IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?I?? AENIEIIIEAEOEss?IEO NIIEOE

AIIAeA?AIEI

Iaaei Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 541.64+678.674+678.02

NEIOAC OA AeINE?AeAEAIIss AE?OeEEEAIIAEO IAIANE*AIEO IE?AIAO???A ?
IIE?IA??A IA ?O INIIA?

02.00.06 — o?i?y aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? o?i?? aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iiaeue/aiei Na?oeaia ?aai?aia,

?inoeooo o?i?? aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/a
a?aeae?eii

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aaoueiai/oe TH??e Iao?iae/,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?i?? aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaiiaae Aaeeia Na?a??aia,

?inoeooo a?ii?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa iaooio?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoth/a a?aeae?eii

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a oaoiieia?? iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a oa iie?eoo?a,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “..18……”.eenoiiaaea…..1998 ?. i
14-00…aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.179.01
?inoeoooo o?i?? aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe IAI Oe?a?ie [ 253160,
Ee?a-160, Oa?e?anueea oina,48. Oae. (044)
551-03-86, oaen (044) 552-40-64 ]

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?i??
aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe IAI Oe?a?ie. 253160, Ee?a-160, Oa?e?anueea
oina,48

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “.9..”. aeiaoiy…1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.179.01,

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe
I?caeuenueeee TH.I.

5

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aaaeeeaei iai?yieii ?icaeoeo iie?ia?ii? o?i?? ?
noai?aiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? iaiane/aieo
iie?ao???a (IIA).

I?iaeaie neioaco IIA, ?o iiaeeo?eaoe??, aea/aiiy niinia?a oa
caeiiii??iinoae ioaa?aeiaiiy, a oaeiae anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae ?o
aeanoeainoae a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo oa aoaeiae ? aeooaeueieie
caaaeaiiyie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a oeeo iai?yieao ?i?oe?ththoueny
aacia?a?aiei c?inoaiiyi aeiia aei iie?ao??ieo iaoa??ae?a c aieo
aaeocae, ui ?o niiaeeaathoue, aaeineiiaeaiiyi i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa ?
ia?a?iaee a oaoiieia?/iiio, aeiiii?/iiio oa aeieia?/iiio aniaeoao.

Iae?aoe?iiaeuei?oee oeyo noai?aiiy iiaeo IIA — oea iiaeeo?eaoe?y
ie?aiao??iaea?iao?a, ye? aaea aeioneathoueny i?iieneia?noth a oe?ieeo
ianooaaao. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo a Oe?a?i? oa ca ei?aeiiii
aeine?aeaeaiue aeacothoue ia aoaeoeai?noue iiaeeo?eaoe?? IIA
oeeeeiiaioaae??iii (OeIAe). Iayai?noue aeaio iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a ?
-iaoeeaiiai? a?oie o oeeee? iaoiiaeth? aenieo ?aaeoe?eio caeaoi?noue
oeeeeiiaioaae??io a ?aaeoe?yo i?e?aeiaiiy ca iiaea?eieie iaea?iaoieie
ca’yceaie, aea? iiaeeea?noue aa??thaaoe aeanoeainoyie ie?aiao???a ?
iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a ia ?o iniia?. C ?ioiai aieo OeIAe ? iia?/iei
i?iaeoeoii eieni- oa iaooio?i?/iiai ae?iaieoeoa, eiai aeei?enoaiiy
aea?aeii ye a aeiiii?/iiio, oae ? a aeieia?/iiio aniaeoao.

Nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaiaoeee. Aeine?aeaeaiiy IIA, iiaeeo?eiaaieo
oeeeeiiaioaae??iii, e??i Oe?a?ie i?iaiaeyoueny a ssiii??, I?ia//ei?,
?in??, Aaeeeia?eoai??, NOA. ? iaoaioia e?oa?aoo?a uiaei i?aeoe/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e ia iniia? IIA, iiaeeo?eiaaieo OeIAe,
o ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocyo oaoi?ee. O oie aea /an, iaoeia? a?aeiiino? ia
ioiieththoue on?o iniaeeainoae neioaco, iie?ia?ecaoe?? oa caeaaeiinoae
aeanoeainoae eiiie?ia??a a?ae aoaeiae aeo?aeieo ie?aiao???a. I?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue o aeuaaeacaieo iai?yieao ? iniaeeai aeooaeueiei aeey
Oe?a?ie, yea ia? iiooaeio ae?iaie/o aaco c aeioneo IIA oa eienio?i?/iiai
OeIAe aeniei? yeino?.

Aeaia ?iaioa aeeiiaia o ?aieao aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo a ?OAN IAI
Oe?a?ie ca oaiaie: “Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aae?aoe?eiiai ioaa?aeiaiiy
ie?aiia?ieo nenoai ??ciiai oeio oa noai?aiiy c’?aeioth/eo aeey
?aae?aoe?eiiai oi?ioaaiiy neei-, i?aaii-, aoaeaieanoee?a oa
iie?eoo?a”(1981 -1983 ??.). ? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?? 81072876; “?ic?iaea
iaoiae?a io?eiaiiy a?a?eaeieo ie?aiia?ieo nenoai ?aae?aoe?eiiai
ioaa?aeiaiiy oa io?eiaiiy iaoa??ae?a ia ?o iniia?”(1984 -1987 ??.), ?
aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?? 059191; “?ic?iaeoe oa ai?iaaaeeoe oioi- oa
?aae?aoe?eiiioaa?aeaeoaai? ie?aeioa??i? eiiiiceoe??”(1988 -1991 ??.), ?
aea?ae.?a?no?aoe?? 0022668; “Aeieia?/ii aacia/i? ie?aeioa??i? iaoa??aee
aeey iaaeaai? i?iieneiaino?”(1992 -1994 ??.), ? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe??
019311011289.

Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaaea o: anoaiiaeaii? caeiiii??iinoae oa iioei?caoe??
i?ioean?a neioaco ie?aiao???a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo OeIAe ca ?aaeoe??th
Ae?euena-Aeueaea?a iaeii/anii c i?iaaaeaiiyi iie?aoa?eo?eaoe??; aea/aii?
iniaeeainoae oiieioa?iai? eiiie?ia?ecaoe?? oaeeo ie?aiao???a c
iiiiia?aie; ?ic?iaoe? ia ?o iniia? aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo eaeioa?aiaeo
iaoa??ae?a.

Iaoa aecia/eea iinoaiiaeo oa ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

· aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee iie?aoa?eo?eaoe?? i?e iaeii/aniiio i?iaaaeaii?
?aaeoe?? Ae?euena-Aeueaea?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo OeIAe oa aea/aiiy
i?e oeueiio ?ciia?ecaoe?? iaea?iao?a o ooia?aoe;

· anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae aeanoeainoae ie?aiao???a a?ae ai?noo
ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie a ie?aiia?ao;

· neioac oa aea/aiiy aeanoeainoae iiaeaeueieo ie?aiao???a aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co;

· aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oiieioa?iai? eiiie?ia?ecaoe??,
aeanoeainoae iie?eoo?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae aoaeiae aeaiaioa?ii? eaiee
ie?aiao???a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aeine?aeaeaii oa aia?oa iienaii a oa?i?iao ??aiyiiy
E?ia e?iaoeeo iie?aoa?eo?eaoe?? iaea?iiaiai aia?ae?eaeo ae?eieyie
??ciiiai?oii? aoaeiae c iaeii/aniith iiaeeo?eaoe??th ie?aiao??iaea?iao?a
oeeeeiiaioaae??iii ca ?aaeoe??th Ae?euena-Aeueaea?a. Aecia/aii
caeaaeiino? oaiei?iiino? ie?aiao???a, ?o oa?iinoaa?eueiino? oa
a?ae?ie?oe/ii? no?eeino? a?ae ai?noo ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie. Iieacaii, ui
ia a?aei?io a?ae ie?aiao??iaea?iao?a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo ooaeaaei
aia?ae?eaeii (OA), neioaciaai? ie?aiao??e ia e?enoae?cothoueny oa
ia?aaa?oothoue ia?o? ii oa?iinoaa?eueiino? oa a?ae?ie?oe/i?e no?eeino?.
Aea/aiiyi e?iaoeee eiiie?ia??caoe?? ie?aiao??iaea?iao?a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo
OeIAe, c aeeiaoae?eeiaei ao??ii o?eaoeeaiae?eieth (OAI-3) oa noe?ieii
aecia/aii aieea ai?noo ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie o eaioethc? ie?aiao??o ia
oaeaee?noue i?ioeano i?e ??ciiiai?oieo niiniaao ?i?oe?thaaiiy. Iieacaii,
ui iayai?noue eaaei ieenithaaieo o?aoeiieo aoii?a aoaeaoeth a
ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaieao ni?ey? caiia?aaiith ?ia?a?thaaiiy eiiie?ia?ecaoe??
eeniai i?e iaea?aeaii? iie?eoo?a. Aecia/aii caeaaeiino? aeanoeainoae
eiiie?ia??a a?ae ai?noo ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie a ie?aiao??ao. Oe? aeai?
aeicaieeee, i?ney iioei?caoe?? neeaaeo oa oiia, neioacoaaoe
ie?aiao??iaea?iaoe c iio??aieie aeanoeainoyie ? noai?eoe ia ?o iniia?
iie?ia?i? eiiiiceoe??, ye? i?ecia/ai? aeey ??cieo noa? aeei?enoaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Iiaeeea?noue oe?eani?yiiaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeanoeainoae ie?aiao???a caaacia/eea ?ic?iaeo ia ?o iniia? ??ciiiai?oieo
iaoa??ae?a aeey i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy. O?i?/iith i?iieneia?noth
Oe?a?ie, ?in??, A?ei?on? inai?ia ae?iaieoeoai aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo
eae?a, ye? ia i?noyoue eaoeeo oa iiaeaaeiiaaacia/ieo ?ic/eiiee?a.
Eaeeciaeoee canoinoaaiiy a iaaeaa?e, aoae?aaeuei?e, noaeiiaoae?ai?e
aaeocyo ye ia e?i?yo oa?iieaoae?oe/iiai niiniao oi?ioaaiiy iie?eoo?a,
oae ? ia e?i?yo OO- oa ?aae?aoe?eiiai ioaa?aeiaiiy. Inai?ii
ae?iaieoeoai aaoiiia?eueii? oiaoeueiaee, eiiiiceoe?? aeey iayiiy oa
?ioeo iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia: Ananithci?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eeae e ?aaeoeeiiiiioaa?aeaeaaiua
iie?uoey” (Iineaa, 1978); -?e Ananithci?e ia?aae? ?c canoinoaaiiy
i?enei?thaa/?a ca?yaeaeaieo /anoie o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?
(Eai?ia?aae, 1979); -?e Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee
i?ia?ann a aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe” (Ee?a, 1980);
?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an o eaeioa?aia?e
i?iieneiaino?” (Oe?a?ia, Oa?e?a, 1981); Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe??
“Eniieueciaaiea aoiiiie yia?aee a oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee”(Iineaa, 1982);
Ananithci?e ia?aae? “?aaeeaoeeiiiia ioaa?aeaeaiea iie?uoee ia iaoaeeao”
(Iineaa, 1983); Ananithciiio nai?ia?? c ?aae?aoe?eii? o?i?? ie?aiia??a
(Iai?inuee, 1985); -?e Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? c o?i?? oa o?ceeio?i??
ie?aiia??a (Iaeana, 1986); VI-?e ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c o?i??
aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe (Ee?a, 1988); VIII-?e Oe?a?inuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? c aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe (Ee?a, 1996); I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? c o?i?? ie?aiia??a (Eacaiue, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii o
15ioae?eaoe?yo: 11 noaooyo, 1 oacao aeiiia?ae?, 3 aaoi?nueeeo
na?aeioeoaao ia aeiao?ae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae,
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 158 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo oa
i?noeoue 28 ?enoiee, 31 oaaeeoeth, 132 iineeaiiy ia ?iaioe
a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a o/ano? o iinoaiiaoe? eiie?aoieo
caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaoe? oa noai?aii? iaeaaeiaiiy, i?eeaae?a,
iaoiaeee aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, ieaioaaii? oa
aaciina?aaeiueiio i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaio?a, aiae?c? e?oa?aoo?e ca
oaiith aeine?aeaeaiue, ia?iaoe? oa ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a,
ocaaaeueiaii? ye ie?aieo aoai?a aeine?aeaeaiue, oae ? anueiai iaoa??aeo
o aeaeyae? aeena?oaoe??, a oaeiae a o/ano? o ?ic?iaoe? oa ai?iaaaeaeaii?
a i?iieneia?noue iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaieo
ie?aiao???a.

Iaoiaeieia?y, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe noi?ioeueiaai? ia iniia? aiae?co iaoeiai?
e?oa?aoo?e ca oaiith oa aeanieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo. O i?ioean?
aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe canoiniaai? no/ani? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue:
oa?iia?aa?iao?e/iee oa eaei?eiao?e/i? aiae?ce, ?*-niaeo?ineii?y,
iiey?ia?ao?y, o?i?/iee ooieoe?iiaeueiee aiae?c, o?ceei-iaoai?/i? iaoiaee
aei?iaoaaiue.

Iniiaieie ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ie?aiao??iaea?iaoe,
iiaeeo?eiaai? OeIAe ca ?aaeoe??th Ae?euena-Aeueaea?a.O anooi? aeeeaaeaii
noai i?iaeaie, iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie oa iaoeiao iiaecio,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? i?i iaiane/ai? ie?aiao??e
oa niiniae ?o iiaeeo?eaoe??. Iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii niiniaai
iiaeeo?eaoe?? ie?aiao???a oeeeeiiaioaae??iii, noai?aiith oa
iie?ia?ecaoe?? ??aeeeo eiiiiceoe?e ia ?o iniia?, aeanoeainoyi
eiiie?ia??a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii iieno aeo?aeieo ?a/iaei, iaoiae?a ?o
i/euaiiy. Iaaaaeaii iaoiaeeee neioaco ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiue,
iiaeaeueieo niieoe oa ie?aiao???a ii??aiyiiy. Aeieeaaeii iienaii
noai?ai? niaoe?aeueii aeey aeeiiaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue i?ea?iaeuei?
iaoiaeeee oa iaeaaeiaiiy,.

sse iniiai? aeo?aei? niieoee aeey neioaco ie?aiao???a aoee aeei?enoai?
iaea?iiaee aia?ae?eae (IA), aeeoeeeeiiaioaae??i (AeOeIAe),
aoeeaiae?eieue (AA), 1,2-i?ii?eaiae?eieue (IA), 1,4-aooeeaiae?eieue
(AA), ae?aoeeaiae?eieue (AeAA).

Caaaeueia oi?ioea ie?aiao???a ia? aeaeyae:
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,

aea R — caeeoie ae?eiey, n=3-4.

?aoeaioo?e ie?aiao???a iaaaaeaii o oaae.1.

Eiiie?ia?ecaoe?th ie?aiao???a c aeeiaoae?eeiaei ao??ii o?eaoeeaiae?eieth
(OAI-3) oa noe?ieii aeine?aeaeoaaee i?e ?i?oe?thaaii? ?aaeoe??
OO-aei?ii?ithaaiiyi, ?aae?aoe?eii-o?i?/iei niiniaii, ca aeiiiiiaith
?a/iaeiieo ?i?oe?aoi??a.

