1

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO A?OAIEIA??

AAA?EEIA IEAENAIAe? A?EOI?IAE*

OAeE 902 “652” +0500/-0100 (477.75)

N?EUeNUeEA IE?OAA OAIAeIN?? O V-II NO. AeI I.A.

?noi?e/i? iaoee — 07.00.04 — a?oaieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? aioe/ii? a?oaieia?? ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?ONss?AA Aiia Noai?neaa?aia
?inoeooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee IO?C?I Ay/aneaa TH??eiae/ caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii
ne?oi-na?iaonueei? a?oaieia?? ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie;eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaioIEUeAIANUeEEE Na?a?e
sseiae/, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith ioca?ciaanoaaIaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e oa ienoaoeoa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa eaoaae?e a?oaieia?? oa ioca?ciaanoaa ? ?noi???
noa?iaeaaiueiai na?oo oa na?aaei?o a?e?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “__21__”___/a?aiy________1999 ?. i__14__aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.234.01 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe i?e
?inoeooo? a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 254655, Ee?a — 210, i?-o
Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea, 12.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, i?-o Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea, 12)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “_18__”__o?aaiy_____1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe A. I. Iao?aoaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iacaaaeath/e ia iino?eio oaaao aeine?aeiee?a aei
i?iaeai ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e Oaiaein?? — iaeiiai c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
iie?n?a Ainii?nueeiai oea?noaa, ?? n?euenueea ie?oaa, ye ? naia i?noi,
aei oeueiai /ano caeeoathoueny iaeiaio aea/aieie ii??aiyii c ?ioeie
aioe/ieie oeaio?aie I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y. A inoaii?e /aa?o? oeueiai
noie?ooy iioae?eiaaii aea? cia/i? i?aoe?, i?enay/ai? iai’yoeai
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy Ainii?o (E?oaeeeiaa, 1975; Ianeaiieeia, 1998),
aea a ieo eeoa a caaaeueieo ?enao ?icaeyiooi aeaye? ieoaiiy noiniaii
Oaiaein?? oa ?? n?euenueei? ie?oae. Oea iaoiiaethaaeiny a?aeii
?ioi?iaoe?? c oeueiai ?aa?iio, eiai iaaeinoaoi?i a?oaieia?/iei
aea/aiiyi. A aioe/i?e ?noi??ia?ao?? iaia? ocaaaeueiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iinaeaiue n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein??, ia ?nio? oe?e?nii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e ? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
ianaeaiiy, ia aeineoue /?oei aecia/aii eiai aoi?/iee neeaae ? nooi?iue
caeaaeiino? a?ae aeania Oaiaein??, ainii?nueeeo i?aaeoae?a ? ne?onueeeo
oea??a. I?ioa n?euenueea ie?oaa oeueiai iie?no aeae?a?aaaea aaaeeeao
?ieue ye a eiai ?noi???, oae ? anueiai Ainii?nueeiai oea?noaa, a oaeiae
E?einueei? Ne?o??, aieeaaea ia aeiiii?eo oa iie?oeeo ?ioeo aea?aeaa
aioe/iiai na?oo. Ie??i oeueiai, o?aaa a?aecia/eoe, ui ??aaiue ?ic?iaee
i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c Oaiaein??th oa ?? n?euenueeith ie?oaith, cia/ii
a?aenoa? a?ae aea/aiiy ?ioeo aioe/ieo aea?aeaa I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y,
ui iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia iiaeaeueoa aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? i?aaeiy
Oe?a?ie.

Oiane?aeie oe?eani?yiiaaieo a?oaieia?/ieo ?iceiiie oa ?ica?aeie,
cae?eniaieo o 1986-1998 ??. aaoi?ii o I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiio E?eio, aoei
a?aee?eoi oa aeine?aeaeaii iia? iai’yoee aioe/iiai /ano. O 1994—1996 ??.
i?iaaaeaii ?iceiiee aoaeiiii? iai’yoee n?euenueei? ie?oae — iinaeaiiy
iiaeeco n. Iiaiiie?iaea, a oaeiae ca?? iaoa??ae?a ? oo?ooaaiiy ia ?ioeo
iai’yoeao ie?oae Oaiaein??. Caaaeii aoei c?a?aii cia/iee a?oaieia?/iee
iaoa??ae. O ca’yceo c oeei aaaeeeaei ? aeooaeueiei ? ocaaaeueiaiiy
iaeiie/aieo iaoa??ae?a, ?o anaa?/iee aiae?c, ?aeiino?oeoe?y aeiiii?/iiai
oa ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein??, ?acii c oeei
aena?oeaiiy aeayeeo ieoaiue ?noi??? Ainii?nueei? aea?aeaae,
a?aei-aa?aa?nueeeo eiioaeo?a oa aca?iiaieea?a o oeueiio ?aa?ii? E?eio.

Ca’cie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia ca?aeii c ieaiiaith oaiith a?aeae?eo aioe/ii? a?oaieia??
?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe. Aieiaiith iaoith ?iaioe ? a?aeoai?aiiy ?noi???
oa eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein?? o V—II no. aei i.a.
ia i?aenoaa? eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy iaeiie/aieo iaoa??ae?a oa aaaaeaiiy
?o aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??oothoueny
ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

1. Ea?oia?aooaaiiy a?oaieia?/ieo iai’yoie ?aa?iio cacia/aiiai /ano.

2. Aecia/aiiy iaae n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein??.

3. ?ic?iaea oeiieia?? iai’yoie ? anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae oa
iniaeeainoae ?o i?noea?icoaooaaiiy.

4. Aecia/aiiy i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e oa aeeoeiaoae?aieo cania?a ia
iinaeaiiyo.

5. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e.

6. Aiae?c ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy.

7. ?icaeyae aoiinioe?aeueiiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy oa eiai aeooiaii?
eoeueoo?e.

8. Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?noi??? ianaeaiiy n?euenueei? ie?oae.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue a?aeiia?aeio /anoeio
E?einueeiai i?aino?iaa, ui ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae Aeiiiaenueeei ia?aoeeeii
ia noiae? oa noaiiaith ??/eith ?iaeie ia caoiae?. C i?aaeiy ei?aeiiii ?
Oaiaein?enueea caoiea *i?iiai ii?y ? a?ae?iae E?einueeeo a?? Oaoa Iaa,
Ocoi Ne?o ? a??nueeee ianea Aaa?ieo; ia i?aii/? — nieiia ica?i Neaao.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? ?iaioe aecia/ai? i?eioeeiiai iiaith ?noi?e/iith
neooaoe??th, ui neeaeany a I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiio E?eio i?ney canioaaiiy
aeaaiueia?aoeueei? eieii?? Oaiaein?? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? VI no. aei i.a.
O i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy Oaiaein?enueeiai iie?na ii/aeiny inai?iiy
iaaeieeoi?o caiaeue, i?aai?caoe?y ia?aae? n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue, ui
ea?aeeiaeueii ci?ieei an? noa?e aeeooy o oeueiio ?aa?ii?. E?iaoeue
ia??iaeo — II no. aei i.a. — iia’ycaiee c i?eieiaiiyi ?nioaaiiy
oe??ieaieo iinaeaiue ? ai?iaeeu oiane?aeie ianooio na?iao?a ?
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiai eiioe?eoo i?ae ne?oaie ? a?aoeueeeie aea?aeaaaie
ia oa?eoi??? E?eio.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ?iaioe ? i?eioeei
?noi?ecio, ae??oaiiy an?o iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue o ca’yceo c caaaeueiith
?noi???th Ainii?o oa ?ioeo aioe/ieo aea?aeaa. O i?aoe? canoiniaaii ??ci?
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: ea?oia?ao?/iee, oeiieia?/iee, o?iiieia?/iee,
ii??aiyeueiee, noaoenoe/iee, ui caaaeii aeicaieeei i?inoaaeeoe aeeiai?eo
?icaeoeo n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein??, aeyaeoe oa?aeoa?
aee?ii-aa?aa?nueeeo a?aeiinei ? aca?iiaieea?a, a oaeiae ?aeiino?othaaoe
?noi??th ianaeaiiy I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiai E?eio V — II no. aei i.a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy — oea ia?oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?y an?o iaeiie/aieo iaoa??ae?a c
n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein??. Oia?oa neeaaeaii iaeiiai?oo ia oeae /an
ea?oo aioe/ieo iai’yoie ?aa?iio, aecia/aii iaae? n?euenueei? ie?oae
iie?no, cae?eniaii anaa?/iee aiae?c ? aaaaeaii aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao iia?
a?oaieia?/i? aeaea?aea c ?ica?aeie oa ?iceiiie iinaeaiue, a?aeei?aaiaaii
/an ?o aeieeiaiiy oa caaeaae?, i?inoaaeaii aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo
n?euenueei? ie?oae, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaoa??aeueio oa aeooiaio eoeueoo?o,
ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue oa aoiinioe?aeueiee neeaae ianaeaiiy,
ii-iiaiio ?ioa?i?aoothoueny ??ci? aniaeoe eiai aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.
Aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? ? caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo
n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein??. O aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aianaii ei?aeoeae a
?nioth/? a?iioace oa cai?iiiiiaaii iia? ??oaiiy aeeneon?eieo ieoaiue
?noi??? Ainii?o V — II no. aei i.a.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

— canioaaiiy aeaaiueia?aoeueei? eieii?? Oaiaein?? aianei aeiei??ii?
ci?ie o an? noa?e aeeooy ?aa?iio;

— i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/i? oiiae, ye aieiaiee oaeoi? i?aai?caoe??
n?euenueei? ie?oae ? noai?aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aace Oaiaein?enueeiai iie?na;

— a?oaieia?/i? aeaea?aea ye iniiaiee e?eoa??e aecia/aiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo
iaae n?euenueei? ie?oae oa ?? iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e;

— aeaa aieiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein??;

— oe?ai?ianoai – iniiaa ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy ?
oi?aiai-iai?iieo a?aeiinei;

— ca aoi?/iei neeaaeii ianaeaiiy aoei aaoa?iaaiiei, ia?aaaaeii
ne?onueeei;

— aeiiii?/ia caeaaei?noue n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy a?ae Oaiaein??,
Ainii?nueei? aea?aeaae oa ne?onueeeo aeeiano?a;a?aei-aa?aa?nueeee
oa?aeoa? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e;

