IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?i. ?.?.
Ia/ieeiaa

IAEUeIEEIAA Ethaeieea
Naiai?aia

OAeE 947(477.74)(=81)”04/1856”

NO?AeIINEIA’ssINUeEA EIEII?CAOe?ss

I?AAeAIII? AANNA?AA?? / V — ia?oa iieiaeia XIX
co. /

07.00.01 —
?noi??y Oe?a?ie

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa
?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
?cia?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oe/eia Aiaoie?e
Einoyioeiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi???
Oe?a?ie

?cia?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai

?inoeoooo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — /e. — ei?. IAI Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

Iaoeei Anaaieiae ?aaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii
iai’yoie aeooiaii?

eoeueoo?e ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao??

oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i.
I.N. A?ooaanueeiai

IAI Oe?a?ie

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe, aeioeaio

Oia?nueeee Aaaeei
Ieoaeeiae/,

eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Iaeanueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa,
aeioeaio;

canooiiee aeaeaia
?noi?e/iiai

oaeoeueoaoo IAeO ?i. ?.?.
Ia/ieeiaa

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?i. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a,
eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 41.051.08 i?e Iaeanueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?-

aa?neoao? ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith: 270057, i. Iaeana,
aoe. Uaie?ia,

12, aoae. 9.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith: 270100,
i. Iaeana,

aoe. I?aia?aaeainueea, 24.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “12 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio
Eicianueeee A. E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA
?IAIOE

I?aaeaiia Aanna?aa?y c aeaai?o aeaaai aoea ?aa?iiii, aea noeeoaaeeny
?ioa?ane aaaaoueio ia?iae?a ? aea?aeaa. Ooo ia??aeei ae??ooaaeeny
aeieaiini? ieoaiiy ia o?eueee iaoeaioe?a e?ath, aea e ia?iae?a
Aeecueeiai Noiaeo oa ?a?iie.

?noi??th oeueiai ?aa?iio oai?eee i?aaenoaaieee neia’yinueei?,
ae?i?noe/ii? oa no?aeii? eoeueoo?, ei/iaeee ? caiea?iae, aai?eaaie
? i?a?aioe. I?ioyaii noie?oue ooo neeaeany aeineoue neeaaeia aoi?/ia
no?oeoo?a, niaoeeo?/i? aoiieoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe??. Ca i?aenoieaie
inoaiiueiai ia?aieno ianaeaiiy (1989 ?.) a o?e /anoei? Aanna?aa??, yea
oaia? noaiiaeoue Oe?a?inueea Iiaeoiaa’y (aeaa’youe i?aaeaiieo ?aeii?a
Iaeanueei? iaeano?, a?ae A?eai?iae — Aei?no?ianueeiai aei ?ai?enueeiai)
ia?aoiaoaaeiny 673347 iaoeaioe?a, na?aae yeeo 37 % oe?a?ioe?a, 24 %
?in?yi, 20 % aieaa?, 12 % iieaeiaai, 7 % — i?aaenoaaieee ?ioeo
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No/aniee noai ?noi??ia?ao??, a?oaieia?/i?
?ica?aeee inoaii?o /an?a aeathoue i?aenoaae oaa?aeeoe, ui
ae??oaeueia ?ieue o canaeaii? oa iiaioaaii? caiaeue iiieccy iaaee??//y
Aei?no?a ? Aeoiath iaeaaeeoue no?aeiei neia’yiai, ianaiia?aae
aeo?aeoeyi c oeaio?aeueieo oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue. I?ioa aeioaia? oe?
ieoaiiy a ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo? ?ic — aeyaeaeenue iia?aeii, o ca’yceo c
aea/aiiyi ?ioeo i?iaeai. Iai ia aaeaeiny ciaeoe aeiaeiiai
iiiia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/aiiai no?aeiineia’yinuee?e
eieii?caoe?? Iiaeoiaa’y ia an?o ?? aoaiao. Ie?ai? oaeoe oa a?aeiiino? c
ieoaiue canaeaiiy Iiaeoiaa’y neia’yiaie ?iceeaeai? ia noi??ieao
aaaaoueio i?aoeue, ui ia aeicaieyei c?icoi?oe oeae i?ioean ye
oe?e?ni?noue. A?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a caeeoaee iica oaaaith ieoaiiy
i?i ?ieue oe?a?inueeiai aoiino a canaeaii? oeueiai ?aa?iio. A e?auiio
aeiaaeeo aiie iaiaaeoaaeeny ie?aieie noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie oa ieoai —
iyie ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeeo eicae?a c oo?eaie oa oaoa?aie.

Aoiieoeueoo?i? i?ioeane, ye? ooo a?aeaoaaeeny ? a?aeaoaathoueny,
iathoue iaaaeyea cia/aiiy aeey ?icaoaeiae Oe?a?inueei? noaa?aiii?
aea?aeaae. Aei oeueiai ne?ae aeiaeaoe, ui inoaii?i /anii aeoea?coaaeeny
iie?oe/i? neee a ?oioinueeiio oa iieaeianueeiio ca?oa?aeae?, ye?,
oaeuene — o?eoth/e ?noi?e/ia ieioea, noaaeyoue i?ae noii?a
i?aaii??i?noue i?eiaeaaeiino? oeeo caiaeue aei Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee
iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaiee c oaiith aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?
?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa oe?a?inueei? iiae ?cia?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo: “Oe?a?inueea I?eaeoiaa’y: ?noi??y,
aoiia?ao?y, iiaa”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aoiaoth/e aeooaeuei?noue aeaii?
i?iaeaie, ?? iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, nie?ath/enue ia i?aoe?
iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeiee?a oa caaaeath/e ia iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue
?? ?ic?iaeaiino?, aeena?oaio iinoaaea ia?aae niaith iaoo: aeine?aeeoe
iniiai? aniaeoe no?aeiineia’yinueei? eieii?caoe?? I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa??,
aecia/eoe oa iaa?oiooaaoe iniiai? ?? aoaie, aeyaeoe oa?aeoa?i?
iniaeeaino? eiaeiiai c ieo, c?noaaeoe ienueiia? aeaea?aea i?i
neia’yinuee? ieaiaia iiieccy iaaee??//y Aei?no?a ? Aeoiath c
iia?oi?ie a?oaieia?/ieie ? e?iaa?noe/ieie ?ica?aeeaie, aeiaanoe,
ui no?aeiineia’yinueea, cie?aia, oe?a?inueea eieii?caoe?y, aoea
i?ia?aeiith o canaeaii? oa ainiiaea?nueei — eoeueoo?iiio iiaioaaii?
oeueiai e?ath, iieacaoe ?ieue oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa a canaeaii?
e inai?ii? e?ath, ni?inooaaoe oaa?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo iaoeiaoe?a oa
iie?oe/ieo nee, ye? iaiaaathoueny caia?a/oaaoe i?ia?aeio ?ieue
no?aeiineia’yinueei? eieii?caoe?? o caethaeiaii? i?eii?nueei?
/anoeie iaaee??//y Aei?no?a oa Aeoiath, i?iaiae?coaaoe iie?oeeo
oea?nueeiai o?yaeo uiaei canaeaiiy Aanna?aa??, aecia/eoe ?? ?iia?nuee?
oa ia’?eoeaii — i?ia?aneai? oaiaeaioe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. A ?iaio? aia?oa c?iaeaia ni?iaa
eiiieaenii aeine?aeeoe no?aeiineia’yinueeo eieii?caoe?th I?aaeaiii?
Aanna?aa??, iaa?oioiaaia i?ia?aeia ?ieue no?aeiineia’yinueeiai
ianaeaiiy a iiaioaaii? e?ath, ie?aneai? iniaeeaino?, niaoeeo?ea
iniiaieo aoai?a eieii?caoe??, ?ice?eoa ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeiai
eicaoeoaa o ?? cae?eniaii?. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee oe?iei
aeei?enoai? iia?oi? a?oaieia?/i? e e?iaa?noe/i? ?ica?aeee,
iaoa??aee a?o?a?a ? oiiae?a e?a?ciaa/eo ioca?a, cia/ia /anoeia
yeeo aaaaeaia o iaoeiaee ia?a aia?oa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo iiooe?a, a oaeiae
i?e iaienai? caaaeueieo oa niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.
I?aaenoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? iaoa??aee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o
?aa?iiaeueieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a ?noi?eei
— e?a?ciaa/iai oeeeeo.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa iieyaa? a nenoaiiiio aeine?aeaeaii? oa
iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e oa caeiiii??iinoae
no?aeiineia’yinueei? eieii?caoe?? I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa?? (ia?aaaaeii
ie?iee oa?aeoa? eieii?caoe??, caiea?ianueei-neioa?nueeee oa?aeoa?
inai?iiy e?ath, caa?aaeaiiy neia’yiaie nai?? aoi?/ii? ?aeiino? oa
iino?eiee ca’ycie c nai?i aoi?/iei yae?ii, ainiiaea?nuee? oa eoeueoo?i?
aca?iiaieeae ??cieo aoiin?a e?ath oiui), aecia/aii? oa
iaa?oiooaaii? ?? iniiaieo aoai?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? a aeiiia?aeyo ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
“Oe?a?inueea I?eaeoiaa’y : ?noi??y, aoiia?ao?y, iiaa”/?cia?e, 1995/ ;
ia VII Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “?noi?e/ia e?a?ciaanoai a
Oe?a?i?: o?aaeeoe?? ? no/ani?noue” /Ee?a, 1995/ ; ia I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay: ieioea,
no/ania, iaeaooi?” /Iaeana, 1995/; ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “A?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: i?iaeaie
?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e” / Iaeana,1996 /, a oaeiae o ioae?eaoe?yo
aeena?oaioa: “Neia’yie ia Aeoia? a na?aaeei? ia?oiai oeny/ie?ooy iaoi?
a?e” //Oe?a?inueea I?eaeoiaa’y: ?noi — ?e/i? ia?aaeeaie aoooy ?
no/ani?noue: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. — Aei. 2. — E., 1997. — 0,43 ae?.
a?e.; “Eicaee o I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’? (e?iaoeue XVIII —
ia?oa iieiaeia XIX no. )” // Oe?a?inueea eicaoeueea aea?aeaaa: Aeoiee
oa oeyoe ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo (Iaoa?. VI Anaoe?a?inueeeo ?noi?e/ieo
/eoaiue). — Ee?a — *a?eane, 1997. — 0,45 ae?. a?e.; “Aaei?i?no?aoeaii
— iie?oe/iee ono??e I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa?? i?ae oo?aoeueeei iaioaaiiyi a
XVI-XVII?no.” // Iaoeiaee a?niee ?cia?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo. — 1998. — Aei. 3. — 0,46 ae?. a?e. E??i
oiai, aeena?oaio a?aa o/anoue o iaienaii? iaeiiai c ?icae?e?a
eieaeoeaii? iiiia?ao?? “Oe?a?inueea I?eaeoiaa’y”. — Ei. 1. —
?cia?e, 1998. — 1,8 ae?. a?e.

