41

?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE ? INEOIEIA?? I?IOAN?EII? INA?OE

AEAAeAI?? IAAeAAIA?*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

Oiie/ E?ae?y Ieaen??aia

OAeE 37.08;159.9:37.015.3

NENOAIA INEOIEIAI-IAAeAAIA?*II?

I?AeAIOIAEE A*EOAEss II*AOEIAEO EEAN?A

13.00.04 — oai??y ? iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii? ina?oe

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
?oaeieoeueea Ienaia Iao??aia, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith a?e ia
ioce/ieo ?ino?oiaioao, i. Ee?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ae?eniee /eai AII Oe?a?ie
Naa/aiei Ieaenaiae?a sse?aia, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, canooiiee
I?i?no?a, i. Ee?a;

— aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ae?eniee /eai AII Oe?a?ie
Aii/a?aiei Naiai Onoeiiae/, ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
eaai?aoi??? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy o caeeaaeao i?iooaoina?oe, i. Ee?a;

— aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oa?anaiei Aaeeia Na?a??aia,
A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i.I.Eioethaeinueeiai, caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith iaaeaaia?ee ? iaoiaeeee
ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy, i. A?iieoey

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy ?
aeioe?eueiiai aeoiaaiiy, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.
Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 15 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 14.00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.451.01 a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 254060, i. Ee?a,
aoe. I. Aa?eeinueeiai, 9 , 5-e iiaa?o, cae can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee
? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 254060,
i. Ee?a, aoe. I. Aa?eeinueeiai, 9.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 6 ”na?iiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Oeeaoeuenueea
A.I. CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. No/aniee noni?eueiee
?icaeoie iio?aao? oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy oa ye?niiai iiiaeaiiy nenoaie
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ia an?o aoaiao aaaaoi??aiaai?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe. Aea?aeaaia iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia
“Ina?oa”(“Oe?a?ia OO1 noie?ooy”), Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo” a iniiao
i??i?eoaoieo i?eioeei?a ?icaeoeo nenoaie ina?oe iieeaee aoiai?caoe?th ?
aeaiie?aoecaoe?th an?o neeaaeiaeo ?? aeaiaio?a oa iaoe?iiaeueio
ni?yiiaai?noue, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iaa?aeae?euei?noue ina?oe a?ae
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?oioo. sse cacia/aii a oeeo aeieoiaioao, iiaa
oe?a?inueea oeiea iiaeiia caaacia/oaaoe anaa?/iee ?icaeoie ethaeeie ye
iniaenoino? oa iaeaeui? oe?iiino? noni?euenoaa, aeyaeaiiy ?? oaeaio?a,
?icoiiaeo ? o?ce/ieo cae?aiinoae, aeoiaaiiy a?iiaaeyi, caeaoieo aei
na?aeiiiai noni?eueiiai aeai?o, oai?/iai eoeueoo?iiai iioaioe?aeo,
iinoa/aoe ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noao eaae?o?eiaaieo i?aoe?aiee?a,
niaoe?ae?no?a.

Iaei??th c aeooaeueieo i?iaeai aeui? oeiee ? ?ic?iaea no/anii?
eiioeaioe?? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a, yea iiaeiia ocaiaeaeoaaoenue
c aieiaieie ?aeayie oe?eueiai? i?ia?aie “A/eoaeue”, ui ia?aaeaa/a?:
aeiaoc?anueeo i?aeaioiaeo a/eoaey; oe?eueiaee iaa?? c o?aooaaiiyi iio?aa
?aa?iio; aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey a iaaeao ?inoeoooo;
noaaeoaaiiy iieiaeiai a/eoaey. Ianaiia?aae iio?aao? aaeineiiaeaiiy
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, ine?eueee
a?i caeeaaea? ooiaeaiaio ?icoiiaiai, ii?aeueiiai, anoaoe/iiai,
o?oaeiaiai ? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iieiaeeo a?iiaaeyi. A?ae aeineiiaeino?
ii?aeiaiiy an?o oeeo aniaeo?a aeoiaaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeeoue
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaoiai noni?euenoaa.

Iei? a oai??? oa i?aeoeoe? aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe iaeiie/aii cia/iee
aeina?ae, yeee iiaea noaoe iniiaith iiaoaeiae nenoaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.
Ooiaeaiaioaeuei? i?iaeaie oai??? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe aena?oeai? o
?iaioao N.?. A?oaiaaeuenueeiai, A.I. Aeaenthea, I.N.
A?eoeaiea, N.O. Aii/a?aiea, ?.A. Cycthia, I.A. Ee?e/oea, A.O.
Iaeaia?/oe, Ae.I. I?eieaiea, I.A. Ie/eaei, I.ss. Naa/aiei,
I.Ae. ss?ia/aiea oa ?i. Ieoaiiyi ?noi??? aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe oa
?? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? iniiae i?enay/ai? i?aoe? A.E.
Iaeai?iaee, A.?. Eoaiaiai, O.A.Iaia/eia, C.?. ?aae?ia, ss.?.
Ao?eaee, TH.Ae. ?oaeaiea oa ?i. ?noi??th ? oai??th ca?oa?aeii?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe aeine?aeaeothoue A.E. Aoeueonii, C.I. Iaeueeiaa,
I.Ae. I?eaiae?ia, A.A. Ia??iia, I.A. Aeociai, E.I. Iooianueea,
?.I. ?iiai oa ?i.

Aiaeii/an cacia/ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ioiieththoue on?o ieoaiue
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a. Oae, iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiei caeeoa?oueny aniaeo
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. O
nai?o i?aoeyo I.ss. Naa/aiei i?aee?aneth?, ui a iniia? oi?ioaaiiy
a/eoaey iiaeiia eaaeaoe iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaia iiaeaeue ina?oe, ? oeae
i?ioean iiaeiai caaacia/oaaoeny i?aai?/iith ?aei?noth ineoieia?/ieo,
iaaeaaia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo ciaiue, a aieiaiith iciaeith
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe ia? aooe
nenoaii?noue. ?io? aeine?aeaeaiiy a iniiaiiio i?enay/ai? aiae?co
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ia ??cieo
?noi?e/ieo aoaiao.

Cae?eniaiee aiae?c i?aeoe/ii? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? a/eoae?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a na?ae/eoue, ui aiie ia caaaeaee i?aeaioiaeai? aei
oai?/iai ?ica’ycaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caaaeaiue; ua aeio?eiothoueny
aaoi?eoa?iiai noeeth ea??aieoeoaa iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiei i?ioeanii, iaei
ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? eiaeiiai o/iy. Oea cia/iith
i??ith coiiaeaii oei, ui i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? ciaiiy, yeeo
iaaoaathoue iaeaooi? a/eoae?, ia noaiiaeyoue ?aeeii? nenoaie, ui
ooieoe?iio? a ?aaeuei?e i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey, aiie ia??aeei
?niothoue ye ?yaeiiieiaei?.

O no/anieo oiiaao ?icaeoeo iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie iiaeia aeae?eeoe ?yae
/eiiee?a, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue i?ioean i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey.
Iaeaaaeeea?oeie c ieo ? ?noi?e/i?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?,
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? oa aaia?ao?/i?. ?o cia/aiiy aecia/a? oae? aeaiaioe
nenoaie iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe: i?aai?caoe?th e oi?aae?iiy, nenoaio
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, aeiiae aei eiioeiaaioo aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a,
ci?noo i?aeaioiaee, iaoiae?a ? oi?i ?iaioe.

Aeeeaaeaia aeua coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy – “Nenoaia
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a“. ??
?ic?iaea iia’ycaia c ?aae?caoe??th iniiaieo iai?yi?a Aea?aeaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie “Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia XXI noie?ooy”).
Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/iiai
ieaio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaie “Eiioeaiooaeuei?
canaaee ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey a no/anieo oiiaao
(ieoaiiy oai??? ? oaoiieia??)” (?E ?0197E006397).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – ci?no, oi?ie ? iaoiaee ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ia iniia? oai?aoe/iiai aea/aiiy
no/aniiai noaio ? i?iaiicoaaiiy iaeaooiueiai ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe
aoaeoeai?noue ?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o iaaeaaia?/iee i?ioean aeuiai caeeaaeo
ina?oe.

Eiioeaioe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? a/eoaey
caeaaeeoue a?ae eiie?aoieo ?noi?e/ieo oiia ? ??aiy ?icaeoeo o??? /e
?ioi? oeea?e?caoe??. Oey ?aeay aeieeaa? c oiai, ui oeea?e?caoe?y
a?aeia?aaea? i?aai?/io noeoii?noue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? eoeueoo?ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee noni?euenoaa, aeinyaiooee ??aaiue i?iaeoeoeaieo nee,
niin?a aca?iiae?? ethaeeie c i?e?iaeith.

Nenoaia ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a –
oea neeaaeia oe?e?nia ? aaaaoianiaeoia no?oeoo?ia ooai?aiiy,
ooieoe?iioaaiiy yeiai ni?yiiaaia ia i?aeaioiaeo iaeaooiueiai
niaoe?ae?noa, caeaoiiai oai?/i i?aeoiaeeoe aei ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano c iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie.

Iniiaia ?aeay eiioeaioe?? a?oioo?oueny ia nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae?, ui ?
i?aai?/iei aeey ia’?eoeaii? no?oeoo?e iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Aiia
?aae?co?oueny /a?ac aaaaoi??aiaa?noue i?aeaioiaee iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, yeee o nai?io noaiiaeaii? iiaeiai i?ieoe an?
ina?oiuei-eaae?o?eaoe?ei? ??ai? a?ae iieiaeoiai niaoe?ae?noa aei
iaa?no?a. Ia eiaeiiio c oeeo ??ai?a nenoaia ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee ia? niaoeeo?/io iaoo, ooieoe??, no?oeoo?o, ci?no, oi?ie ?
iaoiaee ?? ?aae?caoe??.

Caaacia/aiiy ?aeiino? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?, iaoeiai? ? i?aeoe/ii?
?iaioe nooaeaio?a ni?yiiaaii ia ?aae?caoe?th ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo,
yeee aaco?oueny ia ?icoi?ii? ae?yeueiino? ye aaaeeeai? oiiae ?icaeoeo
iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey. Oea aeinyaa?oueny caaaeyee aaeineiiaeaiith ci?noo
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee, eiai ?ioaa?aoe?? ?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe??. A iniiao eiino?othaaiiy ci?noo iieeaaeaii iai?yie,
ni?yiiaai? ia aeinyaiaiiy aieiaii? iaoe iaa/aiiy, aeiaea?aeaiiy
oe?e?niino? ? nenoaiiino?, a oaeiae aoiai?noe/ieo ? eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo
i?eioeei?a.

I?aeaioiaea a/eoaey-aeine?aeieea iiaeeeaa i?e aeio?eiaii? iniaeno?nii
i???ioiaaiiai i?eioeeio ina?oe, noa’?eo-noa’?eoieo a?aeiinei o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? iaaeaaia?/iiai caeeaaeo, a oaeiae aecia/aieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia: ni?eyii? oai?/iio ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? eiaeiiai
nooaeaioa; ni?ai?aoe? c? nooaeaioaie o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy;
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a; anoaoecaoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy
o aeuiio iaaeaaia?/iiio caeeaae?. Cacia/ai? oiiae aeicaieythoue
iaeaooiueiio niaoe?ae?noo i?ieoe e?eueea ??ai?a o nai?io i?ioan?eiiio
noaiiaeaii?: a?ae iaaeaaia?/ii? ai?eino? aei iaenoa?iino?.

Aieiaia ?aeay ? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? cina?aaeaeai? a
caaaeuei?e a?iioac? aeine?aeaeaiiy, yea iieyaa? o i?eiouaii?: i?ioan?eia
i?aeaioiaea iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a aoaea aoaeoeaiith ca
oiia ?aae?caoe?? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee, ui a?aoiao? ?noi?e/iee a?o/eciyiee ? ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae,
iiaoaeiaaia ia iniia? oe?eueiai? eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie, ci???ioiaaii? ia
i?aeaioiaeo a/eoaey-aeine?aeieea.

Caaaeueia a?iioaca eiie?aoeciaaia a ?yae? /anoeiaeo:

1) caaacia/aiiy ye?nii? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao iiaeeeaa ca oiia ??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ye oe?e?nii? nenoaie, eiiiiiaioaie yei? ? iaoa,
ooieoe??, no?oeoo?a, ci?no, oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?aae?caoe??, iaiiaiaiiy yeeo
caeaaeeoue a?ae caaeaiiai ??aiy i?aeaioiaee;

2) nenoaia ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee aoaea aeineiiaeith, yeui
aiia iiaoaeiaaia c o?aooaaiiyi caaaeueieo i?eioeei?a i?aai?caoe??
iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano oa iniiaieo iai?yi?a eiino?othaaiiy ci?noo ?
caaacia/o? i?aeaioiaeo a/eoaey-aeine?aeieea, yeee ia?aaoaa? o iino?eiiio
iiooeo aoaeoeaieo ? ?aoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy;

3) iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i o aeueo
caeeaaeao ina?oe ??cieo ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe?? aoaea aoaeoeaiei ca oiia
cae?eniaiiy ?ioaa?aoe?? ? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?o ci?noo, cie?aia
ii?aoethaaiiy eo?no “Oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee” ? eiai
eiie?aoecaoe?? niaoeeo?naie ca aeai?ii;

4) ??aaiue aioiaiino? aeioneiee?a aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? aoaea
cia/ii aeuei, yeui caaacia/oaaoe iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaia canai?iiy
ci?noo iaa/aiiy, ?acoeueoaoii yeiai aoaea noi?iiaai?noue o nooaeaio?a
i?ciaaaeueieo, aeine?aeieoeueeeo oi?iue, iaaiiai ??aiy
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? eoeueoo?e.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia?aa??ee a?iioace iio??aii aoei
aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? a?o/eciyii? ? ca?oa?aeii? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey o nenoai? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, cina?aaeaeoth/e i?e
oeueiio oaaao ia c?noaaeaii? ??cieo ?? aoai?a ? aeyaeaiiy aieeao
oeea?e?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia ?? oi?ioaaiiy. Aaaeeeaei ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
no/anieo oaoiieia?e i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, ui
?aae?cothoueny a iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao ia iaae? XXI no.
Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie iio?aaoaaei ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

1. Aecia/eoe ?noi?e/i? aoaie i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a ? ?ice?eoe oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ?oiuei? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a Oe?a?i?.

2. Cae?enieoe ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

3. Iaa?oiooaaoe caaaeuei? i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? i?ioeano
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

4. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe iniiai? iai?yie eiino?othaaiiy ci?noo
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

5. ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaiooaeueio iiaeaeue nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ? aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe
iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae ?? ?aae?caoe??.

6. Aecia/eoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe noaae??
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

7. Aeyaeoe ia?niaeoeai? iai?yie oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a
aei iaeaooiuei? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? a ii/aoeia?e oeie?.