I?e io?eiaii? iie?eoo?a iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue ?ia?a?thth/iio
aieeao eenith ia eiiie?ia?ecaoe?th.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?o aiae?c.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iieacaii, ye io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoai? ia
i?aeoeoe?.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aieea ai?noo OeIAe ia i?ioean neioaco ie?aiao???a

E?iaoeea iie?aoa?eo?eaoe??, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeii/anii c
iie?ia?aiaeia?/ieie ia?aoai?aiiyie ca ?aaeoe??th Ae?euena-Aeueaea?a
aea/aia iaaeinoaoiuei. Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoii iieno?
i?ioean cai?i-Oaaeeoey 1 — ?aoeaioo?e iiaeeo?eiaaieo oeeeeiiaioaae?aiii
ie?aiao???a

Iaeiaioaaiy Nei?i/aiaAi?no, iieueiacaa*ae?eiey**iaea?iiaiai
aia?ae?eaeooeeeeiiai-oaae??io

Ie?aiaoeeaiiaea?iao-aiaeiiaoeeaioao?aa?ae-?iooaeao

IAIOe- 0,3

IAIOe-0,5 IAIOe-0,6 IAIOe-0,7 IAIOe-1,01,1(AA)

1,1(AA)

1,1(AA)

1,1(AA)

1,1(AA)1,0

1,0

1,0

1,0

1,00,3

0,5

0,6

0,7

1,0Ie?aiaoeeaii?ii?eai-iaea?iaoaiaeiiaoeeai-oao?aa?ae?iooaeao

IAIIOe-0,60,55(AA) + 0,55(IA)

1,0

0,6Ie?aii?ii?eaiiaea?iao-

aiaeiiaoeeaioao?aa?ae-?iooaeao

IIIOe-0,6

1,1(IA)

1,0

0,6

Ie?aiaooeeaiiaea?iao-aiaeiiaoeeaioao?aa?ae-?iooaeaoIAIOe-0,3 IAIOe-0,5
IAIOe-0,6 IAIOe-0,7 IAIOe-1,01,1(AA)

1,1(AA)

1,1(AA)

1,1(AA)

1,1(AA)1,0

1,0

1,0

1,0

1,00,3

0,5

0,6

0,7

1,0Ie?aiae?aoeeaiiaea?iao-aiaeiiaoeeaioao?aa?ae-?iooaeao

IAeIOe-0,6

1,1(AeAA)

1,0

0,6I?ei?oee.*Oeeo?e iicia/athoue ai?no oeeeeiiaioaae??io o ?aaeoe?ei?e
noi?o?, iieue .

** O aeoaeeao — aeei?enoaiee aeey neioaco ae?eieue.iiiiaaia E?iii
??aiyiiy, yea a?aoiao? aieea iaaeeeoeo ae?eieth:
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 , (1)

aea — r=[OH]/[COOH];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 — aoaeoeaia eiinoaioa
oaeaeeino?, t -/an iie?aoa?eo?eaoe??;
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N0 — ii/aoeiaa ? Nt — iioi/ia, ia iiiaio /ano t, eiioeaio?aoe?y
ea?aieneeueieo a?oi, aea/ea.

Aei ii/aoeo aaaaeaiiy a ?aaeoe?eio iano AeOeIAe neioac ie?aiao??o
noaiiaeoue niaith ?aaeoe?th aoa?eo?eaoe?? neeueii? eeneioe ae?eieai i?e
iaaeeeoeo inoaiiueiai. I?ney ii/aoeo iie?ia?aiaeia?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue
ii/eia?oueny noi?nia iie?aoa?eo?eaoe?y iio?aeieo aeaio aeeea?aiiiaeo
eeneio — neeueii? iaea?iiai? (IE) oa a?eueo neaaei?
aiaeiiaoeeaioao?aa?ae?iooaeaai? (AOE). Aei iiiaioo aaaaeaiiy AeOeIAe
(?en. 1, iaeanoue AA) iie?aoa?eo?eaoe?y eaoae?co?oueny i?ioiiaie
NIII-a?oi iio?aeieo iaea?iiaiai aia?ae?eaeo. ?aaeoe?y i?ioiaeeoue c10

?en. 1. E?iaoeea iie?aoa?eo?eaoe?? o oa?i?iao ??aiyiiy E?ia.

Neioac: ie?aiao??iaea?iaoo (1); IAIOe-0,3(2); IAIOe-0,5 (3);
IAIOe-0,7 (4); IAIOe-1,0 (5).

aenieith ieoiiith oaeaee?noth, ui aecia/a?oueny ia oe?e noaae??, i?e
?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao, aoaeiaith ae?eiey. Ia??iae iaeii/aniiai ?iciaaeo
AeOeIAe ia iiiiia?, ?aaeoe?? ae??iiaiai neioaco oa iie?aoa?eo?eaoe??
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ianoaoe?iia?iith oa/a?th i?ioeano (iaeanoue AA). I?ney
caaa?oaiiy aaaaeaiiy AeOeIAe oa cae?i/aiiy iie?ia?aiaeia?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue iie?aoa?eo?eaoe?y ciiao aeia?a iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi (1). O
?acoeueoao? ooai?aiiy iaeiaeoeaieo iio?aeieo AOE ieoiia oaeaee?noue
aoa?eo?eaoe?? cieaeo?oueny. Ca e?iaoe/ieie aeaieie aecia/aia o?eaae?noue
ae??iiaiai neioaco. Iai?eeeaae, i?ae /an neioaco ie?aiaoeeaiiaea?iao?a,
iiaeeo?eiaaieo OeIAe, aiia neeaaea? i?e ai?no? inoaiiueiai (iieue ia 1
iieue IA): 0,3 — 90 oa.; 0,5 — 130 oa.; 0,7 — 150 oa.; 1,0 — 180 oa.

Iniaeea?noth neioaco ie?aiao???a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo OeIAe, ? nooi?i/anoa, o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c? noaae?yie i?ioeano, ci?ia nooiaiy ?ciia?ecaoe??
iaea?iaoieo iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a o ooia?aoi?. Ia?aae ii/aoeii aaaaeaiiy
AeOeIAe ai?no ooia?aoieo ca’yce?a a ie?aiao??ao aecia/a?oueny aoaeiaith
ae?eiey oa ia? iecueea cia/aiiy. Aiane?aeie ii/aoeo iie?ia?aiaeia?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue oa ooai?aiiy a?eueo iai?oaeaieo ie?aiia?ieo iieaeoe
i?aeaeuothoueny oaeaee?noue ? nooi?iue ?ciia?ecaoe?? e?ioeaaiai
i?iaeoeoo. I?e neioac? iiaeaeueieo ie?aiao???a c aeei?enoaiiyi
aiaeiiaoeeaioao?aa?ae?iooaeaaiai aia?ae?eaeo (AOA) a yeino?
iiaeeo?eaoi?a, eiai i?enooi?noue o ?aaeoe?ei?e ian? c iiiaioo ii/aoeo
iie?aoa?eo?eaoe?? i?eaiaeeoue aei aeinyaiaiiy a?eueo aenieiai nooiaiy
?ciia?ecaoe?? ie?aiao???a o ii??aiyii? c iiaeeo?eaoe??th OeIAe. Ooaeaaee
aia?ae?eae (OA) ? a?eueo aeoeaiei i?e iie?aoa?eo?eaoe?? i?ae AOA, i?ioa
oaeaee?noue oa nooi?iue ?ciia?ecaoe?? ie?aiao???a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo OA,
aeu? ca aiaeia?/i? iieacieee ie?aiao???a c ae?oeeeeaiiaeie eaieaie a
eaioethc? (?en.2).

?en.2. E?iaoeea ?ciia?ecaoe??.

Neioac ie?aiaooeeaiiaea?iao?a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo: oeeeeiiaioaae??iii (1);
aiaeiiaoeeaioao?aa?ae?i-ooaeaaei aia?ae?eaeii (2); ooaeaaei aia?ae?eaeii
(3).

Oea iiynith?oueny eiioi?iaoe?eieie ia-?aoeiaeaie, ui aeie-eathoue i?ae
/an oeen-o?ain-ia?aoiaeo o eaioethaao ie?aiao???a c ia’?iieie
ae?oeee-eaiiaeie eaieaie (ooaeaoi? oeeeee — ieaia?i?). I?e oeueiio,
iai?oaeai?noue eaioeth-a?a ia? i?aaaethth/o ?ieue iaae oaeoi?ii
ca?eueoaiiy /ano neioaco ie?aiao???a.