Aeena?oaoe?y iaea?aeaea iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
?noi??? Oe?a?ie ?cia?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo.

A i?ioean? ?iaioe iaae aeena?oaoe??th aaoi? aeei?enoiaoaaa i?iaeaiii
— o?iiieia?/iee, nenoaiiee oa ii??aiyeueii — ?noi?e/iee iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeio?eioaaany i?eioeei?a ia’?eoeaiino?, ?noi?ecio,
ieth?ae?cio aeoiie, i??i?eoaoo caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e, aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya aeena?oaoe??
noaiiaeoue 166 noi??iie, e??i oeueiai nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
(305 iaeiaioaaiue) ia?aoiao? 20 noi??iie, 9 aeiaeaoe?a — 9 noi??iie.
Caaaeii — 195 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO
AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/a?oueny
iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiaa iiaecia, ie?aneaii ia’?eo ?
i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai o?iiieia?/i? oa aaia?ao?/i? iaae?,
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??, iaoiaeieia?th aeine?aeaeaiiy,
caacia/ai? oeyoe ai?iaaoe?? aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “?noi??ia?ao?/iee oa aeaea?aeiciaa/ee iaeyae
i?iaeaie” i?enay/aii aiae?co aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e c oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. A iueiio ?ice?eaa?oueny ??aaiue
?noi??ia?ao?/ii? ?ic?iaee oaie, ie?aneaii ?? aeaea?aeueio aaco.

Ieoaiiy canaeaiiy ? inai?iiy I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa?? i?eaa?oaee
oaaao aeine?aeiee?a. Aiie o?nii iia’ycai? c i?iaeaiith eieae?caoe??
i?aaaouee?aueie neia’yi. sse a?aeiii, ia?oei ni?iaoaaa a?aeiia?noe ia
oea ieoaiiy aeaaiuei?onueeee e?oiienaoeue Ianoi?. O “Iia?no?
a?ai’yieo e?o” a?i cacia/aa, ui iaeaeaai?oeie neia’yinueeeie caieyie
aoee ieaeiy oa/?y Aeoiath oa Iaiiii?y. Ca?aene, ia eiai aeoieo,
ii/aeinue ?icnaeaiiy neia’yi 1. Oai??y aeoiae-

__________________

1Iia?noue a?ai’yieo e?o. E?oiien (ca ?iaonueeei nieneii).-E.,1990.-
N.10-13.

nueei? i?aaaouee?aueie neia’yi, ye a?aeiii, caia?a/oaaeanue ?noi?e/iith
iaoeith iia?oiueiai /ano, i?ioa i?eiee ia ao?a/aea nai?? i?eaaaeeaino?.
Cia/iith i??ith oeth eiioeaioe?th ii — ae?eythoue ?in?enuee? ?noi?eee
XIX no. N.Nieiaeia, A.Eeth/aanueeee, I.Ae?eiia, I.Iiaiae?i,
Ae.Naiieaania, ?.O?eaae/, no/ani? aeine?aeieee N.Oienoia, A.Eiae/ia,
O.Eeei/oe, A.Oaiaeaae/, Ae.Ia/einueeee. Aeoiaenueeo eiioeaioe?th
i?aeo?eiothoue e?iaa?noe I.O?oaa/ia, A.I?aoi?ae, a?oaieia ?.Eyiooe?i oa
?i. Oe?a?inueeee aeine?aeiee TH.Oeeia aaaaea?, ui i?aaaouee?aueiith
neia’yi ? Iiaeoiaa’y ? ?ao?iniaeoeaii iia’yco? eiai c i?o?/iith
aea?aeaaith A?aooith, yea i?ci?oa ioiieea Na?aaeith Iaaeaei?i?yiueio 1.
Aeoiaenueeo eiioeaioe?th ?icnaeaiiy neia’yi a?aenoiththoue
thaineaanuee? a?oaieiae N.Ciaiae/ oa A.O?aooiae/, e?iaa?no I.Ao —
ae?ie?, aia?eeainueeee ?noi?ee — neaa?no ss.Aa/e/, i?iaoeueeee
a?oaieia A.Aa?iai, iieuenueeee a?oaieia A.Oainaeue oa ?i .
Iiaeia iiaiaeaeoaaoeny, /e ia iiaiaeaeoaaoeny c oaa?aeaeaiiyie
aeuacacia/aieo iaoeiaoe?a, i?ioa a?aeeeaeaoe oai??th aeoiaenueei?
i?aaaouee?aueie neia’yi ia ne?ae. Inoaoi/ia ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie
caeaaeaoeia a?ae iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Eieii?caoe?y I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, iaaiith i??ith,
?icaeyaea?oueny o i?aoeyo I.N.A?ooaanueeiai: iiaa eaeaoueny i?i
iiaioaaiiy oeeo caiaeue aioaie, a a iiaeaeueoiio — ieaiaiaie
oee/?a oa oeaa?oe?a, ye? ianaeyee I?eaei?no?ia’y aae aei
Aeoiath 2.

