?e ioe?ioe? aeieia?/ieo ?
eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a ? aeiiii?/i?e ioe?ioe? caeoeo a?ae no?aoiaeo
iiae?e. Aeathoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aecia/aiith oa?eoieo noaaie,
no?aoiaeo noi, ?eceeiaeo iaaeaaaie. I?iiiiothoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
noai?aiiy nenoaie no?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ? eaoano?io?/ieo ?ecee?a a
Oe?a?i?. sse i?eeeaae aecia/aiiy ?ecee?a, caeoe?a, no?aoiaeo iieaciee?a
?icaeyaeathoueny iiaai?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeieia?/iee ?ecee, eaoano?io?/iee ?ecee, no?aooaaiiy,
aeiiii?/iee caeoie, no?aoiaee caeoie.

Aiiioaoeey

Eicueiaiei I.A. Nenoaia no?aoiaaiey yeieiae/aneeo e eaoano?ioe/aneeo
?eneia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.08.01. – Yeiiiieea i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e io?aiu
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. – Noineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Noiu, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai niaa?oainoaiaaiey yeiiiie/aneiai
iaoaiecia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e i?e?iaeiio?aiu iooai ?acaeoey nenoaiu
no?aoiaaiey yeieiae/aneeo e eaoano?ioe/aneeo ?eneia. Aiaeece?oaony
nenoaia no?aoiaaiey, i?aaeeaaathony iiaua aeaeu no?aoiaaiey e noaiu
niaa?oainoaiaaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeaeia a enneaaeoaiii iai?aaeaiee.
?ac?aaaouaathony ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aa?iyoiinoiie ioeaiea yeieiae/aneeo e
eaoano?ioe/aneeo ?eneia e yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiea oua?aa io no?aoiauo
niauoee. Aeathony ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ii?aaeaeaieth oa?eoiuo noaaie,
no?aoiauo noii, ?eneiauo iaaeaaaie. I?aaeeaaathony iniiaiua iieiaeaiey
nicaeaiey nenoaiu no?aoiaaiey yeieiae/aneeo e eaoano?ioe/aneeo ?eneia a
Oe?aeia. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a ii?aaeaeaiey ?eneia, oua?aia, no?aoiauo
iieacaoaeae ?anniao?eaathony iaaiaeiaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeieiae/aneee ?ene, eaoano?ioe/aneee ?ene, no?aoiaaiea,
yeiiiie/aneee oua?a, no?aoiaie oua?a.

Summary

Kozmenko O.V. The system of Ecological and Catastrophic Risks Insurance.

The Dissertation for candidate degree in Economics, specialty
08.08.01.-The economics of nature use and surroundings preservation,
Sumy , 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to the economic mechanism of nature use and
preservation, and its improvement by means of ecological and
catastrophically risks insurance system development. The system of
insurance is being analyzed, new insurance types and schemes are being
given, they improve the existing insurance types in the investigates
field.

Some counsels are being elaborated as far as the probabilistic
estimation of ecological and catastrophic risks and economic estimation
of loss caused by insurable evens. The counsels are being given how to
determine tariff rates, insurance sums and risk bonuses, principal
propositions are being offered which enable to create the ecological
and catastrophic risks insurance system in Ukraine. Floods are
considered as an example of risks, losses, insurance indexes estimation.

Key words: ecological risk, catastrophic risk, economic loss, insurable
loss.

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