OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

E?aoiaeueia Ieaenaiae? A?eoi?iae/

OAeE 621.924

NEIOAC NENOAI EA?OAAIIss I?EAIAeAIE IIAeA* IAOAEIIA?IAIEO
AA?NOAO?A

IA INIIA? ?IC?IAEE

AAOIIIIIEO AEAEO?IA?Ae?AAE?*IEO IIAeOE?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.02.03 — nenoaie i?eaiae?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?nenoao?

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeieaeo ?aai Aeieo?iae/Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

E?a?ae?a Aiaoie?e Oeoiiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith “O?aeoi?e oa aaoiiia?e?”

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Na?oiaaoeue Ieaa ?aaiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a “Oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy oa

iaoaei??caeuei? aa?noaoe”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo iaoei ? nenoai

I?ii?iiiie?oeee oa IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 24 /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 14.00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.050.12 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith : 310002, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica, 21.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “22” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? ?aaee Ocoiyi I.Ae.

16

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

AEOOAEUeI?NOUe OAIE. Oaoi?/iee ??aaiue, iaae?ei?noue oa aeiaaia?/i?noue
nenoai aaoiiaoe/iiai ea?oaaiiy a?ae?aae?/ieo i?eaiae?a iiaea/, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny a aa?noaoiaoae?aiiio onoaoeoaaii?, aaoiiaoe/ieo
e?i?yo oa caniaao ?o aaoiiaoecaoe??, a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny ??aiai
oa ye?noth canoiniaaii? a?ae?iaia?aoo?e, iniaeeai o???, yea aeeiio?
ooieoe?? ea?oaaiiy oaeaee?noth ia?ai?uaiiy aeeiiaa/eo a?ae?iaeaeaoi?a,
?aaoethaaiiy a?ae?aae?/ieo ia?aiao??a, ye? caaacia/othoue iaeaaeio
iine?aeiai?noue ?iai/iai oeeeeo, a oaeiae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oi/i?noth
nenoai noaa?e?caoe?? ia?aiao??a, ui ?aaoeththoueny.

Aiae?c noaio aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei caaacia/aiiy iio??aieo oa?aeoa?enoee
eaiie oaoiieia?/ii? nenoaie a?ae?ii?eaiaea aeyaea, ui aeineoue
aoaeoeaiei oeyoii i?aeaeuaiiy oaoiieia?/iino? oa i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?
oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoai ea?oaaiiy a?ae?ii?eaiae?a iiaea/? iaoaeiia?iaieo
aa?noao?a. Ii?yae ?c oeei, iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yieii
oaeineiiaeaiiy ea?oaaiiy ? ?ic?iaea aaoiiiiieo iiaeoeae. Oaeee i?aeo?ae
caaacia/o? oi?aa?naeuei?noue i?eaiaea iiaea/? ca iio??aieie ooieoe?yie.

Aeey iaoaeiia?iaieo aa?noao?a, ui caaacia/othoue aenie? oaoiieia?? ca
?aooiie iioeiaeueiiai ea?oaaiiy ?ino?oiaioii uiaei oaeaeeino? ?ooo ?
coneeeyi ??caiiy, ia?niaeoeaiei ? aaoiiiiiee aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/iee
iiaeoeue e?i?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy (AAIEI).

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?ao “A?ae?iiiaaiiaaoiiaoeea oa
a?ae?ii?ea?ae” ? “Oai??y iaoai?ci?a, iaoei ? ?iaio?a” Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo a iaaeao iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe “Oaeineiiaeaiiy a?ae?aae?/ieo ? iiaaiaoe/ieo neeiaeo nenoai oa
nenoai ea?oaaiiy i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy” ? “?ic?iaea
iaoai?ei-aeaeo?iiieo ?aaoeyoi??a /anoioe iaa?oaiiy”.

Oe?EUe ?IAIOE. Caaacia/aiiy iio??aiiai ea?oaaiiy a?ae?ii?eaiaeii
iiaea/? iaoaeiia?iaieo aa?noao?a ia iniia? ?ic?iaee aaoiiiiieo
aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/ieo iiaeoeae c iie?ioaieie noaoe/ieie ? aeeiai?/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeey i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa yeino? i?iaeoeoe??.

A iaaeao ?aae?caoe?? oe?e? ?iaioe iinoaaeai? ca iaoo oae? caaea/?:

1. ?ic?iaea ooieoe?iiaeueii? noaie ia?niaeoeaiiai AAIEI.

2. ?ic?iaea ?iaeaia?iiai iaoiaeo neioaco AAIEI ia iniia? eiai
iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae.

3. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee no?oeoo?iiai neioaco AAIEI ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy
iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai I?AIN, ui aeicaieeoue ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy
i?iaanoe ?aoe?iiaeueiee aea?? ie?aieo eiino?oeoeaieo oa ?iai/eo
ia?aiao??a iiaeoey.

4. ?ic?iaea oa aeaioiaeaiiy iaeaoiiai c?acea AAIEI aeey aaoiiaoecaoe??
a?ae?ii?eaiaea eii?aeeiaoii-oe?ooaaeueiiai aa?noaoa iiaeae? 32E83NO10.

5. I?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue AAIEI oa eiai
aeaiaio?a.

IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe. Iniiai? caaea/? ?iaioe aoee ae??oai?
oai?aoe/ieie oa aenia?eiaioaeueieie iaoiaeaie. Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aacothoueny ia aeei?enoaii? iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oai??? aaoiiaoe/iiai
ea?oaaiiy, iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ? a?ae?iiaoai?ee.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy AAIEI oa eiai aeaiaio?a cae?eniai? ia
niaoe?aeueiiio noaiae? oa aa?noao?-noaiae?. ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeaeaaaee noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a.

Aeey aei??thaaiiy ??cieo o?ce/ieo aaee/ei aoee aeei?enoai? a?aeii?
iaoiaee oa i?eeaaee, a oaeiae i?ea?iaeueiee neeiaee iaaaioaaeoaaeueiee
i?eno??e, yeee aoa ca ?i?oaoi?a iiceoe?eiiai oa ?ia?oe?eiiai
iaaaioaaeaiue aeey aecia/aiiy coneeey o??caiiy oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa a
oe?oo?iee aeine?aeiee c?acie.

IAOEIAA IIAECIA ?IAIOE:

1. Ia iniia? anaa?/iiai iaeyaeo i?eaiae?a iiaea/ iaoaeiia?iaieo
aa?noao?a oa oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
noi?ioeueiaai? caaaeuei? i?eioeeie ea?oaaiiy ia?aiao?aie ?ooo oa aeiiae
aei i?eno?i?a, ui oea ea?oaaiiy ?aae?cothoue.

2. ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeie ea?oaaiiy i?eaiaeaie iiaea/, ?aae?ciaai? a
aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/iiio iiaeoe? e?i?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy c iie?ioaieie
noaoe/ieie ? aeeiai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

3. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/iiai iiaeoey
e?i?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy oa io?eiai? ooi/iai? aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey
?ic?aooie?a eiao?oe??io?a aeo?ao, a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? aei?noeino? oa
eiao?oe??ioa i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? aeo?eaiiy.

I?AEOE*IA CIA*AIIss ?IAIOE:

1. Cai?iiiiiaaii noaio ea?oaaiiy a?ae?ii?eaiaeii iiaea/? ca aeiiiiiaith
oiiioiaaiiai aaoiiiiiiai iiaeoey c aioo??oi?i a?ae?aae?/iei cai?ioiei
cayceii, aeei?enoaiiy yeiai aeicaieeei aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean
oe?ooaaiiy, i?aeaeueoe no?ee?noue oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a a 1,4 — 1,6 ?ace,
oieeiooe a?aeo ii oi/iino? oa /enoio? ia?iaee i?e caaaeueiiio iie?ioaii?
? noaa?e?caoe?? yeino? oe?ooaaiiy, iieaaoeoe i?aoeth ?ia?oieea.

2. Ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy nenoaie ea?oaaiiy iiaea/?
iaoaeiia?iaieo aa?noao?a ?ic?iaeaii ?iaeaia?iee iaoiae neioaco AAIEI c
iie?ioaieie noaoe/ieie ? aeeiai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

3. Eiino?oeoe?th aaoiiiiiiai AAIEI ?ic?iaeaii ia iniia? na??eieo
a?ae?iaa?aaao?a, ui aeicaiey? aac cia/ieo aeo?ao iiaea?i?coaaoe ?nioth/?
nenoaie ea?oaaiiy i?eaiaeaie oa nei?ioeoe oa?i?i ?o i?iaeooaaiiy.

4. ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy ?ic?aooieo aaoiiiiiiai AAIEI oa
ie?aieo eiai aeaiaio?a c aeei?enoaiiyi iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai I?AIN,
yea iiaea aooe aeei?enoaii i?e ?ic?iaoe? noiaeeo noai ea?oaaiiy iiaea/?
??cieo oei?a iaoaeiia?iaieo aa?noao?a.

Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aaco?oueny ia a?oioiaieo
iieiaeaiiyo oai??? aaoiiaoe/iiai ea?oaaiiy, iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co ?
a?ae?iiaoai?ee, aaeaeaaoieo iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeyo, ?aaeueii
a?aeia?aaeath/eo i?ioeane, ui i?io?eathoue, a oaeiae aenia?eiaioaeuei?e
ia?aa??oe? i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi
cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiae?a oa cania?a.

INIAENOEE AIANIE AAOI?A. ?ic?iaeaii ooieoe?iiaeueio noaio nenoaie
aaoiiaoe/iiai ea?oaaiiy AAIEI, ui caaacia/o? aacoaea?ia o??caiiy
oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa a caaioiaeo oeyoii ?aae?caoe?? aioo??oiueiai
a?ae?aae?/iiai cai?ioiueiai cayceo.

Cai?iiiiiaaii ?iaeaia?iee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo nenoaie aaoiiaoe/iiai
ea?oaaiiy c AAIEI ia iniia? ?? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?, ui aeicaiey? ia
noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy aea?aoe eiino?oeoeai? ia?aiao?e aia?ao?a ?
aecia/eoe aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Iaea?aeaii aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey ?ic?aooie?a eiao?oe??ioa aeo?ao,
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? aei?noeino? ?aaoeueiaaieo aia?ao?a iiaeoey; aecia/aii
aeo?eaiiy a aeeiiaa/iio a?ae?ioeee?iae??; iaaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
ca?eueoaiith noaoe/ii? /ooeeaino? iiaeoey.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a AAIEI ia
iniia? aeei?enoaiiy iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai I?AIN, yea aeicaiey? ia
noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy i?iaanoe ?aoe?iiaeueiee aea?? ie?aieo
eiino?oeoeaieo oa ?iai/eo ia?aiao??a iiaeoey.

?ic?iaeaii oa aeaioiaeaii iaeaoiee c?acie AAIEI, i?iaaaeai? eiai
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? noaa?aeaeothoue aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy oiiioiaaieo iiaeoe?a aeey aaoiiaoecaoe?? ?iai/eo i?ioean?a
a iaoaeiia?iaieo aa?noaoao.

?AAE?CAOe?ss ?ACOEUeOAO?A ?IAIOE. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaaeaeaii a
o/aiaee i?ioean cacia/aieo eaoaae?, i?eeiyo? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
aa?noaoia onoaoeoaaiiy CAO “?ine/” (i. Ee?a), ui noaa?aeaeaii
a?aeiia?aeieie aeieoiaioaie, a oaeiae aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
aeeiiaa/eo i?eno?i?a aeey i?e?ii?ioeani?ieo ?aaoeyoi??a /anoioe
iaa?oaiiy aeecae?a aaeeei? iiooaeiino?.

IOAE?EAOe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 10 ?ia?o.

AI?IAAOe?ss ?IAIOE. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiaaaeai? oa noaaeai? ia i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeeo ?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo a 1992- 1998 ?.?. oa ia 4-e I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “MicroCAD-96” Oe?a?ia — Oai?ueia”.

NO?OEOO?A OA IANssA ?IAIOE. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, iyoe ?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e (169
iaeiaioaaiue) oa 5 aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe neeaaea? 154
noi??iee (aac aeiaeaoe?a), i?noeoue 42 ?enoiea oa 2 oaaeeoe?.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, i?aeoe/ia aeioe?euei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiue, noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ye?
aeiinyoueny aei caoenoo.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi aiae?co aeine?aeaeaiue nenoai
ea?oaaiiy a?ae?ii?eaiae?a iaoaeiia?iaieo aa?noao?a, ye? caaacia/othoue
aacnooiaiaaee ia?ao?ae a?ae ?aaeeio oaeaeeiai i?aeaiaeo aei ?aaeeio
??caiiy ? canoinoaaiiy oaeeo nenoai. Iieacaia aeioe?euei?noue
oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoai ea?oaaiiy a?ae?ii?eaiae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi a ieo
oiiioiaaieo aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/ieo iiaeoe?a. ?icaeyioo? iniiai?
noaiii-eiino?oeoeai? aa??aioe i?eaiae?a e?i?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny a oaoiieia?/iiio iaeaaeiaii?.