Oaieio?ce/i? aeanoeaino? ie?aiao???a

Iiaeeo?eaoe?y ie?aiao??iaea?iao?a ooaeaaei aia?ae?eaeii i?eaiaeeoue (i?e
cai?i? iei aei 0,7 iieue IA) aei io?eiaiiy ie?aiao???a, ui iathoue
e?enoae?/io oaco. Ca aeaieie aeeoa?aioe?eii? neaioth/i? eaei?eiao???
iiaeeo?eiaai? OeIAe ie?aiao??e ia e?enoae?cothoueny i?e aoaeue-yeiio
ai?no? ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie ? a?ae??ciythoueny aeaui ieae/eie cia/aiiyie
oaiia?aoo? neeoaaiiy. Iai?eeeaae, i?e ai?no? iiaeeo?eaoi?a 0,3 iieue Tg
neeaaea?: aeey ia?oeo — 258 E, aeey ae?oaeo — 247 E. Oeueiio ni?ey?
“iooea” oiaeiaea ie?aiao??ieo iieaeoe aiane?aeie ia’?iii? eiio?ao?aoe??
iio?aeieo AOA, ui iathoue oi?io “e??nea”, a oie /an ye iieaeoee OA
ieaia?i?. I?e ca?eueoaii? ai?noo OeIAe o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? a iieaeoeao
ie?aiao???a i?aeaeuo?oueny eiioeaio?aoe?y ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie,
iiiioiiii i?aeaeuothoueny oaiia?aoo?e neeoaaiiy, ciaioo?oueny no?eaie
oaiei?iiino? ie?aiao???a (aeey iaiiaeeo?eiaaiiai ie?aiao??o Tg=244
E,N?=0,61
Aeae/(apicscalex10001000900000389000000020012000000000005000000090200000
0000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000
000050000000b0200000000050000000c02600160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0
00010000000c0ffffff0000000020010000600100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685
47970650000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626
f6c0002040000002d01000009000000320a20013a0001000000b400d3000a00000026060
f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc01020
22253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000000018244
5008842440000000000a?aae.); aeey ie?aiao??o c iaeneiaeueiei ai?noii
ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie Tg=268 E, N?=0,42
Aeae/(apicscalex10001000900000389000000020012000000000005000000090200000
0000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000
000050000000b0200000000050000000c02600160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0
00010000000c0ffffff0000000020010000600100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685
47970650000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626
f6c0002040000002d01000009000000320a20013a0001000000b400d3000a00000026060
f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc01020
22253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000000000000
000a?aae.))

Oa?iiieenithaaeueia aeano?oeoe?y ie?aiao???a

Aoaeiaa iiaeeo?eaoi?a nooo?ai aieeaa? ia e?iaoeeo oa?iiieenithaaeueii?
aeano?oeoe??. Ca aeaieie oa?iia?aa?iao?e/iiai aiae?co i?ioean
aeano?oeoe?? iacaeaaeii a?ae aoaeiae ie?aiao??o, iiaeia oiiaii
?icae?eeoe ia aea? noaae??. Aeey ie?aiao???a c ae?oeeeeaiiaeie eaieaie o
eaioethc? ii/aoie ?iciaaeo niinoa??aa?oueny i?e a?eueo aenieeo
oaiia?aoo?ao i?ae aeey ie?aiao??iaea?iaoooaeao?a. Oaiia?aoo?e
iaeneiaeueii? oaeaeeino? ?iciaaeo oa caaa?oaiiy ia?oi? noaae?? aeey
ie?aiao???a c ae?oeeeeaiiaeie eaieaie aeu? ia 20-30 a?aaeon?a, a ao?aoe
iane — ia 10 a?aenioe?a iaio?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?o a?eueoo
oa?iinoaa?euei?noue. Anoaiiaeaia i?yia caeaaei?noue oa?iinoaa?eueiino?
ie?aiao???a ia ia?o?e noaae?? ?iciaaeo a?ae e?eueeino? aaaaeaiiai i?e
neioac? OeIAe. I?e ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? iiaeeo?eaoi?a ii/aoie
?iciaaeo ie?aiao???a ci?uo?oueny o a?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?, c?inoa?
oaiia?aoo?a iaeneiaeueii? oaeaeeino? ?iciaaeo. ?ioaineai?noue
aecioa?i?/iiai i?eo, iia’ycaiiai c aeano?oeoeaiei ieeniaiiyi ie?aiia?ieo
eaioetha?a, cieaeo?oueny (oaae.2). Iii?oieo a?aei?iiinoae o
oa?iinoaa?eueiino? ie?aiao???a ia ae?oa?e noaae?? ?iciaaeo ia iii?/aii.

Oaaeeoey 2 — Oa?iiieenithaaeueia aeano?oeoe?y ie?aiao???a (ia?oa
noaae?y)

Oaiia?aoo?a, E

Ie?aiao??ii/aoeo ?iciaaeo ?ioa?aaeo noaae??iaeneiaeueii? oaeaeeino?
?iciaaeoAo?aoa
iane,%Ie?aiaooeeai-iaea?iao523523-71365377IAIOe-0,3553553-71367373IAIOe-
0,5563563-71368372IAIOe-0,7568568-71369871IAIOe-1,0568568-71370369

I?e oa?iiieenithaaeuei?e aeano?oeoe?? ie?aiao???a a ?cioa?i?/ieo oiiaao
aieea aoaeiae iiaeeo?eaoi?a a?aeaeaa?oueny a?eueo ae?acii (?en.3).
Ao?aoa iane i?ney 70 aiaeei aeo?eiee i?e 473 E aeey ie?aiao???a,
iiaeeo?eiaaieo ooaeaaei aia?ae?eaeii, neeaaea? 20-25%, a oie /an, ye
ie?aiao??, iiaeeo?eiaaiee OeIAe, ao?a/a? eeoa 10%.

A?ae?ie?oe/ia no?ee?noue ie?aiao???a

Naiith /ooeeaith aei a?ae?ie?co a ie?aiao??ao ? anoa?ia a?oia, a
iaea?eueo neeueiiae?th/eie aaaioaie — eoaei? ?ic/eie, oiio aoei aea/aii
aieea ai?noo ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie ia no?ee?noue aei a?ae?ie?co
ie?aiao???a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo OeIAe. Anoaiiaeaii ui, ie?aiao??e c
ae?oeeeeaiiaeie eaieaie ia?aaaaeathoue ca a?ae?ie?oe/iith no?ee?noth
ie?aiao??iaea?iaoooaeaoe ca ?aooiie aeaio oaeoi??a: a?eueo neeueieie
aeaeo?iiiaeiii?ieie aeanoeainoyie oeeo eaiie o ii??aiyii? c ooaeaoieie
oeeeeaie oa ae?aioaaiiyi anoa?ieo a?oii ia’?iieie ae?oeeeeaiiaeie
eaieaie. E?iaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?ie?co neaaeeo aoeaoiiiaeo
?ic/ei?a ie?aiao???a aiaeieie eoaaie aeiaaee, ui aeey
ie?aiao??iaea?iaoooaeao?a

?en. 3. Oa?iiieenithaaeueia aeano?oeoe?y ie?aiao???a a ?cioa?i?/ieo
oiiaao.

Ie?aiaoeeaii?ii?eaiiaea?iao, iiaeeo?eiaaiee aia?ae?eaeii OA (1);
ie?aiaooe-eaiiaea?iao, iiaeeo?eiaaiee aia?ae?eaeii OA (2);
ie?aiaooeeai-iaea?iao,iiaeeo?eiaaiee aiaeae?eaeii AOA (3); IAIOe-0,6
(4); IIIOe-0,6 (5). Oaiia?aoo?a aeo?eiee — 473 E

ieoiia oaeaee?noue a?ae?ie?co aeua. Aeey aeoeaiaaieo eiiieaen?a
ie?aiao??ieo iieaeoe c ae?oeeeeaiiaeie eaieaie o ia?ao?aeiiio noai?
niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy a?ae’?iii? aioaeuei?? o ii??aiyii? c
ie?aiao??ii, iiaeeo?eiaaiei ooaeaaei aia?ae?eaeii (a na?aaeiueiio ia 50
iaeeieoeue). A?eueia aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? iaei caeaaeeoue a?ae aoaeiae
iiaeeo?eaoi?a. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ia?aaaaeiee aieea i?inoi?iaiai oaeoi?a
iaae aia?aaoe/iei o i?ioean? aeoeaoaaiiy iieaeoe iiaeeo?eiaaiiai OeIAe
ie?aiao??o.

