16

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO CAAAEUeII? OA IAI?AAI?*II? O?I??

?i. A.?.AA?IAAeNUeEIAI

IAEUeOeAAA OAOssIA A?OAE??AIA

OAeE 541.183

NEIOAC OA AAeNI?AOe?EIA IIAAAe?IEA AeENIA?NIEO

EIIIIC?Oe?EIEO IAOA??AE?A IA INIIA? IENEAe?A
AAAAOIAAEAIOIEO IAOAE?A OA EA?AIIO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 02.00.04 — o?ce/ia o?i?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? ?i.
A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe Aaeyeia Aieiaeeie?
Ieeieaeiae/,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii ?inoeoooo caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? ?i.
A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii ?inoeoooo
ni?aoe?? oa i?iaeai aiaeiaeieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie

Ea?oaeue I. O.

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe
i?ioani?, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii ?inoeoooo caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii?
o?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie

Iae?oei TH. A.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?eiiaeueiee oaoie/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo (EI?)“, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 14 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 10-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.218.01 a ?inoeooo?
caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? ?i A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith, 252680, Ee?a-142, i?. Iaeaae?ia 32/34 (eiioa?aioe-cae).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? ?i. A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie
(Ee?a,i?. Iaeaae?ia 32/34)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 13 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe Iaiia A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeae?eaiiy ?iiieo niieoe c aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a
caeeoa?oueny iaei??th c aeooaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo i?iaeai. A iao /an ??
ae??oothoue aieiaiei /eiii ca aeiiiiiaith o?aaeeoe?eieo ni?aoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e, cie?aia oaeeo, ye? aacothoueny ia canoinoaaii? ?iiiiai?iieo
iaoa??ae?a. Iaeiae ?o ?aaaia?aoe?y i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy cia/ii?
e?eueeino? nieueiaeo a?aeoiae?a. Ia?niaeoeaiei caniaii aac?aaa?eiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiiiai?iieo iaoa??ae?a ? ea?oaaiiy ni?aoe?eii —
aeani?aoe?eieie i?ioeanaie oeyoii aeaeo?io?i?/iiai aaia?oaaiiy ?ii?a,
ye? aieeaathoue ia ?iiiiai?iio ??aiiaaao (I+, II-). I?iaaaeai? o oeueiio
iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aeey noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo
aac?aaaaioieo ni?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a aeeo/aiiy ?ii?a ?c aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a
iaiao?aei? i?eioeeiiai iia? iaoa??aee, a ia o?aaeeoe?ei? ni?aaioe.
Aeaye? iniiai? aeiiae aei iaoa??ae?a, iioei?ciaaieo c oi/ee ci?o
iaeneiaeueii? aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?io?i?/iiai ea?oaaiiy ni?aoe?eiei
i?ioeanii, iiaeia noi?ioethaaoe oaeei /eiii:

— iayai?noue ia iiaa?oi? ni?aaio?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi, ye?
noai?ththoue ca?yae iiaa?oi? i?e ?o ?ii?caoe?? oa coiiaeththoue
caeaoi?noue aei ?iiiiai?iiiai iiaeeiaiiy, aaaeaii ye aei eao?iiiiai, oae
? aei ai?iiiiai;

— iayai?noue aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?, ui caaacia/o? aaia?oaaiiy ?ii?a I+,
II- o oac? ni?aaioo;

— iae?iii?enoa no?oeoo?a (aai a?aeiia?aeia nooi?iue aeenia?niino?), yea
caaacia/o? aenieo oaeaee?noue ni?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a oa iiaio
?aae?caoe?th ca?yaeiaiai (oiaoi aeaeo?io?i?/iiai) iaoai?cio ni?aoe??.

Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yieii aeine?aeaeaiiue aac?aaaaioieo
ni?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a oyaey?oueny noai?aiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? iai?aai?/ieo ?iiiai?iiee?a oa aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiiai
iaoa??aeo. sse ?iiiiai?iio neeaaeiao oaeeo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a
iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ieneaee aaaaoiaaeaioieo iaoae?a, ye? iathoue
aeanoeaino? aioie?o?a, oiaoi caeaoi? aei iiaeeiaiiy ye ai?ii?a, oae ?
eao?ii?a. sse a?aeiii, ieneaei? ni?aoe?ei? iaoa??aee ? o?i?/ii
noaa?eueieie o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? cia/aiue pH oa a aa?aneaieo
na?aaeiaeuao, a oaeiae aeinoaoiuei aeinooiieie, iaaei?iaeie, eaaei
i?aeeyaathoue iiaeeo?eoaaiith. Aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiith neeaaeiaith
eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a iaea?eueo aeioe?euei?i c oi/ee
ci?o i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy aeaea?oueny ea?aii.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioo aeeiiaii
a ?aieao oaiaoeee a?aeae?eo ? 9 ?inoeoooo caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii?
o?i?? ?i. A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie: “O?i?/i? oa aeaeo?io?i?/i?
i?ioeane ia iaae? ?icae?eo o?eoacieo aeaeo?iaeieo nenoai” (?
Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 01.9.10. 013728); “?ic?iaea aaca?aeoiaeiiai i?ioeano
i/euaiiy i?iieaieo aiae aaeueaai?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa, ui aeeth/a?
aac?aaaaioio ?aaaia?aoe?th ni?aaioo oa ooee?caoe?th iaoae?a” (?
Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 02.02.U03065-92); “Aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae
oi?ioaaiiy ca?yaeo o aaoa?iaaiieo nenoaiao c ??cieie oeiaie
i?ia?aeiino?” (? Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 194 U010820). *anoeio ?iaioe aeeiiaii
oaeiae a ?aieao oaie “Ci?aoe?ei? aeaeo?iaee, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
aac?aaaaioiiai i/euaiiy neaaieiioeaio?iaaieo no?/ieo aiae”, o?iainiaaii?
IAOI (oeo? oaiaoeee IITECH. CRG.941095), oa a?aioo INTAS — UA — 95 ?
199.

Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaaea o ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo ni?aoe?eii — aeani?aoe?eieo
i?ioean?a aeeo/aiiy niieoe ?iiii? i?e?iaee c aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a oeyoii
neioaco eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aaio?a ?c caaeaieie aeanoeainoyie.

Iniiai? caaea/? ?iaioe:

— ?ic?iaea niiniao iaea?aeaiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia
iniia? ieneae?a aaaaoiaaeaioieo iaoae?a, ye? iathoue aenieo
aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue oa caeaoi? ooieoe?ioaaoe ye o?ei??i? ni?aoe?ei?
aeaeo?iaee.

— aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae oa ca?yaeo iiaa?oi?
eiiiiceoe?eieo ea?aii — ieneaeieo iaoa??ae?a;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeaeo?e/ii? iiey?ecaoe?? oa aeaeo?io?i?/iiai
aaia?oaaiiy ?ii?a I+, II- ia ni?aoe?ei? aeanoeaino? oa ca?yae iiaa?oi?
eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aaio?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aia?oa i?iaaaeaii
nenoaiaoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ca’yceo i?ae oiiaaie iaea?aeaiiy iiaeo
eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? ieneae?a (ZrO2, Al2O3,
TiO2 oa ?i.) oa aeaeo?iiiaa?oiaaeie (ca?yae iiaa?oi?, oi/ee ioeueiaiai
ca?yaeo) ? ni?aoe?eieie aeanoeainoyie oeeo iaoa??ae?a. Ciaeaeaii, ui
aeeo/aiiy iaeii- oa aaaaoica?yaeieo ?ii?a eiiiiceoe?eieie ni?aaioaie
caeaaeeoue a?ae ciaeo iiey?ecaoe?? oa neee aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio, yeee
aieeaa? ia nooi?iue i?ioiioaaiiy (aeai?ioiioaaiiy) iiaa?oiaaeo a?oi
ni?aaio?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe. I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? o
oiio, ui io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeai?
aeaeo?ini?aoe?ei? oaoiieia?? aeeo/aiiy aeii?oie ?iiii? i?e?iaee c
aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a c iiaeaeueoith aac?aaaaioiith ?aaaia?aoe??th
eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aaio?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aianie aaoi?a iieyaaa o aeoeai?e o/ano? a
iaaiai?aii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo caaea/ oa ?o i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe??, a
aiae?c? oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, a oaeiae o ?o
ioi?ieaii? o aeaeyae? noaoae oa oac aeiiia?aeae. On? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eniai? aaoi?ii iniaenoi, ca aeiyoeii
aoiiii-aani?aoe?eiiai oa iieoi’yii-oioiiao?e/iiai aiae?co, yeee aeeiiaii
a eiio?ieueii-aiae?oe/i?e eaai?aoi??? ?CIO IAI Oe?a?ie.