Caaaeueia iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia o?einionueeeo ?aeayo
i?i i?ciaiiy na?oo, i?i nooue ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy, i?i ?icaeoie ?
oi?ioaaiiy oe?e?nii? iniaenoino?, nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae? aei aea/aiiy
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo yaeu, coiiaeaiino? aeoiaaiiy ? ina?oe caeiaooeaie
naiai ia?iaeo, anueiai ethaenoaa oa ca’ycie ? aca?iicaeaaei?noue i?ae
noni?eueieie yaeuaie. Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, ye iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeicaieea aea/eoe nenoaio ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey, a?aoiaoth/e o?e ?? /anoeie: oi?iaeueio, ui
ia?aaeaa/a? anaa?/iee aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ii? nenoaie ?c nai?ie
oeiieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie; ?noi?e/io, ui aeeth/a? aecia/aiiy
caeaaeiinoae i?ae iaaeaaia?/iith nenoaiith ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie
oiiaaie ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, a oaeiae aiae?c oeyo?a ?icaeoeo nenoaie ?
aea/aiiy ?? aaiethoe?eieo ca’yce?a; e?eoe/io, ni?yiiaaio ia aeei?enoaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueieo ca?ai nenoaie a no/anieo oiiaao. ?ic?iaeyth/e eiie?aoio
iaoiaeieia?th aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie nie?aeenue ia i?eioeeie
iie?eoeueoo?iino? ? iaia?a?aiino? ina?oe, ia iieiaeaiiy i?i ca’ycie
?noi??? c nueiaiaeaiiyi oa aeioe?euei?noue oai?/iai aeei?enoaiiy
niaaeueie aeaeaoieo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo iaaeaaia?a o no/ani?e
ina?oi?e i?aeoeoe?, i?i aca?iica’ycie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?
caaaeueiiethaenueeiai, i?i oi?ioaaiiy anaa?/ii ?icaeiooi? aa?iii?eii?
iniaenoino?, ?? aeooiaiino? a oiiaao aeaiie?aoecaoe?? an?o noi??i
noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Iaoiaeieia?y aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe a?oiooaaeany
ia i?eioeeiao ?aeiino? oai??? ? i?aeoeee, aeio?eiaiiy ia’?eoeaiino?
uiaei aii??e/iiai aea/aiiy i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano o
aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee oai??e
oa eiioeaioe?e uiaei:

— aoiai?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe (A.I. Aeaenthe, A.I. Aaee,
?.A. Cycthi, N.O. Aii/a?aiei, A.A. E?a?anueeee, TH.?. Iaeueiaaiee,
I.A. Ie/eaei, I.A. Noaeueiaoiae/ oa ?i.);

— aca?iiae?? noa’?eo?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano
(O.I. Aiiiaoa?e?, TH.E. Aaaainueeee, I.I. Eaiioue?a, I.ss. Naa/aiei,
A.?. Uoe?ia oa ?i.;

— aaaaoi??aiaai? i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a ( A.I. Aieei,
A.I. A?euaiei, A.A. Ea?iia, A.I. E?aioeueeee, A.A. Iaia??i, I.?. Oe?eue
oa ?i.);

— ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? oai?/ino? a/eoaey (I.A. Ee/oe, A.N. Eiaca?,
I.I. Iioaoiee, N.I. Neni?aa, I.?. Oaa/aiei oa ?i.);

— ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? eoeueoo?e nooaeaio?a ( ?.N. Aa?a?ia,
?.A. Cycthi, A.A. Eai-Eaeee, I.Ae. Eanueyiaiei, E.A. Eiiae?aoiaa,
I.I. ?oaeieoeueea oa ?i.);

— iniaeno?niiai ? i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ?icaeoeo iaeaooi?o
a/eoae?a (A.I. Aaee, A.? Aiiaea?, E.A. Eiaaeue, A.I. Iieyei, I.I.
I?oioa, ?.I. I?aeeanee, A.A. Naie/aiei oa ?i.);

— ?ic?iaee ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a aeoea?caoe?? i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i (I.A. Aaaeoee?ia, I.A. Aeoaanaithe, I.I Eiiae?aothe, A.?
Eiciaa, I.A. Ii?ic, I.A.Eocuei?ia, ?.A. *a?iieicia oa ?i.).

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy aecia/aieo caaaeaiue aoa aeei?enoaiee eiiieaen
aca?iica’ycaieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy: 1) oai?aoe/i? – ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c ? eeaneo?eaoe?y oa nenoaiaoecaoe?y oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue ?
i?eeeaaeieo i?aeoiae?a a?o/eciyii? ? ca?oa?aeii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe
aei i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey; nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee ?
nenoaiii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee iaoiaee aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii?
nenoaie i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a; iiaeaethaaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/ieo
oa aeine?aeieo aeaieo; 2) aii??e/i? – niinoa?aaeaiiy, aieaooaaiiy,
aan?aee, oanooaaiiy, aenia?eiaioaeuei? (eiinoaooth/ee, oi?ioth/ee,
eiio?ieueiee aenia?eiaioe), noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a
(e?euee?niee ? ye?niee aiae?c).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue i?ioyaii 1988 – 1998 ?ie?a ? ioiiethaaei
?yae aoai?a iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai iiooeo.

Ia i?aeaioia/iio aoai? (1988-1990 ??.) aea/aany noai ?ic?iaeaiino?
i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?noi??y ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? ? ca?oa?aeii?
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe a/eoaey ii/aoeiai? oeiee. I?iaiae?ciaaii
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/io aeieoiaioaoe?th, ci?no ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. Iaa?oioiaaii iai?yie ?aoi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a.

Ia aiae?oe/iiio aoai? (1991 – 1992 ??.) aeine?aeaeaii ieoaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? oa aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ia
iaaeaaia?/iiio oaeoeueoao? iaae?inoeoooo. A ?acoeueoao? noi?ioeueiaaii
a?iioaco, iaoo ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aaaaoi??aiaai? nenoaie
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. Noai?aii
aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaeeee, ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aio
aeine?aeaeaiiy; i?iaaaeaii aieaooaaiiy ? aan?aee ?c nooaeaioaie
iaae?inoeoooo ? a/eoaeyie ii/aoeiai? oeiee. Iaa?oioiaaii ? ii?aoeueiaaii
nenoaio ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

Ia oi?ioth/iio aoai? (1992 – 1997 ??.) cae?enithaaeany
aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea a?iioace, eiioeaiooaeueieo
iieiaeaiue, ai?iaaoe?y iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a, aiae?c
i?ii?aeieo ?acoeueoao?a ? eiio?ieueieo c??c?a, ei?aeoe?y
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiaeee, a oaeiae aecia/aii oeyoe i?iaaaeaiiy
aenia?oieo ioe?iie aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

Ia ocaaaeueithth/iio aoai? ( 1997 – 1998 ??.) i?iaiaeeeanue ia?iaea
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?o aiae?c ? c?noaaeaiiy c a?iioacith; iien
oiaeo oa ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
ai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? iaaeaaia?/ieo
?inoeooo?a ? eieaaeae?a. Ocaaaeueiai? aeai? oai?aoe/iiai ?
aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iiooeo ioi?ieaii a aeieoi?nueeo
aeena?oaoe?th. I?aeaioiaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii i?ia?aio eo?no “Oai??y oa
?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee”, iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, aecia/aii
ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aaca. Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue a Iieoaanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo?
?i. A.A. Ei?ieaiea (i. Iieoaaa), E?aiai/ooeueeiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio o/eeeu?, a oaeiae a na?aaei?o caaaeueiiina?oi?o
caeeaaeao Iieoaanueei? iaeano?. A aenia?eiaio? a?aee
o/anoue 1 425 nooaeaio?a, 250 aeioneiee?a ?inoeoooo – a/eoae?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, cie?aia o oi?ioth/iio aenia?eiaio? – 950
nooaeaio?a. Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioyaii eiinoaooth/iai ? oi?ioth/iai
aenia?eiaio?a aoee ni?yiiaai? ia ia’?eoeaia aea/aiiy noaio
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a
? aaea i?aoethth/eo aeioneiee?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

· aia?oa iaa?oioiaaii ? ?ic?iaeaii nenoaio ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, a iniia? yei? oe?eueiaa
eiiieaenia i?ia?aia ni?yiiaaia ia oi?ioaaiiy a/eoaey-aeine?aeieea;
aeyaeaii /eiieee, ui coiiaeththoue iiaeaethaaiiy aaaaoi??aiaai?
no?oeoo?e i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a; aecia/aii iaoo,
ooieoe??, no?oeoo?o ? ci?no, oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?aae?caoe?? nenoaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a o aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo
caeeaaeao III ? IV ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??; ?ic?iaeaii ? iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaii iniiai? iai?yie eiino?othaaiiy ci?noo
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee oa noaae?? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a
aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?;

· oaeineiiaeaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a c
o?aooaaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai ? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo;

· iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ae?noaee oi?ie ? iaoiaee i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?, iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ? i?aeoe/ii? ?iaioe
nooaeaio?a; iaoiaeeee aea/aiiy ??ai?a noi?iiaaiino?
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? eoeueoo?e iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

· aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? no/aniiai noaio ? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
a?o/eciyii? ? ca?oa?aeii? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a;

· ooi/iaii ci?no iiiyoue “i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey” ?
“ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey”;

· aecia/aii iaoo, iaa?oioiaaii i?eioeeie ? aeiiae aei i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaaeao O ? ?O ??aiy
ae?aaeeoaoe??;

· iaa?oioiaaii iniiai? iai?yie eiino?othaaiiy ci?noo
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a;

· ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaiooaeueio iiaeaeue nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a;

· aecia/aii ??ai? iaaeaaia?/ii? eoeueoo?e oa e?eoa??? aioiaiino?
aeioneiee?a iaaeaaia?/ieo oaeoeueoao?a aei i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? c iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny oei, ui
?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii:

· iaa/aeueii-oaiaoe/i? ieaie ? i?ia?aio c eo?no “Oai??y oa ?noi??y
iaaeaaia?ee” aeey niaoe?aeueiino? a/eoaeue ii/aoeiaeo eean?a caeeaaeo
ina?oe;

· i?ia?aio eo?no “Iniiae iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue” ? iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c oi?ioaaiiy aeine?aeieoeueeeo oi?iue o nooaeaio?a ?
aeeeaaea/?a aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe;

· iaa/aeueii-oaiaoe/i? ieaie ? i?ia?aie niaoeeo?n?a (“Ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c nenoai iaa/aiiy”, “Iaaeaaia?/i? oaoiieia?? ? ?o ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c”, “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaeieiiieaeoii? oeiee”) aeey nooaeaio?a
oaeoeueoaoo i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a;

· iia? iaaeaaia?/i? oaoiieia??, a iniia? yeeo iaa/aeueia ae?aiaoecaoe?y,
ui ni?ey? aeyaeaiith ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? ? ?icoiiai? aeoeaiino?
nooaeaio?a, oi?ioaaiith ?oiueiai oai?/iai noeeth ieneaiiy ?
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino?.

Iniiai? eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?aae?caoe??
nenoaie ineoiei-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a
ai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean Iieoaanueeiai iaae?inoeoooo;
i?ae /an ia?ai?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a o Iieoaanueeiio iaeaniiio ?inoeooo?
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a; o nenoai?
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a E?aiai/ooeueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai o/eeeua. I?ioyaii onueiai
ia??iaeo oai?aoeei-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe aaoi? iniaenoi a?aea
o/anoue a ai?iaaoe?? ? i?aeoe/i?e ?aae?caoe?? ?ic?iaeaieo iieiaeaiue ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, i?ae /an aeeeaaeaoeueei?, iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii?,
i?aai?caoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? o i?ioan?ei?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaeaooi?o
a/eoae?a ia ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiio oaeoeueoao? Iieoaanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. A.A. Ei?ieaiea
(aeia?aeea a?ae 08.02.1999?. ? 557 ), a oaeiae o i?ioean? iaaeaiiy
iaoeiai-eiinoeueoaoeaii?, iaoiaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ea??aieeai ? a/eoaeyi
caaaeueiiina?oi?o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie (aeieoi?aio c
1991 ?. ? ea??aieeii iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? eaoaae?e oeiee-a?iiac?? ?21
i. Iieoaae).

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a iaea?aeaii? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a
iieyaa? o:

· oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? eiioeaiooaeueii? iiaeae? nenoaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a;

· aecia/aii? no?oeoo?e ? iaa?oiooaaii? iniiaieo iai?yi?a eiino?othaaiiy
ci?noo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey;

· ?ic?iaoe? iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano nooaeaio?a uiaei oi?ioaaiiy
a/eoaey-aeine?aeieea, caeaoiiai ae??ooaaoe i?iaeaie ii/aoeiai? oeiee;

· ii?aoethaaii? ? ai?iaaaeaeaii? i?ia?ai eo?n?a “Oai??y oa ?noi??y
iaaeaaia?ee” ? “Iniiae iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue”, a oaeiae niaoeeo?n?a o
iaaeaaia?/iee i?ioean aeuiai caeeaaeo ina?oe;

· iaa?oiooaaii? iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ?aae?caoe?? nenoaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

A??ia?aei?noue oa a?aoiaioiaai?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny: oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith
iaa?oioiaai?noth eiai iniiaieo iieiaeaiue; canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno
aca?iiiia’ycaieo iaoiae?a a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe, a?iioace oa caaaeaiue
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii?aeiaiiyi eia?ei-oai?aoe/iiai oa ?noi?e/iiai aiae?co
iaoa??aeo; ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi no/aniiai noaio a?o/eciyii? ? ca?oa?aeii?
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a ?c caaaeueieie
oaiaeaioe?yie ?? ?icaeoeo i?ioyaii noie?oue; o?eaaeei oa?i?iii
ai?iaaoe?? iniiaieo eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy;
ii?aeiaiiyi ye?niiai aiae?co c iaoaiaoe/ieie iaoiaeaie ia?iaee io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

1. ?noi?e/i? aoaie noaiiaeaiiy i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

2. I?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? i?ioeano ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

3. Eiioeaiooaeueia iiaeaeue nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, ui ia? niaoeeo?/io iaoo, ooieoe??, no?oeoo?o,
ci?no, oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?aae?caoe??.

4. Iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? nenoaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe, ui
caaacia/othoue oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? a/eoaey-aeine?aeieea.

5. Noaae?? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a – iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a
uiaei i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaii? ?iaioe
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia i?aeia?iaeieo, ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao (E??iaia?aae, Iieoaaa 1988?.; Iineaa, Eeoei?a,
Ai?e?aea, Iieoaaa 1989 ?.; Oa?iii?eue, *a?eane, Iieoaaa 1990 ?.; ??aia,
Iieoaaa 1991 ?.; Oa?e?a, Iieoaaa 1992 ?.; Iieoaaa 1993, 1994, 1995 ??.;
Euea?a, Iieoaaa 1996 ?.; Ee?a, Iieoaaa 1997 ?.), eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Iieoaanueeiai iaae?inoeoooo (1988
– 1998 ??.), ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??
ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy Iieoaanueeiai iaae?inoeoooo, eaai?aoi???
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? ienoaoeueei? ina?oe ? eaai?aoi???
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii o
41 ae?oeiaai?e i?aoe?, c ieo 25 iaienaii aac ni?aaaoi??a, o oiio /ene?:
iaeiiin?aia iiiia?ao?y, 1 i?ia?aia iaa/aeueiiai eo?no ? iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, 15 noaoae o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue oa ?i. Caaaeueiee ianya iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue c oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea? 26,3 aaoi?nueeeo a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a aei eiaeiiai ?icae?eo, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a (ianya
iniiaiiai oaenoo 376 noi??iie), nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
(398 iaeiaioaaiue, c ieo 16 – ?iicaiieie iiaaie). ?iaioa
i?noeoue 5 ?ethno?aoe?e ia 4 noi?., 21 oaaeeoeth ia 13 noi?., 6
aeiaeaoe?a (ianya 35 noi??iie).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie ? nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino?
ia?aii? i?iaeaie, noi?ioeueiaaia i?iaeaia, eiioeaioe?y, a?iioaca,
aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa, caaaeaiiy, iaoiaeieia?y, iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi eiai oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue,
noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
a?aeia?aaeaii ai?iaaoe?th ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeeeaaeaii iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae noaiiaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a” – ia iniia? aiae?co ?noi?e/ieo aiio ? oeea?e?caoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, ye? aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? a/eoaey,
iaa?oioiaaii aoaie noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo eiai i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee.
Aeae?eaii oaiaeaioe?? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a a eiaeio
?noi?e/io aiioo.