Caeaaei?noue ieoiii? oaeaeeino? a?ae?ie?co a?ae ai?noo aaaaeaiiai i?e
neioac? oeeeeiiaioaae??io e?i?eia (eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? — 0,998) ?
iiaea aooe iienaia ??aiyiiyi:

Ea?ae?. = 0,58 — 0,41I , (2)

aea — Ea?ae?. — aoaeoeaia ieoiia oaeaee?noue a?ae?ie?co, I — ai?no
OeIAe, iieue.

Oa?ii?i?oe?eiaaia eiiie?ia?ecaoe?y ie?aiao???a

?aaeoe?eia caeaoi?noue eiiiiceoe?e ia iniia? iiaeeo?eiaaieo OeIAe IIA
aecia/a?oueny ai?noii oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a ??ciiai
oeio: iaea?iaoieo, ooia?aoieo, iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a a ae?oeeeeaiiaeo
eaieao oa iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a o eiiiiiia??. Ca aeaieie iiey?ia?ao?/iiai
aiae?co c i?aeaeuaiiyi i?e neioac? ai?noo oeeeeiiaioaae??io o
?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? niinoa??aa?oueny i?iii?oe?eia ci?ia ai?noo a
ie?aiao??ao iaea?iao-ooia?aoieo oa iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a a ae?oeeeeaiiaeo
eaieao.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii io?eiai? aeai? i?i oaieia? aoaeoe eiiie?ia?ecaoe??
aeia?a ni?aiaaeathoue c ?ic?aoiaaieie oai?aoe/ii ia iaea?iaoio a?oio.
Oea aeaco? ia oa, ui iiaea?ei? ca’ycee ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie ia aa?ooue
o/ano? o ?aaeoe?? (oaae. 3). Cao?eniaaii i?enei?aiiy eiiie?ia?ecaoe??
i?e aaaaeaii? aei eaioethaa ie?aiao??o ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie. Oea
iia’ycaii c ooai?aiiyi o nenoai? aeiaeaoeiaeo oeaio??a eiiie?ia?ecaoe??.
Oeaio?e ooai?ththoueny i?e ?iceeaaeaii? ia?ieneaeieo niieoe, ui
aeieeathoue i?e ieeniaii? o?aoeiieo aoii?a aoaeaoeth a ae?oeeeeaiiaeo
eaieao. Ia iniaeeao ?ieue ieenithaaeueii? iie?ia?ecaoe?? aeaco?
c?inoaiiy o /ioe?e ?ace /anoioiiai oaeoi?a i?e ii??aiyii? aeaieo i?i
eiiie?ia?ecaoe?th ie?aiao???a c i?i?iaeueiei oa iaeneiaeueiei ai?noii
ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?ia?ecaoe?? OAI-3 o i?enooiino? iiaeaeueieo
ie?aiao???a, ui i?iaiaeeeinue aac aeii?oie o eiiiiceoe?? ia?ieneaeo
aaici?eo, i?aeoaa?aeaeo? caeaoi?noue ie?aiao???a c ae?oeeeeaiiaeie
eaieaie ?i?oe?thaaoe, iaa?oue naiino?eii, iie?ia?ecaoe?th OAI-3.
Ie?aiaoeeaiaiaeiiaoeeaioao?aa?ae?iooaeaoe aeeeeeathoue iie?ia?ecaoe?th
OAI-3 c ooai?aiiyi o?eaei??ieo iie?ia??a. Oaieiaeae?eaiiy i?e oeueiio
neeaaea? a?ae 60 aei 80 Aeae/a oa niinoa??aa?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao a?ae
420 aei 490 E. I?ia??a eiiiiceoe?? OAI-3 c ie?aiaoeeaiooaeaoii, yeee
a?eueo no?eeee aei ieeniaiiy, noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny eeoa iacia/iei
oaieiaeae?eaiiyi (16 Aeae/a), eiiie?ia?ecaoe?? ia a?aeaoaa?oueny
(?en.4).

?en. 4. Eiiie?ia?ecaoe?y iiaeaeueieo ie?aiao???a c OAI-3 aac aaaaeaiiy
ia?ieneaeo

Ie?aiaoeeaiaiaeiiaoeeaioao?aa?ae?iooaeao (1); ie?aiaoeeaiooaeao (2);
IAIOe-1,0 (3); OAI-3 (aiiiiie?ia?ecaoe?y) (4).

Oaaeeoey 3 — Aioaeuei?y ?aaeoe?e iie?ia?ecaoe??

Neeaae eiiiiceoe??A,* % I1,** I 2,*** I
aenia?eiai-Aeae/aAeae/aoaeueiee, Aeae/aOAI-388281,6iaia?279,2 OAI-3
+ie?aiaoeeaiiaea?iao60186,6iaia?189,4 OAI-3
+IAIOe-0.376225,0196,2193,4 OAI-3
+IAIOe-0.586239,0186,2181,7picscalex100010009000003420100000400720000000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 OAI-3
+IAIOe-0,786233,1153,6160,9 OAI-3 +IAIOe-1,074188,793,797,2 OAI-3
+ie?aiaoeeai-aiaeiiaoeeaioao?a-a?ae?iooaeao

88

222,4

98,7

102,0 OAI-3 +ie?aiaoeeaiooaeao87103,7iaia?107,8I?ei?oee: * A —
nooi?iue eiiaa?n?? iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a ca aeaieie ?*-niaeo?ineii??;** I
1 — oaieiaee aoaeo ?aaeoe?? ?ic?aoiaaiee oai?aoe/ii, aeoiaey/e c
ia?aaeoiia o/ano? o eiiie?ia?ecaoe??
iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a on?o oei?a;*** I 2 — oaieiaee aoaeo ?aaeoe??
?ic?aoiaaiee oai?aoe/ii, aeoiaey/e c ia?aaeoiia iao/ano?
o eiiie?ia?ecaoe?? ae?oeeeeaiiaeo iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a.18

OO-?i?oe?eiaaia eiiie?ia?ecaoe?y ie?aiao???a

Iacaaaeath/e ia aenieo eiioeaio?aoe?th ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo
iaea?iao-ooia?aoieo ca’yce?a, ie?aiao??iaea?iao ia iiaea ooai?thaaoe i?e
oiieioa?ia?e iie?ia?ecaoe?? iie?eoo?a ?c caiie?ia?eciaaiei oaa?aeei
iiaa?oiaaei oa?ii. I?e aaaaeaii? a eaioethae ie?aiao??iaea?iaoo
ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie ??cei ci?iththoueny aeanoeaino? iae?iiieaeoe.
Ie?aiao?? c iaeneiaeueiei ai?noii oaeeo eaiie caeeoa?oueny iaioaa?ae?eei
o ian? i?e o?eaae?e aeo?eioe? i?ae OO-aei?ii?ithaaiiyi, aea ooai?th? ia
iiaa?oi? aeinoaoiuei oaa?aeo, iaeeieo ie?aeo. ?aaeoe?eia caeaoi?noue
ie?aiao???a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo oeeeeiiaioaae??iii, cieaeo?oueny i?e
c?inoaii? ai?noo ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie (?en.5). I?e aea/aii? ca
aeiiiiiaith eaei?eiao?a e?iaoeee oioi?i?oe?eiaaii? eiiie?ia?ecaoe??
iiaeeo?eiaaiiai oeeeeiiaioaae??iii ie?aiao??iaea?iaoo anoaiiaeaii, ui
a?i ioaa?ae?aa? c ooai?aiiyi oaa?aei? iaeeiei? iiaa?oi? ye o na?aaeiaeu?
aoaeaeeneiai aaco, oae ? ia iia?o??. ?aaeoe?? a?aeaoaathoueny aac
iii?oiiai ?iaeoeoe?eiiai ia??iaeo. I?iaaaeaiiy eiiie?ia?ecaoe?? c?
noe?ieii o na?aaeiaeu? aoaeaeeneiai aaco i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy
aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? i?ioeano o ii??aiyii? c eiiie?ia?ecaoe??th ia iia?o??
(o aoaeaeeneiio aac? Aaeo. = 21,3 eAeae/iieue, ia iia?o?? Aaeo. = 17,5
eAeae/iieue), ui ? na?ae/aiiyi i?enei?thth/i? ?ie? ieenithaaeueieo
i?ioean?a. Iaaiaee, i?e eiiie?ia?ecaoe?? ie?aiao???a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo
ooaeaaei aia?ae?eaeii, aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? ieae/a i?e i?iaaaeaii?
i?ioeano o na?aaeiaeu? aoaeaeeneiai aaco (o aoaeaeeneiio aac? Aaeo. =
16,1 eAeae/iieue, ia iia?o?? Aaeo. = 27,9 eAeae/iieue). Caeiiii??iino?
eiiie?ia?ecaoe?? aiaeia?/i? aeey eiiiiceoe?e ae?oeeeeaiiaeo ie?aiao???a
c? noe?ieii oa c OAI-3.