A?eueo?noue ?ia?o iioae?eiaaii o ni?aaaoi?noa? c iaoeiaei ea??aieeii
ae.o.i. Aaeyeiaei A.I., aianie yeiai iieyaaa o iinoaiiaoe?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo caaea/, iaaiai?aii? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa o/ano?
o iaienaii? noaoae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia XIY
Iaiaeaea?anueeiio c’?cae? c caaaeueii? oa i?eeeaaeii? o?i?? (Iineaa,
1989), XII Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? (Neioa?ii?eue,
1989), Y Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c aeaeo?io?i?? (Oaeai?iae, 1990),
eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo ?CIO IAIO (Ee?a, 1990), I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? ii eiiiiceoe?eiei iaoa??aeai (Iineaa, 1990), III
Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c iaia?ai oa iaia?aiii? oaoiieia?? (Ee?a,
1997), O?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiio eiia?an? CHISA’98 (i. I?aaa, *ao?y, 1998),
III eiioa?aioe?? e?a?i NIAe “Aeieia?y” (i. N?aa?iaeiiaoeuee, 1998), III
oe?a?inueei – iieuenueeiio neiiic?oi? c iiaa?oiaaeo yaeu oa aaeni?aoe??
(i. Euea?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo
?ia?o, cie?aia 4 noaoo? a i?ia?aeieo o?i?/ieo aeo?iaeao oa 5 oacen?a
aeiiia?aeae a ca??ieeao i?aoeue eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e (?icae?e 1), iieno ia’?eo?a ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue
(?icae?e 2), aeaio aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?icae?e?a (?icae?ee 3, 4),
aeniiae?a ? nieneo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e. A aeena?oaoe?? 156 noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aei neeaaeo yeiai aoiaeyoue 42 ?enoiee, 10
oaaeeoeue ? a?ae?ia?ao?y c 158 iaeiaioaaiue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

A ?icae?e? 1 — iaaaaeaii iniiai? a?aeiiino?, ui noinothoueny
i?ioean?a ?iiiiai?iii? ni?aoe?? ia ieneaeieo iai?aai?/ieo iaoa??aeao,
i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoai?cie ni?aoe??, ye? aacothoueny ia ooai?aii? ca?yaeo
ia iaae? ?iciiae?eo oac “ieneae/ aeaeo?ie?o”. ?icaeyiooi aeeeaaeai? a
e?oa?aoo?? iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ioean?a ?iiiiai?iii?
ni?aoe??. I?iaiae?ciaaii iiaeeeaino? ae?? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia i?ioeane
iiaeeiaiiy oa ia?aiino ?ii?a a aeenia?nieo oa ii?enoeo nenoaiao c
??cieie i?e?iaeith i?ia?aeiino? oa iaoai?ciii aaeni?aoe??. C o?aooaaiiyi
a?aeiieo aeaieo i?i i?e?iaeo ooai?aiiy oa aaee/eio ca?yaeo iiaa?oi?
ieneae?a c?iaeaii ioe?ieo iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe??
?iiiiai?iii? aaeni?aoe?? ia ieneaeieo ni?aaioao.

A ?icae?e? 2 iaaaaeai? a?aeiiino? i?i iaoiaee neioaco oa iiaeeo?eaoe??
iaoa??ae?a, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o ?iaio?, a oaeiae iaoiaeeee
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aiae?co ?ic/ei?a: iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy oa
niaeo?ioioiiao???, iieoi’yii? oioiiao???, iaia?aiieo eiioeaio?aoe?eieo
iioaioe?ae?a, ?iiaiaeainii? niaeo?ineii??. sse neeaaeia? /anoeie
eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aaio?a aoei ia?aii aeenia?ni? iaoa??aee ia iniia?
a?ae?aoiaaiiai ZrO2 oa ieneaei? ea?ai?/i? iaoa??aee c iae?iii?enoith
no?oeoo?ith ia iniia? Al2O3 oa ZrO2. Aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiith neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aaio?a aoei ia?aii aacii?enoee ea?aiiiaee
iaoa??ae oeio “Io?eii“ oa ea?aii, iaea?aeaiee oeyoii i??ie?co iaoaio.

?icae?e 3 i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith aaeni?aoe?eii? iiaaae?iee ye
eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a (ENI) ia iniia? a?ae?aoiaaiiai
ae?ieneaeo oee?eii?th (AAeOe) oa ea?aiiiaiai iaoa??aeo (EI), oae ?
ie?aieo neeaaeiaeo /anoei oeeo iaoa??ae?a.

A ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?aoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae AAeOe ii a?aeiioaiith aei aeayeeo ai?ii?a (SO42-, Cr2O72-),
eao?ii?a (Cu2+, Ce3+) oa H3BO3. Ciaeaeaii, ui an? io?eiai? caeaaeiino?
iai?iii? ?iiino? a?ae eeneioiino? ye a iaeano? iiceoeaiiai, oae ? a
iaeano? iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo iiaa?oi? AAeOe ? e?i?eieie iiaeeco oi/ee
ioeueiaiai ca?yaeo (pHOIC = 5,7)(?en. 1), a caeaaei?noue ca?yaeo
iiaa?oi? AAeOe a?ae pH iiaeia ae?aceoe ??aiyiiyi:

q = DpH*K,
(1)

aea DpH – a?aeoeeaiiy aaee/eie ??aiiaaaeii? eeneioiino? a?ae aaee/eie,
ui a?aeiia?aea? ii/aoeo i?yiie?i?eii? caeaaeiino? ca?yaeo iiaa?oi? a?ae
pH, E – eiinoaioa, a yeo, ?acii c iiiaeieeii (-RT/zF), aoiaeyoue
eiioeaio?aoe?y aeaeo?ie?oo oa eiao?oe??io ia?a?aooieo aaeni?aoe?eieo
aeaieo a aeaeo?e/i? iaeeieoe?.

?en. 1. Caeaaeiino? aaeni?aoe?? ?ii?a Cr2072-(1), Ce3+(2) ? H3BO3(3)
a?ae pH ?ic/eio.

Aiae?c io?eiaieo aeaieo aea? iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
ooai?aiiy ca?yaeo iiaa?oi? AAeOe (?ii?caoe?y iiaa?oiaaeo a?oi) oa
iiaeaeueoa ni?aoe?y ai?ii?a oa eao?ii?a iiaeooue aooe ae?aaeai?
??aiyiiyie:

A eeneiio na?aaeiaeu?:

ZrOm(OH)n + H+ <==> ZrOm(OH)n-1(OH2)+; (2)

ZrOm(OH)n-1(OH2)+ + An- <==> ZrOm(OH)n-1(OH2)…An.
(3)

A eoaeiiio na?aaeiaeu?:

ZrOm(OH)n + OH- <==> ZrOm(OH)n-1O- + H2O;
(4)

ZrOm(OH)n-1O- + Cat+ <==> ZrOm(OH)n-1O… Cat. (5)

Oaeei /eiii, aeoeai?noue ?ii?a H+, OH- o ciai?oi?e oac? — ?ic/ei? —
aecia/a? aeaeo?inoaoe/iee iioaioe?ae oa ca?yae iaae? ?iciiae?eo oac
“ni?aaio – ?ic/ei”.