Nenoaiii-?noi?e/iee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co i?iaeaie aeia?a, ui oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? a/eoaey iia’ycaii c oeea?e?caoe?eieie i?ioeanaie. Ine?eueee
aeoiaaiiy ethaeeie ? aieiaiith ooieoe??th noni?euenoaa, a aeoiaia
ae?yeuei?noue – na?aeiiith, oi ia ??cieo aoaiao eiai ?noi??? aiii ia?
??ciee oa?aeoa? ? aeya. Aioe/ia o?einio?y caeeaea ooiaeaiaio no/aniiai
iaoeiaiai na?oiaeyaeo ethaeae i?i iaaeieeoi?e na?o, a aioe/ia
iaaeaaia?ea aoea ?iaeiia/aeii ?aeae aaaaoueio aaeocae no/anieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe. Aaaeeeaei aeinyaiaiiyi oeea?e?caoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo
noa?iaeaaiuei? aiioe aoea iiyaa ia?oiai «ooaoiiai» iaaeaaiaa, yeee
iaea?aeoaaa ieaoith ? caii/aoeoaaa o/eoaeuenueeo i?ioan?th. ??aaiue
?icaeoeo oeea?e?caoe?? a aiioo na?aaeiueia?//y ni?eya iiya? ina?/aieo
ethaeae, ye? ia?aaeaaaee nai? ciaiiy ?ioei. Niaoe?aeueieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a aeey i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a a oeae /an ia aoei. A Cao?aei?e
?a?ii? ?o aiooaaee a oi?aa?neoaoao oaeoeueoaoe a?eueieo ienoaoeoa, a a
Oe?a?i? — Ino?icueea oeiea-eieaa?y, a?aonuee? oeiee ? Ee?anueea eieaa?y.

Aiioa iiaiai /ano ni?eyea noaiiaeaiith ? ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii? ina?oe.
Noai?aiiy ia?oi? a?o/eciyii? a/eoaeuenueei? nai?ia???, ui aiooaaea
a/eoae?a aeey ia?iaeieo o/eeeu, aoei coiiaeaii ina?oi?ie ?aoi?iaie ?
ia?aoai?aiiyie, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny a e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie.

O ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no. oaiaeaeueii-e??iinieoeuee? a?aeiineie a
Oe?a?i? ia ni?eyee i?aai?caoe?? nenoaiaoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a aeey
ia?iaeieo oe?e. Ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee,
a?aei?ia e??iinieoeueeiai i?aaa ? ?icaeoie eai?oae?noe/iiai niiniao
ae?iaieoeoaa o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX — ia ii/aoeo XX no. ni?e/eieee iiyao
??cieo oei?a iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, aea aiooaaee a/eoae?a aeey ia?iaeieo
oe?e, cie?aia: iaaeaaia?/i? eeane i?e a?iiac?yo ? ia?iaeieo o/eeeuao,
iaaeaaia?/i? eo?ne, o/eoaeuenuee? nai?ia??? ? a/eoaeuenuee? ?inoeoooe. A
i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a iino?eii aoee i?iaeaie, eio??
a?aeaeaaee niaoeeo?eo iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe o iiaee /an: yeee eiioeiaaio
o/i?a ae?a?aoe ? ye caoe?eaaeoe ?o o/eoaeuenueeith ae?yeuei?noth; ye
iie?ioeoe oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io i?aeaioiaeo.

O oeae ia??iae aeoea?co?oueny aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ci?noo
iaaeaaia?/ieo ? ineoieia?/ieo ciaiue, cie?aia i?ioean aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? e
?ioaa?aoe?? ciaiue, i?aaiaiiy iiaeieaoe aii??e/iee ??aaiue
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee, aecia/eoe i?aaeiao ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
noi?ioethaaoe i?eioeeie ?icaeoeo.

Aiioa iia?oiuei? ?noi??? – /an noaiiaeaiiy no/anii? oeea?e?caoe??. ??
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee aiae?c aeicaieea aeae?eeoe ?yae oaiaeaioe?e
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ia eiaeiiio c ??
?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a.

A Oe?a?i? aiia ?icii/eia?oueny c iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo
?aaiethoe?e ? ai?ioueae ca caa?aaeaiiy iacaeaaeiino?, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
?ai?aai?caoe??th nenoaie iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, ia?aaoaeiaith ci?noo ?
iaoiae?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe o o?e??/ieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oeieao ?
ia iaaeaaia?/ieo eo?nao, aea aiooaaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

A oiiaao iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aoei ooai?aii a e?a?i? nenoaio
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, ?ioaineaii ?icaeaaeany iaaeaaia?/ia iaoea.
Aeaiie?aoe/i?, aoiaii? a?aeiineie a oeae /an ni?eyee noai?aiith ??cieo
oei?a iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a aeey i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a;
ni?eyee ii?aoethaaiith aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaa/aeueieo ieai?a ? i?ia?ai,
neeaaeaiith i?ae?o/iee?a aeey iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a, iiaaoi?nuee?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino?. A oie aea /an o ci?no? i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee ia?aaaaa iaaeaaaeany aea/aiith noni?eueieo aeenoeeie?i.

Ia??iae ?aaeyinueei? iiaea?i?caoe?? Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?icaeoeii
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, a?aeiiaith a?ae
aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?eioeei?a ea??aieoeoaa ia?iaeiith ina?oith. I?aeaioiaea
a/eoaey ii/aoeiai? oeiee cae?enith?oueny o iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoi?eoiao, ye?
c /anii ia?aeiaiiaothoue o iaaeaaia?/i? oeiee, a caiaeii – o
iaaeaaia?/i? o/eeeua. O aeeeaaeaii? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i
ia?aaaaa iaaea?oueny iaaeieia??, yeo aaea o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 30-o ?ie?a
caai?iieee.

I?neyai?iiee ia??iae iicia/eany aaeeeeie o?oaeiiuaie o i?aeaioiaoe?
iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a, iio??aii aoei iiiiaeoe ia?aaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a. E??i iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeu, ye? aiooaaee a/eoae?a
ii/aoeiai? oeiee, ia oeae /an a?aee?eee iaaeeeane aeey oaeaeeiai
caaacia/aiiy iio??aii? e?eueeino? iaaeaaia?a. O ci?no? i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee e?ea?aeoaaee aaaaoii?aaeiaoi?noue, aeoaethaaiiy eo?n?a
na?aaeiuei? oeiee, aaeeeo oaaao caa?oaee ia iineeaiiy i?aeaioiaee aei
i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? iaeaooi?o niaoe?ae?no?a.

A oiiaao ia??iaeo aeanoae?i?caoe?? cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eyeany
aaeineiiaeaiith yeino? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. C oe??th
iaoith i?aai?ciaai? niaoe?aeuei? oaeoeueoaoe i?e iaae?inoeoooao, oiaoi
ii/aoeiaa oeiea io?eiaea niaoe?ae?no?a c aeuith ina?oith. Aieiaiei oeiii
na?aaeiueiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo caeeoaeiny iaaeaaia?/ia o/eeeua.
Ci?no i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iie?ioaii aea/aiiyi ineoieia?? ?
iaaeaaia?ee, a oaeiae i?aai?caoe??th iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee o oeie?.

O ia??iae caaino?aiiy caaaeueii? e?ece ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie a?aeaoany
ia?ao?ae aei oeaio?ae?caoe?? ina?oiuei? ni?aae, ui aeyaeeiny o
iaoooaaii? iaoe?iiaeueiei ci?noii, o oi?iae?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/iiai
i?ioeano, a ooaa?aeaeaii? aaoi?eoa?ii? iaaeaaia?ee. Iie?ioaiith
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a ii/aoeiai? oeiee ni?eyei
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?aeae?eaiue oe?ieiai i?io?eth a iaae?inoeoooao ?
iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeuao, iino?eii aaeineiiaethaaany ci?no
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee. Iiceoeaiei o oeae /an aoei
a?aeiiaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?e iiaaoi?nueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ?
ca?iaeaeaiiy aoiai?noe/ieo i?eioeei?a iaaeaaia?ee ni?ai?aoe?.

A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie iia’ycaii c
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie. Eiai iane?aeeii ? ?aoi?ia
i?ioan?eii? oeiee ? oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe. I?ioa
?aoi?ioaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe a oiiaao no/aniiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy
cae?enith?oueny aeoaea iia?eueii, ui ni?e/eiaii aeeaieith caaaeueiith
e?ecith aaaaoueio aaeocae noni?eueiiai i?aai?cio iieiaei? aea?aeaae.

Aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? a iia?oi?e /an cana?ae/o?, ui
??aaiue ?? ?icaeoeo i?yii caeaaeeoue a?ae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia
noni?euenoaa. O?eueee aeaiie?aoe/i?, aoiaii? a?aeiineie, ye? aoee
oa?aeoa?i? aeey ia?oeo ?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a iia?oiueiai /ano, ni?eyee
?ioaineaiiio ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe ? iaoee: noai?aiith ??cieo
oei?a iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a aeey i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a;
ii?aoethaaiith aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaa/aeueieo ieai?a ? i?ia?ai, neeaaeaiith
i?ae?o/iee?a aeey iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a; iiaaoi?nuee?e iaaeaaia?/i?e
ae?yeueiino?. Aeeeoaoo?a ia?o?eii? ath?ie?ao?? c ?? oioae?oa?iith
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaiith nenoaiith oi?aae?iiy i?ioyaii a?eueo ye
i?anoie?ooy, i?ee?eaath/enue aeaiaaia?/ieie eicoiaaie i?i aeaiie?ao?th,
an?eyei aaeueioaaee i?ia?aneaiee ?icaeoie iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe. Oea
aeyaeeiny a oeaio?ae?caoe?? a ina?oi?e ni?aa?, o iaoooaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueiei ci?noii, o oi?iae?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano, a
ooaa?aeaeaii? aaoi?eoa?ii? iaaeaaia?ee.

Cae?eniaiee o ?icae?e? aiae?c noaiiaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? nenoaie i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a aeicaieea iai aeae?eeoe ?
iaa?oiooaaoe aoaie ?? ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae oaiaeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? a/eoaey ia eiaeiiio c ieo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Na?oiaee aeina?ae i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a” – ioa?aeoa?eciaaii noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe ca ?oaaaeai, no/ani? ca?oa?aei? oaoiieia??
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. Cae?eniaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie o na?oiaiio eiioaeno?.

A oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?, aeoeaieo iiooe?a
oeyo?a ? cania?a oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoae?a iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? aea/aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy ca?oa?aeii?
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie, iaa?iiaaeaeaii? aeuith oeieith.
Aea/aiiy c no/anieo iiceoe?e oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae ? aeina?aeo ca?oa?aeieo
iaaeaaia?a ni?eyoeia iiaeieaiith noi?iiaaieo noa?aioei?a, ui i?ioyaii
o?eaaeiai /ano neeaeeny o a?o/eciyi?e iaaeaaia?/i?e aeoioe?.

Iaaeaaia?/ia ina?oa Oe?a?ie ooieoe?iio? ? ?icaeaa?oueny ia?aeaeueii c
iaaeaaia?/ieie nenoaiaie ?ioeo e?a?i oa ?aa?ii?a, aca?iiae?? c ieie,
cacia? ?o aieeao. Oiio aeey eiie?aoecaoe?? iai?yi?a ? oa?aeoa?o
aaiethoe?? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe iaoiai noni?euenoaa iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe
noai ? oaiaeaioe?? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ca ?? iaaeaie.

Aiae?c no?oeoo?e ? ci?noo ca?oa?aeieo ? a?o/eciyii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ia ??cieo aoaiao noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa
?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo na?ae/eoue, ui ?? ??aaiue caeaaeeoue a?ae
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo o??? /e ?ioi?
e?a?ie.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? oeea?e?caoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo a/eoaeue noiya ii?yae ?c
o?einioii, iiaoii, oea?ai, aoa i?ia?nieeii i?aaaee, neoaeea ?noei?,
aeia?o ? e?an?. C ?icaeoeii oeea?e?caoe??, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
?aaiethoe??, ui ni?e/eieea i?enei?aia iioe?aiiy ??cieo aeaea?ae ciaiue ?
iineaaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai aaoi?eoaoo a/eoaey, inoaii?e iinooiiai
ao?a/a? i?noea ia iinoaiaio? noni?eueii? iioaie e iieeeeaiiy,
ia?aoai?thth/enue o cae/aeiiai ia?aaeaaa/a ciaiue na?aae aaaaoueio ?ioeo
aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??.

Ia?o? niaoe?ae?ciaai? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee c i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ooai?eeeny a e?a?iao ?a?iiaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??
(O?aioe?y, I?ia//eia, Aiae?y oa ?i.) o XVII-XVIII no., eiee ia
Caoiae? ?oeioaaeeny onoi? o?aaeeoe?eii? oeea?e?caoe??. Naia a oeeo
e?a?iao o XIX no. ooai?eeanue nenoaia i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe,
yea ni?eyea i?aeaioiaoe? aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo niaoe?ae?no?a. ?o aeaiaioe
o iiaeaeueoiio aoee caiice/ai? a ?io? e?a?ie na?oo (NOA, ssiii?y oa
?i.).

O oeae aea ia??iae caeeaaeaeeny oai?aoe/i? iniiae iaaeaaia?ee ye iaoee,
caniiaieeaie yei? aoee ss.A. Eiiainueeee, ?.A. Ianoaeioeoe?, ?.O.
Aa?aa?o. Oai??th ? i?aeoeeo i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a o XIX no. iaa?oiooaaa
i?iaoeueeee iaaeaaia A. Ae?noa?aaa. Ia ii/aoeo XX no. aoei cae?eniaii
?yae iiaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue: I. Iiioanni?? iaa?oiooaaea
iaoiae “iaoeiai? iaaeaaia?ee”; A. Ea?oaiooaeia? – cia/aiiy o?oaeiaiai
iaa/aiiy aeey ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? ina?oe; N. O?aia – oai??th “a?eueiiai
aeoiaaiiy”; Ae. Aeueth? – aoiai?noe/iee iai?yi o iaaeaaia?oe?.

O e?a?iao Cao?aeii? oeea?e?caoe?? e?eca ia?aco a/eoaey aeieeea o XIX –
ia ii/aoeo XX no. ? ii?iaeaeaia e?eciaeie yaeuaie noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei. O oaeeo oiiaao oi?ioaaany “ianiaee”, /anoi neaaei
i?aeaioiaeaiee o/eoaeue. Aeao?oeeo i?ioan?iiae?cio,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?, o?einionueei? i?aeaioiaee a?i eiiiainoaaa
iineeaiiyi aeaaee iaae o/iyie, ui ii?iaeaeoaaei iacaaeiaieaiiy
a?iiaaenueeino? ? ni?e/eieei iaae?iiy eiai aaoi?eoaoo. Aiaeii/an aoei
?icii/aoi ianiao i?aeaioiaeo a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

Aaoi?eoa?iee oei o/eoaey aoa i?eoaiaiiee aea?aeaaai No?aeii?
oeea?e?caoe??. Oae, a a?aanueeeo e?a?iao neiai “ a/eoaeue” (a?aanueea
“iaaea”) icia/aei “ae?oa” ? “aeaniee”. Ianoaaiee ae?oae ioioiaeithaaa
naaa c Aiaii, i?e??aithaaa naaa aei ?noeie, aoa iaeiiin?aiei iin??i
ciaiue. O e?a?iao, aea niia?aeothoue ?neai, ?iaeo?ci, cie?aia a ?iae??,
oi?io?oueny ia?ac o/eoaey-ao?o – aeooiaiiai ianoaaieea, yeee ? c?aceii
aeey o/i?a.

O ia?o?e iieiaei? XX no. iinooiiai oi?iothoueny iia? ina?oyinuee?
nenoaie ? oa/??, i?iaieioothoueny iia? iaaeaaia?/i? ?aea?, aea e?eca
ina?oe o?eaa?, ui aoei iia’ycaii c iaae?iiyi aaoi?eoaoo iaoee e ina?oe a
noni?euenoa?. O oeae /an cia/ii oneeaaeiththoueny caaaeaiiy
a/eoaey-ianoaaieea, yeee iiaeiai aoa ooeaoe iiaaoi?nuee? i?aeoiaee aei
?icoio, aie? ? na?oey o/i?a, eio?? aeaaeae? /ano?oa ao?a/aee ?ioa?an aei
iaoee e iaa/aiiy. I?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a,
ui iaaoea iioe?aiiy o XIX no., i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co no/anieo ca?oa?aeieo oaoiieia?e i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a iiaeia aeae?eeoe e?eueea iai?yi?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, coiiaeaieo iiaea?i?caoe??th noni?eueieo a?aeiinei
i?ney ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie ia nioe?aeuei?e ? aoiai?noe/i?e iniia?.