?en.5. Aieea ai?noo ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie o eaioethc? ie?aiao??o ia
eiiie?ia?ecaoe?th

OO-?i?oe?eiaaia eiiie?ia?ecaoe?y c? noe?ieii: IAIOe-0,3 (1); IAIOe-0,5
(2); IAIOe-0,7 (3); IAIOe-1,0 (4).

A — aeo?ae o?eaei??iiai iie?ia?o.

?aae?aoe?eii-o?i?/ia eiiie?ia?ecaoe?y ie?aiao???a

I?e i?iaaaeaii? oiieioa?iai? eiiie?ia?ecaoe?? i?ae ae??th i?enei?aieo
aeaeo?ii?a caeaaeiino? ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino? ie?aiao???a a?ae ai?noo
ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie iathoue oie aea oa?aeoa?, ui ? i?e ?ioeo niiniaao
?i?oe?thaaiiy. O?i?/iei aiae?cii anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ioean ioaa?aeiaiiy
i?e iaiaaeaiiio aeinooi? eenith oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cieaeaiiyi aeoiaeo
o?eaei??iiai iie?ia?o, oaa?aeino? oa eiioeaio?aoe?? ia?ieneaeieo niieoe
o iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? iie?eoo?a, c?inoaiiyi ai?noo cieue-o?aeoe??. Ca
aeaieie ?*-niaeo?ineii?? ia iia?o?? nooi?iue ia?aoai?aiiy aeoeaieo
oeaio??a a?oeeeeiaaioaiiaeo eaiie c?inoa?, a eiiaa?n?y
iaea?iao-ooia?aoieo ca’yce?a cieaeo?oueny (oaae. 5). Ai/aaeaeue,
neioaciaai? ie?aiao??e noeeuei? aei ?aae?aoe?eii-o?i?/ii?
ieenithaaeueii? eiiie?ia?ecaoe??.

Oaaeeoey 4 — Aieea eenith ia ia?aiao?e eiiie?ia?ecaoe?? IAIOe-0,6 c?
noe?ieii

Aeo?ae o?eae-Ai?no ?ic/eiiiIiaa?o-iaaaIa?ieneaeiaNooi?iue

iy,ia?aoai?ai-%Oiiae ii?ii?-iaiiyi??iiai iie?ia-?o, %ai iie?-ia?o ia
iiaa?oi?,%oaa?-ae?noue, oiiaieo iaeeieoeue/enei iiaa?-oi?,
aJ2/aiaea?-iaoi? iiaea?ei? ca’ceeieenithaai? o?aaiaioe ae?oeeeeaii-aeo
eaiieia iia?o??904,00,845551i?ae ie?aeith811,70,416742

Aeoiaey/e c? oaeaeeino? eiiie?ia?ecaoe?? oa aeanoeaino? eiiiiceoe?e
i?ioenoiyoe ?ia?a?thth/iio aieeao eenith anoaiiaeaii, ui, iacaeaaeii
a?ae niiniao ?i?oe?thaaiiy, iioeiaeueiee ai?no oeeeeiiaioaae??io i?e
neioac? ie?aiao??iaea?iao?a neeaaea? a?ae 0,5 aei 0,7 iieue ia 1 iieue
iaea?iiaiai aia?ae?eaeo.

Oa?aeoa?enoeee eiiie?ia??a ie?aiao???a

Ca aeaieie aeeoa?aioe?eii? neaioth/i? eaei?eiao??? eiiie?ia?e
ie?aiao???a, iacaeaaeii a?ae niiniao ?i?oe?thaaiiy ?aaeoe??,
ooai?ththoue aenieicoeo? o?eaei??i? iie?ia?e, ui i?e ii?iaeueieo oiiaao
ia?aaoaathoue o neeiiiae?aiiio noai?. Aecia/aeueieie oaeoi?aie, ye?
aieeaathoue ia oaiei?ii?noue eiiie?ia??a, ? u?euei?noue coeaaiiy
eiiie?ia??a oa aoaeiaa iieaeoee ae?ieo, canoiniaaiiai aeey neioaco
ie?aiao??o. No?eaie oaiei?iiino?, ?ioa?aae neeoaaiiy ? oaiei?ii?noue o
neeiiiae?aiiio noai? aeyaeeenue aeecueeeie aeey aea/aieo eiiie?ia??a
ie?aiao???a c iaeiaeiaei ai?noii iiaeeo?eoth/eo eaiie iacaeaaeii a?ae
aoaeiae inoaii?o. Aeey ?aae?aoe?eiiio?eiaieo c?ace?a eiiie?ia??a
cao?eniaaii aoaeoe aeiioaa?aeiaiiy i?ney ?o ia?aoiaeo o a’yceioaeo/ee
noai. I?ioean ?aae?aoe?eii-o?i?/iiai ioaa?aeiaiiy eiiiiceoe?e
a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?cioa?i?/ieo oiiaao. I?ney ?o ia?aoiaeo, aiane?aeie
coeaaiiy, o neeiiiae?aiee noai /anoeia a?eueieo ?aaeeeae?a caeeoa?oueny
‘caii?iaeaiith’. I?ney ia?aoiaeo oaeeo eiiie?ia??a o ?acoeueoao?
iaa??aaiiy o aenieiaeanoe/iee noai a?aeaoaa?oueny aeiaeaoeiaa coeaaiiy.
?aaeoe?y noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oaieiaei aoaeoii. I?e iiaoi?iiio iaa??aaii?
oaieia? aoaeoe a?aenooi?, oaiei?ii?noue iie?ia??a ciaioo?oueny , a
oaiia?aoo?a neeoaaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny (?en. 6).

Eiiie?ia?e ie?aiao???a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo oeeeeiiaioaae??iii, ? a?eueo
no?eeeie aei oa?iiieenithaaeueii? aeano?oeoe??, i?ae eiiie?ia?e
ie?aiao??ooaeao?a. Oea iiynith?oueny ye ae?aioth/ith ae??th
ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie uiaei anoa?iiai, iaeiaio no?eeiai ca’yceo, oae ?
o/anoth ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie o i?ioeanao aeiaeaoeiaiai coeaaiiy ca
?aooiie ieenithaaeueii? iie?ia?ecaoe??.

?en. 6. Aoaeo aeiioaa?aeiaiiy eiiie?ia?o IAIOe-0,7 c? noe?ieii.

Aeo?aeiee c?acie (1); a?i aea i?ney iaa??aaiiy (2). Aeica ii?ii?iaiiy —
120 eA?.

AEEI?ENOAIIss ?ACOEUeOAO?A O I?AEOEOe?