I?i neia’yinueeo eieii?caoe?th Iiaeoiaa’y ca /an?a aoiaeaeaiiy eiai
aei Aaeeoeueei — Aieei- nueeiai eiyc?anoaa ienaee E.Aa?a, A.Iaoooi,
I.Iioia oa ?i.3 Ianaeaiiy iiaeoiaenueeeo caiaeue a oeae /an c?inoaei
ca ?aooiie “aeaiioe?a aaeeoeueeeo”, ia?anaeaioe?a c Aaee/eie, ye?
o?eaee nthaee a?ae naaaie? aaeeoeueeeo aiy?. Iieaeianueeee ?noi?ee
I. Iioia i?aee?aneth?, ui ooai?aiith Iieaeianueei? aea?aeaae
ia?aaeoaaee aea?aeaai? neia’yinuee? ia’?aeiaiiy oeaa?oe?a (IX-XII
no.), Aa?eaaenueea eiyc?anoai (XII no.), Caiey a?iaeiee?a (XII-XIII
no.).

Ie?ai? iia?aeiieaiiy i?i neia’yinueea ianaeaiiy Iiaeoiaa’y /an?a
iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeiai iaoanoy ciaoiaeeii o i?aoeyo I.A?ooaanueeiai,
A.Iaoooe, A.sseoaianueeiai, I.Iioiaa, ?.A?aeiaa, I.Ia?anee,
I.?on?aa, A.E?aa/aiea oa ?i. Aiie aeiaiaeyoue, ui /anoeia
neia’yinueeiai ianaeaiiy a oeae /an aeiooaia aoea ia?anaeyoeny ia
i?ai?/, aeeae/a aei e?niaeo ianea?a. Iaeiae iniiaiee aoiia?ao?/iee ianea
Iiaeoiaa’y caa??any: no?aeiineia’yinue-

______________

1 Oeeia TH. I?a?iaeeia a?eaa. — E., 1995; eiai ae. Iooe a?eaa. — E.,
1996.

2A?ooaanueeee I.N. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie — ?one: A11o., 12 ei. — O.1. -E.,
1991; O. 2. — E., 1992; I/a?e enoi?ee oe?aeineiai ia?iaea. — E., 1990;
?noi??y Oe?a?ie.- E., 1992.

3 Aa?a E. N. Ianaeaiea Aanna?aaee. Yoiia?aoe/aneee ninoaa e
ianaeaiiinoue. — Ia.,1923; Iaoooi A.O. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee
Aaeeoeei-Aieuineie ?one. — I.,1 950; Iioia I.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea
iieaeaaneiai ia?iaea e ia?aciaaiea Iieaeaaneiai ainoaea?noaa. —
Eeoeiaa, 1969.

ea ianaeaiiy o na?aaeei? XIV no. ia?aaaaeaei o i?eii?nuee?e cii?
iaaee??//y Aei?no?a oa Aeoiath.

Aioeneia’yinueea iie?oeea oo?aoeueeiai o?yaeo i?ecaaea aei
cia/ieo ci?i a aoi?/iiio neeaae? ianaeaiiy e?ath. Oo?aoeueea
iaioaaiiy iaaeiaai ?ic??aaei neia’yinueeee aoi?/iee ianea, oe?a?inueei
— neia’yinueea eieii?caoe?y ??cei nei?ioeeanue. A. Aa/einueeee, A.
Aeia?i — ethanueeee ienaee, ui noaiiaeua i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy
oneeaaeithaaeiny ua e oei, ui oo?ee canaeeee Aoaeaeaoeueeee noai
aieiaie/eie iiaaenueeeie ieaiaiaie, caaiie yeeo iino?eii a?aaoaaee
i?noeaaeo iaoeaioe?a 1 . I?i ianaeaiiy e?ath ca /an?a
oo?aoeueeiai iaioaaiiy ienaee ?in?enuee? oa iieaeianuee? ?noi?eee
2, a oaeiae ?iicaioe?, ye? iiaei?iaeoaaee Aanna?aa??th 3.

A?eueo?noue ?ia?o ?in?enueeeo oa iieaeianueeeo aeine?aeiee?a
ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no. c ?noi??? Aanna?aa?? aoee iaienai? c
iiceoe?e caoenoo eieii?aeueii? iie?oeee oea?ecio. Oea i?aoe? I.
Aaothoeiaa, O. A?aaey, A. ?aoiiaa, E. Eanni, A. Eeaona, I.
Eoieoeueeiai, I. Eaoeiaa, A. Iaeei, I. Naeiue?ia, A.
Neaeueeianueeiai oa ?i. I?ioa aiie oe?ii? nai?i oaeoe/iei iaoa??aeii,
noaoenoe/ieie oa aoiia?ao?/ieie aeaieie. Aeuacacia/ai? aeine?ae —
ieee iaei oe?eaaeeenue i?e/eiaie aeaiia?ao?/ieo c?ooaiue o
Aannna?aa??, aiie ia?ai — oe?ithaaee ?ieue aaeeei?onueeiai
ianaeaiiy a ?icaoaeia? ?? ainiiaea?noaa ? eoeueoo?e.

A?aeoaaei ia’?eoeaiino? ? i?aaenoaaieeai ?oioinueei?
?noi??ia?ao??. Iaiaaath/enue aeiaanoe i?eiaeaaei?noue caiaeue
Aanna?aa?? aei Aaeeei? ?oioi??, I. Ei?aa, ?. I?noi? oaa?aee-

______________

1 Aa/eineee A.Ae., Aeia?iethaneee A.I. Aoaeaeaeneay i?aea a XVI —
XVII aa. // Nioeeaeueii — yeiiiie/aneay e iieeoe/aneay enoi?ey
Iieaeaaee ia?eiaea oaiaeaeecia. — Eeoeiaa, 1988.

2 A?oi O.E. ?oiuineea eiyaeanoaa e Aanna?aaey ieiei iieiaeiu XVIII
no. // Cai. Aanna?aa. noaoenoe/. eiieo. — O. 3. — Eeoeiaa, 1868;
Neaeueeianeee A. I iiaaeneeo oaoa?ao, aeeaoueo a Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee // AEIII. — *. XL, ioae. ??. — NIa., 1843; Oaeeiia I.I.
E?aoeee eno. i/a?e Aanna?aaee aei i?eniaaeeiaiey aa e ?innee //
Aanna?aaneee naeueneioicyenoaaiiue eaeaiaea?ue ia 1914 a. -O. 2. —
Eeoeiaa, 1914 ; Eaioaie? Ae. Iienaiea Iieaeaaee. — Eeoeiaa, 1973;
?onaa A.I. Onoaiiaeaiea ainiiaenoaa noeoaineie Oo?oeee a Iieaeaaee
// Oaiaeaeueiua ioiioaiey a Iieaeaaee a ia?eiae XIV — XVIII aa. —
Eeoeiaa, 1950.

