OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

O?E?IIIA EINOssIOEI AAEA??EIAE*

OAeE 947 (477) “19”: 332.012.34

N?EUeNUeEIAINIIAeA?NUeEA EIIIA?AOe?ss

OE?A?IE A 20-? ?iee OO noie?ooy

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?eaaeea ?aai Eeeiaio?eiae/

I?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi???
Oe?a?ie

?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Oa?e?anueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — Eyo ?iiai Aeaieeiae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo;

Aieiaei Ai?en Aai?a?eiae/,
eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo

iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi???
oa oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? iaoe

Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 ” ethoiai 1999 ?. i 15-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.64.051.10 Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, ca aae?anith: 310022, i. Oa?e?a, ie.
Naiaiaee, 4; aoae. 4-65

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
310022, i. Oa?e?a,

ie. Naiaiaee, 4

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 22 ” n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ________________ Ioaa/ ?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y – oi?ia naiii?aai?caoe??
naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa ae??aieo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a c iaoith caaeiaieaiiy
aeanieo aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a ? nioe?aeueieo iio?aa. Aiia noai?th?oueny
aeia?ia?eueii, ae?? ia i?eioeeiao naiia?yaeoaaiiy ? aeaiie?ao??. Ia
?oeioth/e ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, eiai
aeiiii?/ii? ? nioe?aeueii? naiiaooiino?, caa??aath/e
naeyieia-ainiiaea?y, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y oi?io? a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? ia eiiia?aoeaieo canaaeao aaeeea
ae?iaieoeoai, c on?ia eiai ia?aaaaaie iaae ae??aiei, oeyoii
a?aeie?aieaiiy oeo eaiie naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, aea ia?aaaae
aaeeeeo ainiiaea?noa ? aacnoii?aieie.

Aeina?ae naeyinoaa aeia?a, ui aeia?ia?eueia eiiia?aoeaia i?aai?caoe?y a
oiiaao aaaaoioeeaaeii? aeiiii?ee c ?eieiaeie a?aeiineiaie – oea
iaee?auee oeyo ?ica’ycaiiy neeaaeieo nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, i?iaeai
aeiiii?/ii? ? iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino?. A oeueiio ca’yceo aeooaeueiei ?
aea/aiiy ?noi??? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? Oe?a?ie a 20-?
?iee OO no., eiee aiia noaea nenoaiiooai?thth/ith neeaaeiaith
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, caeiyea i?ia?aeia i?noea a
ainiiaea?nueeiio aeeoo? naea, aeoea?coaaea naiiae?yeuei?noue ?
?i?oe?aoeao naeyinueeeo ian, noaea iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai aeeooy.

Iaiao?aei?noue iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy ??cieo aniaeo?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy
nenoaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a oiiaao ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei ia? aeey nueiaiaeaiiy ie??i iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueiiai ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy. Inoaii?i /anii ?aeooue iiooee aeueoa?iaoeaieo
eieainiii-?aaeainii?e nenoai? oeyo?a ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, yea ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio aeanyoee?oue ia?aaoaa? a
e?eciaiio noai?. Ia?aaoaeiaa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ia nae?
iaiiaeeeaa aac aeoiaaiiy “ii/oooy ainiiaea?y”, aac iiyae ni?aaaeiueiai
ainiiaea?y ia caie?. ?aaeueia ae i?aeoeea oaea, ui a ?acoeueoao?
ianeeueieoeueeeo iaoiae?a nioe?ae?noe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ainiiaea?y
oaeoe/ii ia noaei.

Ainiiaea?nueea nenoaia a no/aniiio na?o? ia? noai?thaaoe iaoai?cie
aoaeoeaiiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? naii?aaoeyoe?? aeiiii?ee, i?aeaaeeie aeey
oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai, aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa. Ca?aene e oie
?ioa?an, yeee oai?aoeee ? i?aeoeee n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa,
aeiiii?noe e ?noi?eee aeyaeythoue aei n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? Oe?a?ie 20-o ?ie?a OO no. Aeeaiea ona?aeiieaiiy ?? noo?
ia?aeiio? a oiio, ui aoaeoeaia n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai iaiiaeeeaa aac
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy o iia?e yeino? eiiia?aoeaiiai ?ooo ia nae?, a aeina?ae
20-o ?ie?a ?ice?eaa? aaee/aci? iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??, ui oae ? ia aaeaeiny iiai?noth
?aae?coaaoe a ca’yceo ?c cai?oaiiyi iaio a e?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a.

Ca’ycie aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeaia ?iaioa ? /anoeiith
caaaeueii? eiiieaenii? i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
OO noie?ooy, ui ?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ?noi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo OAeO.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y a
oe?a?inueeiio nae? 20-o ?ie?a OO no., ?? noaiiaeaiiy, ?icaeoie,
ae?yeuei?noue. O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe – 1921–1929
?iee — aecia/athoueny noaiiaeaiiyi n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? c ii/aoeii iaio ? ?? ianeeueieoeueeith e?ea?aeaoe??th a
oiae? ?? ?ai?aai?caoe?? a e?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a a i?ioean? cai?oaiiy iaio ?
?icii/aoi? ianiai? eieaeoea?caoe??.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy – Oe?a?ia a iaaeao 1921-1929 ??.
Ieiua ON?? a 1927?. neeaaeaea 451,6 oen. ea. ei. c ianaeaiiyi a 29 iei.
/ieia?e. Ai?iaeiaae 20-o ?ie?a a?aeaoaaeeny iaiaeii?acia? ci?ie a
oa?eoi??aeueii-aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio iiae?e? Oe?a?ie. Iaaani? 1921?. aei
Iieueu? ca ?ecueeei aeiaiai?ii a?ae?eoee cao?aei? iia?oe Aieei?. Aei
aanie 1923?. oa?eoi??y ?anioae?ee iiae?eyeany ia 12 aoaa?i?e, 102 iia?oe
? 1985 aieinoae. Oiae? ae iia?oe oa aieino? cai?ieee ia ie?oae oa
?aeiie, a a 1925?. e?ea?aeoaaee iiae?e ia aoaa?i?? ? ooai?eee 40
ie?oa?a, o neeaae? yeeo noaei 609 ?aeii?a ? 10492 n?eue?aaee. O aaeeoeo
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ? ioae?eaoe?e 20-o ?ie?a aoa oaeiae iiae?e Oe?a?ie
ia 4 i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i? ?aeiie – Iie?nny, I?aaiaa?aaeaey,
E?aiaa?aaeaey, Noai. Eiaeai c ieo a?ae??ciyany a?ae ?ioeo
i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, u?euei?noth ianaeaiiy,
niaoe?ae?caoe??th oiui. ?icaeoie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??
iaia’yceiai iaa i?aea?oioyi ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/i? iiaeeeaino?
eiaeiiai c /ioe?ueio i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ieo ?aa?ii?a, caeeaaeai? a
iniaeeainoyo i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia eiaeiiai c ieo.

Aaoi? noaaeoue ia iao? aea/eoe oae? ieoaiiy:

— noai?aiiy nenoaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??, ?? caaaeaiiy,
i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a, nioe?aeueiee neeaae; aeaee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? – oi?aa?naeueio, e?aaeeoio,
niaoe?aeueio, ?o iaoiiaeai?noue ? cia/aiiy a oe?a?inueeiio nae? 20-o
?ie?a;

— ?ieue ? iaiao?aei?noue e?aaeeoii? ?iaioe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? a naeyinueeiio na?aaeiaeu?, ?? ?acoeueoaoe;

— ci?no, ianya, cia/aiiy caooi-iinoa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??; oa?aeoa?enoeea ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo aeae?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? –
iaoeiii-o?aeoi?ieo oiaa?enoa, ao?ye?aie/i?, neioa?nueei-iiei/a?nueei?,
ieiaeiiai/aai? oiui; ?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
eiiia?aoe?? aeey naeyinoaa; i?noea aenii?oii? ae?yeueiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??;

— i?noea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? naea; eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??, ?? oi?ie; aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy
a?iiaaenueei? aeoeaiino?, ia iaieiae?iiy aa?ieoeueoo?ieie ciaiiyie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? a oiio ui:

— aia?oa noai?aii ocaaaeueithth/o i?aoeth c ?noi???
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? Oe?a?ie a 20-? ?iee OO no.;
nenoaiaoeciaaii aaeeeee ? /anoi noia?a/eeaee iaoa??ae i?i
ainiiaea?nueeo, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/io, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oith
ae?yeuei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??. O?eueee oaeee
eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe ?? aieea ia ??ci? noi?iie aeeooy
naeyinoaa oa i?ae?eoe aei ona?aeiieaiiy ?? i?noey ? ?ie? a
ainiiaea?nueei-a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai naea 20-o ?ie?a;