Ia iniia? iaiane/aieo ie?aiao???a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo oeeeeiiaioaae??iii,
?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo eae?a, ye? ia
i?noyoue eaoeeo oa iiaeaaeiiaaacia/ieo ?ic/eiiee?a. Eaee ciaeoee
canoinoaaiiy a iaaeaa?e, aoae?aaeuei?e, noaeiiaoae?ai?e aaeocyo ye ia
e?i?yo o?aaeeoe?eiiai oa?iieaoae?oe/iiai niiniao oi?ioaaiiy iie?eoo?a,
oae ? ia e?i?yo OO — oa ?aae?aoe?eiiai oaa?aeiaiiy. Aeanoeaino?
ie?aiao???a ? neeaae iaoa??ae?a a oe?eiio caaacia/othoue o?eaaeee oa?i?i
caa??aaiiy, caaeaio a’yce?noue, no?ee?noue aei ?ia?a?th/iai aieeao
eenith i?ae /an iie?ia?ecaoe???, aenie? o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?
iie?eoo?a. Oaoiieia?? iiaeooue oaeaeei canaithaaoenue i?iieneia?noth,
i?i ui na?ae/eoue aeina?ae i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie, ?in??, A?ei?on?.

Noai?aii iie?ia?io eiiiiceoe?th “Ni?oo-14”, yea i?ecia/aia aeey ?aiiioo
oa iiioaaeo aiaei- ? iaooii?iaiae?a o yeino? eeath, caoeniiai iie?eooy,
ca’ycoth/iai. O iaaeao e?oeaic?eii? oaiaee c o??iith “Kemira Chemical”
?ic?iaeaii oaoi?/io aeieoiaioaoe?th ia ae?iaieoeoai “Ni?ooa-14”,
aeaioiaeaii aeine?aei? ia?o?? i?iaeoeoo, i?iaaaeaii ?o aei?iaoaaiiy o
O?iaeeyiae?? oa Aaeee?e A?eoai??. Aiae?enueeith o??iith “Macferson”
canai?ii oaoiieia?th oa ae?iaeaii aeine?aei? ia?o?? eiiiiceoe??.

?ic?iaeaii eiiiiceoe?th aeey iayiiy ?aae?ioaoi?/ieo ae?ia?a, iie?ao??io
oiaoeueiaeo aeey ?aiiioo aaoiiia?e?a, caoenia iie?eooy aeey eaca?ieo
iin??a ?ioi?iaoe??. Ae?oeeeeaiia? ie?aiao??e aeei?enoaii ye
iiaeeo?eaoi?e aoiiaeo noi?oae aeey aeaioiaeaiiy oei, a oaeiae
canoiniaaii o ?aoeaioo?? eiiiiceoe?? aeey iie?eoo?a.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE

Oe?a?inueea i?iieneia?noue ia? iiooaeio ae?iaie/o aaco c aeioneo
iaiane/aieo iie?ao???a oa eienio?i?/iiai oeeeeiiaioaae??io aeniei?
yeino?. Aiane?aeie oeueiai ? aeia?? ia?niaeoeae ae?iaieoeoaa ?
i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy iiaeeo?eiaaieo oeeeeiiaioaae??iii ie?aiao???a.
Aea iaoeiaeo aeaieo aeey ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?e neioaco oaeeo ie?aiao???a,
noai?aiiy ia ?o iniia? iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a i?aeoe/iiai i?ecia/aiiy
aoei iaaeinoaoiuei.

1. O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaoaeueii aea/aii
iniaeeaino? neioaco iaiane/aieo ie?aiao???a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo
oeeeeiiaioaae??iii. Ciaeaeaii caeaaeiino? oaeaeeinoae ?aaeoe?e
iie?aoa?eo?eaoe???, ?ciia?ecaoe?? iaea?iao?a o ooia?aoe oa
iie?ia?aiaeia?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, ui a?aeaoaathoueny noi?nii, a?ae ai?noo
oeeeeiiaioaae??io a ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui neioaciaai?
ae?oeeeeaiia? ie?aiao??e ia e?enoae?cothoueny ? ia?aaa?oothoue ca
oa?iinoaa?euei?noth oa a?ae?ie?oe/iith no?ee?noth
ie?aiao??iaea?iaoooaeaoe.

2. Aia?oa aea/aii iniaeeaino? oiieioa?iai? eiiie?ia?ecaoe?? eiiiiceoe?e
ae?oeeeeaiiaeo ie?aiao???a c aeeiaoae?eeiaei ao??ii o?eaoeeaiae?eieth,
ui ?i?oe?th?oueny oa?iio?i?/iei oeyoii, aai ae??th OO- /e ?aae?aoe?eiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Aaaaeaiiy ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie o eaioethae ie?aiao???a
i?enei?th? ?o eiiie?ia?ecaoe?th aiane?aeie ooai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo
oeaio??a coeaaiiy ca ?aooiie ieeniaiiy ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie c ooai?aiiyi
ia?ieneaeieo niieoe. Iiaea?ei? ca’ycee ae?oeeeeaiiaeo eaiie iaeiaeoeai?
? a eiiie?ia?ecaoe?? o/ano? i?aeoe/ii ia aa?ooue.

3. Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iioei?ciaaii neioac iaiane/aieo
ie?aiao???a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo oeeeeiiaioaae??iii. Ia iniia? oeeo
ie?aiao???a ?ic?iaeaii ?aoeaioo?e iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e, oaoiieia?? ?o
ae?iaieoeoaa oa canoinoaaiiy aeey ??cieo aaeocae i?iieneiaino?.
Oaoiieia?y ae?iaieoeoaa aeieia?/ii aacia/iiai iie?ao??iiai eaeo i?ney
i?iaaaeaieo aea?aeaaieo aei?iaoaaiue i?eeiyoa I?i?noa?noaii
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia AO “Aa?aiee” (i.?oa?aeia,
Eoaainueea iaeanoue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?? AEEEAAeAII A ?IAIOAO:

1.Aiiaea?aiei I.A., Aeaeaieia I.A., Iiaeue/aiei N.E.
?aaeeaoeeiiii-oeie/aneay niiieeia?ecaoeey ieeaiaeeeeaiiaeaeiaoia
aeeoeeeeaiiaiai no?iaiey // Ieano. iannu. — 1982, ? 5. — N. 11-12.

2.Aeaeaieia I.A., Aiiaea?aiei I.A. Neioac e niiieeia?ecaoeey ieeaiyoe?ia
n aeeoeeeeaiiauie caaiueyie // Ieano. iannu. — 1983, ? 5.-N. 7-9.

3.Aeaeaieia I.A., Aiiaea?aiei I.A. Oa?iiieeneeoaeueiay aeano?oeoeey
iaianuuaiiuo ieeaiyoe?ia e eo niiieeia?ia // Oe?. oei. aeo?i. — 1983. —
O. 49, ?5. — N. 534-539.

4.Niektre cechy szczeglne syntezy i wlasnosci nienasyconych oligoesttrw
cykloalkilenowych S.I.Omelczenko, N.G.Widenina, Pawel A.Bondarenko,
W.P.Rybaczuk Polimery Tworzywa Wielkoczasteczkowe. — 1984. — V.29,
?4-5. — S. 165-170.

5.Uaei/iie aeae?ieec iaianuuaiiuo ieeaiyoe?ia e eo niiieeia?ia /
I.A.Aeaeaieia, I.A.Aiiaea?aiei, A.I.?uaa/oe, N.E.Iiaeue/aiei // AEo?i.
i?eee. oeiee. — 1987. — O. 60, ? 3. — N. 581-585.

6.Iiaeeoeeaoeey ?acei ieeaiyoe?aie aeeoeeeeaiiaiai no?iaiey /
A.E.Eioieiaa, I.A.Aeaeaieia, I.A.Aiiaea?aiei, O.A.Iaiaaneay,
E.A.Ea?aaeiiaa // Eiiiiceoe. iieeia?. iaoa?eaeu. — 1987. — Aui. 35. —
N. 8-13.