3 Iooaoanoaea aioeioeeneiai iao?ea?oa Iaea?ey a ?inneth a
iieiaeia XVII aaea, iienaiiia aai nuiii a?oeaeeaeiiii Iaaeii
Aeaiineei. — I., 1900. — Aui. 5 ; Eeaaiaiiai iooaoanoaea ec Aaiu
a Aaea?aae e Iiaoth Eeeeth, oaeiae a caiee aoaeaeaeneeo e
iiaaeneeo oaoa? e ai aanue E?ui… — NIa., 1783; Eynioa A??o c?
Noaaeaaa. Uiaeaiiee // AEiaoaiue. — 1984. — ? 10 ; *aeaae Y.
Eieaa iooaoanoaey. — Aui. 1: Caiee Iieaeaaee e Oe?aeiu. — I.,
1961.

ee, ui a X — XI no. ana neia’yinueea ianaeaiiy oeueiai e?ath
aoei “anei?eueiaaia ?oioiaie”1 . Aiie na?aeiii caeeoaee iica
oaaaith oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae c ?noi??? iiieccy iaaee??//y Aei?no?a
? Aeoiath oeueiai /ano, ine?eueee ia iiaee caia?a/eoe
?aiiueineia’yinuee? iinaeaiiy a e?a?, aoiaeaeaiiy oeeo oa?eoi??e
aei Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae oa Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoaa.
Aaci?aenoaai?noue ?oi?o oaa?aeaeaiue aoea ia?aeiieeai aeiaaaeaia
N. ?oaeieoeueeei oa I. A?ooaanueeei a aeeneon??, yea
?icai?ioeanue ia ii/aoeo XX no. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ia an?
?noi?eee ?oioi?? caeiaee oaeo iiceoe?th 2 . Iai?eeeaae, ?.
Aiaaeai ienaa, ui “ana ieioea iaoa aeeooy a?ae VI no. ia?ic?eaii
ia?aieaoaia c ?noi???th neia’yi, ye? aeeee ye na?aae ian, oae ?
iaaeiei ian” 3. Ia eiai aeoieo, ?oioinueeee ia?iae — oea ?iiaii-
neia’yinueeee nieaa, yeee neeaaeaany a VI — X no.

?noi??y I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa?? o?nii iia’ycaia c ?noi???th
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa. Oeei ieoaiiyi i?enay/ai? /enaeuei? i?aoe?.
Ie ae coieieiinue eeoa ia oeo, ye? iathoue aaciina?aaei?
a?aeiioaiiy aei oaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oea, ia?o ca ana,
i?aoe? a?aeiiiai oe?a?inueeiai aoiia?aoa, aio?iiieiaa oa a?oaieiaa
O.E. Aiaea ( inaaaeii?ie: O. Eiiae?aoiae/, Eoioeaneo ). A noaoo?
“Caaeoiaeneay Na/ue” a?i i?inoaaeo? ?noi??th caaeoiaenueeeo
eicae?a a?ae e?ea?aeaoe?? Caii?icueei? N?/? (1775 ?.) aei
cieuaiiy Caaeoiaenueei? N?/? (1828 ?.) 4. O. Aiae ianoith? aeoieo,
ui ia?anaeaiiy caii?iaeoe?a ca Aeoiae a?aeaoaaeiny i?ioyaii
aaaaoueio ?ie?a a?eueo /e iaio aaeeeeie ia?o?yie 5. ?noi???
Caaeoiaenueei? N?/? i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiiy A. Aa/einueeiai 6.
Oe?ii? a?aeiiino? i?i ?icnaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo eicae?a o
oo?aoeueeeo aieiae?iiyo i?noyoueny a i?aoeyo I.?aaiiaa, ?.
E?i?aiae?, I.A?o — oaanueeiai, A.Eauaiea, I.A?eana, ?. Iiiiia?aiea
oa ?i . Onoue — Aeoiaenueeiio eicaoeueeiio a?enueeo i?enayoea nai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy A. Neaeueeianueeee. ?noi??th oeueiai a?enueea a?i
aeeea —

_____________

1 Iorga N. Leg(turile Rom(nilor cu Ru(ii Apuseni (i cu teri —
toriul zis “Ucrainian” // Extras din : “Analele Academiei Rom(ne”.
— Seria II. — T. XXXVIII. — (Memoriile sec(iunii Istorice.- ? 16). —
Bucure(ti, 1916 ; Ei?aa I. I?aaaea i i?ioeii e ianoi — yuai
Aanna?aaee // Iuneue.- 1992. — ? 4; Nistor I. Istoria Basarabiei. —
Cern(u(i, 1923.

2Bogdan I. Inscrip(iile dela Cetatea — Alb( si st(p(nirea Moldovei
// Asupra el : “ Analele academiei Rom(ne ”. — Seria II. — T. XXX.
-(Memoriile sec(iunii istorice). — Bucure(ti, 1908 .

3 Oeeo. ca: Iioia I. I/a?ee enoi?ee iieaeaanei — ?onnei —
oe?aeineeo naycae. — Eeoeiaa, 1961. — N. 9.

4 Eiiae?aoiae/ O. Caaeoiaeneay Na/ue // Eeaaneay noa?eia. — 1883.
— ? 1 — 2 ; 4.

5 Eoioeaneo. ?onneea eieiiee a Aeia?oaeaea. Enoi?eei —
yoiia?aoe/aneee i/a?e // Eeaaneay noa?eia. — 1889. — ? 1 — 3.

6 Aa/einueeee A. Ae. N?/ Caaeoiaenueea. 1775-1828. ?no. — aeie. ia?en.
— Iaeana, 1994.

aea? a io?oe?eii — ?iia?nueeiio ieai?, anoia?a/ ae?eniino? iiaea?
?aeee?/io ea?oeio ?aeiino? i?ae eicaeaie ? oea?nueeith
aaei?i?no?aoe??th 1. Iaaiei aei?iaeii ?noi??? eicaoeoaa a oeueiio
?aa?ii? ? i?aoe? ?iniaeoi?a ?cia?euenueeiai i?nueeiai o/eeeua I.O.
Eieiiieoeaaa, ye? aei inoaiiueiai /ano ciaoiaeeeenue iica oaaaith
iaoeiaoe?a 2 .

Iaeiiai?oa i?ioeane eicaoeueei — naeyinueei? eieii?caoe??
Iiaeoiaa’y a e?ioe? XVIII — ia ii/aoeo XIX no. aeeeaaeai? o
i?aoeyo ? aeena?oaoe?? A.Ae. Aa/einueeiai 3. Eiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oe?ieith aeieoiaioaeueiith aacith, a?oioiaieie
noaoenoe/ieie iaoa — ??aeaie, iiaeie iiaeyaeaie ia ?icaeyaeoaai?
iiae?? ? yaeua. Oe?a?inueeiio eicaoeoao o I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio
I?e/i?iiii?’? i?enay/ai? aeena?oaoe?? I. Aa/einueei? 4, E. Oeeaaiaiei
5. Ie?ai? ieoaiiy eieii?caoe?? I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa?? aena?oeai? o
i?aoeyo aeeeaaea/?a ?cia?euenueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo 6 ,
ioae?eaoe?yo N. Iaeaia?/oe 7, TH. Ia?/oea ? A.Oe-

__________________

1 Neaeueeianeee A. O?iiieiae/aneia iaic?aiea enoi?ee
Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay. 1730 — 1823 aa. — *. 2 : 1796 — 1823 aa. —
Iaeanna, 1838 ; eiai ae. Enoi?ey Iiaie Na/e eee iineaaeiaai Eioa
caii?iaeneiai. — Ecae. 3. — Iaeanna, 1886.

2 Eieiiieoeaa I. O. Iiai?inneeneia aienei. E?aoeee eno. i/a?e //
Eeoeiaaneea aia?oeaeueiua aaaeiiinoe. — 1913. — ? 1; Auaoay e?aiinoue
Eciaee e aa iaiyoieee // Oai naii. — ? 36, 38 — 39; Iuiaoiee
Eciaeeueneee oacae ( Aan. aoaa?iee ) n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai e aai
iaiyoieee // Oai naii. — 1914. — ? 44, 46, 47 oa ?i.