— aeiaiaeeoueny, ui aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia ao?o/aiiy
ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueeeo i?aai?a o eiiia?aoeaia aoae?aieoeoai a 20-? ?iee,
i?eioniaa iaa’ycoaaiiy iaeiiiaoaioieo ea??aiee?a c /enea ia?o?eoe?a aai
n?euenueeeo aeoea?no?a — eiiiacai?aoe?a, i?eioniaa aeeth/aiiy o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo eiiia?aoe?th iaieaoini?iiiaeieo a?aeiye?a, ui ?
aianeo ia iiaee c?iaeoe, aeeo/aiiy eioo?a ?c eiiia?aoe?? ia iio?aae,
aeaeae? a?ae ia?, /ano? ci?ie aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo i?aeaaeei ae?yeueiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? oiia?eueithaaei eiiia?aoeaiee ?oo;

— iaa?oioiao?oueny iieiaeaiiy i?i aaci?aenoaai?noue a?eueoiaeoeueei?
oace i?i ieae/? ? aeu? oi?ie eiiia?aoe??. Eieaini – oea ia eiiia?aoe?y,
ai a?i ia aeia?ia?eueiee. Eiiia?aoe?y – oai, aea aeia?ia?euei?noue ?
iaoa??aeueia aeaiaea eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai /eaia; aea iaia aeaiaee ?
aeia?ia?eueiino? – oai ia eiiia?aoe?y. A eieaini? naeyiei ia?anoaaaa
aooe ainiiaea?ai, ia?aoai?thaaany a iaeiaioey. Eiiia?aoe?y –
naiiae?yeueia naeyinueea i?aai?caoe?y, eieainie ae noai?thaaeeny ye
i?aeaeaaei? aaei?i?no?aoeaii-aea?aeaaiei i?aaiai. Naeyinoai Oe?a?ie
a?aeaeaaaei aacia?a/io ia?aaaao caooi-iinoa/aeueiei oi?iai eiiia?aoe??,
a ia eieainiai;

— aecia/aii, ui ? a ainiiaea?nuee?e, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/i?e,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e ae?yeueiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??,
a ia o?eueee a ?? i?aai?caoe?eiiio noaiiaeaii? (ye oea aecia/aii a
e?oa?aoo??), ai?iaeiaae 20-o ?ie?a i?inoaaeothoueny o?e aoaie
(1921-1923??.; 1924-1927??.; 1928-1929??.) c ??cieie iiaeeeainoyie
?aae?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeith eiiia?aoe??th naiai iioaioe?aeo
ye naiiae?yeueii? naeyinueei? i?aai?caoe??.

— anoaiiaeaii, ui ana c?inoath/a ?ieue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? a oiiaao iie?oeee “iiaiai eo?no” (1924-1927 ??.) noai?thaaea
ia nae? iiao a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/io ianoaiiaeo c i?ia?aeiith ?ieeth a
aeeoo? naea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? ? n?euenueeeo ?aae, a
ia eiiiacai?a. Oea noaei ?acoeueoaoii ana oe?oiai aoyaiaiiy a
eiiia?aoe?th an?o aa?noa naeyinoaa, ?icai?oaiiy eiiia?aoeaieo i?eioeei?a
o ?? ae?yeueiino?, c?inoaiiy ?? aaoi?eoaoo caaaeyee ??ciia?/i?e
aeiiiiic? iaeiinaeueoeyi, a oaeiae ni?eyoeeai? uiaei naeyinoaa ?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? iie?oeee aea?aeaae ia oeueiio
aoai?;

— ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ? ooi/iaiiy ieoaiiy i?i nioe?aeueiee
neeaae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? – eiai ia iiaeia
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iaeiicia/ii, ye oea aoei a ?noi??ia?ao?? 20-o ?ie?a ?
ia? i?noea a no/ani?e e?oa?aoo??; nioe?aeueiee neeaae eiiia?aoe??
aeaoa?i?ioaaany iniaeeainoyie ?? ?icaeoeo ia eiaeiiio c o?ueio aoai?a,
ci?ithaaany a iaaeao eiaeiiai c ieo, a oiio eiai aecia/aiiy aac
a?aooaaiiy eiie?aoiiai aoaio i?eaiaeeoue aei niioai?aiiy ?aaeueiiai
noaio ?a/ae;

— iaa?oioiao?oueny iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui ia??aiii??i?noue ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a /ioe?ueio i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ieo
?aeiiao Oe?a?ie (Noai, E?aiaa?aaeaey, I?aaiaa?aaeaey, Iie?nny) noaea ??
caeiiii??i?noth, iaoiiaeaiith ae??th eiiieaeno
ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/ieo, ?noi?e/ieo, i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ieo,
aeaiia?ao?/ieo /eiiee?a. No?ee? oaiaeaioe?? a?eueo ?ioaineaiiai ?icaeoeo
eiiia?aoe?? a on?o ?? iai?yieao niinoa??aaeeny a iaea?eueo
aa?a?ii-?icaeiaieo E?aiaa?aaeae? ? Noaio, iaeiaio? – a
aa?a?ii-neaai?icaeiaiiio Iie?nn?;

— aeiiiaiaii ?nioth/? a e?oa?aoo?? oyaeaiiy i?i i??o o/ano?
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei a ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??;
aia?oa ?iaeoueny ni?iaa aecia/eoe cia/aiiy aeaiia?ao?/iiai oaeoi?o, yeee
aeaoa?i?ioaaa i?enei?aiiy aai oiia?eueiaiiy ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??;

— aeei?enoaii iiaee aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae; caeo/ai? ia aaaaeai? a
iaoeiaee ia?a ia?o?ei? ??oaiiy, ui noinoaaeeny ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??, ye? aoee iioae?eiaai? a
ia??iaeeoe? ? ia aa?eoee aei a?aeiieo iioae?eiaaieo ca??ie ia?o?eieo
aeieoiaio?a; nenoaiaoeciaaii cia/iee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae a neeaaeaieo
aaoi?ii oaaeeoeyo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??. Oai?aoe/i?, iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e /eoaii? caaaeueieo ? niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a
eaeoe?e, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iin?aiee?a, iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo i?aoeue c
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, aeeieiiieo oa eo?niaeo ?ia?o. Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
iiaeooue ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a Oe?a?i? ia no/aniiio aoai?. E??i
oiai, c?a?ai? ? nenoaiaoeciaai? a aeena?oaoe?? oaeoe iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a iocaei?e ?iaio?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ieoaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoee aeeeaaeai? o aeiiia?aeyo ? aenooiao ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
??ciiai ??aiy: VII Ananithci?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “?noi?e/ia
aeaiia?ao?y ? no/ani?noue” (Iineaa-Aeiiaoeuee, 1991?.); IV iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo oa aeeeaaea/?a Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee (Oa?e?a, 1992?.);
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?ia ? ?in?y ia ii?ic? OO? no.”
(Ai?iiaae 1997?.); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Canaeaiiy i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa eoeueoo?iiai
?icaeoeo” (Oa?nii, 1997?.), Aaaae??anueeeo /eoaiiyo (Oa?e?a, 1997?.), IV
Noioeianueeeo /eoaiiyo (Oa?e?a, 1998?.). E??i oiai, aeena?oaoe?y
iaaiai?thaaeany ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ?noi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo OAeO.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeoiaey/e ?c caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeena?oaoe?y
neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a (ianya ?iaioe –
179 noi?.), aeiaeaoeo (27 oaaeeoeue, ia 20 noi?.), nieneo aeaea?ae ?
e?oa?aoo?e (359 iaeiaioaaiue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie ?iaioe, a?aecia/aii ca’ycie
aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoeiaith i?ia?aiith, ui ?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith
?noi??? Oe?a?ie ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo OAeO, aeacaii ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai o?iiieia?/i? ? oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee; aecia/aii
iaoo, iaoeiao iiaecio ?acoeueoao?a oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? – “?noi??ia?ao?y ieoaiiy oa iaeyae
aeaea?ae” ?icaeyaea?oueny noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oei ia??iaeii aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie aoee 20-? ?iee. Ia /an
cae?eniaiiy eiiia?aoeaii? iie?oeee a 20-? ?iee oai?aoe/iee aei?iaie c
i?iaeai eiiia?aoe?? aoa aaee/aciei; a?i noaa aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii
?ic?iaee aea?aeaaii? eiiia?aoeaii? iie?oeee a N?N? ? ieoaiue
eiiia?aoeaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a ?noi??ia?ao?? Ooaai-Aa?aiianeee I.E.
Nioeeaeueiua iniiau eiiia?aoeee. Ecae. aoi?ia – I., 1918; I?ieiiiae/
N.I. Eiiia?aoeaiua oiaa?euanoaa e eo eeanneoeeaoeey. — I., 1919; *ayiia
A.A. I?aaiecaoeey eiiia?aoeaiiai nauoa. – I., 1918; *aeeioeaa A.I. Iiuo
eco/aiey i?aaiecaoeee e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa a oeaeyo iainiiaaiey
iauanoaaiiie e eiiia?aoeaii-aa?iiiie/aneie iiiiue. – Oa?ueeia, 1919 oa
?io?.