— aaaeeeaa ?ieue n?euenueei? ie?oae a aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo Oaiaein?? oa
Ainii?nueei? aea?aeaae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ??
?acoeueoao?a o eaeoe?yo oa niaoeeo?nao c aeaaiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa
E?eio aeey nooaeaio?a iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, iaienaiiy
iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo oa e?a?ciaa/eo i?aoeue, o ?ic?iaoe? aeneo?n?e ?
oaiaoeei-aeniiceoe?eieo ieai?a ioca?a oa aenoaaie, a oaeiae aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy ianooiieo aeine?aeaeaiue c ?noi??? oa a?oaieia?? I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y. Oaea ca?ac iaoa??aee c ?iceiiie oa ?acoeueoaoe iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey noai?aiiy aeniiceoe??
Noa?ie?einueeiai e?a?ciaa/iai iocath.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o a?aee?eoo?, aeine?aeaeaii? oa
ea?oia?aooaaii? cia/ii? e?eueeino? iinaeaiue aioe/iiai /ano a ?aa?ii?,
ye? noaee iniiaith aeaea?aeueii? aace aeena?oaoe??. O noaooyo aena?oeaii
?acoeueoaoe ?ica?aeie oa ?iceiiie oeeo iai’yoie, ?o i?noea ? cia/aiiy o
ae??oaii? i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c aeine?aeaeaiiyi ?noi??? Ainii?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o aeiiia?aeyo, ye? ca/eoaii ia can?aeaiiyo
E?einueei? o?e?? oa a?aeae?eo aioe/ii? a?oaieia?? ?inoeoooo a?oaieia??
IAI Oe?a?ie, iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo o Neioa?iiie?, Oa?nii?, Iinea?,
iioae?eiaaii o iaoeiaeo noaooyo.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeai? iaoith ? caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a (179 noi?.); nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a (310 iaeiaioaaiue); oaenoiaeo aeiaeaoe?a, ui i?noyoue:
a?oaieia?/io ea?oo oa nienie iai’yoie aioe/iiai /ano I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiai
E?eio (45 noi?.); eaoaeia aioi?ieo eeaei (157 noi?.);
i?ia?aei-iao?ia?ao?/ia aecia/aiiy iaoa??ae?a c iinaeaiue n?euenueei?
ie?oae Oaiaein?? (34 noi?.); ?acoeueoaoe iaeaiaioai?/ieo oa
iaeaiciieia?/ieo aiae?c?a iaoa??ae?a c iinaeaiiy Iiaiiie?iaea 1(15
noi?.); ?ethno?aoe?e (116 ?en.).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Anooi

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/athoueny
eiai oa?eoi??aeuei? oa o?iiieia?/i? iaae?, iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy,
iaoiaee, iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??,
aeacothoueny aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
?iaioe, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, ?? no?oeoo?a oa ianya.

?ICAe?E 1. AeAEA?AEA OA ?NOI??IA?AO?ss AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia aieiaieo eaoaai??yo ?noi?e/ieo
aeaea?ae — a?oaieia?/ieo, ia?aoeaieo, ai?a?ao?/ieo, ioi?ciaoe/ieo,
aeei?enoaiiy yeeo o ii?aeiaii? c iiaeie iaoeiaeie i?aoeyie i?i
n?euenuee? ie?oae aioe/ieo aea?aeaa I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y aea? ciiao
a?eueo aeaoaeueii oa anaa?/ii aea/eoe ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie n?euenueei?
ie?oae Oaiaein?? o V-II no. aei i.a. A?ae a?oaieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a
o?eaaeee /an iaaaoeaii aieeaaa ia ?ic?iaeo i?iaeaiaoeee, iia’ycaii? c ??
aeine?aeaeaiiyi. ?ica?aeee oa ?iceiiee iinaeaiue aioe/iiai /ano a
I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiio E?eio, i?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii o 1986 — 1998 ??., aeaee
cia/iee a?oaieia?/iee iaoa??ae, ui ?noioii caiiaith? oeth eaeoio.
Ai?a?ao?/i? aeaea?aea i?aaenoaaeai? iaaaeeeith e?euee?noth a?ao?o?, ye?
aeicaieythoue c’ynoaaoe aeaye? ?ene eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueei?
ie?oae i?noa. Ia ?? oa?eoi??? ciaeaeaii iaaaaaoi iiiao, ui aeaco? ia
iecueeee ??aaiue a?ioiaiai ia?ao na?aae n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy.
Iacia/io, aea aaaeeeao a?oio neeaaeathoue iia?aeiieaiiy aeaai?o
aaoi??a,— cie?aia Aeaiinoaia ? No?aaiia. O?iiieia?/ia ? i?inoi?iaa
ia??aiii??i?noue a?aeia?aaeaiiy ienaiieie aeaea?aeaie a?eueoino? ieoaiue
c oe??? oaie iineeth? cia/aiiy aeaieo a?oaieia??.

A ?noi??? aeine?aeaeaiiy n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein?? aeae?eythoueny
aeaa aieiai? aoaie. Ia ia?oiio c ieo (50-? — na?aaeeia 70-o ??. OO no.)
aaeeny oe?eani?yiiaai? ?ica?aeee oa aea/aiiy n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue
?a?iiaenueeiai Ainii?o i?ae ea??aieoeoaii ?. O. E?oaeeeiai?. Oiane?aeie
oeeo ?ia?o aoei a?aee?eoi iinaeaiiy iiaeeco Oaiaein?? oa Noa?iai E?eio
(?ica?aeee A.A. Aanaeiaa), i?iaaaeaii ?iceiiee ia iinaeaii?
Aeaacianueea, ui iieeaei ii/aoie ?o iaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaiith. Iaeiae o
i?aoe? “N?euenueea ainiiaea?noai Ainii?o” /1975/ ?. O. E?oaeeeiaa
oi?eioeany eeoa aeayeeo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c eoeueoo?ith, aoi?/iei
neeaaeii ianaeaiiy oa o?iiieia??th iinaeaiue n?euenueei? ie?oae
Oaiaein??. Iaaeinoaoi? a?oaieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aee?eoeo iinaeaiue
oa iacia/ia e?euee?noue iaoa??ae?a ia aeaee iiaeeeaino? aaoi?o
iaa?oiooaaoe oeiieia?th oa o?iiieia?th iai’yoie ?aa?iio, aecia/eoe iaae?
n?euenueei? ie?oae ? ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue
ianaeaiiy.

Aeey ae?oaiai aoaio (na?aaeeia 70-eo — 90-o? ?iee OO no.) oa?aeoa?iee
iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aeine?aeaeaiiy ye naiiai i?noa Oaiaein??, oae ?
iniaeeai ?? n?euenueei? ie?oae. O oeae /an a?oaieia?/ieie ?ica?aeeaie ?.
I. Eaeuenueeiai oa ?. I. Eaothoeia /1978, 1979/ aoei a?aee?eoi e?eueea
iinaeaiue, oe??ieaieo ioieo?a ? ai?iaeeua, i?iaaaeaii ?iceiiee ia
iinaeaii? AEo?aaee 1 oa oe??ieaii? A?the ssieoa?. Ie?ai? ieoaiiy
aoii-nioe?aeueii? ? iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? iie?na o aca?iica’yceo c eiai
oi?ith ?icaeyaeaeeny a noaooyo A. I. C?iueea /1991/, ?. A. Iao?iai?
/1991,1996/, ?. I. Eaothoeia /1998/. I?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/i? oiiae
I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiai E?eio o caaaeueieo ?enao ioa?aeoa?eciaaii o i?aoe?
O. A. Oaeiaa-Eiaaaey?aa /1985/, yea i?enay/aia iie?oe/i?e ?noi???
Ainii?nueeiai oea?noaa. A?i a?aecia/ea, ui oey /anoeia E?einueeiai
i?aino?iaa iaea an? iaiao?aei? i?e?iaei? oiiae aeey canioaaiiy oa
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aeaaiueia?aoeueei? eieii??.

O ae??oaii? i?iaeai aoi?/ii? ?noi??? ?aa?iio aaeeea cia/aiiy ia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy eo?aai?a oa a?oioiaeo iiaeeueiee?a. 1997 ?.
aeniaaeeoe??th Aea?aeaaiiai A?i?oaaeo (?in?y) i?ae ea??aieoeoaii I. A.
E?aia?ianueeiai /anoeiai aeine?aeaeaii eo?aaiii-a?oioiaee iiaeeueiee IV
— III no. aei i.a. iiaeeco n. E?eie/ee, iaoa??aee yeiai iathoue aiaeia??
ye a eo?aaiao ? iiaeeueieeao Ea?/ainueeiai i?aino?iaa, oae ? a??nueeiai
E?eio.

O oe?eiio ae iaaaaeai? a?oaieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui ?o
cian?i iaaeinoaoiuei aeey ae??oaiiy eiie?aoieo ieoaiue c ?noi???
?icaeoeo n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein??. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oe??? oace ?
inoaiiy iiiia?ao?y I. I. Ianeaiieeiaa /1998/ i?i n?euenueeo oa?eoi??th
?a?iiaenueeiai Ainii?o ca aioe/ii? aeiae, a ye?e caaaeothoueny
iinaeaiiy, aeaaii a?aee?eo? A. A. Aanaeiaei oa iioae?eiaai? ?. O.
E?oaeeeiaith /1975/. Oeei iniaeeai i?aeneeth?oueny cia/aiiy
iiaiciaeaeaieo iai’yoie o noaiia?e /anoei? I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiai E?eio
aaoi?ii i?aaenoaaeaii? aeena?oaoe??. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aa?oi ua ?ac
cacia/eoe, ui aei oeueiai /ano iaia? ocaaaeueiaii? i?aoe?, a ye?e o
iiaiiio ianyc? aoei a ?icaeyiooi ??ci? ieoaiiy ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo
Oaiaein??. Ia nueiaiaei? oea iiaeeeai c?iaeoe eeoa ia i?aenoaa? iaoeo
a?oaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

?ICAe?E 2. I?E?IAeII-AAIA?AO?*I? OIIAE I?AAeAIII-NO?AeIIAI E?EIO

O ?icae?e? iiaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo eaiaeoaooieo cii, aiaeieo ?ano?n?a,
ei?enieo eiiaeei, a?oio?a, ?ineeiiino?, oaa?eiiiai na?oo, ee?iaoo
I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiai E?eio. A oe?eiio, a?i iaa on? i?e?iaei? oiiae aeey
ia?anaeaiiy nthaee aeaaiueia?aoeueeeo oe?ai?ia?a, canioaaiiy ieie iie?na
? eiai ianooiiiai oaeaeeiai aeiiii?/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo.
Ni?eyoeeaa ii?aeiaiiy i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a noai?thaaei iioeiaeuei? oiiae
aeey caiyooy n?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii, ianaiia?aae oe?ai?ianoaii,
caeo/aiiy aei iueiai ??cieo aoiin?a.

?ICAe?E 3. AeEIAI?EA ?ICAEOEO N?EUeNUeEI? IE?OAE OAIAeIN?? O V — II NO.
AeI I.A.

O I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiio E?eio ?ica?aeeaie aaoi?a aoei a?aee?eoi 29
iai’yoie aioe/iiai /ano, a oaeiae i?iaaaeaii ?iceiiee ia iinaeaiiyo
I??o?aea 1, Iiaiiie?iaea 1, Aa?aaiaa 1, Ocoi Ne?o (i?aei?aeaey)
/Aaa?eeia,1988,1997,1998,1999/. E??i oeueiai, aoei ianoaaeaii ?
ea?oia?aoiaaii iaeaea an? a?aeii? ia oeae /an iai’yoee aioe/iiai /ano,
ui ?noioii aeiiiaieei a?oaieia?/io ea?oo ?aa?iio oa iaaeaei iiaee
a?oaieia?/iee iaoa??ae. Anueiai ia oeae /an o ?aa?ii? a?aee?eoi 53
iinaeaiiy, 2 ianoooia? noiyiee, 1 oe??ieaia iinaeaiiy, 3 oe??ieaiiy oeio
iaaaeeei? oi?oaoe?, 1 ai?iaeeua, 1 niinoa?aaeieoeueeee ioieo. Naia oea
aeaei ciiao iaea?eueo iiaii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe n?euenuee? iinaeaiiy a
ie?oc? Oaiaein?? ooi/ieoe ?o o?iiieia?th oa oeiieia?th.

Ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? ?nioaaiiy Oaiaein?y, ye ? an? ?io?
aeaaiueia?aoeuee? eieii?? iaea aeeaeith oi?o, yea ciaoiaeeeanue
aaciina?aaeiuei ca no?iaie i?noa. ?? i?eaeecia ieiua, ca?aeii c
aeine?aeaeaiiyie a ?ioeo iie?nao I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, iiaea
aei??aithaaoe 300-400 aa. A iao /an oey oa?eoi??y caeiyoa i?nueeeie
nii?oaeaie.

O?iiieia?y iinaeaiue a?oioo?oueny, aieiaiei /eiii, ia aeaooaaii?
aioi?ii? oa?e, eeaei, ei??ionueei?, aooe/ii? /a?aiii- oa /i?iio?ao?ii? ?
/i?iieaeiai? ea?ai?ee. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co oeueiai iaoa??aeo aeieeiaiiy
iaoe??ieaieo iinaeaiue iiaeia a?aeianoe aei ii/aoeo V no. , a caaeaaeue
— aei e?ioey ia?oi? o?aoeie III no. aei i.a. ?nioaaiiy oe??ieaieo
ioieo?a ? ai?iaeeua ca aioi?iei iaoa??aeii aeaoo?oueny o iaaeao e?ioey
IV — ii/aoeo III no. aei i.a. — II no. aei i.a., aea aeeooy ia ieo
iaiaaeiaai i?eieiyeinue, ui iiynithaaeiny ianoaa?eueiei
ai?iii-iie?oe/iei noaiiaeuai ia cao?aeieo ei?aeiiao Ainii?o.

O ??aieii?e /anoei? I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiai E?eio a?aeiii 14 iaoe??ieaieo
iinaeaiue V no. aei i. a., ye? ?acii c aeeaeiueith oi?ith neeaaeaee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo aaco iacaeaaeii? Oaiaein??. O IV no. aei i.a.
?o e?euee?noue c?inoa? aei 53, ui iia’ycaii c aaaaoueia i?e/eiaie, aea,
aieiaiei /eiii, c in?aeaiiyi ne?o?a ia caieth. O oeae /an n?euenueea
ie?oaa iie?na aeinyaa? nai?o iaeneiaeueieo ?ici???a. Aioe/i? ienaii?
aeaea?aea na?ae/aoue i?i cia/iee ia’?i aenii?oo oe?aa /a?ac
oaiaein?enueeee ii?o oiai /ano. Iai?ee?ioe? ia?oi? o?aoeie III no. aei
i.a. aiane?aeie ianooio na?iao?a oa aeiooaiiai ia?anaeaiiy o Cao?aeiee
E?ei /anoeie ne?onueeiai ianaeaiiy c Aei?i?i-Aeiinueeiai iaaee??//y, a
oaeiae a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiai eiioe?eoo i?ae ne?oaie ? a?aoeueeeie
aea?aeaaaie ia oa?eoi??? E?eio, a?eueo?noue iaoe??ieaieo iinaeaiue aeia,
n?euenueea ie?oaa cia/ii nei?i/o?oueny.

Iinaeaiiy ?icoaoiaoaaeenue ii??aiyii eiiiaeoieie a?oiaie iiaeeco ??/ie,
aeaea?ae ieoii? aiaee oa ni?eyoeeaeo aeey oe?ai?ianoaa a?oio?a, ?iiae?
ia aiaeiae?eao. Ia i?noeaaino? aiie aeae?eythoueny cieueieie ieyiaie
ae?aiao?ii 30 — 70 i, ui caeeoeeenue a?ae i?enaaeeaieo cieueiee?a, yeeie
aecia/athoueny i?noey aeeoeiai-ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a. Ia oeeo
ieyiao cina?aaeaeoaaany a?oaieia?/iee iaoa??ae — ia?aaaaeii oeaiee
aioi?ii? oa?e ? eeaei, /i?iieaeiaiai iinoaeo, ca?iioa?ie, e?noie oaa?ei
oiui. Ieiua ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?aeeiiiiai iaoa??aeo ? e?euee?noue
cieueieo ieyi aeacothoue, ui aeeoeiai-ainiiaea?nuee? eiiieaene
?ici?uoaaeenue ia i?noeaaino? aacnenoaiii, ia iaaieo a?aenoaiyo iaeia
a?ae iaeiiai. Iinaeaiiy iaee eouiaee oa?aeoa? ieaiiai? no?oeoo?e, yeiio
a?aeiia?aeaei aeae?eueea aeeoae c, ?icoaoiaaieie iaaeiei ieo,
ainiiaea?nueeeie ia’?eoaie. C oeueiai iiaeyaeo iinaeaiiy n?euenueei?
ie?oae Oaiaein?? iiae?ai? aei ?aii?o n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue Ainii?o oa
Ieuea??. Iaae? iinaeaiue ?icieea/ano? ? aecia/athoueny ca ieiuath
?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?aeeiiiiai iaoa??aeo. Caaaeii ?o ieiua eieeaa?oueny
a?ae 0,42 aei 10 aa. Ia oe?e i?aenoaa? aeae?eaii 3 oeiieia?/i? a?oie
iai’yoie: 1 — iaaaeee? oooi?e ieiuath aei 0,5 aa; 2 — naeeua na?aaei?o
?ici???a a?ae 1 aei 10 aa, ye? noaiiaeyoue a?eueoo /anoeio a?aee?eoeo
iai’yoie; 3 — oei/ania? naciii? noiyiee ianooo?a, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o
i?eneaaonueeiio noaio oa oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iacia/iei eoeueoo?iei oa?ii.
Iiooaei?noue eoeueoo?iiai oa?o ia iaoe??ieaieo iai’yoeao noaiiai?
/anoeie ?aa?iio noaiiaeoue 0,4 — 1,2 i.

Caeeoee aaeo ia Ia?iaoeueeiio a?aaai? iiaeeco n?e Aeaaeeneaa?aea,
O?iioiaa oa Eueaiaa iiaeeeai, iaeaaeaoue aei a?eueo ?aiiueiai /ano i?ae
ia?o? iinaeaiiy. Aea a?i oaae i?a aeei?enoiaoaaoenue i?ci?oa aeey
caoenoo iie?nieo aieiae?iue ?, i/aaeaeii, aoa ia?a?ea/anoei , i?ee?eaaa
iaeo?aceea?o? aeey iai?iie i?noey. Aa?oi a?aecia/eoe, ui aenie? eo?aaie
ciaoiaeyoueny ia i?e?iaeieo ocaeooyo /a?ac ye? i?ioiaeeoue aae, oa aeae?
ia i?ai?/ ca ieie. sseui ianooii? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeyoue ?o
ne?onueeo iaeaaei?noue, oi oea iia?/ii iiaea aeacoaaoe ia ei?aeiie
oaiaein?enueeeo iie?nieo, a c IV no. aei i.a. ainii?nueeeo aieiae?iue ?
ne?onueeeo caiaeue.

C? ci?iith a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ieo ianoaaei o E?eio iai?ee?ioe? IV —
ii/aoeo III no. aei i.a. ia aeeaei?o aei Oaiaein?? iinaeaiiyo
nii?oaeaeothoueny aaee, a a ia?aaea??’yo ? ia ii?nueeiio ocaa?aaeae?
c’yaeythoueny oe??ieai? ioieoe ? ai?iaeeua. Iaaii, nthaee ia?anaeeeany
yeanue /anoeia ianaeaiiy ??aieie aiane?aeie iino?eii? caa?ice c aieo
ne?o?a oa na?iao?a. A?aeiii anueiai 3 oe??ieaieo ioieoe oeio iaaaeeei?
oi?oaoe? ieiuath 0,5 — 1,5 aa, 1 oe??ieaia iinaeaiiy ieiuath 2 aa, 1
ai?iaeeua ieiuath 6 aa. Aiie ?icoaoiaothoueny ia aenieeo c?o/ieo aeey
iai?iie i?noeyo oa ii?nueeiio ocaa?aaeae?, iii?ae ieie ?nio? ci?iaee
ca’ycie. O III — II no. aei i.a. aiie noaiiaeee eaiee nai???aeiiai
oe??ieaiiai ?aeiio, aeeiioth/e caoeni? ooieoe?? ia cao?aeieo ei?aeiiao
Ainii?o. I/aaeaeii, canioaaiiy oe??ieaiue oeio eaoiee?e, o?o??e /e
ia?eiie?e a i?eei?aeiiieo i?noeaainoyo Ainii?o iieaaooaaei oi?aae?iiy oa
eiio?ieue ca cao?aeieie oa?eoi??yie c iaeiiai oeaio?o. Oe? ioieoe
?niothoue c ia?a?aith aei e?ioey II no. aei i.a., eiee aeiooue
oiane?aeie iioiae?a Ae?ioaioa. Caaaeii, o III — II no. aei i.a.
n?euenueea ie?oaa Oaiaein?? ioiiethaaea oa?eoi??th a ?aae?on? 10-15 ei
a?ae aeaaiueiai i?noa.

Canioaaiiy oe??ieaiue ocaeiaae o?aao?a Oaoa Iaa oa Ocoi Ne?o ia?aaeaa/a?
iayai?noue ooo aeaaiueiai oeyoo, ui iia’ycoaaa oe? ioieoe i?ae niaith, a
oaeiae i?noa Ainii?o ? Oaiaein?? c aioo??oi?ie ?aeiiaie i?aino?iaa.
Oaeee aea oeyo i?ioiaeea iii?ae o?aao?a A?the ssieoa? oa Ocoi Ne?o, ui
a?a aei eaiaiieiiaiue Ea?a Aeaao. I?i ?nioaaiiy ia Ea?aaeac?
eaiaiieiiaiue ii aeaeiaoaaiith ne?iaeie aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ca?iioa?ie
na?ae/aoue ye ciao?aeee oeaie?a oeeo cia?yaeue c ea?aaeacueeeo ii??ae
eaiaith ia on?o iinaeaiiyo n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein?? ? ?a?iiaenueeiai
Ainii?o, oae ? ?acoeueoaoe i?ia?aei-iao?ia?ao?/iiai aiae?co iaoa??aeo, c
yeiai aiie aeaioiaeai?. ?iia??ii, ?nioaaa oeyo ? aa?aaii Oaiaein?enueei?
caoiee, yeee a?a aei Iaioeeaiay. Aoee oaeiae ?io? oeyoe, ye? aaee
ona?aaeeio i?aino?iaa oa aei Ia?aeiinueeiai ia?aoeeea.