7.Aeaeaieia I.A., Aiiaea?aiei I.A., Iiaeue/aiei N.E. Iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea
iaianuuaiiuo ieeaiyoe?ia yiieneieeaiia?aie ?acee/iiai no?iaiey // Ieano.
iannu. — 1989, ? 8. — N. 17-19.

8.Aeaeaieia I.A., Aiiaea?aiei I.A., ?uaa/oe A.I. I aeeyiee no?iaiey
aeeoeeeeaiiauo ieeaiyoe?ia ia oioioeie/aneoth niiieeia?ecaoeeth ni
noe?ieii // AEo?i. i?eee. oeiee. — 1992. — O. 65, ? 6. — N. 1402-1407.

9.Aeieia?/ii aacia/iee iie?ao??iee iaaeaaee eae OO-caoaa?aeiaiiy /
I.I.Aiiaea?aiei, A.A.Aieaei, O.N.?aaiiaa, A.A.Iaaaeeiaoeue // O?i?/ia
i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie. — 1997, ? 4. — N. 53-54.

10.Aiiaea?aiei I.I., Aieaei A.A., Iaaaeeiaoeue A.A. Aeieia?/ii aacia/i?
iaoa??aee OO-oaa?ae?iiy ia iniia? iaiane/aieo iie?ao???a // A?niee AO
Oe?eaeioa?aa. — 1997, ? 2. — N. 14-15.

11.A?aoeeaaneay N.A., Aiiaea?aiei I.A. Oiieineieiay niiieeia?ecaoeey
iaianuuaiiuo ieeaiyoe?ia a i?enoonoaee eenei?iaea aicaeooa // A na.:
“?aaeeaoeeiiiay oeiey e oaoiieiaey ieeaiia?iuo nenoai”. — 1983. — I.:
IEEOYOEI, — N. 30-38.

12.Aiiaea?aiei I.I., Aieaei A.A., ?aaiiaa O.N. Oioio?i?/ia
ni?aiie?ia?ecaoe?y ie?aiia?-iiiiia?ieo nenoai ia iniia? ae?oeeeeaiiaeo
ie?aiao???a // Oace aeiiia?aeae. Ainueia Oe?a?inueea eiioa?aioe?y c
aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe (i.Ee?a, 24-26 aa?aniy 1996 ?.). — 1996. — N.
15.

13.A.n. 1100284 NNN?, IEE3 N 089/00, N 08E 5/10. ?aceiiaay nianue ia
iniiaa iaianuuaiiiai eao/oea / Ae.A.Aiaoneaaneee, A.C.Eaaeo,
O.A.Iaiaaneay, E.O.Ooaiueei, N.A.O?oiai-Aa?ooeia, N.E.Iiaeue/aiei,
I.A.Aeaeaieia, I.A.Aiiaea?aiei // Iioae. A.E., 1984, ?24.

14. A.n. 1558946 NNN?, IEE5 C09D, C08L 3/11 Eiiiiceoeey aeey iie?uoee /
E.E.Aieiaei, E.TH.?oiyioeaa, A.I.Ai?enia, I.A.Aeaeaieia,
I.A.Aiiaea?aiei, A.I.Iocu/eoei, E.I.Eei/ei, I.E.Aa?auaiei // Iioae.
A.E., 1990, ?15.

15. A.n. 1682371 NNN?, IEE5 N09D 167/06, C09J167/06. Iieeia?iay
eiiiiceoeey/ I.A.Aeaeaieia, ?.A.Aanaeianeee, A.A.Oaeia?iai,
I.A.Aiiaea?aiei, A.E.Oaaei?/aiei // Iioae. A.E., 1991, ?37.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aiiaea?aiei I.I. Neioac oa aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?oeeeeaiiaeo iaiane/aieo
ie?aiao???a ? iie?ia??a ia ?o iniia?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 02.00.06 — o?i?y aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe. — ?inoeooo
o?i?? aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith neioaco iiaeeo?eiaaieo
oeeeeiiaioaae??iii ie?aiao??iaea?iao?a. Iieacaii, ui ie?aiao??e c
ae?oeeeeaiiaeie eaieaie a eaioethc? ia e?enoae?cothoueny oa
ia?aaa?oothoue ca oa?iinoaa?euei?noth ? a?ae?ie?oe/iith no?ee?noth
ie?aiao??iaea?iaoooaeaoe. I?aaaethth/o ?ieue o oeueiio a?ae?a?a?
i?inoi?iaee oaeoi?. Aeine?aeaeaii eiiie?ia?ecaoe?th ie?aiao???a c
aeeiaoae?eeiaei ao??ii o?eaoeeaiae?eieth. I?e aaaaeaii? ae?oeeeeaiiaeo
eaiie aei eaioethaa ie?aiao???a eiiie?ia?ecaoe?y i?enei?th?oueny
aiane?aeie ooai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo oeaio??a coeaaiiy. Aea/aii aeanoeaino?
eiiie?ia??a. Ia iniia? iiaeeo?eiaaieo oeeeeiiaioaae??iii ie?aiao???a
?ic?iaeaii iie?ia?i? eiiiiceoe??, ye? ciaeoee aeei?enoaiiy o
i?iieneiaino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaiane/ai? ie?aiao??e, oeeeeiiaioaae??i,
eiiie?ia?ecaoe?y, ?ia?a?thaaiiy, aeano?oeoe?y, a?ae?ie?c.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aiiaea?aiei I.A. Neioac e enneaaeiaaiea aeeoeeeeaiiauo iaianuuaiiuo
ieeaiyoe?ia e iieeia?ia ia eo iniiaa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 02.00.06 — oeiey aunieiiieaeoey?iuo niaaeeiaiee. —
Einoeooo oeiee aunieiiieaeoey?iuo niaaeeiaiee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth neioaca ieeaiyoe?iaeaeiaoia,
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo oeeeeiiaioaaeeaiii. Iieacaii, /oi ieeaiyoe?u n
aeeoeeeeaiiauie caaiueyie a oeaie ia e?enoaeeecothony e i?aainoiaeyo ii
oa?iinoaaeeueiinoe e aeae?ieeoe/aneie noieeinoe
ieeaiyoe?iaeaeiaoooaeaou. I?aaaee?othuoth ?ieue a yoii ea?aao
i?ino?ainoaaiiue oaeoi?. Enneaaeiaaia niiieeia?ecaoeey ieeaiyoe?ia n
aeeiaoae?eeiaui yoe?ii o?eyoeeaiaeeeiey. Aaaaeaiea aeeoeeeeaiiauo
caaiueaa a oeaiue ieeaiyoe?ia onei?yao niiieeia?ecaoeeth aneaaenoaea
ia?aciaaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo oeaio?ia noeaee. Eco/aiu naienoaa
niiieeia?ia. Ia iniiaa ieeaiyoe?ia, iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
oeeeeiiaioaaeeaiii, ?ac?aaioaiu iieeia?iua eiiiiceoeee, iaoaaeoea
i?eiaiaiea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaianuuaiiua ieeaiyoe?u, oeeeeiiaioaaeeai,
niiieeia?ecaoeey, eiaeae?iaaiea, aeano?oeoeey, aeae?ieec.

ANNOTATION

Bondarenko P.A. Synthesis and studies into alicyclic unsaturated
oligoesters and polymers on their basis. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for science degree of Candidate of Chemical Sciences in
speciality 02.00.06 — macromolecular chemistry. Institute of
Macromolecular Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation is dedicated to the studies into synthesis
oligoestermaleates modified by cyclopentadiene. It has been proved that
oligoesters with alicyclic links in the chain do not crystallize and
exceed oligoestermaleate phthalates in terms of thermal and hyrolytic
stability, with prevailing role of the space factor. Studies have been
made into copolymerizatoin of oligoesters with thriethylene glycol
dimethacrilate ester. Inclusion of alicyclic links into oligoester’s
chain accelerates copolymerization due to formation of additional
centers of linking. The features of copolymers have been studied.
Oligoesters modified by cyclopentadiene formed the basis for development
of polymeric compositions wich fount their application in industry.

Key words: unsaturated oligoesters, cyclopentadiene, copolymerization,
inhibition, destruction, hydrolysis.

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