OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO ?ICAAAeAIIss ? AAIAOEEE OAA?EI

OA?*EINUeEEE A?eoi? Aaoeeaaiae/

OAeE 636.22/28.082

NENOAIA AeIAI?O IAOIE I?E OI?IOAAII?

AENIEII?IAeOEOEAIIAI OIAA?IIAI

IIEI*IIAI NOAAeA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 06.02.01- ?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoe?y oaa?ei

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

n.*oaeinueea Ee?anueei? iaeano?

1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee : aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,

aeaaeai?e OAAI
Coaaoeue Ieoaeei Aaneeueiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
iaoe, i?ioani?,

Iaaeaaa
Aieiaeeie? THoeiiae/,i?ioani?

eaoaae?e
?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee n.-a. oaa?ei

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

eaiaeeaeao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

Aioiiaiei
Aaaeei ?aaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo ?ioi?iaoeee ?

eii’thoa?iiai
i?ia?aioaaiiy

?inoeoooo
?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Iie?nny OAAI
i.AEeoiie?/

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 01 “ /a?aiy
1999 ?. i 10 aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Ae 27.355.01.o ?inoeooo? ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI, 256319,
Ee?anueea iaeanoue , Ai?eni?euenueeee ?-i., n. *oaeinueea, aoe.
Iia?aaiyea, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ?icaaaeaiiy
? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 28 “ ea?oiy
1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ,

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe
TH.A. I?eue/aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy a iiei/iiio neioa?noa? ii
no?auoaaiith c e?aueie ii?iaeaie na?oo, ?ic?iaeaiiy ia?niaeoeaieo
naeaeoe?eii- aaiaoe/ieo i?ia?ai iie?ioaiiy noaae ia?aaaaeii
i?iaiaeeeenue a e?aueo ieai?iieo ? aaciaeo ainiiaea?noaao i?e aeineoue
ni?eyoeeaeo oiiaao aca?iiae?? “aaiioei o na?aaeiaeua” ( Coaaoeue I.A.,
Ao?eao A.I. 1996,A?iie/oe Ae.O., Iaaao A.I., 1996; ?o?iaiei I.ss.,1996).

A?eueo?noue oiaa?ieo ainiiaea?noa caeeoaeanue iica oaaaith eiie?aoiiai
aea/aiiy ?nioth/eo i?iaeai ? ?ic?iaeaiiy nenoaie ieai?iii? ?iaioe a
oaeeo noaaeao.

Ioaea, ?ic?iaea iioeiaeueii? nenoaie ieai?iii? ?iaioe a oiaa?ieo
noaaeao c ?o neeaaeiith aaiioeiiaith no?oeoo?ith a no/anieo oiiaao
aaaeaiiy iiei/iiai neioa?noaa ? aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith, yea iio?aao?
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiiai ae??oaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie ? oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o ?inoeoooo ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI:”Aeaanoe oe?a?inueeee
oei /i?ii-?yai? ooaeiae c iaaei?i aei?ineeo ei??a 5,5-6 oen. ea iieiea,
ai?noii aee?o 3,6-3,7%, a?eea 3,1-3,3%, aeeaith ianith 550-560 ea oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy aaiioiiaeo aieooeinueei? ii?iaee” (1991-1995 ??., ?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? AU01001479?) oa oaie: ”Eiinie?aeaoe?y iiainoai?aieo oa
aeaaaeaiiy iiaeo aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ii??ae ? oei?a aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae iiei/iiai iai?yieo i?iaeoeoeaiino? c a?eueo aenieei ??
iioaioe?aeii ia iniia? no/anieo aeinyaiaiue aaiaoeee oa a?ioaoiieia??”
1996-2000??., ? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0196U016323 ).

Iaoa ? caaea/a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa ?iaioe-?ic?iaeaiiy eiiieaenii?
nenoaie oi?ioaaiiy ?aioaaaeueiiai oiaa?iiai noaaea a iiei/iiio
neioa?noa?.

Aeey oeueiai ae??ooaaeenue oae? caaaeaiiy: aea/eoe aoaeoeai?noue aeiai?o
?aiiioieo oaeeoeue c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
?inoo ? ?icaeoeo, iioiaeaeaiiy ? a?aeoai?ii? caeaoiino?; aeine?aeeoe
ae?th i?e?iaeiiai ? ooo/iiai aeiai?o a i?ioean? ae?iuoaaiiy iieiaeiyea ?
aeei?enoaiiy ei??a oa anoaiiaeoe aoaeoeai?noue aeiai?o ?aiiioiiai
iieiaeiyea a?ae ei??a ??ciiai a?eo; ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue no?auoaaiiy
/i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee c aoaayie-ie?aeieeaie ??cii? e?iaiino? ca
aieooeinueeith ii?iaeith ; aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? naeaeoe?? oaa?ei o
eiie?aoieo oiiaao i?iieneiai? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea a oiaa?iiio
noaae?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. A oiiaao oiaa?iiai
iiei/iiai noaaea aea/aii aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ei??a ??cieo
aaiioei?a, iaea?aeaieo a?ae ??cieo aa??aio?a no?auoaaiiy
neiaioaeuenueei?, /i?ii-?yai? ? aieooeinueei? ii??ae.

Aea/aia aoaeoeai?noue i?aeai?o aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a ??cieo ii??ae aei
iaoi/iiai iiaie?a’y oiaa?iiai noaaea c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy ye?niiai
?aiiioiiai iieiaeiyea. Aeine?aeaeaii caeaaei?noue i?iaeoeoeaiino?
iii?nieo ei??a-ia?a?noie ??cieo aaiioei?a a?ae aieeao ia?aoeiiaeo
oaeoi??a. Aea/aii ae?th i?e?iaeiiai ? ooo/iiai aeiai?o a i?ioean?
ae?iuoaaiiy iieiaeiyea ? naeaeoe?? oaa?ei a oiiaao oiaa?iiai
ainiiaea?noaa na?aaeiueiai ??aiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee eiiieaenii? nenoaie aeiai?o iaoi/iiai
iiaie?a’y i?e oi?ioaaii? ?aioaaaeueiiai oiaa?iiai noaaea a NNA
?i.Iao?ianueeiai Iiaiooeoeueeiai ?aeiio Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano?. Aeai?
ioe?iee aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a ca ye?noth iioiinoaa i?aeoe/ii
aeei?enoiaothoueny a naeaeoe?ei?e ?iaio? c iaoi/iei iiaie?a’yi
oiaa?iiai noaaea i?e iaea?aeaii? a?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiiai iioiinoaa
ianooiieo iieie?iue.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiai-ainiiaea?nueeiai aeine?aeo a oiiaao iiei/iiai
oiaa?iiai noaaea i?i ??aaiue ?aae?caoe?? aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo
iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a ??cieo ii??ae ? ?o iii?nae, a oaeiae
aeai? a?eiaeo caeiiii??iinoae ?inoo iieiaeiyea a ca’yceo c ?o ianooiiith
iiei/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth ? i?aeoe/iith iniiaith ?aoe?iiaeueiai
oi?ioaaiiy iaoi/iiai iiaie?a’y aeey oiaa?ieo noaae iiei/iiai iai?yieo
i?iaeoeoeaiino?.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa iieyaa? a i?aai?caoe?? ? i?iaaaeaii?
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?aeai?? ie?aeiee?a ??cieo ii??ae aei iaoi/iiai
iiaie?a’y noaaea, cai??, ocaaaeueiaii? ? a?iiao?e/i?e ia?iaoe? ia?aeiieo
aeaieo i?i ??no, ?icaeoie ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue iii?nieo ia?a?noie ??cieo
ii?iaeieo ii?aeiaiue.Aaciina?aaeiuei aeena?oaioii a oiiaao eiie?aoiiai
ainiiaea?noaa ?ic?iaeaia ? ai?iaiaaia nenoaia oi?ioaaiiy ?aioaaaeueiiai
iiei/iiai noaaea. Iiiaae 90% iaoa??aeo, aeeeaaeaiiai a aeena?oaoe??,
c?a?aii ? i?iaiae?ciaaii aaciina?aaeiuei aaoi?ii, aai i?ae eiai
ea??aieoeoaii. Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeaoue iinoaiiaa i?iaeaie, ?ic?iaea
iaoiaee/ieo iieiaeaiue aei ?? ae??oaiiy, aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?o o ae?iaieoeoai.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo
eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii? ?aaee iaoeiaiai oeaio?o ”?icaaaeaiiy
oaa?ei”, ia a/ai?e ?aae? ?inoeoooo ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI oa
a?aeae?eo ?icaaaeaiiy iiei/ii? ooaeiae ?inoeoooo ( n.*oaeinueea,
Ee?anueei? iaeano?, 1996-1998 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o?e ?iaioe aac
ni?aaaoi??a.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iyoe ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiae?a,
a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai nieneo. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? 185 noi??iie, a oiio /ene?
?enoie?a 2, oaaeeoeue 28, aeiaeaoe?a19. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 242
aeaea?aea, a oiio /ene? 36 ia ?iicaii?e iia?.