3 Aa/einueeee A. Ae. Aei ?noi??? Onoue-Aeoiaenueeiai Aoaeaeaoeueeiai
eicaoeueeiai a?enueea // Iaoeiai — ?ioi?iaoe?eiee atheaoaiue
A?o?aiiai oi?aae?iiy O?N?. — 1962. — ? 6; Ia?iaeia ei- eii?caoe?y
iiieccy Aeoiath (inoaiiy /aa?oue OVIII — ii/aoie O?O no.) //
O?AE. — 1964. — ? 2; Iniiaiua yoaiu e?anoueyinei — eacaoeeie
eieiiecaoeee Aoaeaeaeneie noaie e ieciaee Aeoiay a XVIII — ia/.
XIX aa. // Aaeaaiaeiee ii aa?a?iie enoi?ee Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu, 1964
aiae. — Eeoeiaa, 1966; I?ienoiaeaeaiea e ninoaa oe?aeinei — ?onneiai
ianaeaiey Aoaeaeaea e ieciaee Aeoiay eiioea XVIII e ia/aea O?O
aa. // Cai. Iaeanneiai A?o. Iau. — Iaeanna, 1967. — O. 2 (35).

4 Aa/einueea I. A. Aeoiaenueea (Iiai?in?enueea) eicaoeueea
a?enueei. 1828 — 1869 ??.: Aeen. … eaiae. ?noi?. iaoe :
07.00.01. — Iaeana, 1996.

5 Oeeaaiaiei E.O. Oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai o I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio
I?e/i?iiii?’? ( XVI — 60 — o? ?iee XIX no.) : Aeen. … eaiae.
?no. iaoe : 07.00.01. — E., 1997.

6 Oe?a?inueea I?eaeoiaa’y: ?noi??y, aoiieoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie. —
?cia?e, 1995; Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — ?cia?e, 1995 ;
Oe?a?inueea I?eaeoiaa’y : ?noi??y, aoiia?ao?y, iiaa: Iaoa?. iaoe.
eiio. — ?cia?e, 1995 ; Oe?a?inueea I?eaeoiaa’y. — ?cia?e, 1998. —
Ei. 1.

7 Iaeaia?/oe N. A. Enoiee. Ae?aaiyy e n?aaeiaaaeiaay enoi?ey
ianaeaiey iaaeaeo?a/uey

/eie 1 .

Iaaiee aei?iaie aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie noaiiaeyoue i?aoe?
iieaeianueeeo ?noi?ee?a. ss. A?inoe o nai?e iiiia?ao??, i?enay/ai?e
naeyinoao Aanna?aa?? o 1812 — 1861 ??., aiae?co? iie?oeeo
oea?nueeiai o?yaeo uiaei naeyi — ao?ea/?a oa ?iicaiieo eieii?no?a
2. ?.A. Eieoiai o nai?o noaooyo iaiaaa?oueny ni?inooaaoe
oaa?aeaeaiiy ?oioinueeeo ?noi?ee?a (?.I?noi?a, A.Aieaeo?a, A.AEo?aneo
oa ?i.) i?i “aaoiooiii?noue ?oioinueeiai aeaiaioa ia oa?eoi???
i?ae Aoaii ? Aei?no?ii…” 3. ?.A. Aioeoiia o nai?o i?aoeyo
?icaeyaea? i?e/eie ia?anaeaiiy o I?aaeaiio Aanna?aa?th aea?aeaaieo
naeyi a 1828 — 1869 ??. 4.

Ie?ai? oaeoe, caaaeuei? ioe?iee no?aeiineia’yinueei?
eieii?caoe?? I?ai?/ii — Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y ciaoiaeyoueny a
ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeyo c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa Iieaeiae 5.

Aieiaiith aeaea?aeueiith aacith aeena?oaoe?? noaee iaoa??aee
e aeieoiaioe, ye? caa??aathoueny o a?o?aao Oe?a?ie oa Iieaeiae.
O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii aeieoiaioe “Oi?aae?iiy Iiai?in?enueeiai ?
Aanna?aanueeiai aaia?ae — aoaa?iaoi?a” (o.1), ye? caa?? — aathoueny o
Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? Iaeanueei? iaeano? (AeAII). Ooo ciaoiaeyoueny
iaoa??aee i?i canaeaiiy e?ath aea?aeaaieie naeyiaie oa e??iaeaie —
ao?ea/aie, eicaeaie, nieaeaoaie, i?uaiaie, ?iicaiieie eieii?noaie,
ocaaaeueithth/? noaoenoe/i? aeai? i?i ianaeaiiy Aan — na?aa??.
Cia/ia /anoeia aeieoiaio?a oeueiai oiiaeo ?iciia?aea? i?i
caaeoiaenueeeo eicae?a, ooai?aiiy a I?aaeaii?e Aanna?aa?? Onoue —
Aeoiaenueeiai (Aoaeaeaoeueeiai) ? Aeoiaenueeiai (Ii —

______________

Aeiano?a e Aeoiay: E?ao. eno. — a?o. i/a?e. — Iaeanna, 1997. —
Aui. 1.

1 Ia?/oe TH.?., Oe/eia A.E. ?cia?e : ?noi?e/iee ia?en. — Iaeana,
1997.

2 A?inoe ss.N. E?anoueyia Aanna?aaee (1812 — 1861 aa.) . — Eeoeiaa,
1956.

3 Eieoiai E.A. I ?onnei-iieaeaaneii canaeaiee ainoi/iuo ?aeiiia
Iieaeaaee a eiioea OVIII — ia/aea XIX no. // O/ai. cai. Eeoei.
iaae. ei — oa. — O. 4. — Eeoeiaa, 1955. — N. 97; Canaeaiea ainoi/iuo
?aeiiia Iieaeaaee a eiioea XVIII — ia/aea XIX no. // O/ai. cai.
Eeoei. oi- oa. — O.12. — (Na?ey aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe ). — Eeoeiaa, 1959.

4 Aioeoiia E.A. Ia?iaeiay eieiiecaoeey Aanna?aaee a ia?aie o?aoe
O?O no. // O/ai. cai. Eeoei. oi — oa. — O. 35. ( Enoi?e/aneee ). —
Eeoeiaa, 1958; Ainoaea?noaaiiay aea?aaiy Aanna?aaee a O?O aaea
(1812 — 1870 aa.). — Eeoeiaa, 1966.

5 Enoi?ey Iieaeaaee. — O. 1. — Eeoeiaa, 1951; Enoi?ey Iieaeaaneie NN?:
A 2 o. — Eeoeiaa, 1965 — 1968. — O. 1; A?inoe ss.N., Aoaeae E.A.
I/a?ee enoi?ee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa Aanna?aaee: 1812 — 1861. —
Eeoeiaa, 1967; ?noi??y i?no ? n?e O?N? : Iaeanueea iaeanoue. —
E., 1969 ; Enoi?ey ai?iaeia e nae ONN? : Iaeanneay iaeanoue. — E.,
1978; Enoi?ey Iieaeaaneie NN? : A 6 o. — Eeoeiaa, 1987. — O. 1;
?noi??y Oe?a?ie: Eo?n eaeoe?e : O 2 ei. Ei. 1. — E., 1991.

ai?in?enueeiai) eicaoeueeiai a?enueea, ia?aaaaeaiiy eicae?a aei
noaio aea?aeaaieo naeyi.

Ie aeei?enoaee oaeiae aeieoiaioe Iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?o?ao
Iieaeiae, cie?aia, oiiaeo “Eaioeaey??y aanna?aanueeiai aoaa?iaoi?a”
(o.2): ca?oe aoaa?iaoi??a, aeiianaiiy iie?oe — iaeno??a, io?oea??a
Ae. Aaoee?io?, I. THoiaanueeiai, /eai?a niaoe?aeueii? eii?n??, yea
caeiaeanue iaeaoooaaiiyi caaeoiaenueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a ia oa?eoi???
Aanna?aa??. Iaoa??aee i?i canaeaiiy Aanna?aa?? eieii?noaie aeyaeai?
iaie o oiiaeao “Aanna?aanueeiai oei/aniaiai eii?oaoo” (o.4),
“Aanna?aanueeiai iaeaniiai o?yaeo” (o.5).