Aaeni?aoe?y ai?ii? eeneioe iineoue niaoeeo?/iee oa?aeoa?
iieaeoey?ii? ni?aoe??, ine?eueee iaeneioi iiaeeiaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny
i?e cia/aiiyo eeneioiino? ?ic/eio pH = 9,5 (?en.1). Ca oeeo oiia
ieneaeiee ?iiiiai?iiee i?iyaey? ia?aaaaeii eao?iiiiai?ii? aeanoeaino?, a
ai?ia eeneioa i?enooiy a ?ic/ei? o aeaeyae? iaeo?aeueieo iieaeoe, ye?
iiaeooue ooai?thaaoe aiaeiaa? ca’ycee c iiaa?oiath a?ae?aoiaaiiai
ieneaeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeni?aoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee eiiiiceoe?eieo
ni?aoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a, neioaciaaieo ia iniia? AAeOe oa ea?aiiiaiai
iaoa??aeo, iieacaei (oaae.1), ui aaaaeaiiy a AAeOe ea?aiio i?ecaiaeeoue
aei iaaaeeoeaii? ci?ie ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino? ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?ii?a, ui
aeine?aeaeothoueny. Ciaeaeaii, ui aianie ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino? ea?aiiiaiai
iaoa??aeo a caaaeueio aaee/eio iiaeeiaiiy ? iacia/iei. Oaeei /eiii,
ci?ithaaiiy ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino? a oie /e ?ioee a?e, iaiaaii, iia’ycaii
?c a?aeiia?aeiei cnoaii eeneioii – iniiaieo aeanoeainoae AAeOe, yeee
aeeeeeaii i?enooi?noth ea?aiia o neeaae? ni?aaioa.

Oaaeeoey 1

Ni?aoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee AAeOe, ea?aiiiaiai iaoa?eaeo “Ioeeii–A”
oa ENI, aeaioiaeaiiai ia ?o iniia?

?iipH?ii?noue, ia/aCi?ia ?iiinoe,%Ea?aiiiaee
iaoa??aeAAeOeEiiiiceoe?e-iee
iaoa??aeCr2O72-2,90,8060,5267,20+11SO42-2,30,020,340,44+27Ce3+5,83,0651,
3047,90-10

Iiae?aiee aoaeo ae?? ea?aiio ia ni?aoe?ei? aeanoeaino? ieneae?a
io?eiaii ? i?e ii?aeiaii? ea?aiiiaiai iaoa??aeo c ?ioeie ieneaeieie
ni?aaioaie (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2

Ni?aoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ieneae?a, ea?aiiiaiai iaoa??aeo “Ioeeii –A”
oa ENI, aeaioiaeaieo ia ?o iniia?

A?ae?aoiaa -iee ieneae?iipH?ii?noue, ia/a

IeneaeEiiiiceoe?e-iee iaoa??aeCi?ia ?iiino?,
%TiO2SO42-2,30,340,44+29SiO2Cr2O72-2,90,380,45+25Al2O3Cr2O722,92,894,08+
41

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue aaaaeaoe, ui oaea ci?ia ni?aoe?eii?
?iiino? ENI iia’ycaia ?c aieeaii ca?yaeo iiaa?oi? ea?aiio ia ca?yae
AAeOe oa a?aeiia?aeiei ci?uaiiyi eeneioii — iniiaieo aeanoeainoae a a?e
ca?eueoaiiy iiceoeaiiai ca?yaeo iiaa?oi?.

A?aeiii, ui ca?yae iiaa?oi? ea?aiiiaeo iaoa??ae?a a ?ic/eiao
aeaeo?ie?o?a caeaaeeoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith. Ioaea, oeyoii ci?ie
eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith a ?ic/ei? iiaeia aieeaaoe ia ca?yae iiaa?oi?
aoaeaoeaai? neeaaeiai? eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ? oei naiei ea?oaaoe
ni?aoe?eieie aeanoeainoyie AAeOe- eiiiiiaioe ENI. E?ea?, iaaaaeai? ia
?en. 2 oa ?en. 3 iieacothoue, ui ci?ie neeaaeo aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua iaae
?ic/eiii ci?iththoue ye noaoe?iia?iee iioaioe?ae ea?aiio, yeee iia’ycaii
c eiai ca?yaeii iiaa?oi?, oae ? ni?aoe?eio ?ii?noue ENI. Io?eiai? aeai?
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ca?yae iiaa?oi? ea?aiio nooo?ai
aieeaa? ia ca?yae ieneaeiiai ni?aaioo.

?en. 2. Caeaaei?noue noaoe?iia?iiai iioaioe?aeo ENI a?ae neeaaeo
aoiinoa?e: 1 — eenaiue, 2 — iia?o?y, 3 — a?aii.

?en. 3. Caeaaei?noue iiaeeiaiiy ?ii?a Cr2O72- a?ae pH o aoiinoa??: 1 —
eenith, 2 — iia?o?y, 3 — a?aiio.

Iaeiae, ?nio? e ?ioee oeyo ci?ie iioaioe?aeo oa ca?yaeo iiaa?oi?
ea?aiio, a a?aeiia?aeii, ? ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino? ea?aii — ieneaeieo
iaoa?eae?a, a naia – iiey?ecaoe?y ea?aiiiai? eiiiiiaioe eiiiiceoe?eieo
ni?aaio?a. I?e oeueiio ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui i?e iiey?ecaoe?? a ia’?i?
ENI iiaeooue a?aeaoaaoenue aeaeo?io?i?/i? i?ioeane c ia?aiinii ca?yaeo
(iai?eeeaae, aeaeo?ie?c aiaee), ye? ae?thoue ia nooi?iue ?ii?caoe??
iiaa?oiaaeo a?oi, ca?yae iiaa?oi? oa ni?aoe?eio caeaoi?noue ieneaeii?
eiiiiiaioe a?aeiia?aeii aei ?aaeoe?e:

1. Aeaeo?io?i?/ii noeioeueiaaia iiaeeiaiiy ai?ii?a (aiiaeia iiey?ecaoe?y
ENI):

1/2H2O — e <==> H+ + 1/4O2;
(6)

ZrOm(OH)n + H+ <==> ZrOm(OH)n-1(OH2)+;
(7)

ZrOm(OH)n-1(OH2)+ + An- <==> ZrOm(OH)n-1(OH2)…An. (8)

2. Aeaeo?io?i?/ii noeioeueiaaia iiaeeiaiiy eao?ii?a (eaoiaeia
iiey?ecaoe?y ENI):

1/2H2O + e <==>1/2 OH- + 1/4H2;
(9)

ZrOm(OH)n + OH- <==> ZrOm(OH)n-1O- + H2O;
(10)

ZrOm(OH)n-1O- + Cat+ <==> ZrOm(OH)n-1O… Cat.
(11)

Aieea iiey?ecaoe?? ia ni?aoe?eio caeaoi?noue ENI a noaoe/ieo oa
aeeiai?/ieo oiiaao ni?aoe?eiiai aenia??iaioo aoei aea/aii ii
a?aeiioaiith aei ??cieo ?ii?a (Na+, Cl-, Cr2O72-, Cu2+, Ce3+), a oaeiae
H3BO3. Ciaeaeaii, ui aaee/eia aeaeo?ini?aoe?eiiai iiaeeiaiiy, yeo iiaeia
a?aeianoe ia ?aooiie ea?aiiiai? eiiiiiaioe, neeaaea? ia a?eueoa 10% a?ae
caaaeueii? aaee/eie aeeo/aiiy. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iieacaee (Oaae.3),
ui aeaeo?io?i?/ii noeioeueiaaia iiaeeiaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi
eiiiiceoe?eieo aoaeaoeue – ieneaeieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? AAeOe oa
ea?aiio aeicaieythoue iioei?coaaoe oiiae aeeo/aiiy ??cieo ?ii?a, a
oaeiae i?iaiaeeoe aoaeoeaio aac?aaaaioio ?aaaia?aoe?th iaoa??aeo i?e
ii??aiyii iaaaeeeeo ??cieoeyo iioaioe?ae?a (aei 2,5 A).