CAAAEUeIA IAOIAeEEA ? INIIAI? IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiai? oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiai-ainiiaea?nueeiai
aenia?eiaioo a oiiaao oiaa?iiai noaaea NNA ?i. Iao?ianueeiai
Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano? ca?aeii caaaeueii? noaie ( ?en.1).

A iaoeiai-ainiiaea?nueeiio aeine?ae? aoei aeei?enoaii 648 ?aiiioieo
oaeeoeue ??cieo aaiioei?a (neiaioaeuenueeeo- 95 aie, /i?ii-?yaeo –183
aie, iii?nieo–370 aie., c ieo 3/16 e?iaieo ca aieooeinueeith
ii?iaeith–200 aie., 1/4 e?iaieo-57aie ? 1/2 e?iaieo- 110 aie.) a?ae 10
aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a neiaioa-euenueei?, /i?ii-?yai? ? aieooeinueei? ii??ae.

Oaa?eie ciaoiaeeeenue o noiaeeo oiiaao oo?eiaiiy ? aiae?ae?, ye?
caaacia/oaaee ?icaeoie oaeeoeue ia ??ai? 2 eeano a?ae noaiaea?oo ii?iaee
A?ae ia?iaeaeaiiy aei 6 i?nyoe?a oaee/ee oo?eioaaeenue a a?oiiaeo
noaieao ii 6-8 aie?a ? ae?iuoaaeenue ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoith noaiith
aeiithaaiiy iacae?iiai ? cae?iiai iieiea, a oaeiae ?ioeo aeae?a ei?i?a.

Oaa?eie ia i?ioyc? anueiai aeine?aeiiai ia??iaeo ciaoiaeeeenue ia
ainiiaea?nueeeo ?aoe?iiao, ye? caaacia/oaaee aei 6- i?ny/iiai a?eo
na?aaeiuei-aeiaiaee i?e??no o iaaeao 561-579 a, a?ae 6 aei 12
i?nyoe?a–440-460a, a?ae 12 aei 18 i?nyoe?a- 367-415 a.

Iiei/io i?iaeoeoeai?noue ? a?aeoai?io caeaoi?noue oaa?ei (a?e ia?oiai
in?iai?iiy, ?iaeaen in?iai?iiy, a?e ie?aeiiai in?iai?iiy ? ioaeaiiy
ia?a?noie,% caie?aeiaiiy, na?a?n-ia??iae, i?aeioaeueiee ia??iae ? ?io?
iieacieee) aecia/aee ca aeaieie ciioaoi?/iiai ? aaoa?eia?iiai iae?eo.

Iai?oae i?e?iaeiiai, ooo/iiai, ieai?iiiai, caaiaenueeiai aeiai??a
aecia/aee ca iiaeeo?eiaaieie oi?ioeaie iieacieea “iai?oae aeiai?o”
cai?iiiiiaaiiai A.N. Ee?i?/i?eiaei (1966) aeey i?e?iaeieo iiioeyoe?e.

Oi?ioaaiiy noaaeaoa ?aae?caoe?y ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieo? naeaeoe?eieo
iciae o oaa?eia oiiaao oiaa?iiai ainiiaea?noaa

Aeia??Aeia??Aeia??ca iieacieeaie

?inoo ? ?icaeoeo (aenoa?’??) ?aiiioiiai iieiaeiyea ei??a-
ia?a?noieei??a-ia?a?noie ca iioiaeaeaiiyi, aaaea-iei aaiioeiii ca ??aiai
?o iiei/ii? i?iaeooeaiino??aiiioieo oaeeoeue, ei??a-ia?a?noie ca
iieacieeaie ?o a?aeoai?ii? caeaoiino?

Aiae?cAiae?cAiae?c?inoo iieiaeiyea i?e ia?iaeaeaii?, 6, 12, 18, i?n.
a?oe? ? ei??a-ia?a?noie ca aeeaith ianith, na?aaeiueiaeiaiaeie ?
a?aeiinieie i?e?inoaieiioiaeaeaiiy ?aiiioieo oaeeoeue ? ei??a-ia?a?noie
c a?aooaaiiyi: ii?iaee, IOe aaouee?a, iiei/ii? iiaeoeoeaiino?
iaoa??aae?? ??cieo oaeoi??a i?e?iaeiiai ? ooo/iiai aeiai?o a i?ioean?
ae?iuoaaiiy oaeeoeue ? ia?a?noie, a oaeiae iieaciee?a ?o a?aeoai?ii?
caeaoiino?

Ii?iaeiee oa aaiioeiiaee neeaae i?aeaeine?aeieo oaeeoeue (648
aie?a)neiaioaee –95 aie. c ieo – 3/16A 13/16 *? -200 aie./i?ii-?ya? –
183 aie. 1/4A 3/4 A* — 51 aie.iii?ni? — 370 aie.
1/2A 1/2*? — 119 aie.

?en.1 Caaaeueia noaia aeine?aeaeaiue

?iaeaen i?enoinoaaiiy ie?aieo a?oi oaa?ei o noaae? aecia/aee ca
A.?.Aeaniaei.? A.I. Eai/aiei (1984).

Aenoa?’?? oaa?ei ioe?ithaaee ieii??ii ? ca i?ii??aie ei??a i?ney ia?oiai
ioaeaiiy.

Aaiaaeia?th aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a ? iaoi/iiai iiaie?a’y noaaea aiae?coaaee
ca iaoiaeeeith I.A. E?aa/aiea (1973 ).

Oiiaiee aaiioei eiaeii? oaa?eie ca ii?iaeiei ii?aeiaiiyi ? iaeaaei?noue
aei e?i?e aecia/aee ca ?iaeiaiaeaie. Ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiee aiae?c
aca?iica’yceo naeaeoe?eieo iciae cae?enithaaee ca iaoiaee/ieie
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie TH.I. Iieoiaia (1988).

Aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea aecia/aee ia iniia? iae?eo
an?o cao?ao. A?iiao?e/io ia?iaeo aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiaeeee ca
I.A. Ieio?inueeei (1970), E.E.Ia?eo?’?aith ( 1970 ).

AeEIAI?EA ?INOO ?AIIIOIEO OAEEOeUe ? ?IOAINEAI?NOUe

?O AeIAI?O

AEeaa iana ?aiiioieo oaeeoeue a?aeiia?aeaea aeiiaai ?ioaineaiino? ?inoo
i?ae ia?oei ? ae?oaei eeanaie a?ae noaiaea?o?a ii??ae aac nooo?aeo
ii?iaeieo a?aei?iiinoae (oaae.1).

Aeaui a?eueoith aeeaith ianith a 6-12- i?ny/iiio a?oe? /a?aeiia?aeii,
128,8; 211,6 ea/ a?aecia/aeenue iii?ni? oaeeoe?, aea oey ia?aaaaa iaae
?iaanieoeyie ?ioeo ii??ae aoea iacia/iith ? noaoenoe/ii iaa??ia?aeiith
/? 0,05/.

AEeaa iana oaeeoeue, ye? aoee caeeoai? ia ?aiiio noaaea, ia?aaeuoaaea a
6- i?ny/iiio a?oe? aeaoaoeo oaeeoeue – na?aae neiaioae?a ia 7,8
ea/6,2%/, /i?ii-

1.Aeeiai?ea ?inoo ?aiiioieo oaeeoeue ca aeeaith ianith, ea

I±i?iaea

? ii?iaei?noueA?e,i?n

nI?e
ia?iaeaeaii?61218Neiaioaeuenueea9522,1±0,14126,0±1,15206,2±2,3300±6,91*i
?ii-?yaa18321,9±0,9124,0±0,88207,8±1,4296±2,71Iii?n? /i?ii-?yaa *
aieooeinueea

370

23,5±0,06

128,8±0,57

211,6±1,23

287±0,1Anueiai ii a?oi?64822,8±0,08127,0±0,74209,7±1,43291,4±1,84

?yaeo –8,6 ea / 7,2 %/ ? iii?nieo oaa?ei-9,9 ea / 8%/.Na?aae oaeeoeue
??/iiai a?eo oey a?aei?ii?noue ca aeeaith ianith cia/ii ca?eueoeeanue ?
noaiiaeea, a?aeiia?aeii, na?aae neiaioae?a –27 ea / 13,4 %/, /i?ii-?yaeo
–25,9ea /13,2%/ ? iii?nieo oaa?ei –19,3 ea / 9,6 %/.

AEeaa iana iaoa??a, a?ae yeeo caeeoaii oaeeoeue ia ?aiiio noaaea,
ii??aiyii c aeaoaoeie, nooo?ai ia a?ae??ciy?oueny.Iaaaeeeo ia?aaaao a
iaaeao 3,9-7,3 ea /0,9-1,5%/ aeyaeaii ia ei?enoue ?aiiioiiai iiaie?a’y.
Oey a?aei?ii?noue ca aeeaith ianith cia/ii ca?eueoeeanue ? noaiiaeea,
a?aeiia?aeii, na?aae neiaioae?a –27 ea / 13,4 %/ , /i?ii-?yaeo –25,9ea
/13,2%/ ? iii?nieo oaa?ei –19,3 ea / 9,6 %/.

AEeaa iana oaeyo i?e ia?iaeaeaii? aei aeayei? i??e aecia/a? e?ioeaao
aeeao iano iii?nieo / 433,0±4,3/ ? /enoiii?iaeieo / 403,5±8,1 ea/
ia?a?noie.