. Aieiaiee aeniiaie oeeo i?aoeue: n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y ?
naiiae?yeueiith, aeia?ia?eueiith i?aai?caoe??th naeyi ainiiaea??a, ui
noai?th?oueny aeey caaeiaieaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo ?ioa?an?a.

A ?noi??ia?ao?? 20-o ?ie?a /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny o?e aoaie, ui
noi?ioaaeeny i?ae aieeaii aea?aeaaiiai iie?oe/iiai eo?no oa eiai ci?i
ai?iaeiaae 20-o ?ie?a. Aeeneon?? a e?oa?aoo?? ia?oeo ?ie?a iaio
(1921-1923??.) c ieoaiue nioe?aeueii? i?e?iaee ? ci?noo ae?yeueiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? caaa?oeeeny aeciaiiyi
iaiao?aeiino? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy e?aaeeoii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe??, iaaeaiiy ?e i?aaa aanoe caooi-iinoa/aeuei? iia?aoe?? c
iaia’yceiaei caeo/aiiyi a?aeiioe Nai?iee noaoae e iaoa?eaeia ii
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee. – I., 1921; Iaioeeueneee Ae.C. I
iiaie iieeoeea a aeai?aaia e i ?aaioa ia naea/ Nai?iee ii aii?inai
naeueneiai oicyenoaa. – Oa?ueeia, 1922 – N.3-12

. Naia eiiia?aoe?y aaaaeaeany aeaiaioii aea?aeaaiiai eai?oae?cio.

A na?aaeei? 20-o ?ie?a (1924-1927??.) a e?oa?aoo?? ooaa?aeaeo?oueny
iiaeyae ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo eiiia?aoe?th ye ia naiiae?yeueio
naeyinueeo i?aai?caoe?th (oi/a c neeueiei ?aaoethth/ei ea??aieoeoaii
aea?aeaae), ui caeaoia ae??ooaaoe iaea?eueo neeaaei? caaaeaiiy
nioe?ae?noe/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa a naeyinuee?e e?a?i? Aaothe ?.
N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y ia Oe?a?i?. – Oa?e?a, 1925;
Iao?ianueeee A.?. Aei ?icaeoeo nioe?ae?cio a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?.
– Oa?e?a, 1928; Eiciaee I. Iniiae eiiia?aoe??. – Oa?e?a, 1928;
Ia?anueeee E. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y, ?? aeiiii?/i?
i?aeenoaae, oai??y oa nioe?aeueia cia/aiiy. – Oa?e?a, 1925; Iae?ioeia
I.A. Aoae?aieoeoai nioe?ae?cio oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y.
– Oa?e?a, 1927;

. Iiooiaoii aei oeueiai, ii?o/ c iio?aaaie i?aeoeee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??, noaea iie?oeea iiaiai eo?no
“iaee//yi aei naea” oa iiyaa noaoo? ea??aieea ia?o?? ? aea?aeaae
A.?.Eai?ia “I?i eiiia?aoe?th”, aea aia?oa oi?ioethaaeiny iiaa oyaeaiiy
i?i aeiiii?/iee eaae nioe?ae?cio ye ono?ith oeea?e?ciaaieo eiiia?aoi??a
ia iniia? oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei. Cia/iee aianie a ?ic?iaeo ieoaiue
?noi??? ?aaeyinueei? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? c?iaea
I.A.*ayiia oa eiai iaeiiaeoioe? – i?aaenoaaieee
i?aai?caoe?eii-ae?iaie/iai iai?yieo a aa?a?i?e iaooe? I.I.Iaea?ia,
I.I.*ae?ioeaa, I.E.O?e?iianueeee, ye? aaaaeaee eiiia?aoe?th iniiaith
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

A ioae?eaoe?yo e?ioey 20-o ?ie?a ii/aa iaioaaoe iiaeyae ia
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo eiiia?aoe?th ye ia ia?ao?aeiee aoai aei
eieaini?a C eii’thieoo?iith iaoith ?iaeeeny iini?oi?, ia i?aee??ieai?
aeeooyi aeniiaee, ui – “aeua oi?ia eiiia?aoe??” (eieainie) noa? eaaeei ?
aeinooiiei aeey naeyieia caniaii iiaoaeiae nioe?ae?cio Aaothe ?. I?i
oeyoe ianiai? ?aeiino?oeoe?? naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. – Oa?e?a, 1929;
Oeaeea?eon A. AEI(a) e eiiia?aoeey. I/a?e ?acaeoey eiiia?aoeaiie
iieeoeee AEI(a). – Oa?ueeia, 1928; Aeaaeeie?neee I.A. I eieoiciie
eiiia?aoeee // Ia o?iioa eieeaeoeaecaoeee. – I., 1929. — ?1. – N.7-14
oa ?io?

. Aaoi?aie i?aoeue ia??iaeo 20-o a Oe?a?i? aoee aa?a?ieee, aeiiii?noe,
i?aeoe/i? ae?y/? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??, ia?o?ei? ?
?aaeyinuee? ae?y/?, ui ? coiiaeei ?o niaoeeo?eo: a ieo iaaeinoaoi?e
ianea aeaea?ae, iaeaea caaaeaee a?aenooi? ?noi??ia?ao?/i? iaeyaee, oi/a
? caeo/ai? noaoenoe/i? aeai?, aeaniee aeina?ae.

Ianooiiee ia??iae ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie aeena?oaoe?? – 30-80-? ?iee,
eiee an? i?aoe? c aa?a?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee a?oiooaaeeny ia aeiaiaoe/ieo
?aeayo “Ei?ioeiai eo?no ?noi??? AEI(a)”, i?ia?aeiith noaea oaia
eieaeoea?caoe??, aeii?ioaaei iieiaeaiiy, ui eiiia?oaaiiy n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa ? iaeaaaeeea?oith caeiiii??i?noth nioe?ae?cio, aea
eiiia?oaaiiy caiaeeeiny o?eueee aei eieaeoea?caoe?? Aaa?e I.I.
N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y Oe?a?ie – iaeia c ia?aaeoiia
ianiai? eieaeoea?caoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa // Ieoaiiy aeiiii?ee
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. – E., 1959. Ooeueaa C.I.
I?aeaioiaea nooe?eueii? eieaeoea?caoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ia
Oe?a?i?. – E.:1960. oa ?io?

.

O?ao?e ia??iae o aea/aii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? – oea
90-? ?iee, eiee a oiiaao iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie a ?noi??ia?ao??
?ic?iaeythoueny iia? eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee aei aaaaoueio i?iaeai
?noi???. Aaaiiee aianie o aea/aiiy eiiia?aoe?? c?iaeee iiiia?ao?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy N.A.Eoeue/eoeueeiai, A.A.Eae?i?/aiea, A.?.Ia?i/ea, A.A.
Ii?iciaa Eoeue/eoeueeee N.A. ON?? a aeiao iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee.
Ni?iaa iiaoaeiae eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae ?aaeueii? ?noi???. ?noi?e/i?
cioeoe. — E., 1995; Eae?i?/aiei A.A. Naeyinueea ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie a
ia??iae iaio. ?noi?eei-aeiiii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy. — Oa?e?a, 1997;
Ia?i/ei A.?. Oe?a?inueea naeyinueea eiiia?aoe?y. ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee
aniaeo (1861-1929?.?.). — E.,1995; Ii?icia A.A. Naei ? a?io?.
Oe?a?inueea e?aaeeoia eiiia?aoe?y a aeiao iaio. — *a?eane, 1993, ui
aeeoee ae?oeii o 90-o ?ieao. Oae, N.A.Eoeue/eoeueeee aaaaea?, ui o
noaoo? “I?i eiiia?aoe?th” Eai?i aeeeaa aeanio eiioeaioe?th
“eiiia?aoeaiiai nioe?ae?cio”, yea aoea aeueoa?iaoeaith eiioi?noe/i?e
aeieo?ei? Aeea.: Eoeue/eoeueeee N.A. ON?? a aeiao iiai? aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee. Ni?iaa iiaoaeiae eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae ?aaeueii? ?noi???.
?noi?e/i? cioeoe. — E., 1995 – N.51, oi/a oey oi/ea ci?o ia? ye
i?eoeeueiee?a, oae ? i?ioeaiee?a. I?iaeaiai eiiia?aoeaiiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i? i?enay/ai? aeena?oaoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy Ii?icia A.A. E?aaeeoia
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y ON?? a ?iee iaio: Aaoi?ao. aeen…
ae-?a. ?noi?. iaoe. — E., 1994; Ia?i/ei A.?. Oe?a?inueea naeyinueea
eiiia?aoe?y. ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee aniaeo (1861-929?.?.): Aaoi?ao. aeen…
ae-?a ?noi?. iaoe. — E.,1995; I?ieiiaiei ?.I. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea
eiiia?aoe?y o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie (1880 — ii/.30-o ??.
OO no.).: Aaoi?ao. aeen… eaiae. ?noi?. iaoe. — E., 1992