Cae?eniaii aiae?c eeane/ii? noaie ?aaoethaaiiy coneeey o??caiiy
oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa a caaioiaeo c aeei?enoaiiyi oaiciaeao/ee?a, noai,
cai?iiiiiaaieo E?uaiei A.A., Oaaei?oeai A.I., AEee?inueeei I.A., a
oaeiae iiaeaeae o??ie “Duplomatin” (?oae?y) oa ?ioeo. Iieacaii, ui on?
cai?iiiiiaai? noaie i?eaiae?a ia iathoue iio??aieo noaoe/ieo ?
aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeey caaacia/aiiy aeniei? yeino? i?iaeoeoe??,
ia aeineoue oaeaeeiae?th/? aeey ii?aeiaiiy ?iaioe c i?e?ii?ioeani?iei
ea?oaaiiyi, aia?aii?noe?, iathoue ii??aiyii aaeee? aaaa?eoe, ia
aeicaieythoue iiaea?i?coaaoe i?ioean ea?oaaiiy ia?ai?uaiiyi ??caeueiiai
?ino?oiaioo aac cia/ii? ia?a?iaee e?iaiaoe/ieo noai aa?noao?a oa ia
?aae?cothoue aacoaea?ia o??caiiy ?ino?oiaioo a caaioiaeo.

Aeey aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?ioeano oe?ooaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii ia?niaeoeaiee
aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/iee iiaeoeue e?i?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy, yeee neeaaea?oueny
c aeeiiaa/iai iaoai?cio, a?ae?aae?/ii? nenoaie ea?oaaiiy, aeaeo?iiii?
nenoaie ea?oaaiiy, aeao/eea cai?ioiueiai cayceo. Aeaeo?iiia nenoaia
ea?o? aia?aoo?ith a?ae?aae?/ii? nenoaie o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iio??aiith
oeeeeia?aiith ?iaioe. A?ae?aae?/ia nenoaia ea?o? aeeiiaa/ei iaoai?ciii,
eio?ee cae?enith? ia?ai?uaiiy ?iai/iai ?ino?oiaioa. Aeao/ee cai?ioiueiai
cayceo eiio?ieth? ia?ai?uaiiy ii?oiy. Oey noaia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
aaea a?aeiieo oei, ui a?ae?aae?/ia nenoaia ea?oaaiiy i?noeoue a nia?
aioo??oi?e a?ae?aae?/iee cai?ioiee caycie. Oaeee iiaeoeue, ?aae?ciaaiee
a?aeiia?aeii noai?, cia?aaeaiee ia ?en. 1.

AAIEI neeaaea?oueny ?c a?ae?i?iciiae?eueieea 1 c i?iii?oe?eiei
aeaeo?iea?oaaiiyi oeio ?I 6.44, ?aaeoeoe?eiiai eeaiaia 2 (ii?iaeueiiai
a?aee?eoiai) oeio 10-10-2, a?ae?ieeaiaia oeneo 3 (ii?iaeueii
cae?eoiai) oeio IAA54-32I, aeaio cai?ioieo eeaiai?a 4(1) ? 4(2) oeio IA
51-22, a?ae?ioeee?iae?a 5, aeao/eea cai?ioiueiai cayceo ii iieiaeaiith 6
oeio NN-405, i?eno?ith ea?oaaiiy 7, aeeiiaiiai ia aac? i?e?inoaie
E153OAe5, aeieo ea?oaaiiy 8 oeio AO 2110 ? iaoai?cia o?enaoe?? 9.
?aaeoeoe?eiee eeaiai 2 onoaiiaeth?oueny a iai??i?e iaa?no?ae?, a
a?ae?ieeaiai oeneo 3 — a ceeai?e. Oene ?c ceeaii? iaa?no?ae?
a?ae?ioeee?iae?a ? ea?oth/ei aeey ?aaeoeoe?eiiai eeaiaia (?aae?ciaaiee
aioo??oi?e a?ae?aae?/iee cai?ioiee caycie). Aeey caaacia/aiiy iiaa?iaiiy
a?ae?ioeee?iae?a a aeo?aeia iieiaeaiiy a iai??i?e oa ceeai?e iaa?no?aeyo
ia?aaeaa/ai? a?aeaaeoaeaeaiiy, a yeeo onoaiiaeai? cai?ioi? eeaiaie 4(1)
? 4(2). ?iaioo a?ae?ioeee?iae?a 5 caaacia/o? a?ae?inoaioe?y aa?noaoa
oeio NA-I1A-40, aei neeaaeo yei? iaeaaeeoue ianinia onoaiiaea,
eiio?ieueii-?aaoethth/a ? ea?oth/a aia?aoo?a. A aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae
iaaaaeaia ooieoe?iiaeueia noaia i?eno?ith ea?oaaiiy AAIEI.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii iaoaiaoe/iiio iiaeaethaaiith nenoaie
a?ae?ii?eaiaea eii?aeeiaoii-oe?ooaaeueiiai aa?noaoa iiaeae? 32E83NO10,
iaeaaeiaiiai AAIEI c nenoaiith ea?oaaiiy. A iniiao iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?
iieeaaeai? ??aiyiiy ?ooo ie?aieo eaiie oaoiieia?/ii? nenoaie oa ??aiyiiy
aaeaino aeo?ao.