?ioaineai?noue ?inoo oaeeoeue o ??ci? a?eia? ia??iaee aieeaa? ia
??aaiue ?o ianooiii? iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? / oaae.2./. Anoaiiaeaii,
ui iaea?eueo ?aeue?oii oeae aieea aeyeyoueny o iii?nieo oaa?ei o 18-
i?ny/iiio a?oe? ? i?e ia?oiio ioaeaii?. Oae, oaeeoe?, ye? a 18 i?nyoe?a
iaee aeeao iano ia iaioa 300 ea aeaee ca ia?oo eaeoaoe?th 3023 ea iieiea
i?ioe 2492 ea o oeo, ye? ?inee iaio ?ioaineaii / + 531 + 118 ea, ?< 0,01/. A na?aaeiueiio ii anueiio aeine?aeaeaiiio iiaie?a’th ei?aeyoe?y i?ae aeeaith ianith ia?a?noie ? ?o iaaei?i noaiiaeea + 0,18 . Ioaea, aeniea aeeaa iana ? aaaeaiith naeaeoe?eiith iciaeith o an? a?eia? ia??iaee ae?iuoaaiiy ?aiiioiiai iiaie?a’y ? i?e ia?oiio ioaeaii?. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeo i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeioe?euei?noue aeiai?o oaeeoeue aeey ?aiiioo oiaa?iiai noaaea c iaia’yceiaei a?aooaaiiy ?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo, iioiaeaeaiiy oa ieai?iii? oe?iiino? aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a. I?E?IAeIEE ? OOO*IEE AeIA?? OAEEOeUe ? EI??A O NOAAe? Aeey aeei?enoaiiy a oiiaao oiaa?ieo ainiiaea?noa iio??ai? aeia?a ?icaeioo? ? i?oei? oaa?eie. Aeaaaeaiiy ?c noaaea oai?eo oaa?ei oa aea?aeiaea iaaei?icaeiooeo ? iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai noaaea ? ni?aiaaea? c iai?yiii i?e?iaeiiai aeiai?o. Ca o?e ?iee a ainiiaea?noa? caaaeueia aeaoooy oaeeoeue neeaei 314 ?c 541 ia?iaeaeaieo, aai 58%, caeeoaii ia ?aiiio noaaea 42% / oaae.3/ A?ae ii aenoa?’??o neeaa 17%. *a?ac oai?iae aea?aeoaaii 30,8% . Ii?ooaiiy a?aeoai?ii? nenoaie niinoa??aaeinue a 10,2% oaeeoeue. Ii??aiyiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaoa??a oaeeoeue, yeeo caeeoeee ia ?aiiio noaaea ? oeo, ui aeaoee o i?ioean? ae?iuoaaiiy, aeaco? ia iacia/i? a?aei?iiino? i?ae ieie. O i?ioean? ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo aeaoaathoue oaeeoe? a?ae iaoa??a ye c iecueeith i?iaeoeoeai?noth, oae ? c aenieith. Aeoiaey/e c oeeo aeaieo, aeey oiaa?ieo ainiiaea?noa aaaeaii caeeoeoe an?o ia?iaeaeaieo oaeeoeue ? i?iaiaeeoe aeia?? ia iiaeaeueoeo aoaiao ?o ae?iuoaaiiy. 3. ?ioaineai?noue i?e?iaeiiai ? ooo/iiai aeiai?o oaeeoeue ??e ia?iaeaeaiiyA na?aaeiueiio I?e/eia1988?.1989?.1990?.ca 3 ?ieeaeaoooyaie?a%aie?a%aie?a%aie?a%n174100167100200100541100I?e?iaeiee aeia??Oai?iae i?aai?a aeeoaiiy84,6106,094,5275,0Caoai?thaaiiy oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo169,2116,6189,0468,3Neaaiia?iaeaeai?84,674,2105,0254,8?io? caoai?thaaiiy ? o?aaie2614,92213,22211,07012,0Anueiai5833,350305929,616730,8Ooo/iee aeia??Ii?ooaiiy a?aeoai-?thaaeueii? nenoaie1810,3169,62110,55510,2A?ae ca aenoa?’??ii2514,42716,24020,09217,0Anueiai4324,74325,86130,814727,2Aeaoe i ii i?e/eiao i?e?iaeiiai ? ooo/iiai aeiai?o10158,09355,812059,531458Caeeoaii ia ?aiiio7342,07444,23040,522,742 Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee i?e?iaeiiai ? ooo/iiai aeiai?o a ainiiaea?noa? aecia/aii ca?aeii iaoiaeeee A.N. Ee?i?/i?eiaa / 1966/ “ iai?oao i?e?iaeiiai aeiai?o” – 46% , “ iai?oao ooo/iiai aeiai?o” – 43% , “ iai?oao ieai?iiiai aeiai?o” – 69% , “ iai?oao caaiaenueeiai aeiai?o” – 35%. Aeai? iieacieee oa?aeoa?ecothoue niaoeeo?eo aaaeaiiy ieai?ii? ?iaioe a aeaiiio noaae? ? ?aae?caoe?th eiai aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo. Ioe?iea oaa?ei ca ?o i?enoinoaaiiyi iieacaea, ui a oe?eiio ii noaaeo ?iaeaen i?enoinoaaiiy iiioeyoe?? noaiiaeoue 0,656 ? eiai cia/aiiy eieeaathoueny a?ae 0,030 a ?ic??c? aei/ie ie?aieo aoaa?a, ye? neeaaeathoue iiioeyoe?th / oaae.4/ . 4.?iaeaene i?enoinoaaiiy a?oi aei/ie ie?aieo aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a Eee/ea ?Iaae?e aei/ie, eaAi?no aee?o,%iiia? aoaaynM ±mM ±m?IICeiaioaee : Ciie 414 8 2293±133 376 3,39±0,04 0,1 0,276Caiae 1056132157±115,55613,46±0,020,210,669*i?ii-?ya?: Aien?o 437 16 1967±86,2 345 3,45±0,03 0,1 0,030?iaeee 101341951±48,52833,46±0,010,070,110Eaethia 1344362076±62,33743,43±0,020,110,163Aieooeinuee? iii?n?: Otheueiai 1007 43 2110±32,9 216 3,56±0,03 0,17 0,304Aeoi 20231973±46,32223,46±0,020,110,689Aiia? 8821063066±64,36623,42±0,010,121,265Ii noaaeo2792447±61,44393,45±0,020,120,656 A?AeOAI?IA CAeAOI?NOUe OAA?EI I?e iai?aaeaiiio ae?iuoaaii? oaeeoeue aeey ?aiiioo iaoi/iiai noaaea iio??aii iino?eii a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino? an?o o?c?ieia?/ieo ooieoe?e naiie, a oiio /ene? e noaoaai? c oei, uia ia oe?e iniia? caaacia/oaaoe oe?ie? ae?iaie/? oiiae aeey iaeneiaeueiiai i?iyao o?c?ieia?/ii? caeaoiino? i?aai?cio oaa?ei ia iaeaeuiio ??ai?, aaeaaaoeny aei iae?aoe?iiaeuei?oeo a i?aai?caoe?eiiio ieai? e iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiae?a ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy, i?aeaeuaiiy caie?aeiaiino? oaeeoeue, aeei?enoiaoaaoe aoaeoeai? caniae ? niiniae i?io?eaeoeee iaie?aeiino?. Aea/aiiy a?aeoai?ii? caeaoiino? ia?a?noie-aei/ie aoaa?a ??cieo aaiioei?a iieaco?, ui e?au? iieacieee ainiiaea?nueei? nei?inoeaeino? aoee a aieooeinueeeo iii?nae / oaae. 5/. Ii aei/eao iai?ae?iaieo ca aieooeinueeith ii?iaeith aoaa?a na?aaei?e a?e ia?oiai in?iai?iiy neeaaea? 645 aei?a / 21,5 i?n./, a ie?aeiiai 669 aei?a / 22,3 i?n./. A?ae aeaii? a?oie ia?a?noie iaea?aeaii iiei/io i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia 153 aeiae / 5,1 i?n. / ?ai?oa, i?ae o na?aaeiueiio ii an?e a?oi?. Aiae?c a?aeoai?ii? caeaoiino? oaeeoeue, ia?iaeaeaieo a?ae iaoa??a c ??ciei ??aiai i?iaeoeoeaiino?, na?ae/eoue i?i aeuo nei?inoeae?noue o oaa?ei c iaaeiyie a iaaeao 2751-4250 ea. *anoea oaeeo ia?a?noie neeaaea? 