1. *?oei ae?aaeaia oaiaeaioe?y ia?aoiaeo a?ae na?aaeiuei? aei aeui?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, ye i?aaeei, oi?aa?neoaonueeiai oeio. Nenoaia
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a e?a?iao na?oo noa? aeaaeae? oi?o?eiaai?oith,
i?aeaeuo?oueny ??aaiue i?ioan?eii? iaenoa?iino?.

2. Ci?no no/anii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ni?yiiaaiee ia oi?ioaaiiy
a/eoaey, caeaoiiai i?aoethaaoe a oae?e nenoai?, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aca?iiae??th ??cieo eoeueoo?, c?inoath/ith iia?euei?noth ?
aeaiie?aoeciii. Naia oiio a?aei?iiith iniaeea?noth i?ia?ai i?aeaioiaee
a/eoae?a o ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao ? aa??aoeai?noue, ae?iaeaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo eo?n?a, a oaeiae aeaeoeaiee i?eioeei ina?oe, c iaeiiai
aieo, e ?ioaa?aoe?y ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, c ?ioiai. I?ioa
?aeeiee oi?o?eiaaiee oai?aoe/iee eo?n, iiaoaeiaaiee ia caaaeueieo
iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo i?eioeeiao, oae ? ia neeaany. Aiae?c
nenoaie oi?aa?neoaonueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe na?ae/eoue i?i
aaaaoiaa??aoeai?noue iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai ? aaaaoi??aiaa?noue o
i?aeaioiaoe? a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

3. A i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao
na?oo iaea?eueoa oe?iothoue oi?iiy iaaoaaoe ciaiiy naiino?eii. Oea
oi?io?oueny a i?ioean? i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue. O aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe
ii/eiathoue canoiniaoaaoe iia? iaoiaee, cie?aia: i?e?iaeeeaaeaiiy,
iiaeaethaaiiy ? ?ieueia? ?a?e. *?eueia i?noea a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoae?a a?aeaiaeyoue iaaeaaia?/i?e i?aeoeoe?, aaeineiiaeaiith ?? ci?noo
? oi?i i?iaaaeaiiy o oeie?.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c nenoai ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a o ?icaeiooeo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao aeyaea oeyoe ??
oaeineiiaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?, cie?aia: ?icaoaeiaa iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie
ina?oe; ia?ao?ae aei aeui? aaaaoi??aiaai? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe;
aaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ia iniia?
?ioaa?aoe?? ? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ciaiue; cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e, oi?i ? iaoiae?a i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe o aeuiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio caeeaae?.

Aiae?c a?o/eciyiiai i?aeoe/iiai noaio ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a o aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaaeao
ina?oe i?aeoaa?aeea, ui iio??aii oaeineiiaethaaoe ?? no?oeoo?o, ci?no,
oi?ie ? iaoiaee i?aai?caoe??. Aieiaiei oeyoii oaeineiiaeaiiy no/anii?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo i?ia?aneaieo eiioeaioe?e, no/anieo iaaeaaia?/ieo
oaoiieia?e ? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean,
onoiaiiy oi?o?eiaaii? ina?oe.

O ?icae?e? aeiaaaeaii, ui iaiao?aei?noue ?ioaa?aoe?? a?o/eciyii? ?
na?oiai? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe coiiaeaia iio?aaaie ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai,
iiooeii iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei i?aai?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano o
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ina?oe a Oe?a?i?
aei na?oiaeo noaiaea?o?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy
? i?iaeooaaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a” – ia iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo iaa?oioiaaii no?oeoo?o
aaaaoi??aiaai? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, a oaeiae iniiai?
iai?yie eiino?othaaiiy ci?noo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee o
iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae?. I?aaenoaaeaia eiioeaiooaeueia iiaeaeue nenoaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a.

Aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e iieacaa, ui i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey, iiaeieaiiy oeiiaeo oneeaaeiaiue, ui
aeieeathoue a eiai i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?, iia’ycai? c oi?ioaaiiyi o
iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa oe?e?niiai ni?eeiaiiy eiiiiiaio?a
iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano. Aecia/aeueiith oiiaith oi?ioaaiiy oe?e?niiai
ni?eeiaiiy iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano ye ia’?eoa ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey ?
nenoaii?noue eiai ciaiue.

Ieoaiiy i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a ia
iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo o nai?o i?aoeyo ?icaeyaeaee A.I. Aeaenthe,
A.?. Eaaai, ?.A. Ne/ai?eia, A.A. Naie/aiei, A.?. Eoaiaee,
A.ss. Aeaoeianueeee, I.A. Aeociai oa ?i. ?oi? aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?oioothoueny ia o?einionueeiio aecia/aii? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo ye
iai?yio iaoiaeieia?? iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy ? nioe?aeueii? i?aeoeee, eiee
eiaeiee ia’?eo ? nenoaiith; aiie i?aee?aneththoue iaiao?aei?noue
aea/aiiy nenoaiieo yaeu c oi/ee ci?o oe?e?niino?, no?oeoo?iino?,
ooieoe?iiaeueiino?, i?aai?ciaaiino?.

Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, cai?iiiiiaaiee A.ss. Iaiiioiaei aeey aea/aiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo nenoai ia ii/aoeo XX no., aeicaieea aecia/eoe iaoiaeeeo
aea/aiiy iaoi? nenoaie, cie?aia: i?iaiae?coaaoe ?icaeoie nenoaie
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a; aecia/eoe ??
caeaaei?noue a?ae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia noni?euenoaa ?
oeea?e?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a; i?iaanoe e?eoe/iee aiae?c, ni?yiiaaiee ia
aeyaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo iai?yi?a oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a a no/anieo oiiaao; cae?enieoe iaoeiaee iien
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ?
aecia/eoe ?? aoaeoeai?noue.

Iao i?aeo?ae aei ?ic?iaee nenoaie i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a coiiaeee oae? /eiieee: nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?,
iia’ycai? ?c ci?iaie a noni?euei?e na?aeiiino? ? iiyaith iiaeo
oe?iiinoae a ina?o?; i?aeoe/i?, ui aeieeee c iiyaith iiaeo oei?a
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a; oai?aoe/i?, coiiaeai? oei, ui
iaaeaaia?/ia ina?oa ?icaeaa?oueny ii oeyoo oi?ioaaiiy a iaeaooi?o
iaaeaaia?a oe?e?niiai oyaeaiiy i?i naith i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue.

A iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaii “Eiioeaioe?th iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe”,
yea ia?aaeaa/a?: ?ic?iaeo ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo noaiaea?o?a
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe ??cieo ina?oiuei-eaae?o?eaoe?eieo ??ai?a; noai?aiiy
oe?eueiai? nenoaie aacia?a?aii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe c o?aooaaiiyi
a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo, iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e ? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo
na?oiaeo ina?oi?o nenoai. Oea aeicaieeei iai c?iaeee aeniiaie, ui a
no?oeoo?? ?aeeii? nenoaie aacia?a?aii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe iaiao?aeii
ia?aaeaa/eoe aaaaoi??aiaa?noue i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.
Oae, ieciaith eaieith a i?e iiaeiai aooe iaaeaaia?/iee eieaaeae, yeee
aioo? iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a – o/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. Na?aaeiy
eaiea – iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo, ui caaacia/o? i?aeaioiaeo aaeaeaa??a –
o/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ?c niaoe?ae?caoe??th “Iaaeaaia?ea” aai
“Ineoieia?y”. Iaeaeuee noaoon i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a ii/aoeiai? oeiee
caaacia/o? iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ? a?i aioo? iaa?no??a iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia??.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe i?iaeaie aaaaoi??aiaai? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey o
a?o/eciyi?e nenoai? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, ie aecia/eee, ui iniiaiei
caaaeaiiyi i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ? oi?ioaaiiy noa’?eoa
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?, caeaoiiai aa/eoe ? oai?/i ae??ooaaoe i?iaeaie
iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano a ni?euei?e ae?yeueiino? c o/iyie. Aaaeeeaeie
iai?yiaie i?aeaioiaee no/aniiai a/eoaey ?: nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee,
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iee oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/iee. On? aiie
iia’ycai? ?c ci?noii iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, ui neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
oeeee?a aeenoeeie?i: na?oiaeyaeii-eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai
(aoiai?oa?ii-eoeueoo?iiai), ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai ?
oaoiai-iaoiaee/iiai.

Ia?ao?ae ia aaaaoi??aiaao i?aeaioiaeo oao?aoe?a a Oe?a?i?, oiaoi
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nooiaiy aaeaeaa?a ? iaa?no?a, iaiiaeeeaee aac ia?aaeyaeo
ci?noo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe oa eiai no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a,
iica iaoeiaei iaa?oiooaaiiyi aca?iica’yceo ? aaeaino i?ae i?aaeiaoiith ?
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iith i?aeaioiaeith, aac no/anieo e?eoa???a
caaaeueiiiaoeiai? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a. C iaoith iaoeiaiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy ci?noo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee o aeuiio
iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae? o aeena?oaoe?? aeae?eai? ia’?eoeai? ? noa’?eoeai?
/eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia ci?no ina?oe, i?iaiae?ciaai? o?aaeeoe?ei?
i?aeoiaee aei no?oeoo?oaaiiy ci?noo ina?oe (I.I. Ia/a?a, A.?. Eaaai,
?.A. Ne/aii?eia, A.N. Eaaeiueia). I?eioeeie nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo (oe?e?ni?noue, no?oeoo?i?noue, ?ioaa?aoeai?noue,
???a?o?/i?noue, aca?iiae?? ?c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai) canoiniaai? ye
iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa i?e eiino?othaaii? ci?noo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

Ci?no ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa
ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye eiiieaenia iiaiooai?aiiy, a iniia? yeiai
ciaoiaeeoueny i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaee iaoiae ieaioaaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy
i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy. Aiia iiaeiia caaacia/oaaoe ?ioaa?aoe?th an?o
aeenoeeie?i oeueiai oeeeeo ? a oie aea /an a?aeia?aaeaoe no/aniee
??aaiue ?icaeoeo o??? /e ?ioi? iaoee, ?? niaoeeo?eo. Iaa?oioiaai?
iniiai? iai?yie eiino?othaaiiy ci?noo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee o iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae?, yeee iiaeiai: 1) aooe
ni?yiiaaiee ia aeinyaiaiiy aieiaii? iaoe iaa/aiiy; 2) noaiiaeoe
i?aai?/io oe?e?nio nenoaio; 3) ooaa?aeaeoaaoe ethaeeio ye iaeaeuo
nioe?aeueio oe?ii?noue; 4) caaacia/oaaoe a?oioiaiee caaaeueiieoeueoo?iee
?icaeoie iniaenoino? a/eoaey. Oaeee ci?no i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o
a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a noai?th? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino? iaaeaaiaa ? iai?aaeaiee ia: oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/io
i?aeaioiaeo, yeith ia?aaeaa/aii oi?ioaaiiy ocaaaeueiaieo ia aenieiio
??ai? ciaiue, oai?/iai ieneaiiy, caaaeueii? eoeueoo?e, iaaeaaia?/ii?
na?aeiiino?, iiaaae?iee ? ae??; i?ioan?eio i?aeaioiaeo, ui iieyaa? a
iaieiae?ii? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieie ciaiiyie, oi?iiyie ? iaae/eaie
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano c o/iyie; ?icaeoie
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a/eoaey ia iniia? oe?e?niiai ? i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiai
i?aeoiae?a.

Cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaiooaeueia iiaeaeue nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ?ic?iaeaia c o?aooaaiiyi
?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ?icaeoeo aeui? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ? ca ei?aeiiii. ??
iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ? nenoaiiee ? ae?yeuei?niee i?aeo?ae, a oaeiae
i?ia?aei? ?aea? no/anii? iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee. Oa?i?i «eiioeaiooaeueia
iiaeaeue» o?aaa ?icoi?oe ye ?icoiiaee eia?/iee ia?ac nenoaie, ??
oe?e?nia iaoeiaa i?ciaiiy. Oey nenoaia aaaaoianiaeoia: ia?aaeaa/a?
aaeineiiaeaiiy aeeeaaeaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i o aeuiio
iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae?; ? neeaaeiaith nenoaie i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee o caeeaaeao ina?oe.

Aieiaieie eiiiiiaioaie nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ? iaoa, ooieoe??, no?oeoo?a, ci?no, oi?ie ?
iaoiaee ?? ?aae?caoe??, eiio?ieue. ??aaiue ?o ?ic?iaeaiino?, aca?iiae??
iaeei c iaeiei a ?acoeueoao? ?aae?caoe?? aeaii? nenoaie aecia/a?
aoaeoeai?noue i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a.

Iane??cia iaoa nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a — caaacia/eoe aenieee ??aaiue yeino? i?aeaioiaee
iaeaooi?o niaoe?ae?no?a, ui ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy a/eoaey-aeine?aeieea,
caeaoiiai oai?/i ?ica’ycoaaoe caaaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe c
iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie. Ooieoe?? nenoaie — ?ioaa?aoeaia, i?aai?coth/a,
ina?oiy — caaacia/othoue oe?e?ni?noue iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano, aoaeoeaio
ae?yeuei?noue noa’?eo?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano oa ia?aoai?aiiy
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue o no?ee? ia?aeiiaiiy ? i?aeoe/i? ae??.

Nenoaia ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a
ia? neeaaeio no?oeoo?o, ?? ooai?ththoue o?e i?aenenoaie, cie?aia:
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a, iaoeiai-aeine?aeia
?iaioa o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe oa iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeoeea o oeie?. Aeey
eiaeii? c ieo ?ic?iaeaii ci?no ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee.

Cai?iiiiiaai? oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?aae?caoe?? nenoaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ?icaeyaea?ii i?ae
/an aiae?co iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia, ui aecia/athoue noa’?eo-noa’?eoi?
a?aeiineie o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? caeeaaeo ina?oe. I?e ai?iaaoe??
aeine?aeaeoaaii? nenoaie canoiniaaii ye o?aaeeoe?ei?, oae ? ?iiiaaoe?ei?
oi?ie eiio?ieth, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe ??aaiue ??
aoaeoeaiino?.

O oeueiio ?icae?e? aeiaaaeaii, ui a no?oeoo?? aacia?a?aii?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe ia?aaeaa/a?oueny aaaaoi??aiaa?noue i?aeaioiaee
a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. Iaa?oioiaaia oaeiae eiioeaiooaeueia iiaeaeue
nenoaie eiai ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ye oe?e?niiai ooai?aiiy
c aecia/aiith no?oeoo?ith ? ci?noii.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? –“Iaoiaee/ia nenoaia ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a” – ?ice?eoi ci?no i?aai?caoe?? ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o
niaoe?ae?no?a o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe. Aecia/aii aieea iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino? ia oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino? a/eoaey, i?iaiae?ciaaii
nenoaio iaoeiai? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a ? aeaee iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aeoee.

I?aai?caoe?y i?ioeano i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a no/anieo oiiaao iiaeiia
caaacia/eoe oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey. A?i ia?
i?ieoe o nai?io i?ioan?eiiio noaiiaeaii? oae? iaaeaaia?/i? ??ai?, ye
oi?e?noue ? iaenoa?i?noue. Oea iiaea aooe caaacia/aii caaaeyee
eiiieaeni?e i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a o iaaeaaia?/iiio
caeeaae?.