?enoiie 1 — A?ae?aae?/ia noaia AAIEI

?aaeei i?aeaiaeo a?ae?ioeee?iae?a iiaeoey iienaiee oaeeie ??aiyiiyie:

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A ???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyya????? ???&? ?MathType??A? ???u?????????"????-?????oH???oc???u th??????(3) Aeo?aoe aeey ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai (Q1) oa ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai (Q2) eeaiai?a i?e ??cieo ?aaeeiao oa/?? ??aeeie aecia/athoueny ca oi?ioeaie: a) aeey oo?aoeaioiiai ?aaeeio oa/??: wmetafile8? ??S??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy????? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????,[???,h???u1/4y°?????(4)wmetafil e8? ??S??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@???? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????,‹???,????u1/4y°?????(5)a) aeey eai?ia?iiai ?aaeeio oa/??: wmetafile8? ??[??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  ????&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyyA??C?? ???&? ?MathType??a????u1/4y°?????(6)wmetafile8? ??[??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  @???&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy???C?? ???&? ?MathType??a????u1/4y°?????(7) ??aiyiiy aaeaino aeo?ao ia? aeaeyae: wmetafile8? ??f??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??e?? ???&? ?MathType??p????u th??????(8)wmetafile8? ??i??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `????&??yyyy?????Ayyy!yyy@???? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????5I???5¦???5a???5i???uy yE?????(9)wmetafile8? ??(10)wmetafile8? ??Y??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? a ???&??yyyy?????Ay?ya“ ???&? ?MathType???????u‡yY?????(11) aea I — caaaeaia iana ii?oiy c? ooieii a?ae?ioeee?iae?a oa caycaieo c ieie ?ooiieo /anoei; mc1 — iana cieioieea ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai eeaiaia; mc2 — iana cieioieea ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiaia; x — ia?ai?uaiiy cieioieea ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai eeaiaia; y — ia?ai?uaiiy ii?oiy a?ae?ioeee?iae?a; z — ia?ai?uaiiy cieioieea ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiaia; dc1 — ae?aiao? cieioieea ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai eeaiaia; dc2 — ae?aiao? cieioieea ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiaia; Fi — aoaeoeaia ieiua ii?oiy a?ae?ioeee?iae?a; Po?aoe — neea oa?oy a?ae?ioeee?iae?a; PA — ?aae?aeueia neeaaeiaa coneeey o??caiiy oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa a oe?oo?io caaioiaeo; Po?1 oa Po?2 — neee oa?oy aeey ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai oa ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiai?a; P?1 oa P?2 — neee, coiiaeai? ae??th ia?aiaaeo oeneo ia oi?oeyo cieioiee?a eeaiai?a; Pi?1 oa Pi?2 — neee, coiiaeai? ae??th i?oaeei ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai oa ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiai?a; 1 oa 2 — eiao?oe??ioe aeo?ao aeey ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai oa ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiai?a; fu1 oa fu2 — ieiue ae?inaethth/eo u?eei ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai oa ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiai?a; dn?1 oa dn?2 — na?aaei? ae?aiao?e i?io?aeieo u?eei aeey ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai oa ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiai?a; — a’yce?noue ?iai/i? ??aeeie; t — eiao?oe??io e?iaiaoe/ii? a’yceino? ?iai/i? ??aeeie; S1 oa S2 — aaee/eie a?aee?eooy i?io?aeieo u?eei cieioiee?a aeey ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai oa ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiai?a; L1 oa L2 — aeiaaeeie i?io?aeieo u?eei cieioiee?a aeey ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai oa ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiai?a; Lk — aeiaaeeia i?io?aeii? u?eeie a ae?inaethth/iio eaiae? ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiaia; Eae — eieaeueiee ia?iiee iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? ?iai/i? ??aeeie; dae? — ae?aiao? ae?inaey a ii?iaeueii cae?eoiio eeaiai?; Koo — eiao?oe??io i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? aeo?eaiiy; Q1 oa Q2 — aeo?aoe ?iai/i? ??aeeie /a?ac ae?inaethth/? u?eeie ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai oa ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiai?a; Qnae — aeo?aoa, ui a?aoiao? noeneea?noue ?iai/i? ??aeeie; Qoo — aeo?aoa aeo?eaiiy ?iai/i? ??aeeie; Qae? — aeo?aoa /a?ac ae?inaeue a ii?iaeueii cae?eoiio eeaiai?; p1 — oene ia aoiae? a ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoee eeaiai; p2 — oene ia aeoiae? ?c ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiaia; wmetafile8? ??A???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy®yyy???I?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u th?????? Iae?i?eia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue AAIEI neeaaeaia aeey ?aaeeio i?aeaiaeo oa o?enaoe?? ii?oiy a?ae?ioeee?iae?a. Ooi/iaiiy iaea?aeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?, cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a oa eiino?oeoeaieo aaee/ei aeeiiaii caaaeyee ocaaaeueiaiith ?ioi?iaoe??, io?eiaii? i?e oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy aeeiiaii i?e oiia?, ui aeaea?aei a?ae?aae?/iiai aeeaeaiiy ia? noaa?euei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ii oeneo oa oaiia?aoo??. Aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue AAIEI i?iaaaeaia e?iaa?ecaoe?y iae?i?eii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?, ui aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe ia?aaeaoi/io ooieoe?th, aea ao?aeiei ia?aiao?ii ? ci?ia coneeey o??caiiy c o?aooaaiiyi oaoiieia?/ii? aei?noeino? an??? nenoaie, a aeo?aeiei — ia?ai?uaiiy ii?oiy a?ae?ioeee?iae?a. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia?aaeaoi/ia ooieoe?y ia? aeaeyae: wmetafile8? ??a??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????   ???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyya??B?? ???&? ?MathType??????uyyE?????(12)aea N1 N13 oa X1 X14 — eiao?oe??ioe ia?aaeaoi/ii? ooieoe??, ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae ?iai/eo oa eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a. Ioe?ieo noaoe/ii? /ooeeaino? i?iaaee c aeei?enoaiiyi noaoe/ii? iiaeae? oa io?eiaieo noaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaeoey. A ?iaio? iaaaaeaiee a?ao noaoe/ii? /ooeeaino? AAIIE, yeee aeicaiey? i?iaiae?coaaoe aieea ie?aieo eiino?oeoeaieo oa ?iai/eo ia?aiao??a ia noaoe/io oi/i?noue iiaeoey. A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeeiai?/ieo ? noaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee AAIEI, ui ia/eneai? ia AII ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aie aeey ?ic?aooieo ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a, yea aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aeine?aeaeaiue e?i?eieo nenoai aaoiiaoe/iiai ea?oaaiiy. Ca iieacieeaie ia?ao?aeiiai i?ioeano ioe?iththoue ye?noue noaa?e?caoe?? coneeey o??caiiy iiaeoey (?en.2). ?enoiie 2 - ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue AAIEI E?eaa 1 io?eiaia i?e aei?noeino? oaoiieia?/ii? nenoaie Cn = 5108 I/i. ?? a?aeoeeaiiy ia 15% aea? ye?ni? ci?ie (e?ea? 2 oa 3). E?eaa 4 io?eiaia i?e aei?noeino? Cn = 5107 I/i. Oea ?aaeueia aei?noe?noue oaoiieia?/ii? nenoaie. A on?o aeiaaeeao ci?ie aei?noeino? ia?ao?aeiee i?ioean ? eieeaaeueiei, ui noiaeeoueny. Oea caaacia/o? aacoaea?ia o??caiiy. Ca?eueoaiiy aei?noeino? aaaea aei c?inoaiiy /ano ?aaoethaaiiy oa nooiaith eieeaaiiy. E?eaa 4 ?ethno?o? ?iaioo i?eaiaea aac aioo??oiueiai a?ae?aae?/iiai cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo. Ii??aithth/e e?ea? 4 ? 3 (i?eaiae c aioo??oi?i cai?ioiei cayceii), aeioiaeeii aei aeniiaeo, ui aeei?enoaiiy oaeiai cayceo aeicaieeei ciaioeoe coneeey o??caiiy oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa a caaioiaeo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao eiino?oeoeaieo oa ?iai/eo ia?aiao??a ia noaoe/io oi/i?noue AAIEI i?iaiaeeee ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ae?ac?a aeey noaoe/ii? /ooeeaino? iiaeoey a?aeiinii eieeaaiue oeneo ia aoiae? oa aeoiae? ?c ?iciiae?eue/iai i?eno?ith. Oeae aiae?c aeia?a, ui iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy aeey c?inoaiiy oi/iino? ia? i?aeo?eiea iino?eiiai oeneo ?iai/i? ??aeeie ia aeoiae? ?c a?ae?i?iciiae?eueieea, a oaeiae aei?noe?noue i?oaeeie ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiaia wmetafile8? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy???e?? ???&? ?MathType??p????u th??????A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii neioac AAIEI c aeei?enoaiiyi iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai I?AIN. C?iaeaii aea?? i?oaeei eeaiai?a, a?ae?aae?/ieo ia?aiao??a, aecia/ai? eiino?oeoeai? oa ?iai/? ia?aiao?e aeeiiaa/iai iaoai?cio, aeine?aeaeaii aieea eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy, ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy aeeiai?/iiai neioaco (io?eiaii iio??aiee caeii ci?ie oeneo a ii?iaeieiao a?ae?ioeee?iae?a). Aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a i?iaeooaaiiy aeicaieeei ia o?eueee aea?aoe ie?ai? eiino?oeoeai? oa ?iai/? ia?aiao?e aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae cae?enieoe ?o aca?iiiiaiaeaeaiiy. sse i?eeeaae iaaaaeai? a?ao?ee oa?aeoa?enoee iiaeoey a ?aaeei? o??caiiy (?en. 3). E?eaa 1 ia ?en. 3, a — ia?ai?uaiiy cieioieea ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai eeaiaia, e?eaa 2 — ia?ai?uaiiy cieioieea ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiaia. sse aa/eii, a ?aaeei? o??caiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ??cea a?aee?eooy, a iio?i cae?eooy ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiaia, ui a?aeiia?aea? iiiaioo i?aeoiaeo oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa aei caaioiaee. Aeae? iaeaeaa eeaiaie cae?eaathoueny ? aei iiiaioo cae?i/aiiy oe?ooaaiiy ia?ae?eo?. Ci?ie oeneo a ii?iaeieiao a?ae?ioeee?iae?a iathoue eieeaaeueiee oa?aeoa? (?en. 3, a). Ia?aiaae oeneo iai?ee?ioe? ia?aoiaeiiai i?ioeano ciaioo?oueny, ui caaacia/o? aacoaea?ia o??caiiy. ?c ?ic?aooie?a aeaeii, ui aacoaea?ia o??caiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai AAIEI caeaaeeoue a?ae ??ai?a iano?ithaaiiy oeneo ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai ? ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai eeaiai?a. Ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeoey ca aeiiiiiaith iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai I?AIN ?ic?iaeaia eiino?oeoe?y AAIEI. A iyoiio ?icae?e? aeiaaaeaii, ui i?ae /an aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue AAIEI i?aeo?eioaaiiy iino?eiiai oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio ?iai/i? ??aeeie a iaaeao 50 - 55 N aeicaiey? ciaoooaaoe ci?iaie ?? ayceino? oa ci?iaie iiaeoey ia?iii? i?oaeiino? ?iai/i? ??aeeie; iienaia aenia?eiaioaeueia onoaiiaea oa iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue eiao?oe??io?a aeo?ao oa a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo aei?noeinoae a ?iai/iio ae?aiacii? ia?ai?uaiue cieioiee?a eeaiai?a, i?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee iioeaee aei??thaaiue, aecia/aii aeo?eaiiy ?iai/i? ??aeeie a a?ae?ioeee?iae?? iiaea/, aea?ai? aei??thaaeuei? i?eeaaee oa aia?aoo?a. ?enoiie 3 - Ia?ao?aei? i?ioeane ?iai/iai ?aaeeio AAIEI, io?eiai? ca aeiiiiaith iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai I?AIN Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy AAIEI cae?eniaii ia aa?noao?-noaiae? iiaeae? 