Oe?ii? a?aeiiino? i?i caethaeiaiiy I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa??
caa??aathoueny o o?e?ae? Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Iaeanueei? iaeano? o
i?no? ?cia?e (OAeAII a ?cia?e? ). Oea noino?oueny, ia?o ca ana,
oiiae?a “Aiaiiia i?aaeaiea Iiai?inneeneiai eaca/ueaai aienea 1828-1869
aa.” (o.755), “Eciaeeueneia ai?iaeneia iieeoeaeneia oi?aaeaiea” (o.514),
“Eaioeaey?ey Eciaeeueneiai a?aaeiia/aeuenoaa” (o.56). Aeieoiaioe oeeo
oiiae?a ?iciia?aeathoue i?i iina — eaiiy eicae?a o Aoaeaeaeo
i?ney e?ea?aeaoe?? Onoue — Aeoiaenueeiai eicaoeueeiai a?enueea,
canioaaiiy ieie ie?aieo noaieoeue oa oooi??a. O aeena?oaoe??
aeei?enoai? e?oiieni? iaoa??aee, io?oe?ei? aeieoiaioe, iioae?eiaai?
a ??cieo ca??ieeao .

Aei aeaea?aeueii? aace aeena?oaoe?? a?aeiinyoueny oaeiae
a?oaieia?/i? ?ica?aeee o I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’?, cae?eniai?
o 80-90 ??. iaoiai noie?ooy. Aiie caiiaiththoue oo o?iiieia?/io
eaeoio, yea ?nioaaea i?ae eoeueoo?aie ?einueeiai ?
?aiiueina?aaeiueia?/iiai /ano neia’yinoaa. Icia/aiei i?iaeaiai
i?enay/aiee ca??iee i?aoeue oe?a?inueeeo a?oaieia?a oa ?noi?ee?a
“Neaayia ia Aeiano?a e Aeoiaa” 1. Noaoo? A.Aa?aia, ?.Aeiieo?a,
I.I?eoiaeithea, I.Eacainueeiai, I.A?ae/aanueeiai, ai?uai? a oeueiio
ca??ieeo, ae??ciy — thoueny iiaeciith iaoa??ae?a, aeicaieythoue
i?ine?aeeoaaoe oeyoe i?inoaaiiy neia’yi ia i?aaeaiue ? i?aaeaiiee
cao?ae, oi/i?oa anoaiiaeoe /an ?o iiyae a Iiaeoiaa’?. Iaie
aeei?enoai? oaeiae i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a ? a?oaieia?a, ye?
aeeoee ae?oeii o 1980 — 1989 ?ieao 2 .

Iioae?eiaaia e?oa?aoo?a oa aeaea?aeueia aaca na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, ui aei oeueiai /ano iica iieai ci?o aeine?aeiee?a
caeeoeeeny aaaeeea? ieoaiiy oe??? oaie, a oaeiae aaaaoi aeaea?ae
i?noeaaiai oa?aeoa?o. Aea/aiiy ? aaaaeaiiy ?o o iaoeiaee ia?a
ni?eyoeia iiaeaeueoiio aeine?aeaeaiith ?noi??? no?aeiineia’yinueei?
eieii?caoe?? I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa??. __________________

1 Neaayia ia Aeiano?a e Aeoiaa : Na. iao/. o?oaeia. — E., 1983.

2 Neaayia e ?onue: Na. iao/. o?oaeia. — E., 1980 ; Neaayineea
ae?aaiinoe : Na. iao/. o?oaeia. — E., 1980; Aeiano?i-Aeoiaeneia
iaaeaeo?a/uea a I — ia/aea II oun.i. y.: Na. iao/. o?oaeia. — E.,
1987; A?oaieiae/aneea iaiyoieee noaiae Iiaeiano?iauey e Iiaeoiaauey
: Na. iao/. o?oaeia. — E., 1989.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ianaeaiiy iiieccy iaaee??//y Aei?no?a ?
Aeoiath a ia??iae aaeeei? neia’yinueei? eieii?caoe??” aiae?cothoueny
neeaaei? aoi?/i? i?ioeane, iniaeeaino? neia’yinueei? eieii?caoe??,
?icaeyaea?oueny aeoiaenueea eiioeaioe?y i?aaaouee?aueie neia’yi,
c?noaaeythoueny ?aii? ienueiia? aeaea?aea i?i neia’yinuee? ieaiaia
o iiiecc? iaaee??//y Aei?no?a ? Aeoiath c iia?oi?ie
a?oaieia?/ieie ? e?iaa?noe/ieie ?ica?aeeaie.

Iacaaaeath/e ia ?icia?o?noue eiioeaioe?e ? a?iioac i?i
iioiaeaeaiiy neia’yi ? ?oiith i?aaaouee?aueio, ? i?aenoaae
oaa?aeeoe, ui Iiaeoiaa’y a?ae?a?aei aaaeeeao ?ieue o ?o ?aii?e
?noi???. Ana a?eueoa ?noi?ee?a, a?oaieia?a, aoiieia?a, o?eieia?a
noeeythoueny aei oiai, ui i?a?aoe?y I?aaeaiue — I?ai?/ aoea
iiaoi?ii — cai?ioiith. Neia’yie i?eoiaeeee o Iiaeoiaa’y oeyoaie,
yeeie ?o i?auo?e naiai /ano eoee ia I?ai?/ ? I?ai?/iee no?ae.
Na?aae ?icia?ooy aca?iiaieea?a, ia?ao?auaiiy ia?a?nieo eoeueoo?
aaaaoueio aoiin?a o Iiaeoiaa’? ae?acii i?inoaaeo?oueny o?aaeeoe?y
oe?ai?ianueei — neioa?nueeiai iiaooo, iaoa??aeueii? ? aeooiaii?
eoeueoo?e, yea ca’ycoaaea i?noeaaa ianaeaiiy c ianaeaiiyi
caiaeue, ui neeaee i?ci?oa yae?i oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai aoiino.
Oey o?aaeeoe?y aeo?eiaea aei?iaoaaiiy noie?oue ? a?ae?a?aea
aaaeeeao ?ieue o iiaeaeueo?e ?noi??? oeueiai e?ath. Ia?oith
neia’yinueeith aea?aeaaiith oi?iaoe??th IV-VII no., yea ni?aaeea
ae??oaeueiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy ianaeaiiy Iiaeoiaa’y, aoa
aionueeee nithc ieaiai. C VI no. neia’yie noathoue aieiaiei
aoiinii o Iiaeoiaa’?. ?icnaeaiiy ?o aoei o?eaaeei ? a iniiaiiio
ie?iei. *an a?ae caiaiaaeo aaa?nueeiai ieai?iiiai ia’?aeiaiiy
(ae?oaa /aa?oue VII no.) aei iiyae ia Aeoia? oa??a (na?aaeeia
IX no.) aoee, iaiaaii, iaeni?eyoeea?oeie aeey ainiiaea?nueeiai ?
eoeueoo?iiai iiaioaaiiy neia’yiaie ieaeiueiai Iiaeoiaa’y.
Iaia?aaeiaei? ooai?aiiy Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae ia oa?eoi???
Iiaeoiaa’y aeeee neia’yinuee? ieaiaia oeaa?oe?a oa oee/?a, yeeo
ua iaceaathoue “iiaeoiaeoeyie”. O 912 — 972 ?ieao iiaeoiaenuee?
caie? aoee i?e?aeiai? aei Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae, yea ni?aaeea ia
ieo aeaaioai?iee aieea.

O O no. I?e/i?iiii?nueeee noai, ye a?aeiii, aoa caeiyoee
ia/ai?aaie, a iio?i — iieiaoeyie (eoiaiaie). O ae?oa?e iieiaei?
O?? no. iieiaoe? noai?eee o I?eaeoiaa’? aea?aeaaia ia’?aeiaiiy
i?ae iacaith “I?eaeoiaenueea Eoiai?y”, aoei cieuaii iiiaae 20
neia’yinueeeo iinaeaiue. I?ae oeneii ia/ai?a?a ? iieiaoe?a cieeee
c iie?oe/iiai ia??th ieai?ii? ia’?aeiaiiy oee/?a oa
oeaa?oe?a. Cia/ia /anoeia ?o a?ae?eoea ia i?ai?/ (a iaae?
Aaeeoeueeiai eiyc?anoaa) ? ca Aeoiae. Eeoa ca eiycthaaiiy
Aieiaeeie?a Iiiiiaoa (1113-1125 ??.) Aei?no?ianueei — Aeoiaenueea
iiieccy ciiao oa?eoei aei Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae.