Oaaeeoey 3

Caeaaei?noue aeaeo?io?i?/ii noeioeueiaaii? ni?aoe?? a?ae oiia
aenia?eiaioo

?iiOiiae aenia?eiaioo (?ic/ei, aeae iiey?ecaoe?? )??cieoey
iioaioe?ae?a, AAaeni?aoe?y, %

Cr2O72-:K2Cr2O7 — 1*10-3 i. NaCl — 5*10-2 i. aiiaeia, noaoeea0

1,5

2,555

96

96Ce3+Ce2(SO4)3 — 1,5*10-3 i. Na2SO4 — 2*10-2 i. eaoiaeia, aeeiai?ea0

2,0

2,54

15

22Cu2+CuSO4-1*10—2 i. eaoiaeia, noaoeea0

2,5

3,542

53

77H3BO3H3BO3 — 0,3*10-2 i. NaCl — 5*10-2 i.,eaoiaeia, aeeiai?ea0

1,5

2,530

95

10

Ia ?en. 4 iaaaaeaii caeaaei?noue aaee/eie ni?aoe?? ai?ii? eeneioe a?ae
??cieoe? iioaioe?ae?a. sse iiaeia aa/eoe, io?eiai? caeaaeiino?
iiaeeiaiiy ai?ii? eeneioe a?ae aaee/eie iai?oae (?en. 4) oa a?ae
eeneioiino? ??aiiaaaeiiai ?ic/eio (?en. 1) i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac
iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy. Oaeei /eiii, iacaaaeath/e ia iieaeoey?io oi?io
aaeni?aoe??, iiey?ecaoe?y oaeiae noai?th? iiaeeea?noue iioei?caoe?? oiia
ni?aoe?? ai?ii? eeneioe oeyoii aeaeo?io?i?/iiai aaia?oaaiiy a ia’?i?
ENI a?aeiia?eueii? e?eueeino? ?ii?a, ye? aieeaathoue ia ni?aoe?eio
??aiiaaao.

Iiaeaethaaiiy o?ueiooacii? nenoaie “aeaeo?iiiee i?ia?aeiee – ieneae –
aeaeo?ie?o” oa aea/aiiy aeaeo?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oaeeo nenoai c iaoith
?aae?caoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueii /enoiai (ca oiiaaie a?aenooiino?
oa?aaea?anueeeo i?ioean?a) aeaeo?ini?aoe?eiiai iiaeeiaiiy ?ii?a aoei
i?iaaaeaii ca aeiiiiiaith ?iiaiaeainieo aei??thaaiue ia niaoe?aeueii
aeaioiaeaieo c?aceao. Ieneaeiee

?en. 4. Caeaaei?noue ni?aoe?? H3BO3 a?ae ??cieoe? iioaioe?ae?a (eaoiaeia
iiey?ecaoe?y ENI)

eiiiiiaio (ZrO2) o aeaeyae? oiiei? iaii?enoi? ie?aee neoaeea
ae?aeaeo?e/iei oa?ii i?ae aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiei iaoa??aeii oa
eiioeaio?iaaiei aeaeo?ie?oii. Ia

i?aenoaa? aiae?co io?eiaieo aeaieo aoea iiaoaeiaaia iiaia aea?aaeaioia
noaia ?iiaiaeaino, yea neeaaea?oueny c aeaio ia?aeaeueieo a?eie. Iaeia
a?eea yaey? niaith /anoioii iacaeaaeio ?ii?noue, ae?oaa – iine?aeiaia
c’?aeiaiiy /anoioii iacaeaaeiiai iii?o oa ?iiaiaeaina Aa?ao?aa, yeee
i?eoaiaiiee nenoaiai c aeeooc?eiei eiio?ieai. Aei??thaaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue
a iaeano? oi/ee ioeueiaiai ca?yaeo (iaeo?aeuei? cia/aiiy eeneioiino?
?ic/eio aeaeo?ie?oa), yea, ye oea a?aeiii, a?aeiia?aea? i?i?iaeuei?e
?iiino? ?iiiiai iiaea?eiiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o. A?ae?aooaaiiy iiaa?oi?
ieneaeo i?e oeueiio cia/aii? pH i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? iaaeenioe?eiaaieo iieaeoe aiaee a iiaa?oiaaiio oa??
ieneaeo, ye? eii?aeeiothoueny ia iaeiiiainiaaieo iiaa?oiaaeo ca’yceao.
Oaeei /eiii, iia’ycaia c iiaa?oiath iaaeenioe?eiaaia aiaea iiaea aooe
i?e/eiith aeieeiaiiy aeeooc?eieo oneeaaeiaiue a ia?ai?uaii? ca?yae?a.

A ?icae?e? 4 aeeeaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaeni?aoe?eii? iiaaae?iee ENI ?ioiai oeio — ia iniia?
aethi?i??ai-oee?eii??ai? ieneaeii? ea?ai?ee oa i??ie?oe/iiai ea?aiio.

Iaoiaeii iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy aoei ciaeaeaii, ui aaee/eie
iiaa?oiaai? aonoeie ca?yaeo ?iiiiai?iii? eiiiiiaioe ENI —
aethi?i??ai-oee?eii??ai? ea?ai?ee – ? a?aeiinii iecueeeie oa a
na?aaeiueiio ia ia?aaeuothoue 0,08 ieEe/ni2 a iaeano? iiceoeaieo oa
0,05 ieEe/ni2 a iaeano? iaaaoeaieo cia/aiue ca?yaeo iiaa?oi?. Aeey
aeai?o aaeaeaaoii? iiaeae? ooai?aiiy ca?yaeo ieneaeii? ea?ai?ee oa
?iiiiai?iii? ni?aoe?? io?eiai? caeaaeiino? iai?iii? ?iiino? a?ae pH
aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii c oi/ee ci?o aeaeo?inoaoe/ieo iiaeaeae iaae?
?iciiae?eo “ieneae — aeaeo?ie?o“. Ciaeaeaii, ui aaee/eia ca?yaeo q
iiaa?oi? ieneaeiiai iaoa??aeo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?yiii?iii?oe?eiith
caeaaei?noth a?ae pH ?ic/eio c iiiaioo ?ii?c?oe?? iiaa?oiaaeo a?oi oa
iiaea aooe ae?aaeaia a?aeiia?aeiei ??aiyiiyi:

q = K*(pH – pHOIC), (12)

aea pHOIC — pH oi/ee ioeueiaiai ca?yaeo, oiaoi cia/aiiy pH ?ic/eio, yea
ia ci?ith?oueny i?e aaaaeaii? ni?aoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo, a a cia/aiiy
eiinoaioe E aoiaeeoue aaee/eia ?ioaa?aeueii? ?iiino? iiaea?eiiai
aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeo?ie?oo.