. I?ioa, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y 20-o ?ie?a a Oe?a?i? ia
noaea i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ??ciiiai?oia. ?? neeaee:

— aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee oeaio?aeueieo ? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee oa
ia?o?eieo i?aai?a (ae?oeiaai? ? a?o?ai?). Oea – iinoaiiae ?
noaiia?ao?/i? ca?oe c’?cae?a ia?o??, ??oaiiy eiioa?aioe?e ? ieaioi?a, a
yeeo ?ic?iaeyeeny oai?aoe/i? i?aeaaeeie ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??; noaiia?ao?/i? ca?oe
Anaoe?a?inueeeo c’?cae?a ?aae, iinoaiiae ? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy AOOeAE ? ?IE
ON??;

— ca?oe ? iaoa??aee ?anioae?eainueeiai oeaio?o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? (N?euenueeiai Ainiiaea?y), oaoiaeo oeaio??a, i?noeaaeo
nithc?a ? oiaa?enoa (ae?oeiaai? ? a?o?ai?). Iniaeeai oe?iia ?ioi?iaoe?y
i?i iai?yie ae?yeueiino? eiiia?aoe??, ?? ci?ie, aeinyaiaiiy ? oeae
i?noeoueny a a?o?aieo oiiaeao OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie. Aia?oa aaaaeai? a
iaoeiaee ia?a iaoa??aee c a?o?ao ONAO ii Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?
cana?ae/othoue ?icai?oaiiy ?ai?an?e na?aae ea??aieo i?aoe?aiee?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??;

— aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee ia?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeeo onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e
(ae?oeiaai? ? a?o?ai?): Ia?eiicaio, Oe?aea?aeieaio, Ia?eiiaoo
?ianaeue?iniaeoe??, Noaoenoe/iiai Oi?aae?iiy ON??, Oe?a?inueeiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aaieo;

— iaoa??aee ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue: aeo?iaee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? Oe?a?ie “N?euenueeee Ainiiaea?”, “Eiiia?iaaia naei”, aacaoe
oiui.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? a Oe?a?i? 20-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy ? oe?eeii aeinoaoiueith ?
aeinoia??iith.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe??” aena?oeaia oe?iea eiei ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c ??
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeith ?icaoaeiaith.

Ia ii/aoeo 1921?. e?a?ia ia?aeoea a?ae iie?oeee “aeiiii?/ii
iaiiaeeeai?”, ca aecia/aiiyi A.?.Eai?ia, aei iaio, ui ci?ithaaa
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaei? iaoiaee ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia aeiiii?/i?,
eaaae?coaaa oiaa?ii-a?ioia? a?aeiineie ia nae?. O aeiaoi? 1921?. aeae?ao
AOOeAE ? ?IE Oe?a?ie caii/aoeoaaa ?icaeoie ? ae?yeuei?noue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a Oe?a?i?, aecia/ea ?? caaaeaiiy ?
ainiiaea?nueeo naiiae?yeuei?noue. Aiia iaea i?aai?coaaoe eiiia?aoeaiee
e?aaeeo naeyinueeei ainiiaea?noaai, iinoa/aoe caniae ae?iaieoeoaa,
iaeaaiaeeoe ia?a?iaeo oa caoo i?iaeoeoe??.

Noaiiaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a oiiaao iaio
ii?aeioaaeiny c a?ae?iaeaeaiiyi iiia?aaeiuei? aei?aaiethoe?eii? ?
i?ney?aaiethoe?eii?, c aeei?enoaiiyi ?o oi?i, iaoiae?a, aeina?aeo,
eaae??a, ui noaei iaei??th c aaaiieo neeaaeiaeo ?? aeeiai?/iiai i?ioeano
?icaeoeo a 20-? ?iee.

No?oeoo?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? ? ci?ie a i?e
ai?iaeiaae

20-o ?ie?a (?ai?aai?caoe?y oi?aa?naeueii? a e?aaeeoio, ?icai?oaiiy a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a e?aaeeoii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ?
niaoe?aeueii? eiiia?aoe??, ia?aaoaeiaa n?eueaininithc?a a e?aaeeonithce)
iaoiiaethaaeeny ia?o ca ana ianoaaeiaie aeiiii?/ii? aeioe?eueiino?.

?ieaie aeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo oi?aa?naeueii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? aoee 1922-1925??., o ianooiiiio 1926/1927?. aiia aaea noaea
cieeath/ei aeaeii eiiia?aoe??. Aiaeii/an, oi?aa?naeueia eiiia?aoe?y a
iniiaiiio noaea iao??iei ei?aiai aeey e?aaeeoii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??, yea iaea ciiao aeei?enoaoe an?
iaaooee ?? i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo, oieeiooe ??
iaaeie?e?a. E?aaeeoia eiiia?aoe?y io?eioaaea aioia? i?aai?caoe?ei?
no?oeoo?e – i?aoethth/? i?aae?iiy oiaa?enoa, ni?eie, eaae?e, aeina?ae.
Oae, /eaie Aaeeoeueeiai oi?aa?naeueiiai oiaa?enoaa (I?aeeiueia) i?e
?ai?aai?caoe?? eiai a e?aaeeoia, ia?aeiiaaoenue a aeioe?eueiino?
caooi-iinoa/aeueii? ?iaioe, i?caui ia iiaiaeaeoaaeeny aeeeth/eoe ?? c
ooieoe?e iiainoai?aiiai e?aaeeoiiai eiiia?aoeao, oi/ ye ia oeueiio ia
iaiieyaaee ?ino?oeoi?e c ie?caia?aeae?eo.

I?ney caoaa?aeaeaiiy Aieiaiei eiiia?aoeaiei eii?oaoii ON?? iiaiai
noaoooo “E?aaeeoiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai oiaa?enoaa” iaaani?
1925?. i?enei?eany ia?ao?ae aaaaoueio oi?aa?naeueieo oiaa?enoa ia noaooo
e?aaeeoieo ? a ia?o?e iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a oi?aa?naeuei? oiaa?enoaa c
e?aaeeoieie ooieoe?yie ? e?aaeeoi? oiaa?enoaa aoee ia ia?oiio i?noe? ca
oaiiaie c?inoaiiy iii?ae ??cieo aeae?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe??. Iiynithaaeiny oea iaeo/ith iio?aaith naeyinueeeo
ainiiaea?noa a e?aaeeo? ? caoiaeaie aea?aeaae ii ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo. E?aaeeoi? oiaa?enoaa oaeaeei
caaithaaee i?eoeeuei?noue naeyinoaa, ye iai?eeeaae, Naia?nueea a
Iiai-Ieeiea?anueeiio ?aeii? ia Aei?i?iiao?iauei?, a yeiio ca
1924-1926??. e?euee?noue /eai?a c?inea ao?e/?, a aeani? eai?oaee – a 15
?ac?a (c 1085 e?a. aei 15965 e?a.); aiii caaeiaieueiyei iio?aae an?o
ainiiaea?noa ?aeiio. Oiaa?enoai iaei aeaniee aoaeeiie, e?aiieoeth,
e?niaee neeaae, cneiiee ioieo oiui.

C na?aaeeie 20-o ?ie?a, a oiiaao c?inoaiiy niaoe?ae?caoe?? ? oiaa?iino?
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, naeyinoai aeoeaii ii/aei inaithaaoe
niaoe?aeueio eiiia?aoe?th, noai?thth/e ao?ye?aie/?, ieiaeiiai/aa?,
neioa?nueei-iiei/a?nuee?, iaoeiii-o?aeoi?i? oa ?io? aeaee oaoiaeo
oiaa?enoa. A ae?oa?e iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a iaeoaeaeoa c?inoaee naia oaoia?
oiaa?enoaa ? oaiie aoee a?aaeath/eie.