?ICAe?E 4. IAOA??AEUeIA EOEUeOO?A

??ciiiai?oi? eaoaai??? ciao?aeie oa aeeoeiai-ainiiaea?nueeeo ia’?eo?a,
ye? ?ic- aeyaeathoueny o oeueiio ?icae?e?, iaea?aeai?, aieiaiei /eiii,
i?e ?ica?aeeao, oo?ooaaiiyo oa ?iceiieao. ?o aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe aieiai? iai?yiee ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, aeiiii?/i?
ca’ycee, aoi?/iee neeaae ? aeooiaio eoeueoo?o ianaeaiiy, a oaeiae
?icaeyiooe aeaye? ?io? ieoaiiy aea/aiiy n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein?? oa
Ainii?o.

AEeoeiai-ainiiaea?nuee? eiiieaene ia iinaeaiiyo yaeythoue niaith
iai?acaieyiee, aeeiyii-ieaoai? oa ne?oeaai-oeaaeyi? nii?oaee.
Aeeiyii-ieaoaiee oei aoae?aaeue aoa i?eoaiaiiee i?noeaaiio ianaeaiith ua
ca /an?a i?ciuei? a?iice. Eiai iayai?noue ia iinaeaiiyo na?ae/eoue i?i
?nioaaiiy ooo eecee-eiaeinueeiai (oaa?nueeiai) aoiino. Ne?oeaai-oeaaeyi?
aoae?ae? — oea i?yiieooi? iacaii? nii?oaee ia eai’yiiio oeieie? c?
no?iaie ?c ne?oeaai? oeaaee. Aeie?aee a ieo — caieyi?, aeaoe ?c nieiie
aai i/a?aoo. O i?ei?uaiiyo aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aiaieua-aea?iai?,
anoaiiaeai? ia aeeiyi? iaeaeai/eee oa aiaieua a?aee?eoiai oeio. O
aeiaeiiio aeiaaeeo ia aeyaeaii caeeoe?a ia/ae.

Aei ainiiaea?nueeeo ia’?eo?a iaeaaeaoue aeeiyiee iaeaeai/ee,
eieiaeycue-eiiaiea, yie oiui. Aeeiiaeoiee iaeaeai/ee aeine?aeaeaii ia
iinaeaii? Iiaiiie?iaea 1. A?i aoa ?icoaoiaaiee c i?aaeaiiiai aieo aeeoea
? aeei?enoiaoaaany ye o?e. Eieiaeycue o aeaeyae? oeee?iae?e/ii? yie a
aeaaieio, i/aaeaeii, iaa aea?aa’yiee c?oa. Ca?iia? oa ainiiaea?nuee? yie
neeaaeathoue iaia’yceiaee ao?eaoo aeeoeiai-ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a ?
iiae?eythoueny ia i’youe iniiaieo oei?a, ui ??ciyoueny oi?iith oa
ianyaii. Aeaye? yie aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey neeaeaiiy ni?ooy ?, iiaeeeai,
ye eueioe.

Aiae?c o?aaiaio?a aioi?ii? oa?e c iaoe??ieaieo iinaeaiue ?aa?iio aeaa
ciiao aeae?eeoe ??ci? oeaio?e, ui iinoa/aee nthaee naith i?iaeoeoe?th c
ii/aoeo V ii ia?oo o?aoeio III no. aei i.a. Oeaiee aioi? ia iinaeaii?
Iiaiiie?iaea 1 noaiiaeyoue 88% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ciaeaeaieo
o?aaiaio?a ea?ai?ee. Aiie ? iniiaith aeey aeaooaaiiy iinaeaiue, a oaeiae
a?aeia?aaeathoue aeeiai?eo iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aeia oa ie?? c i?no aioe/iiai
na?oo ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo ie?oao /a?ac Oaiaein?th; iaaeathoue
oyaeaiiy i?i aeiiii?/i? ca’ycee i?noa oa n?euenueei? ie?oae c aioe/ieie
oeaio?aie Na?aaecaiiiii?’y oa I?e/i?iiii?’y. Ca aioi?ieie iaoa??aeaie
aecia/aii /ioe?e o?iiieia?/i? ia??iaee: 1) ia?oa /aa?oue V no. aei i.a.:
aioi?e I?eaoo, Naiino, Eanaino, O?ino, aie?enueeeo oeaio??a; 2) ae?oaa
/aa?oue — e?iaoeue V no. aei i.a. aioi?e O?ino, Oanino, Iaiaee, ; 3)
ia?oa — o?aoy /aa?oue IV no. aei i.a. aioi?e O?ino, Oanino, Iaiaee,
Naiio?ae??, ?iaeino, Iaia?aoo, i?aaeaiiiiiio?enueeeo i?no Aa?aeea? ?
Neiiie, a oaeiae Eieo?aee. 4) inoaiiy /aa?oue IV — ia?oa o?aoeia
III no. aei i.a.:

aioi?e O?ino, Ei?aeo, Aa?aeea?, Neiiie ? non?aeiueiai Oa?niiana.
Iai?ee?ioe? ia?oi? o?aoeie III no. aei i.a. ?iii?o ia iinaeaiiy
i?eieiy?oueny aiane?aeie ?o caaeaae?. Ciaeaeai? ia aeayeeo iinaeaiiyo
iiiaeeiie? o?aaiaioe einueeeo oa neiiinueeeo aioi? ae?oai? iieiaeie III
no. aei i.a na?ae/aoue, ui oe? i?noey a?aea?aeoaaeeny, i/aaeaeii,
ei/iaeeaie.

Ia oe??ieaieo iai’yoeao ?aa?iio a?aecia/aii ciao?aeee o?aaiaio?a
neiiinueeeo, eieo?aenueeeo, ei?aenueeeo, einueeeo, ?iaeinueeeo,
ainii?nueeeo, na?oeiaeeiyieo oeio N1 ? N1a aioi?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
iinoa/aiiy ?iii?oiiai aeia i?ioyaii III — II no. aei i.a.

Caaaeii c iinaeaiue n?euenueei? ie?oae iioiaeyoue 898 aioi?ieo eeaei, c
yeeo 593 iaeaaeaoue Aa?aeea?, 243 — Neiii?, 37 — Oanino, 10 — Oa?niiano,
9 — O?ino, 3 — Iaiae?, 2 — oeaio?ai eiea Oanino (?), 1 — Ei?aeo, 1-
Eino, 1 — iaa?aeiiiio oeaio?o. Caaaeyee eeaeiai Neiiie oa Oa?niiana
aecia/aii aa?oith o?iiieia?/io iaaeo ?nioaaiiy iaoe??ieaiieo iinaeaiue.
Ie??i oeueiai, aiie cia/ii aeaoae?cothoue aeaye? iiiaioe oi?aiaaeueieo
a?aeiinei Oaiaein?? oa ?? n?euenueei? ie?oae c i?noaie Na?aaecaiiiii?’y
oa I?aaeaiiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y.

Iaoa??aee iinaeaiiy Iiaiiie?iaea 1 iieacaee, ui aii/a?iee ?iii?oiee
iinoae caeia? anueiai 0,5% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ciaeaeaieo oeaie?a
ea?ai?ee. Aiia iiae?ey?oueny ia o?e a?oie: 1 — oianoino?iiee iinoae
ainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy (eioee, ii?oa?e, eano?oe?); 2 —
oiieino?iiee eooiiiee ? noieiaee iinoae (ai?ueee, ienee, ??ci? oeie
aooe/ii? /i?ii- oa /a?aiiio?ao?ii?, /i?iieaeiai? ea?ai?ee: ia?aaaaeii
??ciiiai?oi? eaeeoe, ne?oine, eaioa?e, cia/ii ??aeoa o?aaiaioe e?aoa??a,
/aoie, n?eueieoeue, ?eaieo aethae, eae?o?a); 3 — ae?iae niaoe?aeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy (i??i? ieiioi?, oeaeiie, na?oeeueieee, i?i?aoth?iee aioeaiee
iinoae). Any aii/a?ia ea?ai?ea aeaoo?oueny o iaaeao V — ia?oi? o?aoeie
III no. aei i.a.

Ia oe??ieaieo iai’yoeao aii/a?ia ea?ai?ea i?aaenoaaeaia eano?oeyie,
aea/eeaie, eaaeiinaie, ieneaie, /aoeaie, eaeeoaie, oae caaieie
iaaa?nueeeie /aoaie.

E?iia ea?ai?ea caeia? 11,5% na?aae ea?ai?/iiai eiiieaeno iinaeaiiy
Iiaiiie?iaea 1 ? ca ooieoe?iiaeueiei i?ecia/aiiyi oaeiae iiae?ey?oueny
ia o?e iniiai? a?oie: eooiiia (eioee, ai?ueee, eano?oe?, aea?iai?);
noieiaa (aea/eee, ienee, /ao?, /a?iaee, eaeeoe, n?eueieoe?, oe?aeeeee,
aooone); oa?a (ei?/aae). *anoeia eooiiii? ea?ai?ee ia? oa?aeoa?io aeey
ne?onueeiai iinoaeo i?iaiaioaoe?th o aeaeyae? iaeueoeaai-i?aoueiaeo
ai’yoei ia a?ioeyo, ie?/eao aai ?aa?ao aeaiaoeue. Ie?ai? oeie noieiai?
ea?ai?ee caeiuai? ? iathoue oa?aeoa?iee aeey eecee-eiaeinueeiai
(oaa?nueeiai) iinoaeo — o??caiee e?i?eii-aaiiao?e/iee i?iaiaio. Ia
aeayeeo iinaeaiiyo ? ciao?aeee e?iii? ea?ai?ee, i?iaiaioiaaii?
iae?iieie, ?iiae? ?ic/eaiiaaieie aaeeeaie oa eineie ian?/eaie ia
a?ioeyo. Aiia iaeaaeeoue aei a?eica?nueei? a?oaieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e,
iin?? yei? iaoeaee ia oa?eoi???, aea i?ci?oa aoee caniiaai? iinaeaiiy
aioe/iiai /ano. O ea?ai?/iiio eiiieaen? oe??ieaieo ioieo?a oa ai?iaeeua
aeae?ey?oueny e?iia ea?ai?ea aaoi-o?ae?enueeiai oeio, i?iaiaioiaaia
?aeue?oieie iae?iaie o aeaeyae? oaee?, aiethoiiiae?aieo caaeoe?a,
noee?ciaaieo /ieia?/eo iaee/, oeoa/ie oiui. Oaeee neeaae e?iiiai iinoaeo
oa?aeoa?iee oaeiae aeey n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue oa i?no Ainii?o. A?i
na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue iin??a o?aaeeoe?e aeaioiaeaiiy iiae?aiiai
e?iiiai iinoaeo na?aae n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ie?oae Oaiaein?? o II
no.aei i. a. Aei a?oie e?iieo ea?ai?/ieo ae?ia?a niaoe?aeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy iaeaaeaoue i?yneeoey, a?oceea aeey oeaoeueeeo aa?noao?a, oae
caai? oe?aoe?, e?ii? noaooaoee, a oaeiae ae?iae ?c no?iie aioi?.