O i?ioean? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? caaacia/o?oueny
oi?ioaaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie. Iniiaieie
i?eioeeiaie ?? i?aai?caoe?? ? ca’ycie ?c aeeooyi, ?noi?eci,
aeaiie?aoecaoe?y, aoiai?caoe?y, aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo aeinyaiaiue iaoee
? ia?aaeiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo, aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y, ca’ycie
iaa/aiiy c i?aeoeeith ?iaioe a oeie?. Aiia ?aae?co?oueny ia iniia?
iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaii? iiaeae? ina?oe, yea iio?aao? aeio?eiaiiy oaeeo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia, ui aecia/athoue noa’?eo-noa’?eoi? a?aeiineie a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? iaaeaaia?/iiai caeeaaeo.

1. Iiaeeea?noue aeai?o aeueoa?iaoeaieo aa??aio?a iaa/aeueieo ieai?a ?
i?ia?ai. Eiaeai aeeeaaea/ iiaeiai iaoe aeanio iiaeeo?eaoe?th iniiaii?
i?ia?aie aeenoeeie?ie, yeo a?i aeeeaaea?. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia
caaaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia nooaeaio i?eeiya ci?no o??? /e ?ioi?
i?ia?aie, caoe?eaaeany iei. O?eueee ca oaeeo oiia iiaeeeaa
aca?ii?icoi?iiy ? i?aaeeueia ieaioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?,
ni?yiiaaii? ia iaieiae?iiy ciaiiyie, oi?iiyie ? iaae/eaie.

2. Ni?eyiiy oai?/iio ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? eiaeiiai nooaeaioa. Oeueiai
aeinyaathoue aeei?enoaiiyi o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ?iiiaaoe?eieo oi?i
i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino?, cie?aia noai?aiiyi iaaeaaia?/ieo ? oai?/eo
iaenoa?aiue, i?iaeaiieo a?oi, aei yeeo aoiaeyoue nooaeaioe an?o eo?n?a,
a oaeiae aeine?aeieoeueeeo eaai?aoi??e aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a c
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?iaeai.

3. Ni?ai?aoey c? nooaeaioaie a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy. Ni?ai?aoeth ne?ae
?icoi?oe ye iayai?noue o noa’?eo?a iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? ni?eueieo
?ioa?an?a o ?ica’ycaii? i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue, ui caaacia/o? eoeueoo?o
iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe. A?ae oiai, ye
neeaaeooueny a?aeiineie i?ae nooaeaioaie ? aeeeaaea/aie, caeaaeeoue
aoaeoeai?noue i?aeaioiaee iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey. Eoeueoo?a iaaeaaia?/iiai
ni?eeoaaiiy aieeaa? ia ?icaeoie caaeaoe?a eiaeiiai ie?aiiai nooaeaioa,
i???ioo? eiai ia eiie?aoi? aeaee iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?,
?ice?eaa? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? cae?aiino? e i???ioo? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?ioan?eieo ?ioa?an?a. Aaeaea a?aeiii, ui eoeueoo?a ? i??ith ?icaeoeo
ethaeeie, ai aiia oa?aeoa?eco? ia o?eueee ? ia no?eueee ianya canai?ieo
iath oe?iiinoae a?iiaaenueei? ae?yeueiino? iniaenoinoae i?ioyaii on???
?noi???, ne?eueee nai niin?a, yeei i?eeo/a?oueny noa’?eo aei oaeeo
oe?iiinoae.

4. ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?y iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a. ?? iiaeia ?aae?coaaoe aeaiia
oeyoaie – o i?ioean? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? aoaeeoi?ii? ?
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? ?iaioe. Iniiaieie caniaaie ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? iaa/aiiy
i?ae /an aoaeeoi?ieo caiyoue ? aa??aoeai?noue caaaeaiue, cai?iiiiiaaieo
ia aea?? c o?aooaaiiyi ??aiy i?aeaioiaee, ?ioa?an?a ? iiaeeeainoae
nooaeaio?a. Oea, ye i?aaeei, oanoia? caaaeaiiy o?ueio ??ai?a
neeaaeiino?, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiio, ?aeiino?oeoeaiiio ?
iiooeiaiio oeio i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?; ?icaeoie naiino?eiino?
nooaeaio?a ia iniia? ii?aeiaiiy ia?ii?, a?oiiai?, eieaeoeaii? oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oi?i ?iaioe; noeioethaaiiy aca?iiia?aa??ee,
naiieiio?ieth ? naiiaiae?co nooaeaioaie yeino? nai?? ?iaioe ? ??aiy
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee. O iicaaoaeeoi?iee /an iniiaiei caniaii
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? iaa/aiiy ? naiino?eia iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueia ?iaioa
nooaeaio?a.

5. Anoaoecaoe?y i?ioeano iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe,
ci???ioiaaia ia aeei?enoaiiy oi?i ? iaoiae?a, ui ni?eythoue oi?ioaaiith
iaaeaaia?/ii? eoeueoo?e iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey caniaaie ienoaoeoaa.
Caaaeyee aeeaieiio i?iieeiaiith ienoaoeoaa a i?ioean iaa/aiiy
noai?ththoueny iiaeeeaino? aeey aa?iii?eiiai anaa?/iiai ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino? nooaeaioa, ?aae?caoe?? eiai oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo.

Ia caiyooyo c aeenoeeie?i ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo aeeeaaea/?
aeei?enoiaothoue aeaiaioe oaao?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee, noai?ththoue ?a?ia?
neooaoe?? aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo i?iaeai. C iaoith oai?/iai
?icaeoeo nooaeaio?a canoiniaothoue iaa/aeueio ae?aiaoecaoe?th,
?ic?aoiaaio ia iineeaiiy ?oiueiai ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aiioe?eiiai
naiiae?aaeaiiy. Caiyooy ae?aiaoecaoe??th ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo /ooo?ai?
noa?e, oai?/i? oyae, oaaae, naiina?aeiiino? nooaeaio?a, ica?i?iith ?o
iaae/eaie ni?eeoaaiiy, a oaeiae naiieiio?ieth ? naii?aaoeyoe??, a/aoue
aeoiaoe, aeneiaethaaoe aeoiee, ii/oooy, aiioe??, e?aua ?icoi?oe ?ioeo
ethaeae, aeiiiiaaathoue aeeaoa i?iieeiooe o aioo??oi?e na?o
ia?niiaae?a, yeeo aiie cia?aaeothoue. Ia eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe oae? aeaee oaao?aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a: ?eoi?/io ae?aiaoecaoe?th, iaioii?io, ?ii?ia?caoe?th,
ae?aiaoecaoe?th, onio ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th, a?aeoai?aiiy ??cieo oa?aeoa??a.

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeia ae?yeuei?noue ni?ey? iiaeeaeaiith ? ?icoe?aiith
ciaiue c on?o aeenoeeie?i ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo, noeioeth?
?icaeoie oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo iniaenoino?. Aiia cae?enith?oueny i?ioyaii
onueiai ia??iaeo iaa/aiiy o aeuiio iaaeaaia?/iiio caeeaae? ? noaiiaeoue
nenoaio, yea ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy o nooaeaio?a oaeeo oi?iue: aiae?c
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e ? aena?oeaiiy eiai o ioae?/ieo aenooiao
? ?aoa?aoao; aea/aiiy i?aeoe/iiai noaio ?aae?caoe?? o??? /e ?ioi?
i?iaeaie o iaaeao oeiee; ca?? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo aeey
oni?oiiai ?ica’ycaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie; aena?oeaiiy
?acoeueoao?a iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo ? aeine?aeieoeueeeo iiooe?a o eo?nia?e
? aeeieiii?e ?iaioao c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

Iaa/aeueii-i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie a i?ioean?
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee, ui ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaaeaaia?/iiai
i?ioeano ? caaacia/o? ?aei?noue oai?aoe/ii? ? i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a. A?aoiaoth/e iaoo i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ia
no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, iiaeia noi?ioethaaoe oae?
caaaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee: ?icaeoie ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a; cae??ieaiiy ? caaaa/aiiy
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue o i?ioean? ?o aeei?enoaiiy; oi?ioaaiiy ?
?icaeoie i?ioan?eieo oi?iue ? iaae/ie; ae?iaeaiiy aeine?aeieoeueeiai
i?aeoiaeo aei iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?; iciaeiieaiiy c no/aniei noaiii
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe a ii/aoeia?e oeie?.

I?ae /an iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee nooaeaioe iiaeii? iaieiae?oe oaeeie
ai?iiyie: aecia/aoe iaoo ? caaaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano c
o?aooaaiiyi a?eiaeo oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ae?oae; aea/aoe
iniaeeaino? o/iy ? iiaeeeaino? eiai ?icaeoeo a eieaeoea?; ieaioaaoe
iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue; aeei?enoiaoaaoe ??ci? oi?ie ? iaoiaee
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano; ni?ai?aoethaaoe c o/iyie ?
a/eoaeyie; ia iniia? niinoa?aaeaiue aiae?coaaoe iaa/aeueii-aeoiaio
?iaioo, ei?aeooaaoe ??.

Ioa?aeoa?eciaaia o ?icae?e? iaoiaee/ia nenoaia i?aai?caoe?? i?ioeano
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i?
iniaenoino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey, yeee i?ioiaeeoue o nai?io i?ioan?eiiio
noaiiaeaii? iaaeaaia?/i? ??ai? oi?eino? ? iaenoa?iino?.

I’yoee ?icae?e – “?aae?caoe?y nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a a i?ioean? aenia?eiaioaeueii?
?iaioe” – i?noeoue oa?aeoa?enoeeo eia?/ieo noaae?e
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, ci?no
ae?yeueiino? ia eiaei?e c ieo, a oaeiae caniae eiio?ieth yeino?
canai?iiy ciaiue ? ci?no aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe.

?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ii? ia?aa??ee iniiaieo ?aeae nenoaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a
aeicaieythoue iai aiae?coaaoe ci?no oe??? i?aeaioiaee aei i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino? ia eiaei?e c ai?iaiaaieo noaae?e.

C iaoith aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie i?iaaaeaii
niaoe?aeueia iciaeiieaiiy aeeeaaea/?a eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??
ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy c ?ic?iaeaieie aeena?oaioii i?ia?aiaie,
iaoiaee/ieie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie ? i?aeoe/ia iaa/aiiy uiaei canoinoaaiiy
oano?a aeey eiio?ieth o oi?i? nai?ia?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a aeeth/aea i’youe noaae?e, yeei i?eoaiaiiee iaaiee
ci?no ?iaioe ? ye? ooai?ththoue iniaeeao oe?e?ni?noue.

Ia ia?o?e noaae?? oi?iothoueny ia?aeii? oyaeaiiy i?i iaaeaaia?/io
i?ioan?th, i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue o/eoaey, eiai iniaeno?noue o
eiioaeno? ae?aeaeoe/ii? aca?iiae?? ?c na?oiaith iaaeaaia?/iith
eoeueoo?ith oa ia iniia? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue. Iniiao,
iaaeiei yei? ?ioaa?othoueny ciaiiy c on?o ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i, neeaaea? eo?n “Oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee». Ia oe?e
noaae?? nooaeaioe ii?aoeueiaothoue ?icae?e “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae
iaaeaaia?ee”, ia?aeaeueii aea/athoue “Caaaeueio ineoieia?th” ? “Iniiae
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino?”, ui iciaeiieththoue c ?icaeoeii ineo?/ieo
i?ioean?a iniaenoino?, iaaeaaia?/iith oaoi?eith, iaenoa?i?noth iiaeaiiy
a/eoaey, aeaiaioaie aeoi?nueei? iaenoa?iino? a iaaeaaia?/i?e
ae?yeueiino?. E??i eiiieaenieo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue i?i
i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue a/eoaey, ia oe?e noaae?? oi?iothoueny oi?iiy
naiino?eii caeiaoaaoe ciaiiy ? i?iaiaeeoe iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Oi?iith ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue a
e?ioe? ia?oiai ?ieo iaa/aiiy ? i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??.

Ia ae?oa?e noaae?? oi?iothoueny oaoiieia?/i? ciaiiy i?i iniaeeaino?
i?aai?caoe?? oe?e?niiai iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ? iniaeno?noue
o/iy a iueiio. A oeae /an ca?iaeaeo?oueny iio?aaa a oai?aoe/ieo ciaiiyo
oa ?o ?ioaa?aoe?? c i?aeoeeith iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy, ?icaeaa?oueny
caeaoi?noue aei aenoiaiiy e iaa?oiooaaiiy ia
oai?aoeei-aenia?eiaioaeueiiio ??ai? naiai i?aeoiaeo aei ioe?iee
eiie?aoieo iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e. ?ioaa?oth/o iniiao neeaaea?
ianooiiee ?icae?e iniiaiiai eo?no – “Oe?e?niee iaaeaaia?/iee i?ioean”,
ui ia? ia iao? oi?ioaaiiy o iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey oe?e?niiai oyaeaiiy i?i
iniaeno?noue o/iy, oiiae ?? ?icaeoeo o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?
ii/aoeiai? oeiee. Oeueiio ni?ey? ii?aoethaaiiy eo?no “A?eiaa ?
iaaeaaia?/ia ineoieia?y” oa ?icae?e?a eo?no “Iniiae iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaenoa?iino?” (“I?aai?caoe?y iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae??”, “Oaoiieia?y
oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiei i?ioeanii”). Nooaeaioe iciaeiieththoueny
oaeiae c nenoaiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe
i?e aea/aii? eo?no “Iniiae iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue”, iaieiae?aathoue
niiniaaie aca?iiae?? a/eoaey ? o/i?a i?ae /an aaca?ae?eaii? i?aeoeee.
??aaiue canai?iiy ciaiue i?i oe?e?niee iaaeaaia?/iee i?ioean, i?aeoe/i?
oiiae eiai ?aae?caoe?? o ii/aoeia?e oeie? aecia/athoue a e?ioe?
iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo ca aeeiiaieie ?aoa?aoaie, ui ia?aaeaa/ai? iaa/aeueiei
ieaiii.

Ia o?ao?e noaae?? oi?iothoueny ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? ciaiiy oa oi?iiy
?iaioe c iniaeno?noth iieiaeoiai oeiey?a. Oea ia?aaeaa/a?:
iniaeno?nii-aoiaiio i???ioaoe?th nooaeaio?a, iieacieeii caaa?oaiino?
yei? ? noi?iiaai?noue aoiai?noe/iiai noaaeaiiy aei aeeoeie;
aeiaea?aeaiiy noa’?eo- noa’?eoieo a?aeiinei o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio
i?ioean?, oiaoi ae?aeia?/ii? oi?ie aca?iiae?? ye c eieaaaie, oae ? c
o/iyie; aecia/aiiy i?ioan?eii? oe?iiino? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue.
Oe? caaaeaiiy iai?aaeai? ia oi?ioaaiiy ciaiue i?i ?aae?caoe?th
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?.
Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? ciaiiy iaaoaathoue ooo ocaaaeueiaiiai, oe?e?niiai
oa?aeoa?o ? ni?yiiaai? ia ?o i?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy. Nooaeaioe i?ae /an
aaca?ae?eaii? i?aeoeee ?ic?iaeythoue ?iaeea?aeoaeueio i?ia?aio aeoiaaiiy
? ?icaeoeo iieiaeoiai oeiey?a. ?acoeueoaoe canai?ieo oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue
? i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue nooaeaio ocaaaeueith? a eo?nia?e ?iaio? c
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

*aoaa?oa noaae?y ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith o nooaeaio?a
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue i?aeoe/ii? ?iaioe c o/iyie ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a, aaeineiiaeaiith ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai naii?icaeoeo ia iniia?
aea/aiiy aeaeoeaieo niaoeeo?n?a ? niaoenai?ia??a.
I?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? oi?iiy oi?iothoueny a i?ioean? aea/aiiy iaoiaeee
aeeeaaeaiiy eiie?aoieo aeenoeeie?i, a oaeiae a i?ioean? aeoeaii?
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee. A oeae /an nooaeaioe ?ic?iaeythoue aeanio
iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. ?acoeueoaoe ocaaaeueiththoue a
eo?nia?e ?iaio?.