?icaeoie caooi-iinoa/aeueieo oi?i eiiia?aoe?? (oi?aa?naeueii?,
niaoe?aeueii?, e?aaeeoii?) noaa aeey oe?a?inueeiai naea 20-o ?ie?a
i?aai?/iei, ia’?eoeaii a?aeoai?thth/e noai ? iiaeeeaino? ?icaeoeo
naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa eiai ?ioa?ane. I?aeoeea
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a Oe?a?i? aeiaiaeeea, ui
caooi-iinoa/aeuei? oi?ie aoee naiiaeinoaoi?ie, ia ieae/eie a ii??aiyii?
c “aeueie”, eieainiaie, ye oea aeiaiaeeeiny ca a?eueoiaeoeueeith
aeieo?eiith.

Eiiieaenia aea/aiiy ianeao aeaea?ae iieacaei, ui nioe?aeueiee neeaae
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? ai?iaeiaae 20-o ?ie?a aoa
iaiaeiaeiaei. Aei 1924?. a?i aoa a?aeiyoeueei-na?aaeiyoeueeei ?
aaeaeaaoii a?aeia?aaeaa ca?aeiaiiy naea a ?acoeueoao? e?ece n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Ia aoai? iie?oeee iiaiai eo?no iineeeeiny
ina?aaeiy/oaaiiy naea, /iio ni?eyea ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea
eiiia?aoe?y, a a ?acoeueoao? noaeany ci?ia ?? nioe?aeueiiai neeaaeo –
a?i noaa na?aaeiyoeueeei. A 1928-1929 ??. aea?aeaaa ii/aea ?ioaineaio
i?aeo?eieo a?aeiyoeueeeo ? iacaiiaeieoeueeeo i?ioa?e?a naeyinoaa ?
aoyaiaiiy ?o, /anoi i?eioniaa, a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo eiiia?aoe?th.
*eneaii? oaeoe na?ae/aoue, ui ia i?noeyo, aea ciiao iineeeeeny
eiiiacai?anuee? i?aai?caoe??, i?eeiaeeny iaa?oue ??oaiiy i?i nooe?eueia
eiiia?oaaiiy a?aeiioe ? iacaiiaeiee?a, ye iai?eeeaae, ia IV c’?cae?
eiiiacai?a Eaaaaeeiueie a aa?aci? 1928?. A ?acoeueoao? oaei? iie?oeee
nioe?aeueiee neeaae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? noaa
a?aeiyoeueei-na?aaeiyoeueeei — 62,4% a?aeiioe (ia 1.VII.1929?.). Oea
ia a?aeiia?aeaei ni?aa?aeiioaiith nioe?aeueieo a?oi a naeyinoa? ? noaei
aeieacii iaiaiaaeaieo iiaeeeainoae oeneo ia eiiia?aoe?th a oiiaao
oioae?oa?ii? aea?aeaae ? ia?icaeiaiino? aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?inoeooo?a a i?e.

O ?icaoaeia? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a Oe?a?i? acyee
aeoeaio o/anoue ? iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie. Iaea?eueoo aeoeai?noue aeyaeee
naeyie – i?ioe?, a?aee, aieaa?e. Iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie n?euenueeeo
aeeoae?a a?aee o/anoue ye a eiiia?aoeaao ca oa?eoi??aeueiith, oae ? ca
iaoe?iiaeueiith iciaeaie.

Aia?oa cae?eniaia aeaiia?ao?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea eiiia?iaaiiai naeyinoaa
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeaiia?ao?/iee /eiiee noaa iaeiei ?c
neeaaeiaeo eiiia?oaaiiy, i?enei?thth/e aai oiia?eueithth/e eiai.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? ” ?icaeyaeathoueny ?acoeueoaoe
e?aaeeoii? ?iaioe eiiia?aoe?? a naeyinueeiio na?aaeiaeu? oa aieea
caooi-iinoa/aeueii? ? ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? ia ?icaeoie naeyinueeeo
ainiiaea?noa ? i?aeianaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue nenoaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? aoea aaaaoiaei??iith, ?? ci?no ? iai?yiee aecia/aeeny
iio?aaaie ?icaeoeo naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa iaiao?aei?noth aeey
aea?aeaae ciaeoe i?eeiyoia ii?aeiaiiy aeiiii?/ieo iio?aa i?eueeii?a
naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa ? ?icaeoeo e?a?ie ii oeyoo iiaoaeiae
nioe?ae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa.

Aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii oni?oii? ?iaioe nenoaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? aoea ?? iino?eia oo?aioa i?i e?aaeeooaaiiy iniiaieo
ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a o naeyinueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. E?aaeeoia ?iaioa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? iaaoea iniaeeai aaaeeeaiai
cia/aiiy aeey naeyinoaa, noai?thth/e iiaeeeaino? iinoa/aiiy cania?a
ae?iaieoeoaa, caooo ? ia?a?iaee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??.
Aecia/aeueieie i?e oeueiio aoee iio?aae naieo naeyi-eiiia?aoi??a. Ia
na?aaeeio 20-o ?ie?a iniiaia noia e?aaeeo?a ana ua ni?yiiaoaaeany ia
i?eaeaaiiy ?iai/i? ooaeiae – 48,4 % a?ae caaaeueii? noie. Aiaeii/an, a
Noaio, aea naeyinoai oaeaeei inaithaaei iaoeiii-o?aeoi?i? oiaa?enoaa,
aaea ia na?aaeeio 20-o ?ie?a iiceee ia i?eaeaaiiy oaoi?ee caeiyee ia?oa
i?noea – 45,7% i?ioe 40,2 % ia i?eaeaaiiy ?iai/i? ooaeiae. C ae?oai?
iieiaeie 20-o ?ie?a naeyinuee? ainiiaea?noaa ca aeiiiiiaith
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? aeeaaeaee iniiaio noio e?aaeeo?a
ia i?eaeaaiiy oaoi?ee, ?aiaiaioo ? iaoei. Ca aeaieie Oe?n?eueaaieo
iecia? e?aaeeoi? oiaa?enoaa ca?eueoeee e?aaeeoe naeyinueeei
ainiiaea?noaai c 1924-1925 ?. aei 1927-1928 ?. iaeaea a 5 ?ac?a. ?acii
c oei eiiia?aoeaiee e?aaeeo ia ioiiethaaa ? iieiaeie iaea?aeaieo
naeyiaie iicee, neeaaeath/e ii an?o naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noaao 25% —
41,9% iicee, a ii ainiiaea?noaao – /eaiao eiiia?aoeaieo oiaa?enoa – a?ae
37% aei 55,9%. *eainoai a eiiia?aoea? aeiiiiaaaei naeyieio io?eiaoe
a?eueo i?eueaiaee e?aaeeo, aea eeoaa?nueeee eai?oae o nae? 20- ?ie?a
oo?eioaaa ua i?oei? iiceoe??. Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii naeyinoai
aeei?enoiaoaaei ainiiaea?nueeee iaoai?ci n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? – e?aaeeoio ae?yeuei?noue – a 1925-1928 ?ieao; a oeae /an
ca?eueoeeany o?iainiaa o/anoue naeyinoaa aeeaaeaie ? c?inei
e?aaeeooaaiiy.

Caooi-iinoa/aeueia ae?yeuei?noue noaea iaa?ae’?iiith ?enith
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? an?o ?? aeae?a – oi?aa?naeueii?,
e?aaeeoii?, oaoiai? ai?iaeiaae anueiai ia??iaeo iaio, aea iniaeeaiai
cia/aiiy aiia iaaoea c na?aaeeie 20-o ?ie?a ca oiia c?inoath/i?
oiaa?iino? naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa ? ni?eyoeeai?
aea?aeaaii-eiiia?aoeaii? iie?oeee, eiee aea?aeaaa iieeaea ia
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo eiiia?aoe?th caaaeaiiy aooe aieiaiith
oiaa?ii?ia?aeiith eaieith i?ae n?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii ?
i?iieneia?noth. Oey neooaoe?y noai?eea ii?aeiaiiy ?ioa?an?a naeyinoaa ?
aea?aeaae, ui ? caaacia/eei n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e eiiia?aoe?? ana
c?inoath/? oni?oe ainiiaea?nueei? ?iaioe.