Aeey aea/aiiy caeaaeiino? aeaeo?inoaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo iaae?
?iciiae?eo oac “ieneae — aeaeo?ie?o” a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeo?ieeoa a
ciai?oi?e oac? (eeneioe, eoao, nie?) aoee i?iaaaeai? aei??thaaiiy
iioaioe?ae?a iaia?aiiiai aeaeo?iaeo, yeee aoei aeaioiaeaii oeyoii
aaaaeaiiy Zr(HPO4)2*nH2O (eeneiai oinoaoo oee?eii?th) a ieneaeio
ea?ai?/io iao?eoeth. Ca i?eiouaiiyi, caaaeueia i?e?iaea ca?yaeiooai?aiiy
iiaa?oi? a?ae?aoiaaieo iai?aai?/ieo niieoe aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
iiaaae?iea oinoao?a iiae?aia aei iiaaae?iee ieneae?a o oeeo oiiaao.
Ciaeaeaii, ui aeaeo?iaeia ooieoe?y iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaia (c iaaaeeeei
a?aeoeeaiiyi a?ae ?aeaaeueiino?) a ?ic/eiao aoaeue-yeeo eao?ii?a,
caeaoieo iai?ithaaoenue a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? a?ae?aoiaaieo iai?aai?/ieo
niieoe. Iaia?aiiee iioaioe?ae iiaea aooe ae?aaeaiei eeane/iei ??aiyiiyi:

A = Ai + (2,303RT/zF)*lgai, (13)

aea ai – aeoeai?noue ?iia a ?ic/ei?.

Oaeei /eiii, ci?ia aeaeo?inoaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo iaae? ?iciiae?eo
oac “iai?aai?/iee ?iiiiai?iiee – aeaeo?ie?o” i?yiii?iii?oe?eia ci?i?
eiaa?eoia aeoeaiino? ?iia, yeee aaiaeeii a ?ic/ei ye o aeaeyae? eeneioe
oae ? eoao, oae ? o aeaeyae? iaeo?aeueii? nie?. A?aeiia?aeii, “?iiaie
Ia?inoa” aeey ieneae?a iiaeii? aaaaeaoeny ye ?iie H+, oae ? eao?iie
aeaeo?ie?oo. C a?aooaaiiyi oeueiai aeaeo?io?i?/i? ?iiiiai?ii? ??aiiaaae
ia iaae? ?iciiae?eo oac “iai?aai?/iee ?iiiiai?iiee – aeaeo?ie?o” iiaeia
caienaoe oaeei /eiii:

MOm (OH)n + H3O+ + An- <==> MOm (OH)(n-1) OH2+… An- + H2O ; (14)

MOm (OH)n + OH- + Cat+ <==> MOm (OH)(n-1) O-…Cat+ + H2O, (15)

a aeaeo?inoaoe/iee iioaioe?ae iaae? ?iciiae?eo oac aecia/a?oueny
aeoeaiinoyie an?o i?enooi?o a ?ic/ei? ai?ii?a oa eao?ii?a.

Aieea ea?aiio ia ca?yae iiaa?oi? oa aaeni?aoe?eio iiaaae?ieo
ieneaeii? ea?ai?ee aoa aeine?aeaeaiee iaoiaeii iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai
oeo?oaaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy ieneaeieo oa
ea?aii-ieneaeieo iaoa??ae?a a iaeano? oi/ee ioeueiaiai ca?yaeo (OIC)
cia?aaeaii ia ?en. 5 a eii?aeeiaoao “pH ?ic/eio – pH nenoaie ni?aaio —
?ic/ei”.

sse iiaeia aa/eoe c iaaaaeaieo aeaieo, ea?aii – ieneaei? iaoa??aee
(a?ao?e 2) iathoue aea? iaeano? aooa?iino?, i?e/iio ca?yae iiaa?oi?
ieneaeii? eiiiiiaioe eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo, yeee a?aeiia?aea?
nooiaith ci?ie pH, ? ieae/ei, i?ae ca?yae ieneaeiiai iaoa??aeo, ui
iiaeia iiynieoe aeayeei aeieoaaiiyi iiaa?oi? ieneaeo ea?aiiii.

?en. 5. Caeaaei?noue e?ioeaaeo oi/ie oeo?oaaiiy ieneaeii? (1) oa
ea?aii-ieneaeii? (2) ea?ai?ee a?ae pH a iaeano? OIC.

I?e ii??aiyii? eeneioii-iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee a ?yaeo
ea?aii-ieneaeieo iaoa??ae?a, io?eiaieo i?e ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao i??ie?co
iaoaio aei aoaeaoeth oa aiaee, iiaeia aa/eoe (oaae. 4), ui i?aeaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e i??ie?co i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeneeaiiy eao?iiiiai?iii?
ooieoe?? aeacaieo iaoa??ae?a oa a?aeiia?aeiiai cnoao oi/ee ioeueiaiai
ca?yaeo a iaeanoue a?eueo iecueeeo cia/aiue pH. I?e oeueiio OIC on?o
aoaeaoeue-ieneaeieo iaoa??ae?a ?icoaoiaaii a a?eueo eoaei?e iaeano?
cia/aiue eeneioiino?, i?ae OIC ieneaeieo iaoa??ae?a. Iaoa??aee,
iaea?aeai? i?e ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao i??ie?co, a?ae??ciythoueny iaeei a?ae
ae?oaiai ?iciiae?eii eao?iiii? oa ai?iiii? ?iiino? (oaae. 4), yeee
ei?aeth? c iieiaeaiiyi oi/ee ioeueiaiai ca?yaeo. Oaeei /eiii, i?e ci?i?
oaiia?aoo?ieo oiia io?eiaiiy ea?aii-ieneaeiiai eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aea
iiaeia ?aaoethaaoe ?iciiae?e eiai eao?iiii? oa ai?iiii? ooieoe?e.

Ia ?en. 6 iaaaaeaii cia/aiiy iai?iii? ?iiino? ENI ii a?aeiioaiith
aei ?ii?a E+, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue c?inoaiiy eao?iiiiai?iii? caeaoiino?
ENI ii i??? i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iaea?aeaiiy i??ie?oe/iiai ea?aiio.
Ca?eueoaiiy /ano i??ie?co, oiaoi e?eueeino? iaianaiiai ea?aiio, ye aoei
ciaeaeaii, oaeiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy — i?e/iio i?iii?oe?eiiai —
eao?iiiiai?iii? caeaoiino? ea?ai?/ieo ENI (?en. 7).

C iaoith ca?eueoaiiy aonoeie iiaa?oiaaiai ca?yaeo ea?ai?/ieo ENI
iiaa?oiy eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a iiaeeo?eoaaeanue iine?aeiaiei (oa? ca
oa?ii) aaaaeaiiyi ?iiiaaiii? eiiiiiaioe — ZrO2. Ciaeaeaii, ui
caiiaiaiiy ii? eiiiiceoe?eiiai aoaeaoeue-ieneaeiiai iaoa??aeo, yeee
io?eiaii i?e oaiia?aoo?? i??ie?co 900i N, a?ae?aoiaaiei ae?ieneaeii
oee?eii?th cia/ii ca?eueoo? iai?iio ?ii?noue ENI. Cia/aiiy iai?iii?
?iiino? i?e ??aiiaaaeiiio cia/aii? eeneioiino? pH = 2,5 iaaaaeaii a
oaaeeoe? 5. Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ZrO2

Oaaeeoey 4

Cia/aiiy oi/ie ioeueiaiai ca?yaeo oa iai?iii? ?iiino? ENI, iaea?aeaieo
i?e caaeaieo oaiia?aoo?ao i??ie?co iaoaio

Aeaeo?ie?oOIC, pH,

?ii?noue,

ia-yea/aIeneaeia ea?ai?eaEa?aii — ieneae., 7000NEa?aii — ieneae.,
8000NEa?aii — ieneae.,
9000NNaClOIC7,37,87,77,5?ii?noue(-)0,0520,0530,0500,041?ii?noue(+)0,0430
,0350,0360,033Na2SO4OIC8,18,68,58,0?ii?noue(-)0,0620,0580,0550,043?ii?no
ue(+)0,0340,0290,0290,030

i?ecaiaeeoue aei iine?aeiaiiai ca?eueoaiiy ?iiino? oa cnoao OIC ye
aeo?aeii? ea?ai?ee, oae ? ENI ia ?? iniia?.