Inoaiiy noaae?y ni?yiiaaia ia i?ioan?eia naiiaecia/aiiy, oi?ioaaiiy
eiioeaiooaeueieo caaeoi?a, ci???ioiaaieo ia iaeaooith iaaeaaia?/io
ae?yeuei?noue. ?? iniiaia iaoa – ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?y
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue oa oi?iue ?o canoiniaoaaoe a i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? c o/iyie ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. Iiaeeaeaiiy ? eiie?aoecaoe?y
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue a?aeaoaa?oueny a i?ioean? aea/aiiy
niaoeeo?n?a ca aeai?ii. I?aeoe/i? oi?iiy a?aei?aoeueiaothoueny i?ae /an
aeoeaii? iaaei?aeoeee. ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaiiy aeeieiiii? ?iaioe ia oe?e
noaae?? aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe aioiai?noue nooaeaioa aei ?aae?caoe??
oe?e?niiai iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano o ii/aoeia?e oeie?, na?ae/aoue
i?i ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eieo oi?iue oa eoeueoo?o iaeaooiueiai
a/eoaey, aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoue ??aaiue i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue o ii/aoeia?e oeie?.

I?ae /an ia?aa??ee aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a
canoiniaoaaeenue ??ci? oeyoe eiio?ieth. Oae, a i?ioean? canai?iiy ?
ioe?iee oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue, i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue ? iaae/ie ia an?o noaae?yo
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee c aeenoeeie?i ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo a
eiio?ieueieo a?oiao aeei?enoiaoaaeanue o?aaeeoe?eia /ioe?eaaeueia
nenoaia, a a aenia?eiaioaeueieo – ?aeoeiaiaa. Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
eiio?ieueieo c??c?a, ye? ia?aaeaa/aee aeyaeaiiy ??aiy nenoaiiino? ciaiue
? oi?iue, ioe?ithaaeueii?, i?aeoe/ii? ? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
ae?yeueiino?, aoee ?ic?iaeai? a?aeiia?aei? e?eoa???.

O ?icae?e? iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee
aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. O aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoaoe iaaeaaia?/iiai
aenia?eiaioo ocaaaeueiai? a 10 oaaeeoeyo oa a iaeiiio ?enoieo.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? iaea?aeai? ia iniia? aea/aiiy oa ii??aiyiiy
?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?, iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ? i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? 386 nooaeaio?a. Eiio?ieue cae?enithaaany nenoaiaoe/ii ia
iniia? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aecaiai?a, cae?e?a, aenia?eiaioaeueieo
eiio?ieueieo ? naiino?eieo ?ia?o, ?aoa?ao?a, eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo
?ia?o. Aieiaiee eiio?ieue cae?enithaaany ca aeiiiiiaith eiinoaooth/eo
c??c?a, ye? i?iaiaeeeeny a e?ioe? ia?oi?, o?aouei? ? i’yoi? noaae?e
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?. C oe??th iaoith
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oanoia? caaaeaiiy c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i, ui ia?aaeaa/aee ieoaiiy o?ueio ??ai?a neeaaeiino?: ia?oee
??aaiue – aeueoa?iaoeai? oanoia? caaaeaiiy (i?aaeeueiino? ?
iiieeeiaino?) i?i iaaeaaia?/i? yaeua ? oaeoe, aeaeaoieo iaaeaaia?a, ye?
aeiaaathoue o nai?o i?inoeo aa??aioao aea?? ? eiie?aoi? a?aeiia?ae?
“oae” /e “i?”; ae?oaee ??aaiue – oanoe c aeaia?/iei aeai?ii, c aeiiaaie
iiynieoe iaai? iaaeaaia?/i? yaeua ? oaeoe, aeienaoe ?o o iaai?e eia?/i?e
aai o?iiieia?/i?e iine?aeiaiino?; o?ao?e ??aaiue – oanoe oai?/iai
oa?aeoa?o, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue ii??aiyiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo i?ioean?a ? yaeu,
?o aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy, ioe?ieo ? oa?aeoa?enoeeo a ?icaeoeo.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia?oiai eiio?ieueiiai
c??co ? inoaiiueiai, i?ney oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo, iieaco? aeeiai?eo
oi?ioaaiiy ??ai?a i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? eoeueoo?e nooaeaio?a ia
iniia? aieiae?iiy ieie nenoaiieie ciaiiyie ? oi?iiyie ioe?ithaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, ui a?aeia?aaeaii a oaaeeoe? 1.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aeeiai?ea oi?ioaaiiy ??ai?a i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? eoeueoo?e
nooaeaio?a

??ai?

noi?iiaaiino? E?euee?noue nooaeaio?a, ui aeinyaee iaaiiai ??aiy ciaiue ?
oi?iue ia ii/aoeo ? i?ney oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo (o
%)i?ioan?eii-Aenia?eiaioaeuei?Eiio?ieuei?iaaeaaia?/ii?Ie-12-52Ie-14-54Ie
-15-55Ie-11-51eoeueoo?eii/ao.i?neyii/ao.i?neyii/ao.i?neyii/aoi?ney?ai?ia
eoeoeaiee70,221,370,619,270,819,570,557,2?aeiino?oeoeaiee24,537,622,430,
323,035,022,123,3Iiooeiaee5,341,17,050,56,245.57,419,5

Aiae?c ?ia?o nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi iieacaa, ui a ieo
noi?ioaaany aeuee ??aaiue i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? eoeueoo?e (ca iaoeie
aeaieie, ia iiooeiaiio ??ai? c?inoaiiy noaiiaeoue 35%), ine?eueee ?oi?
ciaiiy nenoaiaoe/ii ocaaaeueithaaeeny a i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? nenoaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. O
nooaeaio?a eiio?ieueieo a?oi a?aeaoeenue iacia/i? ci?ie a iaieiae?ii?
oi?iiyie naiino?eii ocaaaeueithaaoe, ioe?ithaaoe ? aeiaiaeeoe
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? ciaiiy (c?inoaiiy noaiiaeoue 12%).

E??i e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a, ia inoaiiueiio aoai? oi?ioth/iai
aenia?eiaioo niinoa??aaeinue cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy ye?nieo iieaciee?a
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a, cie?aia: oai?/i? naiino?eiino?, ui aeyaeyeany o
iiooeo aoaeoeaieo cania?a i?aai?caoe?? oe?e?niiai iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano c iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie, ?i?oe?aoeaiino? a eiai ieaioaaii? ?
cae?eniaii? aeanii? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?. O oiae? oi?ioth/iai
aenia?eiaioo nooaeaioe iieacaee i?oeia ? aeeaiea canai?iiy ciaiue c
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, oi?iiy ?o canoiniaoaaoe a iiaeo
iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?yo i?e cae?eniaii? iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy o/i?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a o?ueio eiinoaooth/eo c??c?a ia?aeiieeai aeiaiaeeoue,
ui a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao a?aeaoaaeiny iino?eia c?inoaiiy ??aiy
canai?iiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue. A i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a a?aecia/aany eiiieaeniee oe?eueiaee i?aeo?ae o canoinoaaii?
oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue ? i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue. Aiia aoea ni?yiiaaia ia
aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a ?ica’ycaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo caaaeaiue,
a?aeai?o ? canoinoaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino?. Ioaea, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe aenieee ??aaiue ona?aeiieaiiy
nooaeaioaie iaaooiai aeina?aeo a i?ioean? aeei?enoaiiy nenoaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue i?aenoaao aaaaeaoe, ui
aeo?aeia iaoiaeieia?y i?aaeeueia, eiioeaioe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aeia,
aecia/ai? caaaeaiiy ?aae?ciaaii, iaoa aeinyaiooa, noeoii?noue io?eiaieo
iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey iaaeaaia?ee i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe.

AENIIAEE

1. Ia no/aniiio aoai? aeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa noaaeyoueny
i?eioeeiiai iia? aeiiae aei iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a. Aeu?e oeie?
iio??aii a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae iaaooeo noa?aioei?a o i?aeaioiaoe? iaeaooi?o
niaoe?ae?no?a ? oae i?aai?ciaoaaoe iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean, uia
nooaeaioe i?ieoee an? noaae?? i?ioan?eiiai noaiiaeaiiy, ye? a
caaacia/oaaee oi?ioaaiiy a ieo oe?e?niiai aeina?aeo naiino?eii?
ae?yeueiino?. Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a caaacia/o?oueny ca oiiae ii?aoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
iaoeiaeo canaae: ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iiai aiae?co, ocaaaeueiaiiy
ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo oa iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? nenoaie.

2. Aiae?c ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo e?oa?aoo?ieo oa ?ioeo aeaea?ae
iieacaa, ui aeoiaaoaeai iiaea noaoe eiaeia ethaeeia, iacaeaaeii a?ae ??
iaaeaaia?/ieo cae?aiinoae. I?i oea yne?aai na?ae/eoue aeina?ae
noa?iaeaaiuei? ? na?aaeiueia?/ii? aiioe. I?aai ae aooe a/eoaeai
caaacia/othoue niaoe?aeueiith i?ioan?eiith i?aeaioiaeith, yea
nenoaiaoe/ii ii/aea cae?enithaaoeny a a?eueoino? e?a?i na?oo a e?ioe?
XVIII – ia ii/aoeo XIX noie?ooy.

3. A ?noi??? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey
ie aeae?ey?ii /ioe?e aoaie.

Ia?oee aoai – aeiiaoeiaee, a?aeiia?aea? ia??iaeo ?noi??? noa?iaeaaiueiai
na?oo, eiee iaa?iiaaeaeo?oueny aii??e/iee aeina?ae aeoiaaiiy ? iaa/aiiy,
a a o?aeoaoao o?einio?a aioe/iiai na?oo ciaoiaeeii aeoiee no/anii?
oai?aoe/ii? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee.

Ae?oaee aoai – i?ina?oieoeueeee, a?aeiia?aea? ?noi?e/iiio ia??iaeo
na?aaeiueia?//y. Aioe/ia eoeueoo?a iioe?th?oueny ? ?icaeaa?oueny a
e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, aea caeeaaea?oueny ooiaeaiaio no/anii?
na?oiai? oeea?e?caoe??. Oi?iothoueny oai?aoe/i? eiioeaioe?? aeoiaaiiy ?
iaa/aiiy, ca?iaeaeo?oueny eeane/ia iaaeaaia?ea.

O?ao?e aoai – iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee, a?aeiia?aea? ia??iaeo ?noi??? iiaiai
/ano, i?aeaioiaee ? ?icaeoeo ?iaeono??aeueii? oeea?e?caoe?? a ?a?ii?.
Ca?iaeaeo?oueny nenoaia niaoe?aeueii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiai?
oeiee, c’yaeythoueny a/eoaeuenuee? nai?ia???. Aaaaoi oaaae i?eae?eythoue
aaeineiiaeaiith iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey, iaieiae?iith
iei ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieie ciaiiyie.

*aoaa?oee aoai –i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiai? oeiee,
ia??iae iia?oiuei? ?noi???, a e?ioe? yeiai ii/aee aeyaeyoeny ia?ene
iiai? oeea?e?caoe??; e?a?ie Caoiaeo i?iaeiaaeothoue oo?eioaaoe
e?aea?noai a na?oiaiio noni?eueiiio aeeoo?, cie?aia ? a aaeoc? ina?oe.
Noai?ththoueny nenoaii? eiioeaioe?? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, a ia ?o
iniia? – oai??? i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey.

4. Aea/aiiy ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo iieacaei, ui ia?o? niaoe?aeuei?
iaaeaaia?/i? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee aoei ooai?aii e?a?iaie
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? oeea?e?caoe?? o XVII- XVIII noie?ooyo, a a XIX no.
?icii/aoi ianiao i?aeaioiaeo a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. O ia?o?e
iieiaei? XX no. oe? o/eoae? io?eioaaee na?aaeith iaaeaaia?/io ina?oo, a
a no/anieo oiiaao ae?aaeaia oaiaeaioe?y ia?aoiaeo aei aeui?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, ye i?aaeei, oi?aa?neoaonueeiai oeio.

On? iai?yie iaaeaaia?/ii? oai??? ni?eyee oaeineiiaeaiith nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ? ianaiia?aae – ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?. Ia
ii/aoeo XX no. on? oeie iaa/aeueieo iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a acyee ia
ica?i?iiy ineoieia?th ye iaa/aeueiee i?aaeiao, a a 20-30-o? ?iee –
iaaeaaia?eo.

5. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeina?aeo a?o/eciyii? ? ca?oa?aeii? i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a o ??ci? ?noi?e/i? aiioe ia?aeiio?:

· O XIX no. ? aei na?aaeeie XX no. a/eoaey aiooaaee ye ia?aaeaaa/a
ciaiue, ? oiio a iaa/aeueieo ieaiao ina?oi?o caeeaae?a ia?aaaaeaei
oi?ioaaiiy oaoiaeo ciaiue ? oi?iue. Aaoi?eoa?i? noni?euenoaa
ii?iaeaeoaaee aaoi?eoa?iiai a/eoaey, yeee iaa neaaeo i?ioan?eio
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/io ? o?einionueeo i?aeaioiaeo. O a?o/eciyi?e nenoai?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey oaeee noai caa??aaany aei e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a XX no.

· Ia?aiiaa iaae oioae?oa?ieie ?aaeeiaie o ae?oa?e na?oia?e a?ei? ni?eyea
a?ae?iaeaeaiith a e?a?iao Cao?aeii? oeea?e?caoe?? aeaiie?aoe/ieo,
aoiaiieo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, cie?aia ? a aaeoc? ina?oe. I??i?eoaoieie
iai?yie i?aai?caoe?? ina?oe a ieo ?: aaaaoi??aiaa?noue o i?aeaioiaoe?
a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ? ia?ao?ae aei ??aiy oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe;
aa??aoeai?noue iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai ? iiae??aiai?noue iaaeaaia?/ieo
eo?n?a; aeaeoeaiee i?eioeei ina?oe, c iaeiiai aieo, e ?ioaa?aoe?ei?
i?ioeane, c ?ioiai; oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue naiino?eii caeiaoaaoe ciaiiy a
i?ioean? oai?aoe/ii? ? i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

· Iiaee eiioeaiooaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei oi?ioaaiiy no/anii? a?o/eciyii?
nenoaie i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ci???ioiaaiee ia ?ioaa?aoe?th a
na?oiao iaaeaaia?/io nenoaio e aeooiaii-?ioaeaeooaeueia i?iaoaeaeaiiy
iniaenoino?, a?aeiiaeaiiy caaaeueiiethaenueeeo ? iaoe?iiaeueieo
oe?iiinoae.

6. Iaaeaaia?/ia ina?oa iiaeiia aeaaaoe nenoaii? ciaiiy i?i ethaeeio ye
noa’?eoa ina?oiueiai i?ioeano, ui aeeth/a? iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy.
Nenoaii?noue caaea?oueny ia o?eueee aeeth/aiiyi a?aeiia?aeieo
aeenoeeie?i o iaa/aeuei? ieaie, a e on?i eiioaenoii iaa/aiiy a
iaaeaaia?/iiio caeeaae? ina?oe, eiee eiaeio aeenoeeie?io
?icaeyaeathoue, c iaeiiai aieo, ye can?a caaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo iaeaooi?o
o/eoae?a, a c ?ioiai, — ye iniiao ?oiuei? iiaeaeueoi? ae?yeueiino?,
ni?yiiaaii? ia ?icaeoie o/iy.

Cae?eniaiee aiae?c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, i?aeoe/ieo ? oai?aoe/ieo
/eiiee?a, oai?aoe/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey
aeicaieea aeiaanoe, ui a/eoaeue ii/aoeiaeo eean?a o nai?io i?ioan?eiiio
noaiiaeaii? iiaeiai i?ieoe an? ina?oiuei-eaae?o?eaoe?ei? ??ai? a?ae
iieiaeoiai niaoe?ae?noa aei iaa?no?a.