Ia aeayeeo iinaeaiiyo ciaeaeaii iiiaoe ainii?nueeiai oa oaiaein?enueeiai
ea?aoaaiiy, a?ao?o?, neeyi? iaienoeie, a?iicia? a?aneaoe, eaaeo/ee,
i?aea?nee, aeca?eaea, a?no?y no??e, aeca?ii/ee. Cae?ci? ae?iae
i?aaenoaaeai? ia?aeueieeaie oa iiaeaie, e?noyi? — ?aoi?eyie, aieeaie oa
i?ieieeaie, eiueeaie, a?no?yie no??e, iaienoeiaie oiui. Ae?iae c eaiaith
— ca?iioa?eaie, oa?eaie, a?oneaie, eai?iiyi aeey i?au? oiui.

Caaaeii, a?oaieia?/i? iaoa??aee iathoue /eiaei aiaeia?e o ne?onueeeo,
oaa?nueeeo ? aioe/ieo iai’yoeao I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y;
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaoa??aeueio eoeueoo?o ianaeaiiy ie?oae Oaiaein?? ye
n?euenueeo ? na?ae/aoue, ui eiai aieiaiith ae?yeuei?noth aoei
oe?ai?ianoai. I?eaeecii o ae?oa?e iieiaei? IV no. aei i.a. iaoa??aeueia
eoeueoo?a ia an?e oa?eoi??? ?a?iiaenueeiai Ainii?o, aeeth/ath/e
n?euenueeo ie?oao Oaiaein??, noa? iaeaea iaeii??aeiith aiane?aeie
iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? i?ney aoiaeaeaiiy Oaiaein?? aei neeaaeo
Ainii?nueeiai oea?noaa. Oe?ie? i?aeaoi?/i? eiioaeoe oa ainiiaea?nueea
iaeiiiai?ooy, iia’ycaia c ia?aaaaeiith i???ioaoe??th iinaeaiue ia
ca?iiaa ae?iaieoeoai, oaeiae ni?eyee i?aaethaaiith iaoa??aeueii?
eoeueoo?e.

?ICAe?E 5. AINIIAeA?NUeEA Ae?ssEUeI?NOUe

Iniiaith aeiiii?ee iinaeaiue aoei n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai, ni?yiiaaia
ia ae?iuoaaiiy ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? oa oaa?eiieoeoai. A?oioe ia?iaeyee
?aeaie c cae?cieie ia?aeueieeaie. Oaea i?aiea noai?thaaea oiiae, ca yeeo
eoeueoo?i? ?ineeie ?aae?ciaoaaee eeoa i?e?iaeio ieiaeth/?noue a?oio?a.
sse oyaeiao neeo aeei?enoiaoaaee aie?a; cae?aee ca?iia? na?iaie;
iieioeee ca aeiiiiiaith ??cieo cia?yaeue; caa??aaee ca?ii a yiao; iieiee
ia ai?ioii ca?iioa?eaie oa oa?oooeaie.

sse na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe iaeaiaioai?/ieo aiae?c?a, ia iinaeaiiyo
ae?iuoaaee ia?aaaaeii i’yeo aieica?io ioaieoeth, iaeii- ? aeai?yaeiee
y/i?iue, aiae, ai?io, a?eo a?a?e?th, aeeoi. Iayai?noue aecia/aieo aeae?a
ao?’yiiaeo ?ineei na?ae/eoue i?i o?eaaea aeei?enoaiiy eai?a naia i?ae
ca?iia? eoeueoo?e. Ca?aeii c oeei, i/aaeaeii, i?aeoeeoaaeanue ia?aeiaeia
oa aeaii?eueia nenoaie ??eueieoeoaa, iceia oa y?iaa n?aaa. Canoinoaaiiy
aeaio nenoai ??eueieoeoaa iia?/ii na?ae/eoue i?i i?iaeeaaiiy ia
iinaeaiiyo ye aa?aa??a (ne?oi-eecee-eiaeioe?a, ne?o?a, oaa??a), oae ?
a?ae?a.

I?iaaaeaii a?aeiini? i?ae?aooiee e?eueeino? ianaeaiiy, yea i?iaeeaaei
ia iinaeaiiyo oa ia’?i ae?iuoaaiiai ooo ca?ia. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai,
e?euee?noue ianaeaiiy n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein?? o IV no. aei i.a.
iiaea noaiiaeoe 4800-6000 /ieia?e, a ui??/iee a?iaeae — 5760-7200 oii,
c yeeo aeey aenii?oo i?ecia/aeinue 2380-3820 oii.

Oaa?eiieoeoai iineei ia?aaaaeii i?enaaeeaiee oa?aeoa?, aea iayai?noue
noiyiie ianooo?a o I?eneaanueeiio noaio na?ae/eoue, ui ooo ?nioaaee ?
eiai a?aeaiii? oi?ie. Iaeaiciieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy e?noeiaiai
iaoa??aeo iieacaei, ui ?icaiaeeee aaeeeo ?iaaoo ooaeiao, eiiae, iaaoeue,
e?c, naeiae, eo? oa ea/ie. Oeae aeae ae?yeueiino? aoei ni?yiiaaii ia
ae?iuoaaiiy oyaeiaeo oaa?ei, iaea?aeaiiy i’yni-iiei/ieo i?iaeoeo?a, oe??
oa aiaie. A?aenioeiaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo aeae?a ooaeiae ia
iinaeaiiyo ie?oae Oaiaein?? a?aeiia?aea? neeaaeo noaaea a?eueoino?
n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue Ainii?o.

Aei aeeei? oaoie iaeaaeaoue ieai?, einoe?, eeneoe?, ai?noee, caeoe?,
eoieoe?, oii’yee, /aie?, e?y/ee. Iiethaaiiy ia iaei aaeeeiai cia/aiiy,
i?iaiaeeeiny ia ?aaoey?ii c iaoith aeiaoaaiiy ooo?a, oe??, i’yna. Ca
neeaaeii aeeeeo oaa?ei iiaeia i?eioneaoe, ui a aioe/io aeiao e?ne
caeiaee caieaae ocaeiaae aaeie oa ??/ie a?ae a?? aei Iaioeaee.

?aianea ia iinaeaiiyo iineee aeiiaoi?e oa?aeoa? oa aoee ni?yiiaai? ia
caaeiaieaiiy iniaenoeo iio?aa iaoeaioe?a aeayeeie cia?yaeaeyie i?aoe? oa
iiaooiaith i?iaeoeoe??th. Oea aeaioiaeaiiy e?iiiai iinoaeo, ae??aieo
cia?yaeue i?aoe?, ca?i?, ??cieo iiaooiaeo ae?ia?a c eaiaith, e?noee,
aea?aaa, oe??e, a oaeiae aiaiii?yae?iiy ? oeaoeoai, ae/eiaiiy oe??.

Eeoa i?ney inai?iiy n?euenueei? ie?oae o a?iiaaeyinueei? iaueie
Oaiaein?? c’yaeeeny aeiaeaoeia? i?iaeoeoe niiaeeaaiiy, ui aeicaieeei
iie?no iaeaaiaeeoe ?ioaineaio oi?a?aeth c ?ioeie oeaio?aie aioe/iiai
na?oo. O?eueee i?iaeaae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?iaeoeo?a i?a
caaacia/eoe iino?eia iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?iii?oieo oiaa??a o i?noi. Oeei
i?iaeoeoii ianaiia?aae aoea ioaieoey, ae?iuoaaiiy yei? iineei o IV no.
aei i.a. oe?eani?yiiaaiee oiaa?iee oa?aeoa?. O n?euenuee?e ie?oc?
Oaiaein?? i?aeianaiiy oi?a?ae? o?eno?oueny naia o IV no. aei i.a., eiee,
ca iia?aeiieaiiyi No?aaiia, niinoa??aa?oueny i?e aenii?oo ioaieoe? /a?ac
ii?nueeee ii?o i?noa. Ca?eueoaiiy ianyao oi?aiaaeueieo iia?aoe?e
noeioethaaei aeieeiaiiy iiaeo iinaeaiue ? ?icaeoie
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

*i?iieaeiaee iinoae na?ae/eoue, ui c ii/aoeo naiai ?nioaaiiy Oaiaein?y
iaeaaiaeeea oi?aiaaeuei? noinoiee c Ao?iaie, ye? ia i?eieiyeeny
oi?iaeiaae V-IV no. aei i.a. .sse iieacothoue iaoa??aee iinaeaiue,
?iii?o aooe/ii? /i?iieaeiai? ea?ai?ee iii?oii ca?eueoeany a inoaii?e
o?aoei? V no. aei i.a. Oi?iaeiaae V no. o Oaiaein?th, ye ? a ?io? i?noa
I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, aeiaiceeenue oiaa?e, aieiaiei /eiii, c Ao?i oa
nithcieo i?no, ino?ia?a O?ino, Oanino, Iaiaee oa ?ioeo, ui aeia?a
i?inoaaeo?oueny ca iaoa??aeaie n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue. C i?noa
iaaeoiaeeea aei ieo ?ai?nieoeueea i?iaeoeoe?y, aeii oa ie?y. O?iiieia?y
aioi?ii? oa?e oa eeaei iieaco? iinooiia? ci?ie o oi?a?ae? c ??cieie
aioe/ieie oeaio?aie. Ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? ?nioaaiiy iinaeaiue nthaee
iaaeoiaeeea i?iaeoeoe?y ?ii?enueeeo oeaio??a: I?eaoa, Naiino, Eanaino,
O?ino. O ae?oa?e iieiaei? V no. aei i.a. ia?aaaaeathoue iinoa/aiiy c
O?ino, Oanino, Iaiaee. O IV no. aei i.a. ii/eiathoue ?iii?o
i?aaeaiii-iiio?enuee? oeaio?e Aa?aeeay ? Neiiia, a oaeiae Eieo?aea.
Iniaeeai aeae?ey?oueny Aa?aeeay, aa?c aeia c yei? aaaaoi?aciai
ia?ae?eaaa ?iii?o c ?ioeo i?no. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? , ui oeae iie?n
i?iaeiaaeoaaa i?aeo?eioaaoe o?ni? oi?aiaaeuei? ca’ycee c Oaiaein??th ?
i?ney ?? i?e?aeiaiiy aei Ainii?nueeiai oea?noaa. A oeae aea /an
i?eaiceeinue aeii iaioith i??ith c O?ino, Oanino, Iaiaee, Naiio?ae??,
?iaeino, Iaia?aoo. A inoaii?e /aa?o? IV no. Aa?aeeay ao?a/a? nai?
iiceoe?? o I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiio E?eio, ine?eueee ia ia?oa i?noea aeeoea
Neiiia. I?e oi?a?ae? oeueiai i?noa i?eiaaea? ia inoaiith o?aoeio IV no.
aei i.a. ? aeii?io? iaae iinoa/aiiyi c ?ioeo oeaio??a. Aiae?c
aa?aeeaenueeeo oa neiiinueeeo eeaei iieaco? ?o iaeii??aei?noue ye a
eiiieaenao ie?aieo iinaeaiue, oae ? ia ?ioeo iai’yoeao, ui na?ae/eoue
i?i neio?iiio caeoi?aeth aaeeeeo ia?o?e aeia a aioi?ao. C iaeiiai aieo,
oea aeaco? ia eiio?ieue iaae aeiioi?a?aeath aea?aeaa-?iii?oa??a, a c
ae?oaiai — ia ianiaa aaacaiiy oe??? i?iaeoeoe?? o i?noi naia i?ney cai?o
a?iaeath iiaiai ?ieo. A inoaii?e /aa?o? IV — ia ii/aoeo III no. aei i.a.
iaaeoiaeeoue oaeiae aeii c Oa?niiana ? Ei?aeo. Aii/a?ia eooiiia oa
noieiaa ea?ai?ea aeiaiceeany ia iinaeaiiy o iacia/i?e e?eueeino?.
Iai?ee?ioe? IV — ii/aoeo III no. aei i.a. /anoeia oi?aiaaeueieo
iia?aoe?e, i/aaeaeii, cae?enithaaeany c aeei?enoaiiyi a?ioae, caaaeath/e
ia ciao?aeee ia aeayeeo iinaeaiiyo iiiao oaiaein?enueeiai ?
iaioeeaiaenueeiai ea?aoaaiiy. A?eueo?noue c ieo iaeaaeaoue aei ae??aieo
iii?iae?a — iaeiania?oeo ai?n?e Ainii?o, i???ioiaaieo ia aioo??oi?e
?eiie. Oea aeaco? ia iaaiee ?icaeoie o ?aa?ii? oiaa?ii- a?ioiaeo
a?aeiinei, iayai?noue cia/ii? e?eueeino? ae??aieo ae?iaiee?a ?
niiaeeaa/?a. Ca a?io?, ?iia??ii, eoioaaeenue eeoa ie?ai? ?ai?nie/?
ae?iae — cia?yaeaey i?aoe?, iinoae, i?ee?ane. I?ioa oi?aiaaeuei? ca’ycee
i?noa c ie?oaith oi?iaeiaae V — II no. aei i.a. iaee oa?aeoa? ia?aaaaeii
iaoo?aeueiiai iai?io. ?nioaaiiy oiaa?iiai?io ? ?icae??aii? oi?a?ae?
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ? ciao?aeea i??ii? ieiioi? oa eai’yii? ae?? ia iinaeaii?
Iiaiiie?iaea 1. Ie??i oeueiai, ciao?aeee ainii?nueeeo iiiao oeueiai ae
/ano ia a?eueo cao?aeieo, aioo??oi?o ?aeiiao E?einueeiai i?aino?iaa,
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?o aoiaeaeaiiy aei noa?e aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo
?ioa?an?a Ainii?o.