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo aeaieo aoee iioei?ciaai? oiiae iaea?aeaiiy
c?ace?a ENI oa aea/ai? ?o ni?aoe?ei? aeanoeaino? i?e iiey?ecaoe??. A
noaoe/ieo oa aeeiai?/ieo oiiaao ni?aoe?eiiai aenia?eiaioo aoei iieacaii
caaeia?eueio cai?ioi?noue oa a?aeoai?thaai?noue i?ioean?a aeaeo?io?i?/ii
noeioeueiaaii? ni?aoe?? ai?ii?a oa eao?ii?a a ?ic/eiao NaCl oa Na2SO4 a
?ioa?aae? eiioeaio?aoe?e a?ae 2*10-3 aei 0,1 i.

?en. 6. Caeaaei?noue iiaeeiaiiy ?ii?a K+ iiaa?oiath ea?ai?/ieo ENI a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e i??ie?co.

?en. 7. Caeaaei?noue iiaeeiaiiy ?ii?a K+ iiaa?oiath ea?ai?/ieo ENI a?ae
/ano i??ie?co.

Oaaeeoey 5.

Cia/aiiy oi/ie ioeueiaiai ca?yaeo oa iai?iii? ?iiino? ENI, iaea?aeaieo
iiaeeo?eoaaiiyi iiaa?oi? oeyoii iaianaiiy ZrO2

E?euee?noue iaianaieo oa??a ZrO2Ieneaeia

ea?ai?ea,

OIC, pHIeneaeia ea?ai?ea,

?ii?noue (-),

ia-yea/aEa?aii — ieneaeia ea?ai?ea,

OIC, pHEa?aii — ieneaeia ea?ai?ea

?ii?noue(-),

ia-yea/a17,300.0237,520.04127,200.0327,460.06337,090.0357,410.068

Aoei ciaeaeaii, ui aaee/eio ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino? ?c caaeia?eueiei
iaaeeaeaiiyi iiaeia aecia/eoe ca ci?iith aaee/eie pH ??aiiaaaeiiai
?ic/eio, ca aiaeia??th c iaoiaeii iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy. Oeae
i?ioean ? iane?aeeii ?iiiiai iai?io a iiaa?oiaaeo a?oiao ieneaeii?
ea?ai?ee. Ia ?en. 8 iaaaaeaii caeaaeiino? iiaeeiaiiy ?ii?a Na+ a?ae
neee no?oio, ye? iaea?aeaii ca aeaieie oioiiao?e/iiai aiae?co (1) oa pH
— iao??? (2). Oe? ?acoeueoaoe i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iiaeeea?noue ea?oaaiiy
aaeni?aoe?eiei i?ioeanii o a?aeiioaii? aei iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a ca
aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aiao??a, cie?aia neee aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio.

Iaea?aeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? c aeaeo?io?i?/ii noeioeueiaaieo
aeaeo?ini?aoe?? oa aeaeo?iaeani?aoe?? ?ii?a Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Cr2O72- c
aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a a?aeiia?aeieo nieae. Caeaaei?noue nooiaith aeeo/aiiy
?ii?a Ca2+ ? Mg2+ a?ae neee no?oio c ?ic/eio ianooiiiai neeaaeo: NaCl —
1 a/e, CaCl2 — 0,3 a/e, MgCl2 — 0,3 a/e iaaaaeaii ia ?en. 9.

?en. 8. Caeaaeiino? iiaeeiaiiy ?ii?a Na+ a?ae neee no?oio, ye?
iaea?aeaii ca aeaieie oioiiao?e/iiai aiae?co (1) oa pH — iao??? (2).

?en. 9. Caeaaei?noue nooiaith aeeo/aiiy ?ii?a Mg2+ (1) ? Ca2+(2) a?ae
neee no?oio.

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaii aaeni?aoe?eio iiaaae?ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo
ni?aoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? ieneae?a aaaaoiaaeaioieo iaoae?a oa
ea?aiio a oiiaao ?aaaaioiiai oa aac?aaaaioiiai ci?ithaaiiy ni?aoe?eii?
??aiiaaae oa ca?yaeo iiaa?oi? oeeo iaoa??ae?a. Io?eiai? aeai? ii
cai?ioiueiio oa a?aeoai?thaaiiio aeeo/aiith ??cieo eiiiiiaio?a c aiaeieo
?ic/ei?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue i?eiouaiiy i?i ia?niaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy
oaeeo iaoa??ae?a o aeaeo?io?i?/ii ea?iaaieo ni?aoe?eieo i?ioeanao.

AENIIAEE

1. Aeine?aeaeaii ni?aoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia
iniia? ieneae?a aaaaoiaaeaioieo iaoae?a oa ??cieo ea?aiiiaeo iaoa??ae?a,
oa iieacaii, ui aaaaeaiiy ea?aiiiai? eiiiiiaioe i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iaaaeeoeaii? ci?ie ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino? ieneaeii? eiiiiiaioe —
ca?eueoaiith aeey ai?ii?a oa ciaioaiith aeey eao?ii?a.

2. Ciaeaeaii, ui ni?aoe?eia ?ii?noue oa aeaeo?iaeiee iioaioe?ae ieneae
— ea?aiiiaeo eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a aca?iiiia’ycai? oa
aecia/athoueny iioaioe?aeii ea?aiiiai? eiiiiiaioe. Iieacaii, ui ci?ia
iioaioe?aeo ea?aiiiai? eiiiiiaioe ye oeyoii iiey?ecaoe??, oae ? oeyoii
ci?ie ai?noo eenith, yeee ?ic/eiaiee a aeaeo?ie?o?, i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ci?ie ni?aoe?eii? ?iiino? eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a.

3. Aeey ?yaeo iaeii- oa aaaaoica?yaeieo ?ii?a oa ai?ii? eeneioe iieacaia
i?eioeeiiaa iiaeeea?noue ea?oaaiiy aaee/eiith aeeo/aiiy oa
aac?aaaaioii? aeani?aoe?? aaeni?aaoo i?e ci?i? ciaeo oa aaee/eie
iiey?ecaoe?? eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia?
a?ae?aoiaaiiai ZrO2 oa ea?aiio.

4. Aea/aii aieea iaianaiiai ea?aiio ia eeneioii — iniiai? oa ni?aoe?ei?
aeanoeaino? ieneaeii? ea?ai?ee. Iieacaii iiaeeea?noue oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
neioaco ea?aii — ieneaeieo ea?ai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a ?c caaeaieie
ni?aoe?eieie aeanoeainoyie, ye ca ?aooiie ci?ie oiia io?eiaiiy
i??ie?oe/ii iaianaiiai ea?aiio, oae ? oeyoii aeiaeaoeiaiai aaaaeaiiy o
neeaae eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ni?aoe?eii — aeoeaii? eiiiiiaioe
(ZrO2).

5. Ciaeaeaii, ui iiey?ecaoe?y ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a
ni?ey? cae?eniaiith ca?yaeiaiai (aeaeo?io?i?/iiai) iaoai?cio aaeni?aoe??
ai?ii?a oa eao?ii?a, aei oiai ae aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe aac?aaa?eia
?oaoethaaiiy nooiaiai aaeni?aoe?? ? aeani?aoe??. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue
aaaaoie?aoiiai i?iaaaeaiiy oeeee?a ni?aoe?? o? aeani?aoe?? ai?ii?a oa
eao?ii?a aeaeo?ie?oo a oiiaao iiey?ecaoe?? eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aaio?a.
Ciaeaeaii, ui aieiaiei oaeoi?ii, yeee aecia/a? aaee/eio iiaeeiaiiy ?ii?a
a oiiaao aeaeo?io?i?/ii aeoeaiaaii? ni?aoe??, ? neea no?oio.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a ?iaioao:

1. Iiaeeiaa A. I., Iaeueoeaaa O.A., Eaai/aiei N.E. Eiiaaeain eaeaaeueii
iiey?ecoaiiai yeaeo?iaea // Oe?. oei. aeo?i. — 1990. — O. 56, N 2. — N.
150 — 152.