66 %. Aea/aiiy nei?inoe-aeino? aeine?aeieo oaa?ei caeaaeii a?ae a?eo ?o iaoa??a iieaco?, ui e?au? ?acoeueoaoe iaea?aeai? a?ae iaoa??a-ia?a?noie, na?aaei?e a?e ioaeaiiy aei/ie yeeo neeaa 34,2 i?n. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iecueea aeeaa iana iaoa??a iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia nei?inoeae?noue aei/ie. Iioeiaeueiith o aeine?ae? ? aeeaa iana iaoa??a 500-600 ea. Aecia/aii, ui i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia?a?noie a aeaye?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae a?eo ?o ia?oiai ioaeaiiy, oi/a i?yii? ei?aeyoe?? i?ae i?iaeoeoeai?noth ei??a- ia?a?noie ??cieo aaiioei?a ? a?eii ia?oiai ioaeaiiy ia anoaiiaeaii ( r= 0,01±0,16). Iioeiaeueiei o aeine?ae? aeyaeany a?e 801-1100 ae?a c ??aiai i?iaeoeoeaiino? 2701-2764 ea. Aea/aiiy aenoa?’??ii-eiinoeoooe?eieo iniaeeainoae oaa?ei iieacaei, ui aieooeinuee? iii?n? iii?oii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae iaoa?einueei? ii?iaee. 5. A?aeoai?ia caeaoi?noue oaa?ei ??cieo aaiaaeia?/ieo a?oi Aieooeinuee?Na?aaei? ii IieacieeeNeiaioaee*i?ii-?ya?iii?n?a?oi?n2196183300A?e ia?oiai in?iai?iiy, aei?a 858±74 865±28,1 760±22,4 801±27,8A?e ie?aeiiai in?iai?iiy, aei?a 875±75 882,6±28,8 784±20,3 822±26,8Caie?aeiaiiy a?ae 1-ai in?iai?iiy, % 51,9 39,4 34,1 37?iaeaen in?iai?iiy1,811,772,061,95A?e ia?oiai ioaeaiiy, aei?a 1147±79,4 1161±27,5 1063±21,4 1101±27,4Na?a?n-ia??iae, aei?a: i?ney 1-ai ioaeaiiy102±6,2109±4,6117±3,6113±4,1 i?ney 2-ai ioaeaiiy107±6,5112±4,8121±3,9117±4,4I?aeioaeueiee ia??iae: a?ae1aei 2 ioaeaiiy387±16,4394±8,5402±6,8398±8,0 a?ae 2 aei 3 ioaeaiiy392±17,8397±8,9406±6,9402±8,3 INIAEEAINO? AENOA?’??O EI??A-IA?A?NOIE OIAA?IIAI NOAAeA Iii?oia ?o ia?aaaaa ca aenioith a oieoe?, einith aeiaaeeiith ooeoaa ? iaoaaoii a?oaeae/ oaae.6 /. ?i aeanoeaa i?iii?oe?eia aoaeiaa o?ea, i?aeia u?eueia eiinoeoooe?y, ii??aiyii oiiea neeaae/anoa oe??a, i?oeiee e?noye ? i?yia ??aia nieia. ?c ciaioaiiyi e?iaiino? ca aieooeinueeith ii?iaeith, i?ii??e cia-ioothoueny ? iaaeeaeathoueny aei aeo?aeii? iaoa?einueei? /i?ii-?yai?. Ca ?iaeaenaie aoaeiae o?ea aieooei?ciaaia iiaie?a’y a?eueo aeiaaiiiaa ? ?icoyaiooa, aea iaio ianeaia ? eiiiaeoia, c iaioeie a?oaeueie. Iniiaieie iaaeie?eaie aenoa?’??o aieooei?ciaaiiai iiaie?a’y ca ieii??iith ioe?ieith ? neaae? ca’ycee caaei?o e?ioe?aie, i?yia ?o iinoaaa, ia??aiii??iee ?icaeoie ie?aieo /anoie aei’y e ia aeineoue u?eueia eiai i?ee??ieaiiy, i’ye?noue eiieooeaaiai ?iao ?aoeoeue. Aenieii?iaeoeoeai? oaa?eie, ye? ia?aaaaeaee nai?o ?iaanieoeue ca i?iaeoeoeai?noth ia 23-25 % a?ae??ciyeenue a?eueoeie i?ii??aie o?ea ia 1,3-3,6%. Ieii??ia ioe?iea oe??? a?oie ei??a aeaea iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe ?yae aeiaeaoeiaeo aeaoaeae, aeanoeaeo oaa?eiai iiei/iiai oeio. O ieo a?eueo eaaea aieiaa, na?aaeiuei? aeiaaeeie oey c oiieith neeaae/anoith oe??ith, aeiaaa e aeeaiea a?oaeia ee?oea. Na?aaeiy /anoeia ooeoaa a?eueo ia’?ienoa, e?noye i?oeiee, u?eueiee, aei’y caeicenoa, ia’?ienoa. Aiae?c ei?aeyoe?eieo ca’yce?a ie?aieo i?ii???a aenoa?’??o ciiei/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth ia?a?noie iieacaa, ui aiie iacia/i? ? noaoenoe/ii iaa??ia?aei? / 0,022-0,073,i?e n=280 aie./. Ioe?iea ei??a ca ianiiao?e/iei eiao?oe??ioii / A?iie/oe Ae.O., 1983/ na?ae/eoue, ui c i?aeaeuaiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino? niinoa??aa?oueny eiai c?inoaiiy. Ioaea, aaee/eia ei??a, yea aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie aeia?iai ?icaeoeo e?i?eieo ?ici???a o?ea, na?aaeiuei? /anoeie ooeoaa ? a?oaeae, a ia ca ?aooiie iaee??iiy ? iaaei??iiai ?icaeoeo ioneoeaoo?e, ? aaaeaiith iciaeith a naeaeoe?? oaa?ei. Aeey i?iieneiai? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea iio??aia iaaia noaiaea?oecaoe?y 6.Aenoa?’??i? i?ii??e ia?a?noie ??cieo aaiaaeia?/ieo a?oi I?ii??e, niNeiaioaee*i?ii-?ya?Aieooeinuee? iii?n?Na?aaei? ii a?oi?M±mCvM±mCvM±mCvM±mCvn2186173280Aenioa a oieoe? 121,1±0,7 1,99 121,1±0,3 1,36 123,5±0,2 1,57 122,6±0,3 1,54A?oaee: oe?eia 42,9±1,66 12,4 40,2±0,4 5,32 40,2±0,24 5,05 40,4±0,4 5,68 aeeaeia62±0,593,060,5±0,393,6261,1±0,263,5761,0±0,323,54 iaoaao179,6±1,52,72178,3±1,03,19179,6±0,41,73179,2±0,60,67Eina aeiaaeeia: ooeoaa 141,1±2,5 2,26 140,2±1,0 3,77 143,4±0,3 1,91 142,2±0,7 2,51 caaeo44,8±0,856,1642,3±0,354,6742,0±0,193,6142,3±0,294,13Oe?eia a iaeeieao 46,9±1,13 7,58 44,5±0,33 4,16 44,5±0,24 4,59 44,7±0,33 4,68 oaa?ei ye ca i?iaeoeoeaieie ? aenoa?’??ieie yeinoyie, oae ? ca ii?oieia?/ieie ? o?c?ieia?/ieie aeanoeainoyie aei’y. I?ii??e aei’y ei??a-ia?a?noie ??cieo aaiioei?a / oaae. 7/ na?ae/aoue, ui no?auoaaiiy /i?ii-?yaeo ei??a c aoaayie aieooeinueei? ii?iaee iii?oii iie?ioo? oi?io aei’y ? eiai ?ici??e, iniaeeai oea a?aeiineony aei oaa?ei iai?ae?iaieo ca aieooeinueeith ii?iaeith, ye? ii an?o i?ii??ao ia?aaaaeathoue nai?o /i?ii-?yaeo ?iaanieoeue: ii oe?ei? aei’y ia 3,0 ni / 14,2 %/; aeiaaeei? aei’y-5,6 ni / 23,1%/; aeeaei? aei’y – 4,0 ni /19,5%/; iaoaaoo aei’y –12,5 ni/ 14,7%/. Aenieii?iaeoeoeai? ei?iae noaaea ia?aaaaeathoue ?iaanieoeue ii i?ii??ao aei’y ia 6,5-12,1 %. 7.Oa?aeoa?enoeea aei’y ia?a?noie ??cieo aaiioei?a I?ii??e, ni Neiaioaee *i?ii-?ya?Aieooeinuee? iii?n?Na?aaei? ii a?oi?n =21n =86n =173n =280 Oe?eia 22,1±0,58 21,2±0,25 23,1±0,19 22,4±0,24 Aeiaaeeia25,8±0,424,2±0,2127,6±0,3526,4±0,31 Aeeaeia21,0±0,5620,50,1823,2±0,1722,2±02 Iaoaao86,2±1,0185.30,5693,1±0,6990,2±0,67 AOAEOEAI?NOUe NO?AUOAAIIss OA ??CIEO IAOIAe?A AeIAI?O OAA?EI I?E OI?IOAAII? OIAA?IIAI IIEI*IIAI NOAAeA I?i ?acoeueoaoeai?noue ??cieo aa??aio?a no?auoaaiiy /i?ii-?yaeo ei??a c aieooeiaie na?ae/aoue aeai? oaaeeoe? 8. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueoee aoaeo o i?aea?uaii? iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? noaaea iaea?aeaiee i?e aeei?enoaii? /enoiii?iaeiiai aieooeinueeiai aoaay Aiia?a 882. Na?aaeiy i?iaeoeoeai?noue 106 eiai aei/ie neeaea 3066 ea, ui a?eueoa a?ae /enoiii?iaeieo /i?ii-?yaeo ?iaanieoeue ia 106088,4 ea / ? 0,001 /. Ii a?aeiioaiith aei iii?nieo ia?a?noie c 3/16 ? 1/4 /anoeith e?ia? aieooei?a oey ia?aaaaa a?aeiia?aeii aeinyaa? 45,3 ? 55,3%. Ioaea, ye iieacothoue aeai? aeine?aeaeaiue, aieooei?caoe?y a oiaa?iiio noaae? aea? nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?e iaea?aeaii? iai?ae?iaieo oaa?ei c aeei?enoaiiyi aoaa?a-iie?iooaa/?a c aenieei iioaioe?aeii iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?. 8.Ii??aiyeueia ioe?iea i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a-ia?a?noie ??cieo aaiioei?a A?oie ia?a?noieIieacieee*i?ii-?yaa3/16A *13/16*?1/4A*3/4*?1/2A* 1/2*?M±mNvM±mNvM±mNvM±mNvn864323106Iaae?e,ea2006±6116,52110±3310,51973±4 611,33066±6421,7AEe?,%3,45±0,022,63,56±0,034,783,46±0,023,13,42±0,013,5I iei/iee aee?,ea 69,1±1,31 15,0 75,1±1,62 14,1 68,3±1,73 12,1 104,9±2,2 21,2AEeaa iana,ea 403,5±8,1 12,1 424±4,6 7,31 415±4,8 5,78 443±4,0 9,2 I?ioean aieooei?caoe?? aeioe?eueii ii?aeioaaoe c i?iaaaeaiiyi ni?yiiaaiiai aeiai?o oaa?ei i?e a?aooaaii? ca’yce?a ?o i?iaeoeoeaiino? c ?ioeie iciaeaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaiee iacia/iee aieea ??aiy iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaoa??a ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?o iii?nieo aei/ie-ia?a?noie. Aiae?c iieaco?, ui ca cia/aiiyi eiao?oe??io?a ei?aeyoe?? ia niinoa??aa?oueny /?oei? caeiiii??iino?. Oaiioeiia? ei?aeyoeai? ca’ycee i?ae i?iaeoeoeaieie iciaeaie aei/ie ? ?o iaoa??a ca iaaei?i ? e?euee?noth iiei/iiai aee?o ca ??cieie eaeoaoe?yie iecuee? ? eieeaathoueny a iaaeao a?ae–0,01 aei +0,13. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aeia?? ?aiiioiiai iieiaeiyea ca iioiaeaeaiiyi c a?aooaaiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaoa??a ia? iaiaeiaeiao aoaeoeai?noue. I?e aea/aii? ca’yceo i?iaeoeoeaiino? aei/ie c aeeaith ianith ei??a-iaoa??a iii?/ai? iiceoeai? c?ooaiiy i?e naeaeoe?? ca oe??th iciaeith. I?ioa iiceoeaiee ca’ycie i?ae iaaei?i oa aeeaith ianith ?nio? aei oeo i??, iiee aaea?oueny caa?aaoe o iaoa??a ? aei/ie i?oeio u?eueio eiinoeoooe?th. Aiae?c i?iaeoeoeaiino? ia?a?noie ??cieo aaiioei?a o ca’yceo c ii?aie ?ieo i?e ?o ioaeaii? iieacaa aeinoaoiuei /?oeo caeiiii??i?noue aieeao. ?icoae a in?iiuei- ceiiaee ia??iae aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe a?eueo aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue o iai?ae?iaieo oaa?ei / 3412±130 /, ui a?eueoa a?ae aaniyii-e?oiueiai ioaeaiiy ia 612±161 ea / ? <0,05/. I?iaaaeai? iiaeaeuei? ?ic?aooiee aoaeoeaiino? aeiai?o ca iciaeaie ia i?eeeaae? aeine?aeaeaieo a?oi ei??a-ia?a?noie. ?c eiaeii? a?oie ia?a?noie ii/a?aiai aeeeth/aee, ?i?ooth/e ae?aiaee?iaeo ii 25 % oaa?ei, a??oeo ca iaaei?i, ai?noii aee?o a iieioe? ? aeeaith ianith, a oaeiae ? ca aeaiia ? o?ueiia iciaeaie iaeii/anii / oaae.9 /. Ae?aiaeoaaiiy 25% a??oeo ca iaaei?i ei??a aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe na?aaeith i?iaeoeoeai?noue noaaea ia 181 ea i?e caa?aaeaii? aee?iiiiei/iino? ? aeeai? iane. I?e ae?aiaeoaaii? 25 % ia?a?noie, a??oeo ca aeaiia iciaeaie / iaae?e, % aee?o /, niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? noaaea ia 145 ea iieiea ? 0,02 % aee?iino?, a i?e a?aooaaii? o?ueio iciae – a?aeiia?aeii, ia 265 ea ? 0,02 % aee?iino?. Aeia?? ca eiiieaenii iciae iaea?eueo o?oaeii?noeee ? a?eueo ia?niaeoeaiee, i?ioa a i?aeoeoe? ii?aeiaiiy iciae cono??/a?oueny ??aeoa, i?ae aeia?? ca iaei??th iciaeith. O oe?eiio iiaeaethaaiiy aeiai?o ca i?iaeoeoeai?noth aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie , ui a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueii iniiaiee iai?yi aeiai?o i?iaiaeeoe ca iaaei?i, ca?eueooth/e aee?iiiiei/i?noue ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiee?a a?ae aee?iiiiei/ieo iaoa??a. A oe?eiio iaiao?aeii iioeiaeueii ii?aeioaaoe aeia?? ca aeaniith i?iaeoeoeai?noth ia?a?noie c a?aooaaiiyi ?o iioiaeaeaiiy. Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea iieaco?, ui i?e iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao aiae?ae? ? oo?eiaiiy iaea?aeaii cia/iee aoaeo ca iiei/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth o iai?ae?iaieo aieooeinueeeo ia?a?noie a ii??aiyii? c /enoiii?iaeieie /i?ii-?yaeie, neiaioaeuenueeeie ? 1/4, 3/16-e?iaieie aieooeinueeeie ?iaanieoeyie. A?ae iai?ae?iaieo aieooeinueeeo iii?nae iaea?aeaii a?eueoa iieiea ia iaeio ei?iao a ii??aiyii? c /enoiii?iaeieie /i?ii-?yaeie ia 1060 ea, aai ia 52,8%. Nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe iieiea o iai?ae?iaieo oaa?ei iaeiaioa ? noaiiaeoue 22,3 a?eai?. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea iai?ae?iaieo aieooeinueeeo iii?nae 148,99 a?i, i?ioe 78,55 a?i. o /enoiii?iaeieo /i?ii- ?yaeo, a ?aioaaaeuei?noue 21,79 ? 