I?ae aieeaii ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? ?oia i?e??no iniiaiiai eai?oaeo naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa,
iaeaeuei a?i aoa o ainiiaea?noaao na?aaeiye?a, a na?aae
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ieo ?aeii?a – a Noaio, aea aoa iaea?eueoei a?aenioie
naeyi-na?aaeiye?a ? a?eueo oaeaeeeie oaiiaie ?icaeaaeany
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y.

N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y noaea aieiaiei iinoa/aeueieeii ia
naei i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy, ie??i iaoei,
?aiaiaioo – i?iaeia?ea, nee?eao?a, e?niiaoa??ae?a, iaoaeo oiui. Ia
e?iaoeue 20-o ?ie?a aiia iinoa/aea iaeaea an? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
iaoeie ? cia?yaeaey (94,7%), o?e /aa?o? aoaeiaoa??ae?a, an? i?iaeia?eaa
(100%), a?eueoa iieiaeie iaoaeo. ?icaeoie naea aoa ae iaiiaeeeaei aac
oe??? ae?eyiee ?iaioe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??. Oni?oe
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? nenoaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? aoee ?acoeueoaoii ae?yeueiino? ao?ye?aie/i?,
neioa?nueei-iiei/a?nueei?, ieiaeiiai/aai? oa ?ioeo aeae?a eiiia?aoe??,
ie?aieo oiaa?enoa, naeyi-eiiia?aoi??a. Aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy a oe?e
ae?yeueiino? iaaoee ae?iaie/i-ia?a?iai? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Ia iaio aaaeeeaith aoea ae?yeuei?noue eiiia?aoe?? ? a caoo? naeyinueei?
i?iaeoeoe??. I?e/iio, c 1927/1928?. caoo ii/aa ia?aaaaeaoe iaae
iinoa/aiiyi, ui noaei ?acoeueoaoii ye?nieo c?ooaiue a naiiio
naeyinueeiio ainiiaea?noa? – c?inoaii? eiai oiaa?ii? /anoeie, coiiaeeiny
oea ? aieeaii eiiia?aoeaii? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?. O 1928/1929 ?.
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y ioiiethaaea aeecueei iieiaeie
oiaa?ieo eeoe?a ? a?eueoa iieiaeie ieaiiaeo caaio?aaeue iaeaaaeeea?oeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?iaeoeo?a. A caaaeueiiio ianyc? oiaa?iia?ao a
Oe?a?i? ?? aeiey a 1927/1928?. neeaea 17,8% a ii??aiyii? c 9,5% a
1925/1926?. Ia’?eoeaiei iieacieeii ?acoeueoaoeaiino? caooi-iinoa/aeueii?
oa ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? aoa ??
aeo?ae ia ca?oa?aei? ?eiee, aenii?oia ae?yeuei?noue, ui iaaoaaea ana
c?inoath/iai cia/aiiy. Eiiioao, Aeia?iaoo, Ieiaeini?eea caaithaaee
aaaeeea? caei?aeiii? ?eiee, iio?nieaoe c ieo aeineoue na?eicieo
eiieo?aio?a, ui oaeiae noaei aeyaii iaiaiaaeaieo ainiiaea?nueeeo
iiaeeeainoae eiiia?aoe??. A ae?yeueiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? a Oe?a?i? ai?iaeiaae 20-o ?ie?a i?aeoeeoaaeeny
eiio?aeoaoe?ei? oaiaee i?ae iath, nithcaie, oiaa?enoaaie ? aea?aeaaith
oa ie?aieie aea?aeaaieie i?aei?e?inoaaie. A e?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a aea?aeaaa
iaiaaaeany iaaeaoe oe?e oi?i? aeiaaeueiee oa?aeoa?, noaea iaa’ycoaaoe ??
naeo aee?aeoeaiei oeyoii (iinoaiiaa OeE AEI(a) a?ae 27 na?iiy 1929?.),
ui i?eaaei aei ?oeioaaiiy naeyinueeiai ?eieo. Eiio?aeoaoe?y noaea
?ino?oiaioii ia?aaaaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ia aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ieaiia?
?aeee.

?icae?e /aoaa?oee – “I?noea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiio ? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiio aeeoo? naea”
aena?oeth? i?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a
iaeaaaeeea?oo aeey naeyinoaa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/io i?aai?caoe?th.

Ia na?aaeeio 20-o ?ie?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y, caaaeyee
aeaiie?aoe/iei i?eioeeiai ae?yeueiino?, ana c?inoath/?e o/ano? a i?e
naeyinoaa, noaea i?ia?aeiith a?iiaaenueeith i?aai?caoe??th a
oe?a?inueeiio nae?. Ainiiaea?nueea, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??
ooaa?aeaeoaaee ? i?aeiineee ?? aaoi?eoao na?aae naeyinoaa, ui iaei
iane?aeeii iicaaaeaiiy eiiiacai?a aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ooieoe?e ? ?ie?
iniiaii? a?iiaaenueei? i?aai?caoe?? ia nae?. Ooaa?aeaeaiith ca
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeith eiiia?aoe??th ?ie? i?ia?aeii? a?iiaaenueei?
i?aai?caoe?? ia nae? ni?eyea oaeiae ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaia iie?oeea iiaiai
eo?no “iaee//yi aei naea”.

Noath/e a oiiaao ?icai?oaiiy iaio, ii?o/ c n?euenueeeie ?aaeaie,
aieiaiith naeyinueeith i?aai?caoe??th, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea
eiiia?aoe?y ni?eyea anoaiiaeaiith nioe?aeueii? ceaaiaee, ia’?aeioth/e
eiiia?aoeaii-a?iiaaenueeeie ?ioa?anaie an? aa?noae naeyinoaa,
aeiiiiaaath/e ? a?aeiyoeueei-iacaiiaeieoeueeei aa?noaai naea noaoe
aeoeaieie o/anieeaie ainiiaea?nueei-a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy ia nae?,
aoyaoth/e a iueiai ae?ieo-naeyieo, iieiaeue. Oe?iea aoyaiaiiy
i?aoe?aiee?a naea aei oi?aae?iiy eiiia?aoeaieie ni?aaaie aeoiaoaaei a
ieo ?i?oe?aoeao ? naiino?ei?noue, oi?ioaaei a?iiaaeyinueeo na?aeii?noue.
N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y ni?eyea i?aeianaiith
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai ??aiy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiy ?iaioa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??
?icai?oaeany i?ci?oa ?ioeo iai?yie?a ?? ae?yeueiino?, aea ?? oaiie ?
aeinyaiaiiy aoee cia/ieie ?, iaa?oue, a?aaeath/eie c iaeyaeo c?iaeaiiai
ca oaeee ei?ioeee i?ii?aeie /ano. Oe?iea ae?yeuei?noue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? ii e?ea?aeaoe?? aa?ieoeueoo?ii? ?
eiiia?aoeaii? iaa?aiioiino?, ii i?iiaaaiae? aaeineiiaeaieo iaoiae?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy /a?ac i?aai?caoe?th aenoaaie, eiieo?n?a, eaeoe?e,
?iaioo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ? eiiia?aoeaieo ao?oe?a, ceiiaeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oe?e, ii i?aeaioiaoe? ? ia?ai?aeaioiaoe?
eaae??a eiiia?aoi??a — ni?eyee iioe?aiith ciaiue ? iaae/ie na?aae
eiiia?iaaiiai ? iaaeieeoiueiai naeyinoaa, canoinoaaiith ?o ia i?aeoeoe?.

Eo?n ia ianeeueieoeueeo eieaeoea?caoe?th, ci?ie a ia?o?eii-aea?aeaai?e
iie?oeoe? nioe?aeueieo i???ioe??a — i?aeo?eiea aeeeth/ii a?aeiioe ? ??
i?aai?caoe?e, ii/aoie aea?aeaaii? ?ai?aai?caoe??, a na?aaeei? 1929?.,
nenoaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? — caiaeeei iai?aaoeue
coneeey inoaiiuei?, ui aaea caeiyea a?aeiia?aeii ?? cia/aiith ia nae?
i?noea a a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiio ? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiio aeeoo? naea.
Aaeee? iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? oe??? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii?
i?aai?caoe?? a i?aeianaii? a?iiaaenueeiai ? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai
aeeooy naea, a oi?ioaaii? a?aoo?-?aoo a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa aoee
ii-ianeeueieoeueeiio ia??aai? c ooaa?aeaeaiiyi oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii iniiai? i?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y, caii/aoeiaaia ye
naiiae?yeueia i?aai?caoe?y naeyinoaa, aaea ia na?aaeeio 20-o ?ie?a
caeiyea i?noea i?ia?aeii? ainiiaea?nueei-a?iiaaenueei? i?aai?caoe?? a
oe?a?inueeiio nae?, noaea aaoi?eoaoiith a Oe?a?i? ? ca ei?aeiiii.