A e?ioe? O?? — ia ii/. O??? no. aeoiaenueei — aei?no?ianuee?
caie? oa?eoee aei neeaaeo Aaeeoeueei — Aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoaa. A
oeae /an ianaeaiiy e?ath c?inoaei ca ?aooiie ia?anaeaioe?a c
Aaee/eie, ye? o?eaee a?ae naaaie? aaeeoeueeeo aiy?. Oe?
ia?anaeaioe? iaceaaeenue “aeaiioeyie aaeeoeueeeie”. O oeae /an, ye
na?ae/aoue ienueiia? aeaaiuei?onuee?, a?caio?enuee?, oai?nuee? oa
?io? aeaea?aea, ia ieaeiueiio Aeoia? iaoeaea noaiiaa
??ciiieai?iia ethaei?noue caeaa?eueoiai no?aeiineia’yinueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, na?aae ieo oae caai? a?iaeieee, aa?eaaeieee.

A O??? — ia?o?e iieiaei? XIV no. i?e/i?iiii?nuee? caie?
iaaee??//y Aei?no?a ? Aeoiath ia?aaoaaee o cii?
iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeeo caaieiaiee?a. Oaoa?nueea iaaaea nooo?ai aieeioea
ia aoi?/io neooaoe?th a Iiaeoiaa’?. *anoeia neia’yi — iinaeaioe?a
a eio?ee ?ac ia?a — i?uoaaeany ia i?ai?/, aeeae/a aei e?niaeo
ianea?a. Neia’yii-oe?a?inueea eieii?caoe?y a oeae e?ae iii?oii
nei?i/o?oueny. I?ioa iniiaiee aoi?/iee ianea caa??any. I?noeaaa,
ia?aaaaeii neia’yinueea, ianaeaiiy ia?aaaaeaei o i?eii?nuee?e
cii?, oaoa?e iiaioaaee Aoaeaeaoeueeee noai.

Neia’yinueea eieii?caoe?y oeueiai e?ath aoea iniiaiith, aea
ia ?aeeiith. Iaoeaee ooo a?aee, o?ae?eoe?, ?eieyie, aieioe,
iieaeiaaie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Noaiiaeua oe?a?ioe?a oa ?ioeo
neia’yinueeeo aoiin?a i?ae aeaaeith Oo?a//eie” aeine?aeaeo?oueny
noaiiaeua neia’yinueei? ethaeiino? I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa?? i?ae
aeaaeith Oo?a//eie, iieacaia ?ieue oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa o ??
aeaeeaaii?, oa?ae — oa?eco?oueny aioeneia’yinueea iie?oeea
oo?aoeueeiai o?yaeo, yeee iaaeaaaa ia?aaaao iiaaeoeyi, a??nueeei
aieioai, iaiaaath/enue aeaneia’yiecoaaoe oeae e?ae.

Aac i?aeo?eiee c aieo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa Iieaeiaa ia
iiaea i?ioenoiyoe Iooiiainuee?e ?iia??? ? a 1513 ?ioe? ciooaia
aoea aeciaoe i?ioaeoi?ao Oo?a//eie. I?ioa oeae aeiaia?? ia
a?yooaaa Iieaeiao a?ae iiaeaeueoiai aoi?aiaiiy oo?e?a oa iaaaee
e?einueeeo oaoa?. A?aeaieiaaia oo?eaie o Iieaeianueeiai eiyc?anoaa
oa?eoi??y o aeaiia?ao?/iiio a?aeiioaii? iiae?eyeanue ia aea?
/anoeie. Ia?oa — aeania noai, iaei i?eaeaoiee aeey caiea?ianoaa ?
iaeaea ia canaeaiee. Ae?oaa — i?eii?nueea nioaa c ?iaeth/eie
a?oioaie, aaaeeeaeie oeaio?aie oi?a?ae?, a?aeiinii aeia?a
caethaeiaia. Oea cia/iith i??ith aecia/aei iie?oeeo Oo?aoeueeiai
o?yaeo uiaei iiaioaaiiy oeeo oa?eoi??e ? aeei?enoaiiy ?o o
nai?o ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo aeiiaaaiiyo.

O 60-o ?ieao XVI no. noeoai Noeaeiai ?? aea? caiaeo ia
iinaeaiiy a Aoaeaeaoeueeeo noaiao 30 oeny/ iiaaenueeeo ?iaeei.
Iacaaa?ii iiaaeoe? canaeeee aanue noai ? ooai?eee oae caaio
Aoaeaeaoeueeo i?aeo. A na?aaeei? XVII no. aiia ia?aoiaoaaea
iiiaae 45 oen. /ieia?e. ?aceaeaioe?y iiaaenueeeo oai?a
ciaoiaeeeanue o naeeu? Eaooaie, iiiaoeaiiy noaaeaieea E?einueeiai
oaia (ocaa?aaeiiai aa?) — o Oaieeoe? (oaia? naei Oaeiaia). Iaaeyae
ca ieie cae?enithaaa iai?niee oo?aoeueeiai noeoaia, yeee nie?aany
ia yie/a?nuee? i?ae?icae?ee. I/aaeaeii, oey iiaea?eia
i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue aoea noai?aia na?aeiii. Aiia caaacia/oaaea
noaa?euei?noue aieeao Oo?a//eie o ?aa?ii?. Aoaeaeaoeueea i?aea
aoea cia?yaeaeyi a ?oeao oiai /e ?ioiai i?aaeoaey a caeaaeiino?
a?ae noinoie?a i?ae E?einueeei oainoaii ? Oo?a//eiith.

?ioei aoa neeaae ianaeaiiy o i?eii?nuee?e /anoei? ieoiiaaieo
Oo?a//eiith caiaeue. Iaoeaee ooo ia?aaaaeii oe?a?ioe?, ?in?yie,
iieaeiaaie, iacia/ia /enaeuei?noue aieaa?, a?ae?a, a??iai?a oa
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo ia?iae?a. Ianaeaiiy oeeo caiaeue iino?eii
iiiiaithaaeinue ca ?aooiie oe?a?ioe?a, ye? o?eaee a?ae ai?oo
iieuenueeeo iai?a oa oeyooe ? noaaaee ooo ia o?eueee
oe?ai?iaaie, aea e ai?iaie. Iiaooi?e neia’yinueeee aeaiaio ia
oeeo caieyo, yeee nai?i ei??iiyi nyaaa o /ane aaeeei?
neia’yinueei? eieii?caoe??, aoa iniiaiith ia?aoeiaeith oo?aoeuee?e
aeniain??. Aeey onoiaiiy oe??? ia?aoeiaee Oo?aoeueeee o?yae
aaeaaaany aei ??ciiieaiiaeo caoiae?a : iaaeaaaeany ia?aaaaa
a??nueeei aieioai, a?aeai, iiaaeoeyi, oaoa?ai, ?iaeeiny ana aeey
?ic?eao a?eiaiai ca’yceo i?noeaaiai i?aaineaaiiai ianaeaiiy c
ieo?iiie?yie Aaee/eie oa Aieaa???, ai?iaaaeaeoaaeany oo?aoeueea
aaei?i?n — o?aoeaii — a?enueeiaa nenoaia oi?aae?iiy.