32E83NO10. I?ney aeiaaaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ?iai/i? ??aeeie aei 50 N anoaiiaethaaee oene aeeaeaiiy eeaiai?a a iaaeao a?ae 0 aei 2,5 IIa. Oene ceeao a on?o na??yo aenia?eiaioo aoa iino?eiei ? aei??aithaaa 0,05 IIa. Aeaeo?e/ia aei??thaaeueia nenoaia aa?noaoa-noaiaea caaacia/oaaea caien aeine?aeaeoaaieo aaee/ei ia na?oi/ooeeaiio iaia??. Ca ?iai/o ??aeeio aoei aeei?enoaii i?ia?aeueia ianoeei AIEE II-403 (AINO 16728-78). Aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey eiao?oe??io?a aeo?ao aoee ai?ieneiiaai? iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a. Iioeaea ai?ieneiaoe?? ia ia?aaeuo? 3 %. Eiao?oe??ioe aeo?ao aeey ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai (1) oa ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai (2) eeaiai?a aecia/athoueny: wmetafile8? ??A??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?  ???&??yyyy?????Ayy` - ???&? ?MathType??a????u?thU?????(13)wmetafile8? ??u??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  A???&??yyyy?????Ay?y?O ???&? ?MathType??@???uoyU?????(14) Aeei?enoaaoe iaoiae iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a, io?eiaee oi?ioee aeey ?ic?aooieo a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo aei?noeinoae. Ca ?ic?aooieaie caeiaoee: a) aeey ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai eeaiaia: wmetafile8? ??!??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `????&??yyyy?????Ayyy®yyy@???? ???&? ?MathType??p????uthO?????a) aeey ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiaia: wmetafile8? ??!??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  @???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy???G?? ???&? ?MathType??p????uthO????? Iioeaea ai?ieneiaoe?? ia ia?aaeuo? 4,5 %. C iaoith ia?aa??ee aaeaeaaoiino? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? AAIEI ia aa?noao?-noaiae? aeine?aeaeai? ia?ao?aei? i?ioeane. Aa?noao-noaiae aeiaeaoeiai inia-uaiee neeiaei i?eno?i?i aeey iaaaioaaeaiiy, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny ye aeaea?aei no?eaeiiiae?aieo cao?thaaeueieo aieea?a ci?iii? aei?noeino?. Ia ?en. 2 aeey ii??aiyiiy iaaeai? a?ao?ee ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a, aea e?eaa 4 io?eiaia ca oai?aoe/iei ?ic?aooieii, a e?ea? 5 oa 6 — aenia?eiaioaeueii. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aieeao aaee/ei oeneo a ii?iaeieiao a?ae?ioeee?iae?a ia coneeey o??caiy oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa a caaioiaeo i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe, a yeeo ia?aiaae oeneo caaeaiee /a?ac ??ci? aei?noeino? i?oaeei ii?iaeueii a?aee?eoiai ? ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiai?a oa aecia/aeanue aaee/eia o??caiiy. Ca?eueoaiiy ia?aiaaeo oeneo aaaea aei c?inoaiiy aaee/eie o??caiiy oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa a caaioiaeo. C iaoith aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?ic?iaeaiiai iiaeoey i?e aaoiiaoecaoe?? aa?noaoa iiaeae? 32E83NO10 i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe, ui aeicaieeee aeyaeoe ye?noue ia?iaee caaioiaee ?c noae? 45 (aioo??oi?e ae?aiao? aei??aith? 20 ii) c aeei?enoaiiyi AAIEI oa aac iueiai. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iaaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 1. Oaaeeoey 1 - Oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e oe?ooaaiiy Ia?aiao?eAa?noao iiaeae? 32E83NO10Aa?noao iiaeae? 32E83NO10 c aeei?enoaiiyi AAIEIOi?noe?noue iiaa?oi? ca Ra, iei0,125 - 0,1600,106 - 0,120A?aeoeeaiiy a?ae e?oaeino?, ii0,00300,0026Oi/i?noue ?ici???a, ii0,00600,0053Ooo/iee /an, n240216 Aeei?enoaiiy AAIEI aeey aaoiiaoecaoe?? aa?noaoa iiaeae? 32E83NO10 aeicaieeei ciaioeoe oi?noe?noue iiaa?oi?, i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue ?ici???a oa nei?ioeoe ooo/iee /an ia?iaee aeaoae?. Caaaeyee aacoaea?iiio o??caiith oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa a caaioiaeo a 1,4 - 1,6 ?ace i?aeaeuaia eiai no?ee?noue. INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE OA AENIIAEE II ?IAIO? 1. ?ic?iaeaia eiiieaenia iaoiaeeea neioaco, ui aeicaiey? io?eiaoe iio??ai? noaoe/i? ? aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee AAIEI. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ia?aiao?e/iiai neioaco AAIEI ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai I?AIN, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy iiaeeeai i?iaanoe ?aoe?iiaeueiee aea?? ie?aieo eiino?oeoeaieo oa ?iai/eo ia?aiao??a iiaeoey ? eiai aeaiaio?a, ui nei?i/o? oa?i?i i?iaeooaaiiy. 2. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiue /ooeeaino? AAIEI c iaoith caaacia/aiiy eiai iaeneiaeueii? oi/iino? iiceoe?thaaiiy i?e iayaiino? eieeaaiue oeneo ?iai/i? ??aeeie ia aoiae? oa aeoiae? iiaeoey. Aeyaeaii, ui iaea?eueoee aieea ia noaoe/io oi/i?noue /eieoue aei?noe?noue i?oaeeie ii?iaeueii cae?eoiai eeaiaia, yeo o?aaa ?aoe?iiaeueii aea?aoe, aeei?enoiaoth/e aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino?, iaaaaeai? a ?iaio?. 3. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy AAIEI ia i?ea?iaeueiiio aa?noao?-noaiae? aeicaieeee ooi/ieoe aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey ?ic?aooie?a eiao?oe??ioa aeo?ao, a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? aei?noeino? ?aaoeueiaaieo aia?ao?a iiaeoey, eiao?oe??ioa i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? aeo?eaiiy a a?ae?ioeee?iae?? oa noaa?aeeoe aaeaeaaoi?noue iaea?aeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?. 4. AAIEI caaacia/o? aacoaea?ia o??caiiy oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa a caaioiaeo, ui aeicaieeei: - aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean oe?ooaaiiy oa i?aeaeueoe oi?aa?naeuei?noue aa?noaoa; - i?aeaeueoe no?ee?noue oe?ooaaeueieo e?oa?a a 1,4 - 1,6 ?ace; - oieeiooe a?aeo oe?ooaaiiy oa iie?ioeoe ia?aiao?e oi?noeino? iiaa?oi? ia 15 % ? oi/iino? — ia 12%; - ciaioeoe ooo/iee /an ia?iaee aeaoae? ia 10%. 