2. Ai?iaeuneee A.A., Iiaeeiaa A. I., Iaeueoeaaa O.A. Iiaeaeue eiiaaeaina
eaeaaeueii iiey?ecoaiiai yeaeo?iaea // Oe?. oei. aeo?i. — 1990. — O. 56,
N 4. — N. 381 — 383.

3. Iiaeeiaa A. I., Iaeueoeaaa O.A., Aaeyeia A.I., Niaeaae/ A.A., Oaaa
I.A. I?e?iaea neia?ae/aneiai yooaeoa ia eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeao
oaea?iae — aeae?ieneae oee?eiiey // Oe?. oei. aeo?i. — 1991. — O. 57, N
9. — N. 928 — 929.

4. Iaeueoeaaa O.A., Aaeyeia A.I., Eeieia A.I. I?ioeannu
ca?yaeiia?aciaaiey iai?aaie/aneeo iaia?ai ia iniiaa ieneaeia
iiiaiaaeaioieo yeaiaioia // Oeiey e oaoiieiaey aiaee — 1997. — O. 19, N
6. — N. 626 — 631.

5. Ai?iaeuneee A.A., Iiaeeiaa A.I., Iaeueoeaaa O.A., Aaeyeia A.I. ae?.
I?ioeannu oi?aaeyaiie yeaeo?inoaoe/aneie ni?aoeee — iiaue
oaoiieiae/aneee iiaeoiae a i/enoea e eiioeaio?e?iaaiee aauanoa // Oac.
aeiee. XIV Iaiae. nuacaea ii iauae i?eeeaaeiie oeiee. — Oaoeaio. —
1989. — N. 235.

6. Iiaeeiaa A.I., Iaeueoeaaa O.A., Eaai/aiei N.E., Iaeue/ee A.A.
Aeeyiea yeaeo?iaeiuo ooieoeee ia ni?aoeeiiiua naienoaa eiiiiceoeeiiiuo
iaoa?eaeia // Oac. aeiee. 5 Oe?. ?ani. eiio. ii yeaeo?ioeiee. —
Oaeai?iae. — 1990. — N. 54.

7. Belyakov V., Maltseva T. Oxide ceramic/carbon adsorption electrodes
for electrostimulated reversible removal of ions // Proc. Int. Congr. on
Chem. Eng. CHIZA’98. — Praga (Czech. Rep.). — 1998. — P. 193.

8. Aaeyeia A.I., Iaeueoeaaa O.A. Oaea?iae — ieneaeiua ni?aoeeiiiua
yeaeo?iaeu aeey yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai eiiiiai iaiaia // O?oaeu III eiio.
no?ai NIA ii yeie. oei. i?ieca.- Naaa?iaeiiaoee. — 1998.- N. 77 — 78.

9. Belyakov V., Maltseva T. Carbon — oxide absorptive electrodes for
electrochemical assisted extraction of borate — ions // Proc. III
Polish-Ukrainian Symp. on Interfacial Phenomena. L’viv.- 1998.- P. 10
-11.

Iaeueoeaaa O.A. Neioac oa aaeni?aoe?eia iiaaae?iea aeenia?nieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? ieneae?a aaaaoiaaeaioieo iaoae?a oa
ea?aiio. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 02.00.04 — o?ce/ia o?i?y. — ?inoeooo caaaeueii? oa
iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? ?i. A.?. Aa?iaaeneiai IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae
ni?aoe?? iaeii- oa aaaaoica?yaeieo ?ii?a ia iiaeo aeenia?nieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? ieneae?a aaaaoiaaeaioieo iaoae?a oa
ea?aiio. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy iiaa?oiaaiai ca?yaeo oa
?iiiiai?iii? ni?aoe?? ia ieneaeieo iaoa??aeao. Ciaeaeaii, ui oiiae
neioaco eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa?eae?a ia iniia? ieneaeii? ea?ai?ee, a naia
oaiia?aoo?a oa /an i??ie?co iaoaia, aieeaathoue ia eeneioii-iniiai?
aeanoeaino? oeeo iaoa??ae?a. A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii
aeei?enoaiiy iiey?ecaoe?? ea?aiio ye aeaeo?ii?ia?aeii? eiiiiiaioe
eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aaio?a aeey ?aaoethaaiiy nooiaith iiaeeiaiiy ?ii?a
iiaa?oiath ieneae?a. Iieacaii, ui ??cieoey iioaioe?ae?a, yea
aeei?enoiao?oueny, iaoiiaeth? ciae oa aaee/eio ca?yaeo iiaa?oi? ieneae?a
oa a?aeiia?aeio aaee/eio nooiaith ?iiiiai?iiiai iiaeeiaiiy ?ii?a
iiaa?oiath eiiiiceoe?eieo ni?aaio?a. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe?
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue cai?iiiioaaoe aeei?enoaiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo
ni?aoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? ieneae?a aaaaoiaaeaioieo iaoae?a oa
ea?aiio aeey aoaeoeaiiai aeaeo?io?i?/ii no?ioeueiaaiiai ?iiiiai?iiiai
aeeo/aiiy iaeii- ? aaaaoica?yaeieo ?ii?a c aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a c ianooiiith
aac?aaaaioiith ?aaaia?aoe??th ni?aaio?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ni?aoe?y, eiiiiceoe?ei? ni?aoe?ei? iaoa??aee, ieneaee
aaaaoiaaeaioieo iaoae?a, ca?yae iiaa?oi?, aac?aaaaioia ?aaaia?aoe?y.

Maltseva T.V. Synthesis and adsorption properties of disperse
compozite materials based on oxides of multivalent metals and carbon.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 02.00.04 — physical
chemistry. — The Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to determine the main laws governing the
sorption of one- and multicharged ions on newly obtained disperse
composed materials based on oxides of multivalent metals and carbon. A
model for surface charge formation and ion exchange adsorption on
oxide-based materials is proposed. It was found that synthesis
conditions for the ceramic-based compozite materials influence their
acid-base properties, tempetature as well as the time of methane
pyrolysis. A new direction in ions adsorption control is elaborated
which include the reversible polarization of electroconductive carbon
component to changing of sorption and desorption degree. It is shown
that the applied potential difference determines the polarity and
amount of surface charge of oxides and the corresponding ion exchange on
the surface of compozite materials. The results of the work have a high
potential in indusrtial application for effective electrochemical ion
exchange sorption of one- and multicharged ions followed be the
regeneration of the compozite sorbents without chemical reagents.