Ci?no ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i iano?eueee aca?iica’ycaiee, ui
?aeeii i?aaeeueiei oeyoii ? ?oiy aioo??oiy ? ciai?oiy ?ioaa?aoe?y,
eio?a ona?aeiieth?oueny ye i?ioean ii?aeiaiiy ? caeeaeaiiy ie?aieo
/anoei a ?aeeia oe?ea. Oiaoi ci?no noaiiaeoue nenoaio, iniiaieie
i?eioeeiaie yei? ?: oe?e?ni?noue, ui caaacia/o? ca’ycie i?ae
iaaeaaia?/ieie yaeuaie ? i?ioeanaie, ni?yiiaaieie ia oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey; no?oeoo?i?noue ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee, iiaeaii? o?ueiia aeieaie (caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? ciaiiy,
iaaeaaia?ei-oaoiieia?/i? ciaiiy, aacia? i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? ai?iiy);
?ioaa?aoeai?noue, ui iieyaa? a ?aeiino? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeei?i; ???a?o?/i?noue ye i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue iaei??? ina?oiuei?
nenoaie ?io?e.

7. Ii?aoeueiaaia eiioeaiooaeueia iiaeaeue nenoaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ?
aaaaoianiaeoiith ? ia?aaeaa/a? aaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e, ci?noo, oi?i ?
iaoiae?a i?aai?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano. Aiia ?aae?co?oueny ia
iniia? eiiieaenii? oe?eueiai? i?ia?aie, yea ? oe?e?niith nenoaiith ?
ci???ioiaaia ia aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea – oea ooieoe?iiaeueia nenoaia, ui
caaacia/o? oe?e?nio i?aeaioiaeo aei iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe c o/iyie
a i?ioean? eiiieaenii? i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a o aeuiio
caeeaae? ina?oe. Oe?e?niee i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? a/eoaey
a?oioo?oueny ia ?ioaa?aoe?? ? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ci?noo eiai
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ? caaaeueiieoeueoo?iiio ?icaeoeo.

8. Noai?aii iaoiaee/io nenoaio ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ? iaa?oioiaai? iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae, ye?
aecia/athoue noa’?eo-noa’?eoi? a?aeiineie a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
iaaeaaia?/iiai caeeaaeo.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui aoaeoeai?noue iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe caeaaeeoue a?ae
oiia ?? i?aai?caoe??, cie?aia a i?ioean? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe
?aae?ciaaii oaeo nenoaio i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
nooaeaio?a: ia ia?oiio eo?n? – ciaeiieee c iniaeeainoyie ?iaioe c
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iith e?oa?aoo?ith, aea/aee iocaei? aeniiceoe??,
a?o?ai? oiiaee, iaieiae?ee oi?iiyie aeine?aeaeoaaoe ?icaeoie ii/aoeiai?
ina?oe nai?? i?noeaaino?; ia ae?oaiio – aea/aee eo?n “Iniiae iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue”, iae?aee oaio iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii?aoeueiaoaaee
e?oa?aoo?o, aiae?c yei? aena?oethaaee a ?aoa?ao?; ia o?aoueiio – aea/aee
noai ?aae?caoe?? ia?aii? i?iaeaie a i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe ii/aoeiai? oeiee,
i?iaiaeeee eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aena?oethaaee o eo?nia?e ?iaio? c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i;
ia /aoaa?oiio – ?ic?iaeyee aeanio iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie,
cae?enithaaee ?? ai?iaaoe?th i?ae /an aeoeaii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee,
iaoiaeeeo ? ?acoeueoaoe ?? ia?aa??ee aena?oethaaee o eo?nia?e ?iaio?; ia
i’yoiio eo?n? – i?iaiaeeee oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio ? ?acoeueoaoe
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe ca aanue ia??iae ocaaaeueithaaee a aeeieiii?e
?iaio?.

Cai?iiiiiaai? aeaee iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aeoee ni?eyee ae??oaiith oaeeo
caaaeaiue: iiaeeaethaaeeny ? nenoaiaoecoaaeeny ciaiiy c
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, oi?ioaaeeny oi?iiy ? iaae/ee
niinoa??aaoe ? aiae?coaaoe iaaeaaia?/iee i?ioean, i?iaiicoaaoe,
ieaioaaoe ? ei?aaoaaoe aeanio iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue, ae?iaeoe
?iaeea?aeoaeueiee noeeue ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao aeoeaii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
aca?iiae??.

9. Aiane?aeie ai?iaaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii? nenoaie, ui o?eaaea i?ioyaii i’yoe
?ie?a (c 1992 ?. ii 1997 ?.), ie aeae?eeee oiiaii i’youe noaae?e
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.
Aeiaea?aeaiiy aeeeaaeaii? a ieo eia?ee ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith a iueiai iaae/ie oai?/ino?,
iia’ycaii? c ?aea?th oai?aiiy iniaenoino? aeeoeie, oi?iiy ?ic?iaeyoe
aaoi?nuee? iaoiaeeee, eiino?othaaoe ? ?aeiino?othaaoe iaaeaaia?/iee
i?ioean, noai?thaaoe iia? i?ia?aie, ui caaacia/othoue aenieee ??aaiue
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? eoeueoo?e iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey.

10. ?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aeiaaee, ui nenoaia
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ni?ey?
oi?ioaaiith aioiaiino? aei iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe c iieiaeoeie
oeiey?aie. A?aeiia?aeii, iaa/ath/enue o aeuiio iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae?,
nooaeaioe iaieiae?ee ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieie ai?iiyie, iio??aieie aeey
aa?iii?eiiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oeiey?a ? i?ioan?eiiai
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy.

11. Cia/ouei iieacieeii ?acoeueoaoeaiino? aeine?aeieoeueeeo iaoiaeee
aecia/aii ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? i?i?oan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? eoeueoo?e
nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo oaeoeueoao?a, ui aecia/aany ia iniia? aeyaeaiiy
nenoaiiino? ciaiue, oi?iue cae?enithaaoe ioe?ithaaeueio ? i?aeoe/io
ae?yeuei?noue.

Ocaaaeueiai? i?ii?aei? ? i?aenoieia? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo
i?aeoaa?aeeee aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii? nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

12. Aiae?c i?iaeaie ia ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iiio, iaoiaeieia?/iiio ?
i?aeoe/iiio ??ai? i?aeoaa?aeea a?iioaco i?i oa, ui i?ioan?eia
i?aeaioiaea iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa aoaea aoaeoeaiith ca oiia
?aae?caoe?? oe?e?nii? nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ia o?ueio ??aiyo (iaa/aeueiiio, iaoeiaiio,
i?aeoe/iiio) i?e aeio?eiaii? iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia iaoiaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy.

Aeae?eai? a aeine?aeaeaii? i?aai?caoe?ei? ? ci?noiai-i?ioeanoaeuei?
noaae?? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? iathoue
cia/aiiy ia o?eueee aeey i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, a e aeey
an??? nenoaie aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe.

Iaa?oioiaai? o iiiia?ao??, iaoeiaeo noaooyo aoaie noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey iiaeooue iaaeaoe aeiiiiiao a
iie?ioaii? oai?aoe/ii? ? iaoiaee/ii? iniiae aeey aecia/aiiy oeyo?a
iiaeaeueoiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaei ciiao noi?ioaaoe ?yae i?iiiceoe?e uiaei
iaiao?aeiino? aaaaoi??aiaai? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a,
eiino?othaaiiy ci?noo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey o
caeeaaeao ina?oe O ? 1O ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??, noai?aiiy iaoiaee/ii?
nenoaie i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ? iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia, ye? aecia/athoue noa’?eo-noa’?eoi? a?aeiineie o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?.

Cae?eniaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ae/a?io? an?o aniaeo?a i?iaeaie i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. Iaaeae? aeioe?eueii
aeine?aeaeoaaoe oae? i?iaeaie: ?ic?iaea eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe; noai?aiiy no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? iiaeae?
aacia?a?aii? aaaaoi??aiaai? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a;
iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaee/ii? iniiae ?ioaa?aoe?? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?
oaoiai? iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

I. Iiiia?ao??:

1. Oiie/ E.I. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a. – E.: Iaa?no? – S, 1998. – 200n.- 11,62 aao.a?e.

II. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iin?aieee, i?ia?aie ? iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??:

2. Oiie/ E.I. Noaiiaeaiiy aeioe?eueiiai aeoiaaiiy a Oe?a?i? //
Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aeioe?eueiiai aeoiaaiiy: Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee
iin?aiee. – E?aiai/oe. – 1995. – N.7-13.- 0,35 aao.a?e.

3. I?aai?caoe?y iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue: I?ia?aia eo?no ? iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? / I?aeaio. E.I. Oiie/. — Iieoaaa, 1996.- 35n.- 1,5
aao.a?e.

4. Oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee: I?ia?aia eo?no / I?aeaio. E.I. Oiie/,
I.I. Eauaiei. – Iieoaaa, 1996. – 36n.- 2,25 aao.a?e.(aaoi?nueeeo – 2.0.
aao.a?e.).

5. Oiie/ E.A., Eiaaeaiei A.I. Eo?niaay ?iaioa – aaaeiia n?aaenoai
eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee iao/aiey //Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee iao/aiey. – Iieoaaa. — 1989. – N.33-34.- 0.2
aao.a?e.(aaoi?nueeeo – 0,1 aao.a?e.).

6. Eiaaeaiei A.I., Oiie/ E.A. E i?iaeaia iiauoaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiie
iiaeaioiaee nooaeaioia //Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oneeaieth
i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia a oneiaeyo ia?ano?ieee
aunoaai ia?aciaaiey. – Iieoaaa. – 1990. – N.42-45.- 0.25 aao.a?e.
(aaoi?nueeeo – 0,1 aao.a?e.).

7. Eiaaeaiei A.I., Oiie/ E.A., Aeoaeiee E.I. ?ieue e ianoi i?iaeaiiie
neooaoeee a aeoeaecaoeee iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia ia
eaeoeeyo //O/aaiia caiyoea – eaeei aio auoue? Iaoiaee/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee. – Iieoaaa. – 1990. – N.9-12.- 0,25 aao.a?e. (aaoi?nueeeo
– 0,1 aao.a?e.).

8. Oiie/ E.A., Eiaaeaiei A.I. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua caiyoey ni nooaeaioaie
– iooue e aoiaiecaoeee iaaeaaiae/aneiai i?ioeanna a aoca //Aoiaiecaoeey
eae iaeii ec aeaaiuo iai?aaeaiee ia?ano?ieee aunoae oeieu:
Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. – Iieoaaa. – 1990. – N.56-57.- 0,2
aao.a?e.(aaoi?nueeeo – 0,1 aao.a?e.).

III. Iaoeia? noaoo?, oace:

9. Oiie/ E.I. I?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a //Ii/aoeiaa oeiea. – 1999 . – ? 5 . – N.55-57. – 0,35
aao.a?e.

10.Oiie/ E.I. ?aae?caoe?y ?aeae A.N.Iaea?aiea a nenoai?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a
//Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y. – 1998. — ?1. – N.162-170. — 0,45 aao.a?e.

11.Oiie/ E.I. Oeea?e?caoe?ei? i?ioeane ? ?icaeoie i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey //??aeia oeiea. – 1998. — ?7-8 . – N.76-78. — 0,45
aao.a?e.

12.Oiie/ E.I. ?ieue ienoaoeoaa o i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
a/eoaey //Ienoaoeoai oa ina?oa. – 1998. — ?4 .- N.50-53.- 0,4 aao.a?e.

13. Oiie/ E.I. Aei ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano a
iaaeaaia?/iiio aoc? //Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. –
1997. — ?3-– *anoeia II. – N.43-48.- 0,45 aao.a?e.

14. Oiie/ E.I. ?icaeoie iaoeiaiai na?oiaeyaeo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
//Ii/aoeiaa oeiea. – 1991. — ?11 – N.6-7.- 0,3 aao.a?e.

15.. Oiie/ E.I. Caaaeuei? i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? i?ioeano
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey //Ca. Iaoe. i?aoeue:
Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. A.A. Ei?ieaiea.
Na??y “Iaaeaaia?/i? iaoee”. – Iieoaaa. – 1999. – Aei. 1(5). –
N.110-119. – 0,4 aao. a?e.

16. Oiie/ E.I. ?aae?caoe?y aeoiaiiai iioaioe?aeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo o
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e i?aeaioiaoe? a/eoaey //Oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e iieiae? caniaaie ia?iaeiiai ienoaoeoaa o eiioaeno? oai?/i?
niaaeueie A.I. Aa?oiaeioey: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. — Iieoaaa: Aeaeaiiy
Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. A.A. Ei?ieiaiea,
1999.- N.170-175.- 0,3 aao.a?e.

17. Oiie/ E.I. Anoaoe/i? aniaeoe a nenoai? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a //Oai??y ? i?aeoeea no/aniiai
anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy o eiioeaioe?? iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie Aaneey
Nooiieeinueeiai: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue.- Iieoaaa. – 1998.-N.25-30 .-0,45
aao.a?e.

18. Oiie/ E.I. Ooai?aiiy ia?oeo niaoe?aeueieo iaaeaaia?/ieo
ia-a/aeueieo caeeaae?a o e?a?iao aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey // Iaoeia?
caienee ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. – Iieoaaa. – 1998. –
N.406-410.- 0,35 aao.a?e.

19. Oiie/ E.I. Iaoea //Iieoaanueea iaeanoue: i?e?iaea, ianaeaiiy,
ainiiaea?noai. Aaia?ao?/iee oa ?noi?eei-aeiiii?/iee ia?en. – 2-a aeae.,
aeiiia. ? ia?a?ia.- Iieoaaa: Iieoaanueeee e?oa?aoi?. – 1998.-
N.219-223.- 0,35 aao.a?e

20. Oiie/ E.I. C ?noi??? aeeeaaeaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i //Iaoeia? caienee ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo:
Ca.noaoae. – O 3-o /anoeiao. – Iieoaaa. – 1997. – *anoeia I – N.47-51.-
0,35 aao.a?e.

21 Oiie/ E.I. Oe?a?ia – Aiae?y – NOA: i?iaeaia i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey // Ae?aeia eoeueoo?. Oe?a?ia o na?oiaiio eiioaeno?:
I?aeaoc. ca. iaoe. i?aoeue.– Euea?a.: Eaiaiy?. – 1996. –Aei. 2.–
N.193-196.- 0,25 aao.a?e.

22 Oiie/ E.I. I?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a: ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee aniaeo // Oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao oa aeioe?eueieo
caeeaaeao: Ca. Noaoae. – Iieoaaa. – 1996. – N.46-52. — 0,45 aao.a?e.

23 Eauaiei I.I., Oiie/ E.A. Aiia?aaeaiea e oaioacey eae n?aaenoai
oi?ie?iaaiey oai?/aneie ee/iinoe ieaaeoaai oeieueieea // Aeooaeueiua
i?iaeaiu ia/aeueiie oeieu: Iaaeaeoia?. iao/. iaoiae. na. noaoae. –
Iieoaaa. – 1994. – N.175-181.- 0,5 aao.a?e.(aaoi?nueeeo – 0,25
aao.a?e.).

24 Oiie/ E.I. Iaoea //Iieoaanueea iaeanoue: i?e?iaea, ianaeaiiy,
ainiiaea?noai. – Iieoaaa. – 1993. – N.218-223.- 0,45 aao.a?e.

25 Eeoaeiaiei I.N., Oiie/ E.I., *a?iiaa I.N. Anoaoecaoe?y
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano – noa?iaeaaiy o?aaeeoe?y oe?a?inueeeo
neia’yi // Neia’yinueea eoeueoo?a: caeiaooee ? ao?aoe: Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio.– Iieoaaa. – 1996. –O.2. – N.399-402.- 0,3
aao.a?e. (aaoi?nueeeo – 0,2 aao.a?e).