16,67 %. Oaeei /eiii c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o aea?aeii a oiaa?ieo noaaeao ?icaiaeeoe iai?ae?iaieo aieooeinueeeo iii?nae. AENIIAEE 1 Aaaeeeaith oiiaith noai?aiiy ?aioaaaeueiiai iiei/iiai neioa?noaa ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a oiaa?ieo noaaeao ?aoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ieai?iii? ?iaioe, yea iiaeiia aeeth/aoe ?yae iine?aeiaieo aoai?a: ioe?ieo ? aeia?? ?aiiioieo oaeeoeue ca iioiaeaeaiiyi c a?aooaaiiyi ii?iaeii? ? e?i?eii? iaeaaeiino?; eiio?ieue ca ?o ?inoii ? ?icaeoeii i?e ia?iaeaeaii?, a 6-,12-, 18- i?ny/iiio a?oe?; i?iaaaeaiiy iniiaiiai aeiai?o a 12-18-i?ny/iiio a?oe? c a?aooaaiiyi ?o aenoa?’??o, eiinoeoooe??, caaaeueii? i?oeiino?, caei?ia’y ? iieacieeaie a?aeoai?ii? caeaoiino?; ioe?ieo ? aeia?? ia?a?noie o eiio?ieueiiio naeaeoe?eiiio ei??aieeo ca ??aiai ?o iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? a ia?o? i?nyoe? eaeoaoe?? ? i?enoiniaai?noth aei i?iieneiai? oaoiieia?? ?o aei?iiy ? oo?eiaiiy. 2. ?acoeueoaoe ae?iuoaaiiy oaeeoeue neiaioaeuenueei?, /i?ii-?yai? ii??ae ? ?o iii?nae ca aieooeinueeith ii?iaeith na?ae/aoue i?i i?ieeaee oa?aeoa? ?o ?inoo ca aeeaith ianith a ??ci? a?eia? ia??iaee. O 18- i?ny/iiio a?oe? neiaioaeuenuee? oaeeoe? iaee a?eueoo aeeao iano ia 4-13 ea, i?ae /i?ii-?ya? ? iii?ni? ?iaanieoe?. Iii?ni? /i?ii-?yai o aieooeinuee? ia?a?noee a oiaa?iiio noaae? a?aecia/aeenue iaea?eueoith aeeaith ianith / 433±3,9 ea/ ? ia?aaaaeaee , a?aeiia?aeii, /enoiii?iaeieo neiaioaeuenueeeo ?iaanieoeue ia 20,2 ea / 4,9 % /, /i?ii-?yaeo – ia 29,5 ea/ 7,3%/. 3. I?e?iaeiee aeia?? na?aae ?aiiioieo oaeeoeue a?aeaoaa?oueny ia an?o aoaiao ?o ae?iuoaaiiy ? neeaaea? aeineoue aenieo /anoeo a oiaa?iiio noaae? / a?ey 46%/, a oiio /ene? na?aae neiaioaeuenueeeo 25%, /i?ii-?yaeo –49% ? iii?nieo oaeeoeue 65%. I?e?iaeiee aeia?? ae?? iaeaea a ??aiiio ni?aa?aeiioaii? na?aae iioiinoaa a?ae iecueeii?iaeoeoeaieo, na?aaeiuei? yeino? ? aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ei??a-iaoa??a. 4.Anoaiiaeaii, ui a noaae? iaea?eueo aenieii?iaeoeoeaieie ca iiei/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth ? aeeaith ianith aeyaeeinue ia?a?noee aaiioeio 1/2A 1/2 *?. ?o na?aaeiy iiei/ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue neeaea 3066±64 ea /n= 106/, ui ia 1060 ea a?eueoa a?ae /i?ii-?yaeo ?iaanieoeue ia 1003 ea a?ae aaiioeio 1/4 A 3/4 *? ? ia 857 ea a?ae neiaioae?a i?e a??ia?aeiino? ? <0,95. 5. Aeey ?aiiioieo oaeeoeue aiae?ciaaiiai noaaea oa?aeoa?i? oae? na?aaei? iieacieee ?o a?aeoai?thaaeueii? caeaoiino? : ?iiaaeain– ia??iae- 801 aeaiue / 26,3 i?n. /, a?e ie?aeiiai in?iai?iiy –822 aei? / 27 i?n./, a?e ia?oiai ioaeaiiy –1101 aeaiue / 36,7 i?n./. Na?a?n- ia??iae o ei??a-ia?a?noie a na?aaeiueiio noaiiaeoue 113 aei?a. 6. Aeyeaia iaaia a?aei?ii?noue iieaciee?a a?aeoai?ii? caeaoiino? ?aiiioieo oaeeoeue a caeaaeiino? a?ae ii?iaeiino? ? aaiioeio aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a. E?aueie oe? iieacieee aoee o aieooei?ciaaieo oaeeoeue. 7.Anoaiiaeaii, ui a na?aaeiueiio ii noaaeo ei?iae-ia?a?noee in?iiuei-ceiiaiai ia??iaeo ioaeaiiy iathoue iiei/io i?iaeoeoeai?noue a?eueoo ii??aiyii c ia?a?noeaie aaniyii–e?oiueiai ia??iaeo ia 282± 115,1 ea iieiea. I?iiiceoe?? ae?iaieoeoao 1.Noai?thaaoe iiei/i? oiaa?i? noaaea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae oeyoii eiiieaeooaaiiy ?o iii?nieie oaa?eiaie c /anoeith e?ia? aieooeinueei? ii?iaee aei 50%. 2.Aeey ?aiiioo oiaa?ieo noaae caeeoaoe an?o oaeeoeue oa i?iaiaeeoe ?o aeia?? ia an?o aoaiao ae?iuoaaiiy ca aaiioeiii, ?inoii, ?icaeoeii, oeiii eiinoeoooe?? ? a?aeoai?iith caeaoi?noth. 3.A oiaa?ieo noaaeao iiei/ii? ooaeiae i?iaiaeeoe iniiaiee aeia?? ia?a?noie ca ?o iaaei?i a ia?o? i?nyoe? eaeoaoe?? c a?aooaaiiyi ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ?o aaouee?a. Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? 1.Oa?/einueeee A. I?iaeoeoeai? yeino? iiei/ii? ooaeiae // Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie.- 1997.- ?2.-N. 15-16. 2 Oa?/einueeee A. Oaoiieia?/iee i?aea?? ia?a?noie o oiaa?iiio noaae? //Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie.- 1997.- ?7.-N. 14. 3.Oa?/einueeee A. Caeaaei?noue i?iaeoeoeaiino? ia?a?noie a?ae naciiieo /eiiee?a // Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie.- 1998.- ? 4.-N. 10. Oa?/einueeee A.A. Nenoaia aeiai?o iaoie i?e oi?ioaaii? aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai oiaa?iiai iiei/iiai noaaea. ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.02.01 – ?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoe?y oaa?ei. ?inoeooo ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI, n.*oaeinueea Ee?anueei? iaeano?, 1999 ?. ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia ieai?iii? ?iaioe a oiaa?iiio noaae? iiei/ii? ooaeiae, yea caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy ?aioaaaeueieo iiei/ieo ainiiaea?noa. Anoaiiaeaiee aieea aaiaoeiiaeo ? ia?aoeiiaeo oaeoi??a ia ?aae?caoe?th i?iaeoeoeaiiai iioaioe?aeo oaa?ei oa aecia/aia ?ieue i?e?iaeiiai ? ooo/iiai ?o aeiai?o i?e noai?aii? iiei/iiai noaaea. Eeth/ia? neiaa: ii?iaea, aaiioei, oei, aeia??, i?ii??e, ?iaeaene, aenoa?’??, ??no ? ?icaeoie, aei’y. Oa?/eineee A.A. Nenoaia ioai?a iaoie i?e oi?ie?iaaiee aunieii?iaeoeoeaiiai oiaa?iiai iiei/iiai noaaea.?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.02.01-?acaaaeaiea e naeaeoeey aeeaioiuo. Einoeooo ?acaaaeaiey e aaiaoeee aeeaioiuo OAAI, n. *oaeineia Eeaaneie iaeanoe,1999 a. Ia noaaea iiei/iiai neioa a oocyenoaa ei. Iao?ianeiai Oiaeueieoeeie iaeanoe i?