Iaeueoeaaa O.A. Neioac e aaeni?aoeeiiiia iiaaaeaiea aeenia?niuo
eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa ieneaeia iiiaiaaeaioiuo iaoaeeia e
oaea?iaea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 02.00.04. — oece/aneay oeiey. — Einoeooo iauae e
iai?aaie/aneie oeiee ei. A.E. Aa?iaaeneiai IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa enneaaeiaaiu ni?aoeeiiiua naienoaa iiauo
eiiiiceoeeiiiuo ni?aoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia (ENI) ia iniiaa ieneaeia
iiiaiaaeaioiuo iaoaeeia e oaea?iaea, neioace?iaaiiuo n oeaeueth eo
eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa ni?aoeeiiiuo yeaeo?iaeia, iaeaaeathueo
eiiiiaiaiiie ooieoeeae e yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoueth. Iaoa?eaeu
iioeiece?iaaiu n oi/ee c?aiey iaeneiaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe
aac?aaaaioiiai yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai oi?aaeaiey ni?aoeeiiiui ?aaiiaaneai e
noaiaiueth aaeni?aoeeee (aeani?aoeee) iaeii- e iiiaica?yaeiuo eiiiuo
niaaeeiaiee, eae a oi?ia aieiiia, oae e a oi?ia eaoeiiia. N yoie
oeaeueth a ea/anoaa ni?aoeeiiiie eiiiiiaiou eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia
aua?aiu aeenia?niua aeae?aoe?iaaiiua ieneaeu iiiaiaaeaioiuo iaoaeeia e
ii?enoua ea?aie/aneea iaoa?eaeu ia iniiaa ieneaeia aethieiey e
oee?eiiey, iaeaaeathuea neaaeothuei iaai?ii iaiaoiaeeiuo naienoa :

— aioieeou, i?iyaeythuea a ?anoai?ao eae eaoeiiiiaiaiioth, oae e
aieiiiiaiaiioth ooieoeeth;

— ca?yaeiaue (aeae?ieeoe/aneee) iaoaieci iiaeiuaiey eiiia;

— aunieay noaiaiueth aeenia?niinoe (ii?enoinoe);

— niioaaonoaothuaa ?ani?aaeaeaiea ii? ii ?aaeeonai (iaci- e
iae?iii?enoay no?oeoo?a);

— noieeinoue a yeaeo?e/aneeo e ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo iieyo e a ieeneeoaeueiuo
n?aaeao;

— aeinooiiinoue, iaaunieay noieiinoue, eaaeinoue iieo/aiey e
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey iiaa?oiinoe.

Eco/aiu caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey ca?yaea iiaa?oiinoe ?acaeaea
oac ieneae/yeaeo?ieeo e iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue ieneae/yeaeo?ieeo. Iieo/aiiua
?acoeueoaou i?iaiaeece?iaaiu n oi/ee c?aiey eiathueony a eeoa?aoo?a
yeaeo?inoaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae. I?aaeeiaeai iiaeoiae e iienaieth ecioa?i
aaeni?aoeee aieiiia e eaoeiiia yeaeo?ieeoa, a oii /enea i?ioiiia,
ieneaeiuie e aeae?ieneaeiuie eiiiiaiaiiuie iaoa?eaeaie n oi/ee c?aiey
iaia?aiiiiai ?aaiiaaney Aeiiiaia ia a?aieoea ?acaeaea oac. Iieacai
eeiaeiue oa?aeoa? caaeneiinoe ca?yaea iiaa?oiinoe ieneaeia
iiiaiaaeaioiuo iaoaeeia io eiaa?eoia aeoeaiinoe eiiia yeaeo?ieeoa.
Iieo/aiiua caeiiiia?iinoe i?eiaiaiu e i?ioeannai yeaeo?ioeie/anee
noeioee?iaaiiiai iiaeiuaiey eiiia n eniieueciaaieai eiiiiceoeeiiiuo
iaoa?eaeia.

Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea ca?yaea oaea?iaeiiai iaoa?eaea ia
eeneioii-iniiaiua e aaeni?aoeeiiiua naienoaa eiiiiaiaiiuo iaoa?eaeia ia
iniiaa ieneaeia iiiaiaaeaioiuo iaoaeeia. Iaia?oaeaii caeiiiia?iia
eciaiaiea aaeni?aoeeiiiuo naienoa ieneaeia i?e aaaaeaiee oaea?iaeiie
eiiiiiaiou, aiaeiae/iia oiio, eioi?ia iaaethaeaaony i?e aaaaeaiee a
no?oeoo?o ieneaeia aeiaaaie, eciaiythueo neeo eeneioiuo oeaio?ia. I?e
enneaaeiaaiee aaeni?aoeeiiiiai iiaaaeaiey oaea?iae-ieneaeiuo iaoa?eaeia
ia iniiaa oaea?iaeiiai aieeiea e aeae?aoe?iaaiiiai aeeieneaea oee?eiiey
iaia?oaeaiu acaeiinaycue e acaeiicaaeneiinoue ca?yaea iiaa?oiinoe
oaea?iaea e ni?aoeeiiiie niiniaiinoe eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia.
Iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue aac?aaaaioiiai eciaiaiey ni?aoeeiiiiai ?aaiiaaney
ia oaeeo iaoa?eaeao iooai eciaiaiey eiioeaio?aoeee eenei?iaea a
yeaeo?ieeoa.

Eco/aii aeeyiea oneiaee iieo/aiey oaea?iaeiie ninoaaeythuae
eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa ieneaeiie ea?aieee e
ie?ieeoe/aneiai oaea?iaea ia eo yeaeo?iiiaa?oiinoiua naienoaa
(iieiaeaiea oi/ee ioeaaiai ca?yaea e ?ani?aaeaeaiea aieiiiie e eaoeiiiie
ooieoeee ni?aaioa). Iaia?oaeaii, /oi iooai eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u e
a?aiaie ie?ieeca iaoaia i?e iieo/aiee yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiiai neiy oaea?iaea
iiaeii ?aaoee?iaaoue ?ani?aaeaeaiea aieiii- e eaoeiiaiaiiuo naienoa
eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa ii?enoie ieneaeiie ea?aieee e
ie?ieeoe/aneiai oaea?iaea. Iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/aiey ca?yaea
iiaa?oiinoe eiiiiceoeeiiiuo ni?aaioia iooai aaaaeaiey n eniieueciaaieai
cieue-aaeue oaoiieiaee iiaeeoeoee?othueo eiiiaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia — ZrO2
*nH2O e Zr(HPO4)2*nH2O.

A aeenna?oaoeee aia?aua i?aaeeiaeaii eniieueciaaiea iiey?ecaoeee
oaea?iaea eae yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiie eiiiiiaiou ENI aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey
noaiaie iiaeiuaiey eiiia iiaa?oiinoueth ieneaeiuo ni?aaioia. A
noaoe/aneeo e aeeiaie/aneeo oneiaeyo ni?aoeeiiiiai yenia?eiaioa eco/aii
aeeyiea iiey?ecaoeee e aaia?e?iaaiey iioaioeeaeii?aaeaeythueo eiiia ia
aaeni?aoeeiiiia ?aaiiaanea e noaiaiue ecaea/aiey iaeii- e iiiaica?yaeiuo
eiiia iiaa?oiinoueth eiiiiceoeeiiiuo ni?aoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia. Iieacaia
aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeaiey ni?aoeeiiii-aeani?aoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie n
iooai eciaiaiey ciaea iiey?ecaoeee e aaee/eiu ?aciinoe iioaioeeaeia
iaaeaeo ni?aoeeiiiui yeaeo?iaeii e i?ioeaiyeaeo?iaeii. Iieacaia
aiciiaeiinoue iiiaie?aoiiai i?iaaaeaiey oeeeeia ni?aoeee-aeani?aoeee
eiiia e aac?aaaaioiie ?aaaia?aoeee eiiiiceoeeiiiuo ni?aaioia.
I?aaeeiaeaii eniieueciaaiea eiiiiceoeeiiiuo ni?aoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia ia
iniiaa ieneaeia iiiaiaaeaioiuo iaoaeeia e oaea?iaea aeey
yeaeo?ioeie/anee noeioeo?iaaiiiai ecaea/aiey iaeii- e iiiaica?yaeiuo
eiiia ec aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia n iineaaeothuae aac?aaaaioiie ?aaaia?aoeeae
ni?aaioia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ni?aoeey, eiiiiceoeeiiiua ni?aoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu,
ieneaeu iiiaiaaeaioiuo iaoaeeia, ca?yae iiaa?oiinoe, aac?aaaaioiay
?aaaia?aoeey.

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