5. Ia iniia? na??eieo a?ae?iaia?ao?a ?ic?iaeaii eiino?oeoe?th oa aeaioiaeaii iaeaoiee c?acie AAIEI aeey a?ae?ii?eaiaea eii?aeeiaoii-oe?ooaaeueiiai aa?noaoa. Aeey cae?eniaiiy aacoaea?iiai o??caiiy cai?iiiiiaaia eiino?oeoe?y aeicaiey? aac cia/ieo aeo?ao iiaea?i?coaaoe ?nioth/? nenoaie ea?oaaiiy i?eaiaeaie oa caaacia/eoe ?iaioo ye a ?o/iiio, oae ? a aaoiiaoe/iiio ?aaeei? aac ia?a?iaie e?iaiaoe/ii? noaie. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaii a oaeeo ?iaioao: 1. Aiae?aiei I.I., E?aoiaeaa A.A., Eeeoiie A.A. E aii?ino ia aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ioeanna oeeoiaaiey ii oi?oaie noaia / Oa?uee. iieeoaoi. ei-o. - Oa?ueeia, 1993.- 9 n.- Aeaeeia?.: 4 iaca.- ?on.-Aeai. a Oe?EIOYE 05.02.93, ? 120-Oe93. 2. Aiae?aiei I.I., Aieeaaa A.O., E?aoiaeaa A.A. Yeaeo?iaeae?aaee/aneee iiaeoeue eeiaeiiai ia?aiauaiey oeeoiaaeueiiai noaiea / Oa?uee. iieeoaoi. ei-o. - Oa?ueeia, 1994. - 11 n.: Aeaeeia?.: 6 iaca. - ?on. - Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 21.06.94, ? 1243-Oe94. 3. Aiae?aiei I.I., E?aoiaeaa A.A., Eeeoiie A.A. E aii?ino i iiauoaiee noaoe/aneie oi/iinoe yeaeo?iaeae?aaee/aneiai iiaeoey eeiaeiiai ia?aiauaiey. - Oa?uee. ain. iieeoaoi. oi-o. - Oa?ueeia, 1995. - 21 n.: ee. - Aeaeeia?.: 4 iaca.- ?on.- Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 12.10.95, ? 2283-Oe95. 4. Aiae?aiei I.I., E?aoiaeaa A.A., Eeeoiie A.A. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey yeaeo?iaeae?aaee/aneiai iiaeoey eeiaeiiai ia?aiauaiey. - Oa?uee. ain. iieeoaoi. oi-o. - Oa?ueeia, 1995. - 16 n.: ee. - Aeaeeia?.: 5 iaca. - ?on. - Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 12.10.95, ? 2282-Oe95. 5. E?aoiaeaa A.A. Auai? iai?aaeaiey aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ioeanna oeeoiaaiey. - Oa?uee. ain. iieeoaoi. oi-o. - Oa?ueeia, 1995. - 11 n.: ee. - Aeaeeia?.: 6 iaca. - ?on. - Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 12.10.95, ? 2284-Oe95. 6. Aiae?aiei I.I., E?aoiaeaa A.A., Eeeoiie A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea ia YAI yeaeo?iaeae?aaee/aneiai iiaeoey eeiaeiiai ia?aiauaiey. - A ei.: Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea: Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee. 30-31 iay 1996 a. - Oa?ueeia, Ieoeieueoe, Iaaaeaao?a: OAIO, IO, IOO, 1996. - N. 141. 7. Aeieaeo E.Ae., Iiiia A.A., E?aoiaeaa A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea yooaeoeaiinoe yeaeo?iiiiaeae?aaee/aneeo eniieieoaeueiuo ono?ienoa. - A ei.: Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea: Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee. 30-31 iay 1996 a.- Oa?ueeia, Ieoeieueoe, Iaaaeaao?a: OAIO, IO, IOO, 1996. - N. 154. 8. Aiae?aiei I.I., E?aoiaeaa A.A., Eeeoiie A.A. Ii?aaeaeaiea noaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee e eiyooeoeeaioa ?anoiaea ?aaeoeoeeiiiiai eeaiaia e aeae?ieeaiaia aeaaeaiey / Aanoiee Oa?uee. ain. iieeoaoi. oi-oa. Auione 8. - Oa?ueeia, OAIO, 1997. - N. 159-161. 9. Aeieaeo E.Ae., E?aoiaeaa A.A., Aiae?aiei I.I. Aiaeeoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey noaoe/aneie oi/iinoe yeaeo?iaeae?aaee/aneiai aa?aaaoa / Aanoiee Oa?uee. ain. iieeoaoi. oi-oa. Auione 8. - Oa?ueeia, OAIO, 1997. - N. 162-165. 10. Aeieaeo E.Ae., E?aoiaeaa A.A., Eeeoiie A.A. Iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue yeaeo?iaeae?aaee/aneiai aa?aaaoa eeiaeiiai ia?aiauaiey / Aanoiee Oa?uee. ain. iieeoaoi. oi-oa. Aui. 7 (/anoue2). - Oa?ueeia, OAIO, 1997. - N. 48-51. AIIOAOe?ss E?aoiaeueia Ieaenaiae? A?eoi?iae/. Neioac nenoai ea?oaaiiy i?eaiaeaie iiaea/ iaoaeiia?iaieo aa?noao?a ia iniia? ?ic?iaee aaoiiiiieo aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/ieo iiaeoe?a. Aeena?oaoe?y o aeaeyae? ?oeiieno ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.03 — nenoaie i?eaiae?a. Oa?e. aea?ae. iie?oao. oi-o, Oa?e?a, 1998. Ni?iaeoiaaii aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/iee iiaeoeue e?i?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy, ui caaacia/o? aacoaea?ia o??caiiy oe?ooaaeueiiai e?oaa a caaioiaeo oeyoii ?aae?caoe?? aioo??oiueiai a?ae?aae?/iiai cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo. ?ic?iaeaii oa aeine?aeaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/iiai iiaeoey e?i?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy, ia/eneaii eiai aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa aecia/aii noaoe/io oi/i?noue. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/ieo iiaeoe?a noiaeiai eeano ca aeiiiiiaith iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai I?AIN. Iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei aecia/aiiy eiao?oe?aioa aeo?ao, inueiai? a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? neee eeaiai?a oa aeo?eaiiy a a?ae?ioeee?iae?? aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/iiai iiaeoey e?i?eiiai ia?ai?uaiiy, a oaeiae aecia/aii ia?ao?aeiee i?ioean a iueiio. Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?ae?ii?eaiae, nenoaia ea?oaaiiy, aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/iee iiaeoeue, oa?aeoa?enoeea, ia?ao?iee i?ioean, ia?aaeaoi/ia ooieoe?y, eiao?oe??io aeo?ao, a?ae?iaeeiai?