?ICAe?E 6. AOIINIOe?AEUeIEE NEEAAe ? AeOOIAIA EOEUeOO?A

Ciao?aeee e?iii? ea?ai?ee, i?iaiaioiaaii? iae?iieie aaeeeaie, eai’yieo
oe?oiaaieo niee?, aoeaa, iieioe?a, a?aea?eiee?a, cia?yaeue i?aoe? c
e?aiaith oa a?iice ia aeayeeo iinaeaiiyo na?ae/aoue, ui oe? i?noey aoee
canaeai? ua ca aeiae i?ciuei? a?iice ianaeaiiyi a?eica?nueei?
a?oaieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e. Iiaeeco a?eueoino? iaoe??ieaieo iinaeaiue
oaeiae ciaoiaeeeenue naciii? noiyiee oe??? ae eoeueoo?e. Noaey/e c?
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? a?oaieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a, aonoioa ?icnaeaiiy
oeueiai ianaeaiiy aoea ii??aiyii aaeeeith. Aea iiooaeiiai eoeueoo?iiai
oa?o, iia’ycaiiai c iei, ye ia aioe/ieo iinaeaiiyo, oae ? naciiieo
noiyieao, ia cao?eniaaii. I?ioa naia oey eoeueoo?a aoea oei noano?aoii,
ia yeiio i?ci?oa noi?ioaaeany eecee-eiaeinueea eoeueoo?a. C ??
i?aaenoaaieeaie, iaaii, ua o ae?oa?e iieiaei? VII no. aei i.a.iaee
eiioaeoe ne?oe. Aiane?aeie aoi?/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei noi?ioaaany
ne?oi-eecee-eiaeinueeee aoiin, yeee caeiaa, aieiaiei /eiii, ia?aaea??’y
oa /anoeiai noaiiao ciio E?einueeiai i?aino?iaa. Oea ianaeaiiy aaei
iai?aei/iaee niin?a aeeooy, caeiaeiny neioa?noaii oa i?ei?oeaiei
oe?ai?ianoaii, i?e yeeo a?aeaoaaeany /anoa ci?ia i?noeue i?iaeeaaiiy. Ia
aeeeth/aii, ui aiii caeaaeaei a?ae ne?o?a. Iaeiae ieaiaia, ye? iaoeaee o
a??nueeiio E?eio caeeoeeenue iacaeaaeieie ? caiaeii io?eiaee caaaeueiee
aoiii?i — oaa?e. Ne?oi-eecee-eiaeinueea ianaeaiiy ia noai?eei /eiinue
i?ei?oii? eoeueoo?e, cian?i a?aei?iii? a?ae ne?onueei? aai oaa?nueei? ?
ia noaei naiino?eiei aoiinii, a c oe??? i?e/eie, iaaii, ia cana?ae/aii
i? ienaiieie, i? ai?a?ao?/ieie aeaea?aeaie.

Ciao?aeee ia iinaeaiiyo e?iii? ea?ai?ee ne?onueeiai oa oaa?nueeiai oeio
aeacothoue ia oa, ui ooo iaoeaei ne?oi-eecee-eiaeinueea ianaeaiiy. Oaeo
ae ea?ai?eo ciaeaeaii ia aaaaoueio n?euenueeeo iinaeaiiyo oa a i?noao
aioe/iiai /ano ia oa?aiao E?einueeiai i?aino?iaa. Ioaea i?e canioaaii?
Oaiaein?? a?aee eiioaeooaaee ye c a??nueeeie oaa?aie ? ei/iaeie ne?oaie,
oae ? c? ci?oaiei ne?oi-eecee-eiaeinueeei ianaeaiiyi. Ianaiia?aae aiii
oa?eoei aei neeaaeo iaoeaioe?a n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue, ia yeeo,
i/aaeaeii, neeaaeaei iniiaiee a?aenioie. Caaaeii in?aeaiiy ia caieth
ne?oi-eecee-eiaeinueeiai aoiino o I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiio E?eio ii/aeiny
iai?ee?ioe? VI — ii/aoeo V no. aei i.a., i?ney iiyae a?ae?a.
Aeaaiueia?aoeueea eieii?y —Oaiaein?y a?ae?a?aaaea ?ieue nai???aeiiai
eaoae?caoi?a oeueiai i?ioeano.

O ca’yceo c ?ioaineaiei in?aeaiiyi ia caieth ne?o?a iai?ee?ioe? V —
ii/aoeo IV no. aei i.a. ne?oi-eecee-eiaeinueea ianaeaiiy aoei cia/ii
“?icaaaeaia” ? anei?eueiaaia ieie. Oea a?aeaeeiny ? ia iaoa??aeuei?e
eoeueoo?? iinaeaiue, ?? iniiaiee oii noaa iaeaea ne?onueeei ? eeoa
iioiaaeuei? iai’yoee oa e?iia ea?ai?ea na?ae/aoue i?i eieeoith
iaiaeii??aei?noue aoiino. A?oaieia?/i? iaoa??aee aeathoue ciiao
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ia iinaeaiiyo ?acii c aa?aa?aie iaoeaea iaaaeeea
e?euee?noue a?ae?a. I?i oea na?ae/aoue ciao?aeee ?aii?o oa?aeio,
a?ao?o?, ?nioaaiiy iacaiiiai eai’yii-ne?oeaaiaeeiyiiai
aeeoeiaoae?aieoeoaa oa ae?iuoaaiiy oaeeo aeae?a ioaieoe?, ye? aoee
i?eoaiaii? o?e nenoai? oe?ai?ianoaa, ui canoiniaoaaee a?aee. Ni?eueia
i?iaeeaaiiy aa?aa??a ? a?ae?a ni?eyei oi?ioaaiith ci?oaiiai
a?aei-aa?aa?nueeiai ianaeaiiy.

?iia??ii, yeanue /anoeia eiai iauaaee?a ia?ai?noeeanue o ia?aaea??’y
E?eio aiane?aeie i?eieiaiiy ?nioaaiiy iaoe??ieaieo iinaeaiue iai?ee?ioe?
ia?oi? o?aoeie III no. aei i. a. Iane?aeoaaiiy aeaai?o o?aaeeoe?e,
cie?aia o e?ii?e ea?ai?oe? ? iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae?, niinoa??aa?oueny ooo
ua aeinoaoiuei aeiaai, i?eiaeii? aei ?? no. i. a. ?iia??ii, c II no. aei
i. a. ia oa?eoi??? n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein?? c’yaeythoueny o?ae?eoe?,
ia ui aeacothoue ciao?aeee oa?aeoa?ii? aeey oeueiai aoiino e?iii?
ea?ai?ee ia oe??ieaieo ioieoao ? ai?iaeeu?. Aiie iiaee aooe ooo
a?enueeiaeie iaeiaioeyie, ye? aeeiioaaee i?eei?aeiiio neoaeao ia
cao?aeieo ?oaaaeao Ainii?o.

Ne?oi-eecee-eiaeinueea ianaeaiiy, yea oa?eoei aei neeaaeo ia?oeo
n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue, i/aaeaeii, aoei iai?acaeaaeiei ye a?ae
Oaiaein?enueeiai iie?no, oae ? ne?o?a. A?aoiaoth/e o?ni? ca’ycee
Oaiaein?? c Aa?aeea?th, iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui ca nioe?aeueiei noaoonii
aiii a?aeiia?aeaei ia?eaiae?iai. Oaea oi?ia caeaaeiino? ? aenieoaoaoe??
aoea oa?aeoa?ia aeey aaaaoueio aea?aeaa aioe/ii? aeiae. O IV no. aei
i.a. iniiaio iano iaoeaioe?a iinaeaiue neeaaeaee ne?oe. O oeae /an
aeeoae? n?euenueei? ie?oae iie?na, ye ? aioo??oi?o ?aeii?a Ea?/ainueeiai
i?aino?iaa, caeaaeaee a?ae ne?onueeeo oea??a, yeei niea/oaaee oi?in
/anoeiith a?iaeath. Iie?n aenieoaooaaa naeyi, ia?aaaaeii, oeyoii
ia??aiioe?iiiai iai?io. O III — II no. aei i.a. ia oe??ieaieo ioieoao
i?iaeeaaei caeaaeia a?ae ainii?nueeeo oea??a ianaeaiiy, yea ianei
i?eei?aeiiio neoaeao ? ia?iaeyei iaaeieeoi? caie?.