Ia ?oeioth/e ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, caa??aath/e
ia nae? ainiiaea?y c onoaeaiei oeeaaeii aeeooy, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea
eiiia?aoe?y oi?ioaaea ia eiiia?aoeaieo canaaeao aaeeea ae?iaieoeoai
oeyoii a?aeie?aieaiiy oeo eaiie naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, aea ia?aaaae
aaeeeeo ainiiaea?noa ? aacnoii?aieie. A oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei aiia
noaea aieiaiith oiaa?ii?ia?aeiith i?aai?caoe??th a oe?a?inueeiio nae?,
iiiiiie?noii caooi-iinoa/aeueii? ?iaioe na?aae naeyinoaa, aeia?aoe
ia?aaaae eiiia?aoeaii? oi?ie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

A i?ioean? ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? noai?thaaeeny
oi?aa?naeuei?, e?aaeeoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?, niaoe?aeuei?
ao?ye?aie/?, neioa?nueei-iiei/a?nuee?, naaeiai-ai?iaei? oa ?io?
oiaa?enoaa, ye? ??ciia?/iith ainiiaea?nueeith ae?yeuei?noth aeiaiaeeee
ia?aaaae eiiia?aoeaii? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?, ni?eyee aeiiii?/iiio
ci?oeiaiith ainiiaea?noaa /eai?a oiaa?enoa, iaaeaaaee cia/io aeiiiiiao
iaaeieeoiueiio ianaeaiith. Ia nae? aeia?a ciaee i?i aeiiiiiao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a?aeiio?. Oae, a 1926/1927?.
a?aeiioa io?eiaea 51,8% aeiaaino?ieiaeo ? 48,3% ei?ioeioa?i?iiaeo
e?aaeeo?a a eiiia?aoe??.

A n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e eiiia?aoe?? ia’?aeiaeany cia/ia /anoea
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. I?ioe?, aieaa?e, a?aee,
iieaeaaaie, ?a?a? acyee o/anoue a ?? noaiiaeaii? ? ?icaeoeo. Iaea?eueoo
aeoeai?noue aeyaeee naeyie — i?ioe?, a?aee, aieaa?e.

N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y a oiiaao ?aaeyinueei? ae?eniino? ?
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia?aoai?eeany a nai???aeiee a?iiaaenueei-nioe?aeueiee
?inoeooo, ui aa?iii?coaaa nioe?aeuei? a?aeiineie ??cieo nioe?aeueieo
aa?noa naea, ni?ai?aoethth/e oai c ??cieie a?iiaaenueeeie
i?aai?caoe?yie. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y ii?o/ c ?aaeaie
ae?enii noaaaea c na?aaeeie 20-o ?ie?a i?ia?aeiith a?iiaaenueeith
i?aai?caoe??th, iio?nieaoe EIN. Ia e?iaoeue 20-o ?ie?a a i?e
ia’?aeioaaeiny 12 oen. n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa, aiia
iioe?thaaea i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueea ianeoaiaoaaiiy ia 14 oen.
eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noa, aeeth/eaoe a noa?o naiai aaciina?aaeiueiai
aieeao 3,5 iei. naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa.

Aeeiai?ea eiiia?oaaiiy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ? i?aai?caoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa na?ae/eee i?i oa, ui iioaioe?ei?
iiaeeeaino? ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a
oe?a?inueeiio nae? 20-o ?ie?a aoee aeaeaei ia ae/a?iaieie. Aiia oi?oaaea
oeyo naeyinueeiio ainiiaea?noao a iaeaooi?, ui i?a noaoe aeueoa?iaoeaiei
eieainiii-?aaeainii?e nenoai?. I?ioa, aea?aeaaa ia ?aooaaeany c
aaaeaiiyie naeyi, ea?oth/enue eiioi?noe/iith aeieo?eiith,
ii-ianeeueieoeueeiio ia?a?aaea ?icaeoie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y a oe?a?inueeiio nae?: ?icaeoie,
ae?yeuei?noue, e?ea?aeaoe?y (1921-ii/.30-o ??) // ?noi?e/i? a?oe
Neia?aenueei? Oe?a?ie: XYII — ii/. XX co. Iaoeiaa ca??ea — Oa?e?a, 1997.
– N.130-139

2. Ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a
Oe?a?i? (20-? ??. OO no.) // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – 1998.
— ? 401. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. Aei.2 – N. 129-136

3. Niaoe?aeueia (oaoiaa) n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y a
oe?a?inueeiio nae? a ia??iae iaio // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
?noi??y. – 1999. – ? 413, Aei.30. – N.161-172

4. Iaea?aeaaeaiiy oa e?ea?aeaoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe??
a Oe?a?i? a 20-? — ii/. 30-o ?ie?a OO no.// A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo — 1998 — ? 401. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. Aei.2 – N. 188-198

5. Iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea
eiiia?aoe?y. 20-o? ?iee OO no.// Canaeaiiy I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo. Iaoeia? aeiiia?ae?. *anoeia 2.
– Oa?nii. – 1997. – N.54 –58

6. Aeaiia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea eiiia?e?iaaiiiai e?anoueyinoaa
Oe?aeiu a 20-a aa.// Enoi?e/aneay aeaiia?aoey e nia?aiaiiinoue. Oac.
aeiee. YII Ananithciie eiio. ii enoi?e/aneie aeaiia?aoee. —
Iineaa-Aeiiaoee, 1991

7. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y Oa?e?aueie a 20-o? ?iee OO no //
I?iaeaiu enoi?ee e a?oaieiaee Oe?aeiu. E 140-eaoeth Ae.E. Aaaaeay. Oac.
Aeieeaaeia — O., 1997

O?e?iiia E.A. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y Oe?a?ie a 20-? ?iee
OO noie?ooy. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. Oa?e?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia eiiieaeniiio aea/aiith n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? Oe?a?ie a 20-? ?iee OO no., ui noaea nenoaiiooai?thth/ith
neeaaeiaith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a oiiaao iaio ? ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei, caeiyea i?ia?aeia i?noea a ainiiaea?nueeiio oa
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? naea, aeoea?coaaea naiiae?yeuei?noue ?
?i?oe?aoeao naeyinoaa, noaea iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai aeeooy naea. Caa??aath/e naeyieia-ainiiaea?y,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y ae?yea ia i?eioeeiao
naiia?yaeoaaiiy ? aeaiie?ao??, oi?ioaaea a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? ia
eiiia?aoeaieo canaaeao aaeeea ae?iaieoeoai c on?ia eiai ia?aaaaaie iaae
ae??aiei, aoyaoaaea naeyi aei oi?aae?iiy eiiia?aoeaieie ni?aaaie,
aeoiaoaaea a ieo a?iiaaeyinueeo na?aeii?noue.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino?
?icaeoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eiiia?aoe?? a oe?a?inueeiio nae? 20-o
?ie?a aoee aeaeaei ia ae/a?iaieie, aiia iiaea noaoe aeueoa?iaoeaith
eieainiii-?aaeainii?e nenoai?, aoaeoeaiei oeyoii ?ica’ycaiiy neeaaeieo
aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?iaeai a oiiaao aaaaoioeeaaeii?
aeiiii?ee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eiiia?aoe?y, iai, naeyinoai,
?eieia? a?aeiineie, noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy.

Oeeeiiia E.A. Naeueneioicyenoaaiiay eiiia?aoeey Oe?aeiu a 20-a aiaeu OO
noieaoey. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. Oa?ueeianeee oieaa?neoao,
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiiieaeniiio eco/aieth naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
eiiia?aoeee Oe?aeiu 20-o aiaeia OO no., eioi?ay noaea nenoaiiia?acothuae
ninoaaiie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey a oneiaeyo iyia e ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee, caiyea aaaeouaa ianoi a oicyenoaaiiie e
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie naea, aeoeaece?iaaea naiiaeayoaeueiinoue
e eieoeeaoeao e?anoueyinoaa, noaea iaiouaieaiie /anoueth
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneie aeecie naea. Nio?aiyy e?anoueyieia-oicyeia
n aai onoiyaoeiny oeeaaeii aeecie, iia aeaenoaiaaea ia i?eioeeiao
naiioi?aaeaiey e aeaiie?aoee, oi?ie?iaaea a naeueneii oicyenoaa ia
eiiia?aoeaiuo ia/aeao e?oiiia i?iecaiaenoai, ni anaie aai i?aeiouanoaaie
ia?aae iaeeei, aoyaeaaea e?anoueyi e oi?aaeaieth eiiia?aoeaiuie aeaeaie,
ainieouaaea a ieo a?aaeaeaineia niciaiea.