/ia neea, iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, noaoe/ia /ooeea?noue, noaia cai?uaiiy. ABSTRACT Krakhmalyov Alexander Victorovich. Synthesis of control system of metal-cutting machines’ axis drives on the basis of development of independent electrohydraulic modules. The thesis for a candidate’s degree on speciality 05.02.03 — systems of drives. Kharkov State Politechnical University, Kharkov, 1998. The electrohydraulic linear motion modulus has been developed, peoviding the grinding wheel impactless cutting into the billet by the internal hydraulic feed back operation. The mathematical model of the electrohydraulic linear motion modulus is developed and researched, the dynamic performances are calculated and the static sensitivity is defined. The calculate technique for such class of electrohydraulic modulus is developed with PRANS applied program package. The results of experimental researches for definition coefficient, axial hydrodynamic force of valves and leakage in feed hydraulic cylinder of electrohydraulic linear motion modulus are presented and also the transition process is defined. Keywords: hydraulic fluid power, control system, electrohydraulic modulus, performance, transition process, transmission function, flow coefficient, hydrodynamic force, mathematical model, static sensitivity, substitution scheme. AIIIOAOeEss E?aoiaeaa Aeaenaiae? Aeeoi?iae/. Neioac nenoai oi?aaeaiey i?eaiaeaie iiaea/ iaoaeei?aaeoueo noaieia ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioee aaoiiiiiuo yeaeo?iaeae?aaee/aneeo iiaeoeae. Aeenna?oaoeey a aeaea ?oeiiene ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.03 — nenoaiu i?eaiaeia. Oa?uee. ain. iieeoaoi. oi-o, Oa?ueeia, 1998. Aiaeec ninoiyiey enneaaeiaaiee ii iaania/aieth o?aaoaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee caaiueaa oaoiieiae/aneie nenoaiu iieacae, /oi naiue yooaeoeaiue iooue iiauoaiey oaoiieiae/iinoe e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe - yoi niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoai oi?aaeaiey i?eaiaeia iiaea/e iaoaeei?aaeoueo noaieia. Iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui niiniaii oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea aaoiiiiiuo eaaei ano?aeaaaiuo iiaeoeae. Aeey iaoaeei?aaeoueo noaieia, iaania/eaathueo aunieea oaoiieiaee ca n/ao iioeiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey eino?oiaioii ii nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey e neeai ?acaiey ia?niaeoeaiui yaeyaony yeaeo?iaeae?aaee/aneee iiaeoeue eeiaeiiai ia?aiauaiey (YAIEI) eae ioaeaeueiue ooieoeeiiaeueiue ocae. Yooaeoeaiinoue auiieiaiey i?iaeoiuo ?ac?aaioie nenoaiu aaoiiaoe/aneiai oi?aaeaiey ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeeueiinoueth iainiiaaiey ?aai/eo oa?aeoa?enoee ia naiuo ?aiieo yoaiao i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony aii?inai ?aoeeiiaeueiiai auai?a ia?aiao?ia YAIEI, eioi?ue iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?aoaao caaea/o aacoaea?iiai a?acaiey ?aaeouaai eino?oiaioa a caaioiaeo. Ana yoi iaaiciiaeii aac niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiuo i?eeeaaeiuo iaoiaeee ?an/aoa eae yeaiaioia, oae e naiiai iiaeoey. Oeaeue ?aaiou - iaania/aiea o?aaoaiiai oi?aaeaiey aeae?ii?eaiaeii iiaea/e iaoaeei?aaeoueo noaieia ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioee aaoiiiiiuo yeaeo?iaeae?aaee/aneeo iiaeoeae n oeo/oaiiuie noaoe/aneeie e aeeiaie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeey iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee. Iniiaiua caaea/e ?aaiou ?aoaiu oai?aoe/aneeie e yenia?eiaioaeueiuie iaoiaeaie. Oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey aace?othony ia eniieueciaaiee iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee oai?ee aaoiiaoe/aneiai oi?aaeaiey, iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey e aeae?iiaoaieee. A ?aaioa ?anniio?aiu iniiaiua noaiii-eiino?oeoeaiua aa?eaiou i?eaiaeia eeiaeiiai ia?aiauaiey, eniieuecoaiua a i?eaiaeao iiaea/ oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey. ?ac?aaioaia e enneaaeiaaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue YAIEI, a oaeaea aai noaoe/aneay iiaeaeue, iicaieythuay i?iaanoe aiaeec aeeyiey ioaeaeueiuo eiino?oeoeaiuo ia?aiao?ia ia noaoe/aneoth oi/iinoue. I?e iaoaiaoe/aneii iienaiee eniieueciaaeenue yenia?eiaioaeueiua aeaiiua, iieo/aiiua i?e enneaaeiaaiee aiia?aoia e oceia, aoiaeyueo a iiaeoeue. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey YAIEI iicaieeee ooi/ieoue aiaeeoe/aneea caaeneiinoe aeey ?an/aoa eiyooeoeeaioa ?anoiaea, aeae?iaeeiaie/aneie aeanoeinoe ?aaoee?othueo aiia?aoia iiaeoey, eiyooeoeeaioa i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe ooa/ae a aeae?ioeeeeiae?a e iiaeoaa?aeeoue aaeaeaaoiinoue iieo/aiiie iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee, a oaeaea aeaoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii iiauoaieth noaoe/aneie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe iiaeoey. Ia aaca na?eeiuo aeae?iaiia?aoia ?ac?aaioaia eiino?oeoeey e ecaioiaeai iaeaoiue ia?acaoe YAIEI aeey aeae?ii?eaiaea eii?aeeiaoii-oeeoiaaeueiiai noaiea; i?iaaaeaiu aai yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey ano?iaiiuo iiaeoeae aeey aaoiiaoecaoeee ?aai/eo i?ioeannia a iaoaeei?aaeoueo noaieao. Aeey iaania/aiey aacoaea?iiai a?acaiey ?aaeecoaiay eiino?oeoeey iicaieyao aac iniauo cao?ao iiaea?iece?iaaoue nouanoaothuea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?eaiaeaie e iaania/eoue ?aaioo eae a ?o/iii, oae e a aaoiiaoe/aneii ?aaeeia aac ia?aaeaeie eeiaiaoe/aneie noaiu. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeae?ii?eaiae, nenoaia oi?aaeaiey, yeaeo?iaeae?aaee/aneee iiaeoeue, oa?aeoa?enoeea, ia?aoiaeiie i?ioeann, ia?aaeaoi/iay ooieoeey, eiyooeoeeaio ?anoiaea, aeae?iaeeiaie/aneay neea, iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue, noaoe/aneay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue, noaia caiauaiey. I?aei. aei ae?oeo 21.05. 99. Oi?iao 6084 1/16. Iai?? ionaoiee. Ae?oe ionaoiee. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1. Caaaeueiee oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. ? Ae?oea?iy OAeAOIO. 310051, i. Oa?e?a-51, aoe. Eei/e?anueea, 333. E?aoiaeueia Ieaenaiae? A?eoi?iae/. “Neioac nenoai ea?oaaiiy i?eaiaeaie iiaea/ iaoaeiia?iaieo aa?noao?a ia iniia? ?ic?iaee aaoiiiiieo aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/ieo iiaeoe?a” / Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe: Oa?e?a, 1999.

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