Ne?oi-eecee-eiaeinueeee aoiin o V no. aei i.a. neeaaeaany c aaeeeeo
n?iaeii-?iaeiaeo a?oi, ia’?aeiaieo o iai?aei/ia? iaueie, i?i ui
na?ae/eoue aaaaoi?aciaa aeei?enoaiiy aeey iioiaaiue a?oioiaeo iiaee oa
eai’yieo yuee?a. I/aaeaeii, ui oae? iioiaaeuei? nii?oaee iaeaaeaee
/eaiai iaei??? n?iaeii-?iaeiai? a?oie. Ia iaeiiio iinaeaii? oaeiae iiaea
iaoeaoe iaeia aaeeea n?iaeii-?iaeiaa iaueia, ie?ai? n?i’? yei? aieiae?ee
aeeoeiai-ainiiaea?nueeeie eiiieaenaie.

Iniiaiei ina?aaeeii ei/iaiai ne?onueeiai noni?euenoaa, ye anoaiiaeaii
aeine?aeieeaie, aoea iaea ?iaeea?aeoaeueia n?i’y. I?ney in?aeaiiy ia
caieth c? ci?iith ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a ieo a?aeiia?aeii
ci?ithaaeanue ? oi?ia n?i’? oa iaueie. Cie?aia, oea iiaea aooe aaeeea
n?iaeii-?iaeiaa iaueia, ui neeaaeaeany c iaiiae?eaieo iao??a?oaeueieo
?iaeei, ye? ciaoiaeeeenue o aeecueeiio nii??aeiaii?. ?? oi?ioaaiiy o
ne?o?a iieaaooaaeiny ?nioaaiiyi oaeiai ae ?inoeoooo o
ne?oi-eecee-eiaeinueeiai ianaeaiiy. C /anii oey iaueia o?ainoi?ioaaeanue
o n?euenueeo, i?e ye?e iiaea ?nioaaoe iaueiia aeani?noue ia caieth.
Oe??ieai? iinaeaiiy oa oi?oaoe? oeio eaoiee?e /e o?o??e iiaee oaeiae
aooe n?euenueeeie iaueiaie.

A?oaieia?/i? aeaea?aea aeathoue ciiao ei?ioei ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ? aeaye?
?ae?a?ei? oyaeaiiy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. Aiae?c oa?aeio, e?iieo
noaooaoie, a?ao?o?, yi (aio?in?a) oa aeayeeo ?ioeo iaoa??ae?a iieacaa,
ui aiii oaioaaei aiaeanoaa, iia’ycai? c oe?ai?ianoaii, neioa?noaii,
?iaeth/?noth. ?nioaaa oaeiae eoeueo aiaith oa aeiiaoiueiai aiaieua,
canooiieoeath yeiai aoea Aano?y aai Oaa?o?. Caaaeii, ?ae?a?ei? a??oaaiiy
iaee ci?oaiee a?aei-aa?aa?nueeee oa?aeoa?.

AENIIAEE

1. O i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/iiio a?aeiioaii? oa?eoi??y I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiai
E?eio iaea an? iaiao?aei? oiiae uiaei canioaaiiy eieii?? ? ?icaeoeo
ae?iaie/iai naeoi?o aeiiii?ee — ??eueieoeoaa. Oea aeicaieeei Oaiaein??
noai?eoe naith aeiiii?/io aaco o aeaeyae? aeeaeiuei? oi?e ?, aieiaiei
/eiii, n?euenueei? ie?oae oa o?eaaeee /an caeeoaoenue iacaeaaeiei
iie?nii, a i?ney i?e?aeiaiiy aei Ainii?o — noaoe iaeiei c ia?oeo i?no
aea?aeaae.

2. Iaeiia?o? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue aeae?eeoe aeaa aoaie a
?noi??? n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein??: ia?oee — ui ii/aany c aeieeiaiiyi
iinaeaiue o ??aieii?e /anoei? ?aa?iio ia ii/aoeo V no. aei i.a. ?
cae?i/eany ?o caaeaaeeth iai?ee?ioe? ia?oi? o?aoeie III no. aei i.a.;
ae?oaee – iia’ycaiee c aeieeiaiiyi o ia?aaea??’yo iiaeeco Oaiaein?? oa
ia ii?nueeiio ocaa?aaeae? iaaaeeeeo oi?oaoeue ? ai?iaeeua iai?ee?ioe? IV
— ii/aoeo III no. aei i.a. Aei e?ioey II no. aei i.a. o?eueee oe?
oe??ieai? ioieoe aeeiiothoue ioi?iii? ooieoe?? ia cao?aeieo ei?aeiiao
Ainii?nueei? aea?aeaae oa aecia/athoue iniiai? ?ene n?euenueei? ie?oae
Oaiaein??, aeeiioth/e ioi?iii? ooieoe?? ia cao?aeieo ei?aeiiao
Ainii?nueei? aea?aeaae.

3. Aiae?c a?oaieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a na?ae/eoue i?i oe?ai?ianueeee
oa?aeoa? iinaeaiue oa ia?aaaaeii aa?aa?nueeee neeaae ?o ianaeaiiy.

4. Aoi?/iee neeaae ianaeaiiy aoa ia iaeii??aeiei. Ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai?
?nioaaiiy iinaeaiue oea aoei ci?oaia ne?oi-eecee-eiaeinueea ianaeaiiy,
yea o IV no. aei i.a. aoei iiai?noth anei?eueiaaia ne?oaie. ?iia??ii, ia
iinaeaiiyo i?iaeeaaea iaaaeeea e?euee?noue a?ae?a, a ia oe??ieaieo
ioieoao oa ai?iaeeu? c II no. aei i.a. — o?ae?enueea ianaeaiiy.

5. O V no. aei i.a. ianaeaiiy ia?oeo iinaeaiue, i/aaeaeii, caeaaeaei ye
a?ae iie?no, oae ? a?ae ne?o?a ? iaei nioe?aeueiee noaoon, aeecueeee
i?aaeaiiiiiio?enueeei ia?eaiae?iai. C e?ioey V — ii/aoeo IV no. aei i.a.
ianaeaiiy n?euenueei? ie?oae aoei caeaaeia a?ae ne?onueeeo oea??a, yeei
ca ei?enooaaiiy caieath aeiea/oaaei oi?in ca?iii. A?aee aenooiaee
?i?oe?aoi?aie ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeei ianaeaiiyi ioaieoe? oa
noeioethaaee ?? ae?iaieoeoai oeyoii ?icaeoeo oi?aiaaeueiiai iai?io.

Ca oaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii oae? ?iaioe:

1. Ciao?aeea oa?aeioe ia aioe/iiio iinaeaii? AEo?aaee-1 o E?eio //
A?oaieia?y.-1997.-?1.-N.142-144.

2. Iia? aeai? i?i n?euenueeo ie?oao aioe/ii? Oaiaein??//
A?oaieia?y.-1998.-?1.-N.105-117.

3. Aioe/ia iinaeaiiy Iiaiiie?iaea 1 o I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiio E?eio //
A?oaieia?y.-1999.-?1.-N. 76-93.

4. I naeueneioicyenoaaiiie oa??eoi?ee Aa?iiaeneiai Ainii?a a IV — ia?aie
iieiaeia III aa. aei i.y. // I?iaeaiu aioe/iie eoeueoo?u.
Oac.aeiee.iao/.eiio.-*. III. Neioa?iiieue.-1988.-N.199-201.

5. I?iecaiaenoai ca?ia e aai cia/aiea aeey oi?aiaee Ainii?a // Ae?aaiaa
i?iecaiaenoai, ?aianei e oi?aiaey ii a?oaieiae/aneei aeaiiui.
Oac.aeiee.iao/.eiio.-I.: EA AI NNN?.-1988.-N.49-51.

6. I iaoiaeeao ainii?neeo iiiao ia ae?aaiai iinaeaiee I?aoiaea-1 a E?uio
// I?iaeaiu a?oaieiaee Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey. Oac.
aeiee.iao/.eiio.-*. II. —Oa?nii.- 1990.-N.42-43.

7. Ia aioi?iuo eeaeiao n iinaeaiey I?aoiaea-1 a E?uio // I?iaeaiu
enoi?ee E?uia.Oac.aeiee.iao/.eiio.-*. I. — Neioa?iiieue. — 1991.-
N.31-33.

8. ?acaaaeee a Ee?ianeii ?aeiia // A?oaieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey a
E?uio,1993 aiae.-Neioa?iiieue:Oaa?ey.- 1994.- N.67-70.

9. Enneaaeiaaiea aioe/iiai iinaeaiey o n. Iiaiiie?iaea e a?oaieiae/aneea
?acaaaeee a Ee?ianeii ?aeiia//A?oaieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey a E?uio,
1994 aiae.-Neioa?iiieue:Oa?ueeia.-1997.-N. 69-76.

Aaa?eeia I.A. N?euenueea ie?oaa Oaiaein?? o V — II no. aei i.a. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.04 — a?oaieia?y. — ?inoeooo a?oaieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a,1999.

?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein?? a?ae
aeieeiaiiy ia?oeo iinaeaiue ia ii/aoeo V no. aei i.a. ? aei i?eieiaiiy
aeeooy ia oe??ieaieo iinaeaiiyo, oi?oaoeyo oa ai?iaeeu? iai?ee?ioe? II
no. aei i.a. A aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aii iaae? n?euenueei? ie?oae iie?na,
oeiieia?th oa o?iiieia?th iai’yoie aioe/iiai /ano o I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiio
E?eio. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co a?oaieia?/ieo, ienaiieo, ioi?ciaoe/ieo oa
ai?a?ao?/ieo aeaea?ae ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaoa??aeueio eoeueoo?o ianaeaiiy,
eiai ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue, aoiinioe?aeueiee neeaae,
iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? ?ene aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoa??aeueia
eoeueoo?a ye iaoe??ieaieo iinaeaiue, oae ? oe??ieaieo iai’yoie,
iaeiaeiaa ca neeaaeii ? iineoue caaaeii aa?aa?nueeee oa?aeoa?. Iniiaith
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy aoei oe?ai?ianoai, c ia?aaaaeiei
ae?iuoaaiiyi ioaieoe?. Ca aoi?/iei neeaaeii ianaeaiiy ?aii?o iinaeaiue
aoei ne?oi-eecee-eiaeinueeei, c IV no. aei i.a. aiii noa? ne?onueeei.
I/aaeaeii, ?acii c aa?aa?aie ia iinaeaiiyo iaoeaea iaaaeeea e?euee?noue
a?ae?a. ?ae?a?ei? a??oaaiiy ianaeaiiy iineee ci?oaiee a?aei-aa?aa?nueeee
oa?aeoa? ? aoee iia’ycai? ia?aaaaeii c eoeueoaie ?iaeth/ino? oa
aeiiaoiueiai aiaieua. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieeee cai?iiiioaaoe
iiaee aa??aio ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?noi??? n?euenueei? ie?oae Oaiaein?? o V-II
no. aei i.a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: n?euenueea ie?oaa, Oaiaein?y, I?aaeaiii-No?aeiee E?ei,
iinaeaiiy, ai?iaeeua, oe?ai?ianoai.