A ?aaioa inaauaaony oe?ieee e?oa aii?inia, naycaiiuo n
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oicyenoaaiiui no?ieoaeuenoaii naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
eiiia?aoeee. I?aeoeea 20-o aiaeia aeieacaea, /oi aa nauoi-niaaaeai/aneea
oi?iu (oieaa?naeueiay, naeueneioicyenoaaiiay e?aaeeoiay, niaoeeaeueiay)
auee naiiaeinoaoi/iuie, ia “iecoeie” a n?aaiaiee n “aunoeie”, eieoicaie,
eae yoi ooaa?aeaeaeinue aieueoaaenoneie aeieo?eiie. ?acaeoea
nauoi-niaaaeai/aneeo oi?i eiiia?aoeee noaei aeey oe?aeineiai naea 20-o
aiaeia i?aaie/iui, iauaeoeaii io?aaeay ninoiyiea e aiciiaeiinoe ?acaeoey
e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa e aai eioa?anu.

Ia iniiaa eiiieaeniiai eco/aiey ianneaa enoi/ieeia aaoi? aeenna?oaoeee
ii-iiaiio iiaeoiaeeo e inaauaieth aii?ina i nioeeaeueiii ninoaaa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee Oe?aeiu 20-o aiaeia OO noieaoey. Aai
iaeuecy oa?aeoa?eciaaoue iaeiicia/ii, eae yoi auei a enoi?eia?aoee 20-o
aiaeia e eiaao ianoi a nia?aiaiiie eeoa?aoo?a. Aei 1924a. ii aue
aaaeiyoeei-na?aaeiyoeeei e aaeaeaaoii io?aaeae iaaaeiaiea naea a
?acoeueoaoa e?ecena naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Ia yoaia iieeoeee “iiaiai
eo?na”, a na?aaeeia 20-o aiaeia, naeueneioicyenoaaiiay eiiia?aoeey
i?aa?aoeeanue a na?aaeiyoeeoth. A 1928-1929aa., a ?acoeueoaoa
eioaineaiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee aaaeiaeoeo neiaa e?anoueyinoaa
e aoyaeaaiea eo, /anoi i?eioaeeoaeueiia, a naeueneioicyenoaaiioth
eiiia?aoeeth, aiiaue eciaieeny aa nioeeaeueiue ninoaa – ii noae
aaaeiyoeei-na?aaeiyoeeei. Oaeie nioeeaeueiue ninoaa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee ia io?aaeae niioiioaiey nioeeaeueiuo
a?oii a e?anoueyinoaa e noae ?acoeueoaoii aeaaeaiey ia eiiia?aoeeth ni
noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa a oneiaeyo ia?anoaiey oioaeeoa?ecia e ia?acaeoinoe
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo einoeoooia a iauanoaa.

A ?aaioa iieacaiu e i?iaiaeece?iaaiu aeaaiua iai?aaeaiey e niaea?aeaiea
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee –
e?aaeeoiay ?aaioa, nauoi-niaaaeai/aneay, i?iecaiaenoaaiiay e yenii?oiay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Naeaeai auaiae, /oi iiae aicaeaenoaeai aa oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe oae i?e?ino iniiaiiai eaieoaea e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa,
iniaaiii a oicyenoaao na?aaeiyeia, a n?aaee i?e?iaeii-yeiiiie/aneeo
?aeiiia – a Noaie.

Naeueneioicyenoaaiiay eiiia?aoeey noaea aeaaiui iinoaaueeii aeey naea
i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, e?iia iaoei,
eiaaioa?y – ieioaeia?aiee, neeeeaoia, eaniiaoa?eaeia, iaoaeea. A
eiioea

20-o aiaeia iia iinoaaeyea ii/oe ana naeueneioicyenoaaiiua iaoeiu e
i?oaeey, o?e /aoaa?oe no?ieiaoa?eaeia, ana ieioaeia?aiey, aieaa iieiaeiu
iaoaeea. ?acaeoea naea auei au iaaiciiaeiui aac yoiai iai?aaeaiey ?aaiou
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee.

Ia iaiaa aaaeiie auea aeayoaeueiinoue eiiia?aoeee e a nauoa
e?anoueyineie i?iaeoeoeee. A 1928/1929a. iia ioaaouaaea ieiei iieiaeiu
oiaa?iuo eceeoeia e aieaa iieiaeiu ieaiiauo caaioiaie aaaeiaeoeo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?iaeoeoia. Iauaeoeaiui iieacaoaeai
?acoeueoaoeaiinoe nauoi-niaaaeai/aneie e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee aue aa auoiae ia
aiaoiea ?uiee, yenii?oiay aeayoaeueiinoue, eioi?ay i?eia?aoaea ana
aic?anoathuaa cia/aiea.

Aeenna?oaoeey ?acaeaaao iiaoth oi/eo c?aiey ia ?ieue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee a eciaiaiee iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie
ianoaiiaee a oe?aeineii naea 20-o aiaeia. Aa oicyenoaaiiay,
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneay, eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue
iaania/eee eiiia?aoeee ni n?aaeeiu 20-o aiaeia ianoi aaaeouae
iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee ia naea, oai naiui eeoea yoie ?iee eiiiacaiu.

Eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneay ?aaioa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee
?acai?a/eaaeanue iicaea ae?oaeo iai?aaeaiee aa aeayoaeueiinoe, ii aa
oaiiu e aeinoeaeaiey auee cia/eoaeueiuie e aeaaea aia/aoeythueie n
o/aoii naeaeaiiiai ca oaeie ia?aie/aiiue io?acie a?aiaie. Oe?ieay
aeayoaeueiinoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee ii eeeaeaeaoeee
aa?ieoeueoo?iie e eiiia?aoeaiie iaa?aiioiinoe, ii i?iiaaaiaea
oniaa?oainoaiaaiiuo iaoiaeia oicyenoaiaaiey iooai i?aaiecaoeee aunoaaie,
eiieo?nia, eaeoeee, naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo e eiiia?aoeaiuo e?oaeeia,
ceiieo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oeie, iiaeaioiaea e ia?aiiaeaioiaea eaae?ia
eiiia?aoi?ia niinianoaiaaee ?ani?ino?aiaieth ciaiee e iaaueia n?aaee
e?anoueyinoaa, i?eiaiaieth eo ia i?aeoeea.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee iainiiauaaaony auaiae, /oi eiiia?aoeey
iiaea noaoue aeueoa?iaoeaie eieoicii-niaoiciie nenoaia, yooaeoeaiui
iooai ?aoaiey neiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo i?iaeai
a oneiaeyo iiiaioeeaaeiie yeiiiieee. Eo?n ia ianeeuenoaaiioth
eieeaeoeaecaoeeth, ainoaea?noaaiiay ?ai?aaiecaoeey, ni n?aaeeiu 1929a.,
nenoaiu naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee – naiaeeee ia iao oneeey
iineaaeiae, noiaaoae oaea caiyoue aaaeouaa ianoi a oicyenoaaiiie,
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie e eoeueoo?iie aeecie naea. Aieueoea
iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe yoie oicyenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie e
iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee e?anoueyinoaa auee ianeeuenoaaiii iai?aaiu
oioaeeoa?iie nenoaiie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naeueneioicyenoaaiiay eiiia?aoeey, iyi, e?anoueyinoai,
?uii/iua ioiioaiey, iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneay aeeciue.

K. Filippov. Agricultural co-operative society of Ukraine in 20-th of
the XX century. – Manuscript.

The dissertation for candidate’s degree of historical science.
Speciality 07.00.01 – History of Ukraine. Kharkov State University,
Kharkov, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the complex study of the agricultural
co-operative society of Ukraine in 20-th of the XX century, that has
become a system-forming component of social and economic development
under NEP conditions and market relations. It took the leading place in
economic, social and political spheres of country life, made more active
an independent action and initiative of peasantry, became an integral
part of a cultural and instructive country life. The agricultural
co-operation, remaining a peasant a master, works on principles of
self-government and democracy. It creates, a large-scale production, in
the agriculture, on the co-operative basis with all advantages over a
little farm. A peasant is forced to manage one’s co-operative affairs,
which bring up them to be civic-minded.

The experience of co-operation has proved that some
potentialities for developing the Ukrainian rural economy hadn’t been
realized. The co-operation system coned have become an alternative of
collective and state farm system by solving some complicated economical
and social problems in the plural economy.

Key words: agricultural co-operative life, NEP, peasantry, market
relations, social and political life.

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