26 Oiie/ E.I., Ea?aiociaa I.Ae. I?aeiniaeno?nia ni?eeoaaiiy o
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? //?aei?noue iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? o
oe?e?niiio iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?. iaoe.-i?aeo.
eiio. – Iieoaaa. — 1995. – N.18-20. — 0,2 aao.a?e.(aaoi?nueeeo – 0,1
aao.a?e.).

27 Eiaaeaiei A.I., Oiie/ E.I. Iineeeoe aeieia?caoe?th ina?oe nooaeaio?a
// Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino? oa iia? i?aeoiaee aei
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o aeu?e oeie?: Iaoa??aee XXI
iaoe.-iaoiae. eiio. – Iieoaaa. — 1994. – N.89-90.- 0,2
aao.a?e.(aaoi?nueeeo – 0,1 aao.a?e.).

28. Oiie/ E.I. I?iaeaie iaeieiiieaeoii? ii/aoeiai? oeiee //I?iaeaie
n?euenueeeo iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a: Oace Anaoe?. iaoe.-i?aeo.
eiio. – Iieoaaa. — 1994. – N.45-47.- 0,15 aao.a?e.

29. Oiie/ E.I., Ea?aiociaa I.Ae. I?aeaioiaea nooaeaio?a aei
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?e ni?eeoaaiiy o n?i’? //Oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/i?
iniiae oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyieia Oe?a?ie: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?. iaoe.-i?aeo.
eiio.- Iieoaaa. — 1993. — N.88-90.- 0,2 aao.a?e.(aaoi?nueeeo – 0,1
aao.a?e.).

30. Eiaaeaiei A.I., Oiie/ E.I. Oeyoe eiio?ieth yeino? ciaiue nooaeaio?a
o aoc? // Iiene iooae niaa?oainoaiaaiey iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia a
oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uieo: Ca. noaoae. – Iieoaaa. — 1993. – N.67-69.-
0,3 aao.a?e.(aaoi?nueeeo – 0,15 aao.a?e.).

31. Oiie/ E.I. I?aai?caoe?y iaoeiai? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a ia
iaaeaaia?/iiio oaeoeueoao? //?icaoaeiaa iaoe?iiaeueii? ii/aoeiai? oeiee:
Iaoa??aee Anaoe?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. – Iieoaaa. — 1993. – N.220-222.-
0,15 aao.a?e.

32. Oiie/ E.I. Oe?e?nia iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea ye iniiaa oi?ioaaiiy
i?ciaaaeueii? aeoeaiino? nooaeaio?a // Oe?e?niee i?aeo?ae aei oi?ioaaiiy
i?ciaaaeueii? aeoeaiino? oeiey??a oa nooaeaio?a: Oace ?ani. iaoe.-i?aeo.
eiio. – Oa?e?a. — 1993. –N.114-116.- 0,2 aao.a?e.

33. Oiie/ E.A., Eiaaeaiei A.I. I iaaeaaiae/aneii aicaeaenoaee ia
oi?ie?iaaiea ee/iinoe nooaeaioa //I?iaeaiu aoiaiecaoeee aunoaai
ia?aciaaiey e i?aanoaaiiia ainieoaiea: Iaoa?eaeu iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. –
Iieoaaa,. -1992. – N.114-115.- 0,2 aao.a?e.(aaoi?nueeeo – 0,1 aao.a?e.).

34. Oiie/ E.I., Eiaaeaiei A.I. Aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? oa?i?iieia?? ia
oaeoeueoao? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a //Iiaa a nenoai?
ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy: Oace ?anioa. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. – Iieoaaa. —
1991.- N.39-40.- 0,2 aao.a?e. (aaoi?nueeeo – 0,1 aao.a?e.).

35. Oiie/ E.I., Eauaiei I.I. Iiaa?iaiiy caaooeo ?iai o aoc?anueeee eo?n
iaaeaaia?ee //Aeei?enoaiiy niaaeueie caaooeo ?
iiaa?iooeo ae?y/?a iaoee oa eoeueoo?e a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? aoco oa
oeiee : Oace ?anioa. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. – ??aia. — 1991. –*.??. —
N.154-156.- 0,2 aao.a?e.(aaoi?nueeeo – 0,1 aao.a?e.).

36. Oiie/ E.I., Eiaaeaiei A.I. Aeei?enoaiiy nenoaie i?aei?aaeiaoieo
caaaeaiue o iaeieiiieaeoi?e oeie? //Iaa/aeueii-aeoiaia ?iaioa c o/iyie
n?euenueeeo iaeieiiieaeoieo oe?e: Oace i?aeiae. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio.-
*a?eane. — 1990. – N.133-134.- 0,2 aao.a?e.(aaoi?nueeeo – 0,1 aao.a?e.).

37. Oiie/ E.I. Aaeineiiaeaiiy eo?no ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee a oiiaao
ia?aaoaeiae aeui? oeiee //?icaeoie iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe ? iaoee a
cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie: Oace iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. – Oa?iii?eue. —
1990. – N.52-53.- 0,15 aao.a?e.

38. Oiie/ E.A. Iaiauaiea e nenoaiaoecaoeey ie?iaic?ai/aneeo ciaiee
o/aueony //Oacenu aeieeaaeia e aunooieaiee ia XIII niaaonei-iaiaoeeii
naieia?a iieiaeuo o/aiuo. – Iineaa. — 1989. – N.14-16.- 0,25 aao.a?e.

39. Oiie/ E.A., Aa?eaaaiei I.A., Iiiiaa A.E. ?ieue
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneeo aeenoeeieei a eco/aiee e i?iiaaaiaea eaeae
A.N.Iaea?aiei ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii iiaeoiaea e ainieoaieth oeieueieeia
//Oacenu ananithc. iao/.-i?aeo. eiio., iinayuaiiie 100-eaoeth ni aeiy
?iaeaeaiey A.N.Ia-ea?aiei.– Iieoaaa. — 1988. – N.148-149. — 0,2 aao.a?e.
(aaoi?nueeeo – 0,1 aao.a?e.).

40. Oiie/ E.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea o nooaeaioia oiaiee i?eiaiyoue i?eiaiyoue
ie?iaic?ai/aneea iiiyoey a aoaeouae i?ioanee //I?eaioaoeey iieiaeaaee ia
iaaeaaiae/aneoth i?ioaneth: Oacenu Iieoaa. iae. iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. –
Iieoaaa. — 1987. – N.240. — 0,1 aao.a?e.

41. Oiie/ E.A. I?e?iaea eae oaeoi? i?iaeaiiiai iao/aiey
ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia //Oai?aoe/aneia eniieueciaaiea eaeae A.N.Iaea?aiei
e A.A.Nooiieeineiai a oi?ie?iaaiee iaaeaaiae/aneiai ianoa?noaa: Oacenu
aeieeaaeia iaaeaoc. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. – Iieoaaa. — 1993. – N.100-101.-
0,1 aao.a?e.

Oiie/ E.I. Nenoaia ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.04 – oai??y ? iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii? ina?oe . –
?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo,
?noi?eei-oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo aniaeo?a i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. ?icaeyiooi noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe ca ?oaaaeai, no/ani? ca?oa?aei? oaoiieia??
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie o na?oiaiio eiioaeno?. Ia iniia? oeueiai
aecia/ai? ?noi?e/i? aoaie i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ?
oaiaeaioe?? eiai ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee. ?ic?iaeaii
eiioeaiooaeueio iiaeaeue nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a a iniia? yei? oe?eueiaa eiiieaenia i?ia?aie,
ui ?aae?ciaaia o aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaaeao III ? IV ??ai?a
ae?aaeeoaoe??. A iniiao ?? ?ic?iaee iieeaaeaii caaaeuei? i?eioeeie
i?aai?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano oa iniiai? iai?yie eiino?othaaiiy
ci?noo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee, ui caaacia/othoue oi?ioaaiiy
a/eoaey-aeine?aeieea, yeee ia?aaoaa? o iino?eiiio iiooeo aoaeoeaieo ?
?aoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy. Iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae
?aae?caoe?? ia?aa??yeenue ia i’yoe noaae?yo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo i?aai?caoe??
nenoaie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia ina?oa, nenoaia
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee, nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, eiioeaiooaeueia
iiaeaeue, oeea?e?caoe?ei? i?ioeane, oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo, noaae??
i?aeaioiaee.

Oiie/ E.A. Nenoaia ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee o/eoaey
ia/aeueiuo eeannia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.04 — oai?ey e iaoiaeeea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey. — Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee e ineoieiaee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A iniiao aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey iieiaeaiu iaoiaeieiae/aneea,
enoi?eei-oai?aoe/aneea e iaoiaee/aneea aniaeou i?ioanneiiaeueiie
iiaeaioiaee o/eoaey ia/aeueiuo eeannia a Oe?aeia, a oaeaea iniaaiiinoe
?acaeoey iaaeaaiae/aneiai ia?aciaaiey ca ?oaaaeii.

Aiaeec enoi?eei-iaaeaaiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?u iicaieee auaeaeeoue /aou?a
yoaia a noaiiaeaiee e ?acaeoee i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee o/eoaey:
ia?aue – aeiiao/iue – i?ienoiaeeo iaeiieaiea yiie?e/aneiai iiuoa
ainieoaiey e iao/aiey; aoi?ie – i?inaauaiey – oi?ie?othony oai?aoe/aneea
iniiau ainieoaiey e ia?aciaaiey, nicaeaaony eeanne/aneay iaaeaaiaeea;
o?aoee – iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneee – ia?acoaony nenoaia niaoeeaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey o/eoaey ia/aeueiuo eeannia, aeeth/athuay
iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneoth e ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneoth iiaeaioiaeo a
o/eoaeueneeo naieia?eyo; /aoaa?oue – i?ioanneiiaeueiue , a iniiaa
eioi?iai – nenoaiiua eiioeaioeee aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.

I?iaaaeaiiue aiaeec nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo, i?aeoe/aneeo e
oai?aoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia iiaeaioiaeo o/eoaey,
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi a naiai i?ioanneiiaeueiii noaiiaeaiee ii
aeieaeai i?ieoe ana ia?aciaaoaeueii-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiua o?iaie io
ieaaeoaai niaoeeaeenoa aei iaaeno?a.

?ac?aaioaiiay eiioeaiooaeueiay iiaeaeue nenoaiu
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee o/eoaey ia/aeueiuo eeannia
iiiaianiaeoia e i?aaeiieaaaao oniaa?oainoaiaaiea no?oeoo?u,
niaea?aeaiey, oi?i e iaoiaeia i?aaiecaoeee iaaeaaiae/aneiai i?ioeanna.
Iia ?aaeecoaony ia iniiaa eiiieaeniie oeaeaaie i?ia?aiiu, yaeyaony
ooieoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiie, niinianoaothuae oi?ie?iaaieth ee/iinoe
aoaeouaai o/eoaey.

Iainiiaaiu iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey ?aaeecaoeee nenoaiu
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee o/eoaey ia/aeueiuo eeannia ia
iniiaa ee/iinoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie iiaeaee ia?aciaaiey, eioi?ay
i?aaeiieaaaao noauaeo-noauaeoiua ioiioaiey a iaaeaaiae/aneii i?ioeanna
aoca, a /anoiinoe: 1)aiciiaeiinoue auai?a aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aa?eaioia
o/aaiuo ieaiia e i?ia?aii; 2)niaeaenoaea oai?/aneiio ?acaeoeth ee/iinoe
eaaeaeiai nooaeaioa; 3)nio?oaeie/anoai ni nooaeaioaie a i?ioeanna
iao/aiey; 4)eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeey iao/aiey nooaeaioia; 5)ynoaoecaoeey
iaaeaaiae/aneiai i?ioeanna a aoca.

Aeieacaii, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou caaeneo
io oneiaee aa i?aaiecaoeee. Iia inouanoaeyeanue ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai
ia?eiaea iao/aiey a aoca e i?aaeiieaaaea oi?ie?iaaiea o nooaeaioia oaeeo
oiaiee: aiaeec iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?u; eco/aiea i?aeoe/aneiai
ninoiyiey ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeaiu a oeiea; nai? yenia?eiaioaeueiiai
iaoa?eaea; iaiauaiea ?acoeueoaoia i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey..

Ai?iae?iaaiiua aeaeu iaaeaaiae/aneeo i?aeoee niinianoaiaaee ?aoaieth
oaeeo caaea/: nenoaiaoecaoeee ciaiee ii ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneei
aeenoeeieeiai, oi?ie?iaaieth oiaiee e iaaueia iaaethaeaoue e
aiaeece?iaaoue iaaeaaiae/aneee i?ioeann, i?iaiice?iaaoue, ieaie?iaaoue e
inouanoaeyoue ei??aeoeeth iaaeaaiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, au?aaioea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai noeey aeayoaeueiinoe a oneiaeyo aeoeaiiai
iaaeaaiae/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey.

A ?acoeueoaoa yenia?eiaioaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey auaeaeaii iyoue noaaeee
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee o/eoaey ia/aeueiuo eeannia: ia?aay
– oi?ie?iaaiea ia?ae/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i iaaeaaiae/aneie i?ioannee e
aeayoaeueiinoe o/eoaey; aoi?ay – oi?ie?iaaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo ciaiee ia
i?aaiecaoeee oeaeinoiiai o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna; o?aouey –
oi?ie?iaaiea ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneeo ciaiee e oiaiee ?aaiou n
ee/iinoueth ieaaeoaai oeieueieea; /aoaa?oay – oi?ie?iaaiea
i?ioanneiiaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneeo oiaiee ia iniiaa eco/aiey
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo niaoeeo?nia e niaoenaieia?ia; iyoay – i?ioanneiiaeueiia
naiiii?aaeaeaiea.

?acoeueoaou oi?ie?othuaai yenia?eiaioa naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi
nenoaia ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee o/eoaey ia/aeueiuo eeannia
niinianoaoao oi?ie?iaaieth o/eoaey-enneaaeiaaoaey, iiaeaioiaeaiiiai e
?aaeecaoeee oeaeinoiiai o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna n ieaaeoeie
oeieueieeaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?ioanneiiaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneia ia?aciaaiea, nenoaia
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee, nenoaiiue iiaeoiae,
eiioeaiooaeueiay iiaeaeue, oeeaeeecaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu, oaiaeaioeee
?acaeoey, noaaeee iiaeaioiaee.

Khomich L.O. The system of the psychological and pedagogical primary
school teacher’s training.- Manuscript.

The dissertation on the competition of the scientific degree of Doctor
of Pedagogical Science on the speciality 13.00.04 — Theory and methodics
of vocational training. — The Institute for Pedagogics and Psychology of
Vocational Training of Academy of Pedagogic Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv,
1999.

The dissertation contains the research of methodological, historical,
theoretical and methodical aspects of primary school teacher’s training.
The becoming and development of pedagogical training abroad, modern
foreign technologies of training of the teacher of primary school is
considered, the comparative analysis of pedagogical formation of
education in Ukraine in a world context is conducted. On the basis of it
the historical stages of professional teacher-training of primary
school and tendencies of the psychological and pedagogical training are
determined. The conceptual model of a system of psychological and
pedagogical training of the teacher of primary school is developed in
the basis of which there is a target comprehensive program which is
realized in the higher schools of III-IV accreditation levels. In the
basis of its development the general principles of organization of
pedagogical process and main directions of designing of the contents of
the psychological and pedagogical training are fixed what ensure the
formation the teacher — researcher, who is in constant search for
effective and rational methods of tutoring and education. The
pedagogical conditions of realization were checked up on five stages of
the psychological and pedagogical training of the primary school
teacher.

The main outcomes of the research are put into practice of the system
organization of the psychological and pedagogical training of the
teacher of primary school at a regional level.

Key words: vocational pedagogical training, system of psychological and
pedagogical training, system approach, conceptional model, civilisation
processes, regularities of development, training stages of formation.

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