Gavrilov A.V. Theodosia rural neighbourhood in the V-th — II-nd
centuries B.C. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the candidate’s degree by the speciality 07.00.04. —
archaeology.- The Institute of archaeology of the National Academy of
Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The study is devoted to the research of the Theodosia rural
neighbourhood since the early V-th century B.C. when the first sites
have been started till the late II-nd century B.C. when they came to the
full stop. In the length of the study the borders of the ancient
Theodosia neighbourhood were indicated as well as the typology and
chronology of the monuments of that period in the South-East Crimea. On
the basis of the archaeological, written, numismatic and epigraphic
sources the material culture of the population, its economic and
spiritual life and ethnic composition were described. It was determined
that the material culture of the sites in most cases was similar to the
barbarian. The basis of the economic life was agriculture and the wheat
was cultivated generally. The population of the sites was mixed and
consisted of the natives, the Scythians and the Greeks. Since the IV-th
century B.C. the population becomes absolutely scythian. The religious
beliefs were combined including the Greeks and barbarians ones and the
secret rites were dedicated to the fertile cult, fire and the hearth.
Received materials let to offer the new way of the reconstruction of the
ancient Theodosia rural neighbourhood in the V-th — II-nd centuries B.C.

Key words: rural neighbourhood, Theodosia, The South-East Crimea,
settlments, the site, agriculture.

Aaa?eeia A.A. Naeueneay ie?oaa Oaiaeinee a V-II aa. aei i.y. —
?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.04.— a?oaieiaey. Einoeooo
a?oaieiaee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth naeueneie ie?oae Oaiaeinee io
iniiaaiey ia?auo iinaeaiee a ia/aea V a. aei i. y. aei i?ae?auaiey
aeecie ia oe?aie?iiuo iinaeaieyo, e?aiinoyo e ai?iaeeua a eiioea II a.
aei i.y. A enneaaeiaaiee naeueneie ie?oae iieena auaeaeythony aeaa
yoaia. Ia?aue ioiineony e 50 — na?aaeeia 70-o aa. OO a. e naycai n
eiaiai E. O. E?oaeeeiaie, eioi?ay aia?aua ia/aea oeaeaiai?aaeaiiua
?acaaaeee e ?aneiiee naeueneeo iinaeaiee a ie?oaa Oaiaeinee. Ia aoi?ii
yoaia (na?aaeeia 70-o — 90-a aa.) i?iaeieaeaeinue eco/aiea ai?iaea,
aaeenue ?acaaaeee e ?aneiiee iaiyoieeia aioe/iie yiioe a aai ie?oaa.
A?oaieiae/aneeie ?acaaaeeaie a THai-Ainoi/iii E?uio auyaeaii 53
iaoe?aieaiiuo iinaeaiey, 2 ianoooaneea noiyiee, 1 iaaethaeaoaeueiue
ioieo, 1 oe?aieaiiia iinaeaiea, 3 oe?aieaiiuo ioieoa oeia iaaieueoeo
e?aiinoae e 1 ai?iaeeua. Eo ea?oia?aoe?iaaiea iicaieeei ii?aaeaeeoue
a?aieoeu naeueneie ie?oae iieena: io Aeiiiaeneiai ia?aoaeea ia ainoiea
aei noaiiie ?a/ee Eiaeie ia caiaaea, e io Neaaoa ia naaa?a aei
i?aaeai?ee ia thaa. Iaoe?aieaiiua iinaeaiey, nouanoaiaaaoea a V — ia?aie
o?aoe III aa. aei i.y. a ?aaieiiie /anoe ?aaeiia, ?aniieaaaeenue aeec
?a/ae e enoi/ieeia i?aniie aiaeu ia ieiaei?iaeiuo ieoeaey?ii-ea?aiiaoiuo
/a?iicaiao. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie neiieaiey eee oeaii/ee cieenouo
iyoai aeeaiao?ii 20 — 70 i. Iinaeaiey eiatho ieiuaaeue io 0,5 aei 10,0
aa e iiae?acaeaeythony ia: 1 — iaaieueoea oooi?a; 2 — iinaeaiey n?aaeieo
?acia?ia; 3 — ianoooaneea noiyiee. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi
aeeeeuii-oicyenoaaiiua eiiieaenu ?aniieaaaeenue ia oa??eoi?ee iinaeaiee
naiaiaeii, aac ii?aaeaeaiiie nenoaiu. Ianaeaiea no?ieei eae
iieocaieyiee, oae e iacaiiua, aeeiyii-ieaoiaaua e eaiaiii-nu?oeiaua
aeiia. Oicyenoaaiiua iauaeou i?aaenoaaeaiu ca?iiauie e oicyenoaaiiuie
yiaie, aeeiiaeoiuie ieiuaaeeaie, auiieiyaoeie ooieoeeth oiea; i/aaaie
ioe?uoiai oeia, eieiaeoeai. O?iiieiaey iaiyoieeia iniiaaia ia aiaeeca
o?aaiaioia aioi?iie oa?u, eeaei, /a?iieaeiaie e aii/a?iie ea?aieee,
iiiaoao. Niaeanii yoei iaoa?eaeai, iaoe?aieaiiua iinaeaiey aicieeee a
ia/aea V a. aei i.y. e i?ae?aoeee nouanoaiaaiea a eiioea ia?aie o?aoe
III a. aei i.y. Yoi auei naycaii n eciaiaieai aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie
ianoaiiaee a Naaa?iii I?e/a?iiii?uea, eiioeeeoii iaaeaeo neeoaie e
a?a/aneeie ainoaea?noaaie ia oa??eoi?ee E?uineiai iieoino?iaa,
ianooieaieai na?iao.

A nayce n yoeie niauoeyie a i?aaeai?iie /anoe ?aaeiia oe?aieythony
aeeaeiea e ai?iaeo iinaeaiey, iniiauaathony iaeaiueeea e?aiinoe e
ai?iaeeua. Iie ?aniieaaaeenue ia aicauoaiiinoyo eee oaeiaiuo aeey
iai?iiu ianoao, eiaee caueoiua nii?oaeaiey a aeaea aaeia eee noai,
iaaeaeo ieie nouanoaoao c?eoaeueiay naycue. AEeciue ia ieo
i?iaeieaeaeanue n iaaieueoeie ia?a?uaaie aei eiioea II a. aei i.y.,
eiaaea iie iiaeaee a ?acoeueoaoa Aeeioaioiauo aiei.

Iaoa?eae n iaiyoieeia i?aaenoaaeai o?aaiaioaie aioi?iie oa?u, aii/a?iie,
a oii /enea /a?iieaeiaie, e eaiiie iinoaeu neeoneiai e oaa?neiai oeiia,
ca?iioa?ie, aeaeaciuie iiaeaie e ia?aeueieeii, a?iiciauie iaeiia/ieeaie
no?ae, a?aneaoaie, ia?noiyie, ca?eaeaie, a?oceeaie aeey oeaoeeeo
noaieia, i?yneeoeaie, “oeaaoeaie”, ecaeaeeyie ec noaiie aioi?,
oa??aeioaie e eaiiuie noaooyoeaie, ecaeaeeyie e i?oaeeyie o?oaea ec
einoe, iiiaoaie. A oeaeii, aauanoaaiiua eiiieaenu eiatho iiiai aiaeiaee
a neeoneeo, oaa?neeo e aioe/iuo iaiyoieeao Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey e
oa?aeoa?ecotho iaoa?eaeueioth eoeueoo?o ?aaeiia eae naeueneoth, neoaeao
iniiaiui enoi/ieeii aeey eco/aiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
yoie/aneiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey e aai aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u.

Iniiaie yeiiiieee iinaeaiee auei naeueneia oicyenoai, iai?aaeaiiia ia
au?aueaaiea ca?iiauo eoeueoo? e aeeaioiiaiaenoai. Iaeaiaioaie/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi au?aueaaee a iniiaiii iyaeoth
ioaieoeo, a oaeaea y/iaiue, ai?io, aiau, aeeo y?aeeeth, ?iaeue. Iaee/ea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia ni?iuo ?anoaiee oeacuaaao ia aeieaia?aiaiiia
eniieueciaaiea iieae. I/aaeaeii, i?aeoeeiaaeanue ia?aeiaeiay e
aeaoiieueiay nenoaiu caieaaeaeey. Ii/aa ia?aaaouaaeanue
e?eaia?yaeeeueiuie ?aeaie n aeaeaciuie iaeiia/ieeaie, a ea/anoaa
oyaeiaie neeu eniieueciaaeenue aieu. ?an/aou, iniiaaiiua ia eiee/anoaa
iinaeaiee e ianaeaiey a ieo i?iaeeaathuaai, iieacuaatho, /oi naeueneay
ie?oaa iiaea iinoaaeyoue 2 — 4 oun. oiii oiaa?iiai ca?ia a aiae.
Iaeaiciieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho , /oi ia iinaeaieyo
?acaiaeeee e?oiiue e iaeeee ?iaaoue neio, eiiae, a oaeaea ooie e eo? n
oeaeueth iieo/aiey oyaeiauo aeeaioiuo, iyni-iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia, eiaee e
oa?noe. ?aianea ia iinaeaieyo iineee aeiiaoiee oa?aeoa? e auee
iai?aaeaiu ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea ee/iuo iio?aaiinoae aeeoaeae a iaeioi?uo
i?oaeeyo o?oaea, iaeaaeaea, iaoae, auoiauo ecaeaeeyo. Oi?aiaua nayce
naeueneie ie?oae n ai?iaeii iineee i?aeiouanoaaiii oa?aeoa?
iaoo?aeueiiai iaiaia.

Iaoiaeee eaiiie ea?aieee oaa?neiai e neeoneiai oeiia naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
i i?iaeeaaiee ia ?aiieo iaoe?aieaiiuo iinaeaieyo neeoi-eecee-eiaeineiai
ianaeaiey. A IV a. aei i.y. iii auei iieiinoueth anneieee?iaaii
inaaeaaoeie ia caieth neeoaie. I/aaeaeii, ia iinaeaieyo i?iaeeaaei
iaaieueoia eiee/anoai a?aeia. A ea?aie/aneii eiiieaena oe?aieaiiuo
iaiyoieeia eiaaony eaiiay ea?aieea aaoi-o?aeeeneiai oeia, /oi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao i?enoonoaea a ninoaaa eo aeeoaeae yoiai yoiina ni II a.
aei i.y. Ianaeaiea ninoiyei ec aieueoeo naiaeii-?iaeiauo a?oii,
iauaaeeiaiiuo a iaueiu, eioi?ua ni a?aiaiai o?ainoi?ie?iaaeaeenue a
naeueneea. ?aeeaeiciua aa?iaaiey ianaeaiey iineee niaoaiiue
a?aei-aa?aa?neee oa?aeoa? e auee naycaiu n eoeueoii ieiaei?iaeey e
aeiiaoiaai i/aaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naeueneay ie?oaa, Oaiaeiney, THai-Ainoi/iue E?ui,
iinaeaiey, ai?iaeeua, caieaaeaeea.

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