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniia eco/aiea yooaeoeaiinoe ne?aueaaiey e iai?aaeaiiiai iiaeai?a i?ieciaeeoaeae n oeaeueth iieo/aiey aunieiea/anoaaiiiai ?aiiioiiai iieiaeiyea. Iaeaieueoay iiei/iay i?iaeoeoeaiinoue iieo/aia io iieoe?iaiuo ii aieooeineie ii?iaea ia?aioaeie, eioi?ay ninoaaeea 3065 ea, /oi ia 1060 ea aieueoa ii n?aaiaieth n /a?ii-iano?uie naa?noieoeaie. O iieoe?iaiuo ii aieooeineie ii?iaea aeeaioiuo n?aaeiee aic?ano ia?aiai inaiaiaiey ninoaaeye 21,5 a ieiaeioai?iiai - 22,3 ianyoeaa. Io yoie a?oiiu ia?aioaeie iiei/iay i?iaeoeoeaiinoue iieo/aia ia 5,1 ianyoea ?aiueoa, /ai a n?aaeiai ii anae a?oiia aeeaioiuo. ?acoeueoaou au?aueaaiey oaeie neiiaioaeueneiai e /a?ii-iano?iai neioa, a oaeaea eo iiianae n aieooeineie ii?iaeie naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i cia/eoaeueiie eciai/eainoe eo aeeaie iannu a ?acee/iua aic?anoiua ia?eiaeu. A 18-iany/iii aic?anoa neiiaioaeueneea oaeee eiaee aeeaoth ianno ia 4-13 ea aieueoa, /ai eo /a?ii-iano?ua e iiianiua naa?noieoeu. Iaeaieueoae aeeaie iannie / 4333,9 ea/ ioee/aeenue iiiane io ne?aueaaiey /a?ii-iano?uo ei?ia n aieooeineeie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, i?aainoiaey niioaaonoaaiii neiiaioaeueneeo naa?noieoe ia 20,2 ea /a?ii-iano?uo – ia 29,5 ea. Aunieii?iaeoeoeaiua aeeaioiua, i?aainoiaeyuea naieo naa?noieoe ii oaeith ia 23-25 %, ia eiaee aieueoa i?iia?u 1,3-3,6%. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi n iiauoaieai i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iaaethaeaaony oaaee/aiea ianniiao?e/aneiai eiyooeoeeaioa ii Ae.O.Aeiie/oeo /1993/. Ioeaiea auiaie ei?ia-ia?aioaeie naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi ne?aueaaiea /a?ii-iano?uo ei?ia n aueaie aieooeineie ii?iaeu caiaoii oeo/oaao oi?io e ?acia?u auiaie. Iieoe?iaiua ii aieooeineie ii?iaea aeeaioiua ii anai i?iia?ai i?aainoiaeeee /a?ii-iano?uo naa?noieoe : ii oe?eia auiaie ia 14,2%, aeeeia - 23,1%, aeoaeia -19,5%, iaoaaoo- 14,7%. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia ?aaeecaoeeth aaiaoe/aneiai iioaioeeaea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ieacuaatho ia?aoeie/aneea oaeoi?u. Ia anao yoaiao au?aueaaiey ?aiiioiiai iieiaeiyea aeaenoaoao anoanoaaiiue ioai?, aeaaeaiea eioi?iai aeinoeaaao 46%. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ii iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ia?aioaeee inaiia-ceiiaai ioaea ia 282 ea i?aainoiaeyo aeeaioiuo, ioaeeaoeony a inaiia-ceiiee ia?eiae . ?ic?aaioaia nenoaia ieaiaiiie ?aaiou a oiaa?iii noaaea iiei/iiai neioa, eioi?ay aeeth/aao ioeaieo e ioai? ?aiiioiuo oaeie, eiio?ieue ca eo ?inoii e ?acaeoeai, i?iaaaeaiea iniiaiiai ioai?a a 12-18- iany/iii aic?anoa, ioeaieo e ioai? ia?aioaeie a eiio?ieueiii naeaeoeeiiiii ei?iaieea ii o?iaith eo iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe a ia?aua ianyoeu eaeoaoeee e i?eniiniaeaiiinoueth e i?iiuoeaiiie oaoiieiaee eo aeiaiey e niaea?aeaiey. Eeth/aaua neiaa: ii?iaea, aaiioei, oei, iiaeai?, i?iia?u, eiaeaenu, yenoa?uea?, ?ino e ?acaeoea, aeiy. Tarchinsky V.V. The system of female selection by the creation of highproductive farm dairy herd.-Manuscript. The dissertation for the scientific degree of the Candidate of Sciences (Agriculture) in speciality 06.02.01.-Animal breeding and selection.-The Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics of the UAAS,- V. Chubinsky, Kyiv region, 1999. The system of selection work in dairy farm is elaborated,whieh provides creation of profitable dairy farms.The influence of genotypical and environmental factors on the realisation of the animal level productivity-has been determined. The role of natural and artificial selection by the dairy herd establishing has been defined. Key words: breed, genotype, type, selection,measurement, indexes, exterrier, udder, growing and development. 2.Aieea aeeai? iane /i?ii-?yaeo ? iii?nieo oaeeoeue ia ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue ca ia?oo eaeoaoe?th (M m) A?oie ca*i?ii-?yaa ii?iaeaIii?n? c aieooeinueeithA?e, i?n.aeeaith ianith,eaniaae?e,eaaee?,%iiei/iee aee?,eaniaae?e,eaaee?,%iiei/iee aee?,eaaei 150801998±41,63,45±0,0169,6±1,41542624±573,46±0,0190,7±1,26151-17062060± 92,23,42±0,0670,4±4,7192985±1293,44±0,02102,7±2,5aei 220521941±53,23,45±0,0167,0±1,8852554±713,46±0,0191±1,312221-280342104±4 4,43,45±0,0272,6±1,5882770±803,45±0,0195,3±1,3aei 300631956±45,03,46±0,0167,7±1,61172492±613,46±0,0185,2±1,218301-40023213 8±58,23,43±0,0373,3±1,9583028±1013,45±0,01104,3±1,7I?e ia-?oiioaei 400461887±45,73,45±0,0265,1±1,6302102±1003,44±0,0272,3±3,6ioaeaii?401-50 0402141±50,73,45±0,0373,8±1,91432782±563,44±0,0195,7±1,1 9.Iiaeaethaaiiy aeiai?o ia?a?noie a noaae? Aa??aioe aeiai?o oaa?eiAieooeinuee? iii?n?Anueiai ii noaaeoniaae?e,eaaee?,%aeeaa iana,eaniaae?e,eaaee?,%aeeaa iana,eaAny a?oia aac aeiai?o 1722681±543,46±0,02434±4,32792437±61,43,45±0,02423±5,1Aac 25% a??oeo ca iaaei?i 1292889±44,53,47±0,01440±4,12092618±48,53,46±0,01427±5,3Aac 25 % a??oeo ca ai?noii aee?o a iieioe? 129 2660±51,6 3,51±0,01 440±4,0 209 2436±60,5 3,52±0,01 427±6,4Aac 25% a??oeo ca aeeaith ianith 129 2738±59,9 3,47±0,02 446±4,3 209 2501±63,4 3,46±0,02 437±6,0Aac 25% a??oeo ca iaaei?i ? ai?noii aee?o a iieioe? 129 2848±50,7 3,48±0,01 439±4,0 209 2582±56,3 3,47±0,01 428±6,8Aac 25% a??oeo ca iaaei?i, ai?noii aee?o a iieioe? ? aeeaith ianith 129 2882±47,9 3,48±0,01 439±4,0 209 2602±51,5 3,47±0,01 431±6,5E?au? ca an?ia iieacieeaie 333336±613,48±0,04442±5,2523049±63,83,47±0,03438±7,4

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