Aieiaea?thaaiiy Oo?a//eie i?ecaaei aei cia/ieo c?ooaiue a
aoi?/iiio neeaae? ianaeaiiy. Oe?a?inueeee aoiin cianeethaaany,
ciae?iaethaaany, caiaiaaeaa, ao?a/aa caeaoi?noue aei ai?ioueae.
Iieuenueei — Eeoianueea aea?aeaaa, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeeee oiae?
oe?a?inuee? caie?, ia ni?iiiaeany i?aai?coaaoe iaeaaeio a?aen?/
oo?aoeueei — oaoa?nueeei aa?ani?ai. Oe?a?i — nueeee ia?iae aeoai?ea
aeanio a?enueeiao neeo, yea acyea ia naaa i?n?th ai?iieoe ??aeio
caieth, nai?o ?aeeiie?iaieo a?ao?a. Oe??th neeith c e?ioey XV
no. noaei oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai.

I?ae /an ii?nueeeo oa nooiiooieo iioiae?a o oo?aoeuee?
aieiae?iiy I?ai?/ii — Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y eicaee ia o?eueee
ai?iieee nai? caie?, aea e iaaeeoaee nai?o ?aeeiie?iaieo a?ao?a
o ai?iouea? ca aoi?/ia ? nioe?aeueia aeaeeaaiiy ia caaa?aaieo
Oo?a//eiith oa?eoi??yo. A e?ioe? XVI — ia?o?e iieiaei? XVII no. a
oo?aoeuee? aieiae?iiy ia?aeoea /anoeia o/aniee?a naeyinueei —
eicaoeueeeo iianoaiue, i/iethaaieo E?eooioii Eineinueeei, Naaa?eiii
Iaeeaaeei, Oa?anii Oaaei?iae/ai, Iaaeii Iaaetheii oa ?i. I?ae
/an iaoe?iiaeueii — aecaieueii? a?eie 1648-1657 ?ie?a ai?ioueaa
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa c oo?eaie ? oaoa?aie a I?aaeaii?e
Aanna?aa?? aeaui caana?. Iniiai? neee eicaoeoaa aoee caeiyo?
ai?ioueaith i?ioe Iieueu?, a aaoueiai A.Oiaeueieoeueeee iaiaaaany
aeei?enoaoe a?enueeia? iiaeeeaino? oo?e?a ? oaoa? o ai?iouea? c
iieuenueeith oeyooith.

Ia ii/aoeo XVIII no. o eicaoeuee? aieiae?iiy ia Aeoia?
o?eathoue o/anieee iianoaiiy 1702-1704 ??. i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
N.Iae?y, o/anieee iianoaiiy 1707-1708 ??. ia /ie? c E.Aoeaa?iei,
caii?icuee? eicaee, ye? caeeoeee Oe?a?io i?ney c?oeioaaiiy N?/?
a 1709 ?ioe?. Ia aa?aaao Aeoiath aiie canioaaee naea Eo??iue,
Iaeaieo, Naeiaie, Naaaeaeaee, Ao?eae oa ?i.

I?ney e?ea?aeaoe?? Caii?icueei? N?/? ii/aeiny ianiaa
ia?anaeaiiy eicae?a ia oa?eoi??th Oo?a//eie. Iinaeeeeny aiie a
I/ae?anuee?e ie?oc?, a?ey ??/ie Aa?acaiue ? Oee?aoe, eeiaio
Oaaeaeeaay ? a i. Aaeoa, o iiiecc? Aei?no?a — a?ae Aea?iaia aei
Aaiaea?, o Aoaeaeaeo, ae?eao Aeoiath — o Aeeeiaiio, E?e??, a?ey
Ooeue/? e Aaeaoea.

Oe?a?inuee? eicaee aoee iniiaiith neeith, yea caaacia/eea
oyae?noue oe?a?inueei — neia’yinueei? eieii?caoe?? caiaeue iiieccy
iaaee??//y Aei?no?a ? Aeoiath o XVI — XVIII no. Oo?aoeueeee
ieoiaoe?eiee ?aaeei, ia aeeaey/enue ia eiai aioeneia’yineo
ni?yiiaai?noue, ia o?eaaea eicaoeueei — oo?aoeueea i?ioenoiyiiy,
aoa o oeae /an aeaui iiaeaaeeea?oei aei eicaoeueeeo aieueiinoae,
i?ae ?iia?nueeee ?in?enueeee. Oo?a//eia iaiaaaeany aeei?enoaoe
oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai o ai?iouea? c ?in??th.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Eicaoeueei — naeyinueea eieii?caoe?y
iiieccy iaaee??//y Aei?no?a oa Aeoiath a e?ioe? XVIII — ia?o?e
iieiaei? XIX no.” aeine?aeaeo?oueny iiaeaeueoa iiaioaaiiy
Iiaeoiaa’y oe?a?inueeei eicaoeoaii, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeniaineaia
iie?oeea ?in?? oa Oo?a//eie o I?ai?/ii — Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’?.

Eicaoeueei-naeyinueea eieii?caoe?y iiieccy iaaee??//y Aei?no?a
oa Aeoiath oeueiai /ano o?nii iia’ycaia c e?ea?aeaoe??th
Aaoueiaiueie oa Caii?icueei? N?/?, iineeaiiyi e??iaoeoaa,
?in?enueei — oo?aoeueeeie a?eiaie. A Iieaeia? ? a oo?aoeueeeo
aieiae?iiyo oeueiai e?ath ia aoei oaeeo aei?noeeo oi?i
e??iaoeueei? caeaaeiino?, ye o ?in?enuee?e ?iia???. O?eath/e ia
oe? caie?, naeyie niiae?aaeeny oieeiooe e??iaoeoaa. I?ioa iaae??
ia a?eueia aeeooy aeey a?eueoino? c ieo aeyaeyeeny ia?ieie.
Ao?ea/? iiiaaeaee a “i?aeaeainoai” aei oo?aoeueeeo oaiaeae?a, aai
a iaeie aei i?noeaaeo aaaao??a, ciooai? aoee niea/oaaoe
iaoyaeeea? iiaeaoee. Iniaeeai oyaeeei aoei noaiiaeua
oe?a?inueeiai ? ?in?enueeiai ianaeaiiy a Aoaeaeaeo, aea
i?iaeiaaeoaaee iaioaaoe oaoa?e. AEeooy iinaeaioe?a o oe?e
i?noeaaino? ia aa?aiooaaeiny i?yeei caeiiiaeaanoaii ? caeaaeaei
eeoa a?ae aie? oiai /e ?ioiai oaoa?nueeiai oaiaeaea.

Aieiaia ?ieue o neia’yinueei — oe?a?inuee?e eieii?caoe??
iiieccy iaaee??//y Aei?no?a ? Aeoiath oeueiai /ano iaeaaeaea
oe?a?inueeiio eicaoeoao. Oo?aoeueeee o?yae, niiae?aath/enue
aeei?enoaoe eicae?a o ai?iouea? i?ioe ?in??, a 1778 ?ioe?
i?eeia? eicae?a o nai? i?aeaeainoai, aeae?ey? ?i aeey iinaeaiiy
ino??a nayoiai TH??y, Noeeinueea oa Eaoe?eacueea (Aai?a??anueea)
ae?ea Aeoiath. Ooo eicaee e canioaaee na?e E?o. Ca i?eooeie oa
iaaeai? i?eueae eicaeai aeiaiaeeeinue aei?iai ieaoeoe — a?aoe
o/anoue o iioiaeao oo?aoeueei? a?i?? a ea?aeueieo iia?aoe?yo i?ioe
aieaa?nueeeo, na?anueeeo, a?aoeueeeo iianoaioe?a.

Ianiaee ia?ao?ae caii?iaeoe?a o oo?aoeuee? aieiae?iiy
aeeeeeaa noo?aiaai?noue oea?nueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??. I?eeiath/e aei
naaa eicae?a, Oo?a//eia i?ae?eaaea ?? i?aeia?iaeiee aaoi?eoao “ye
iie?iaeoaeueoe? i?aaineaaieo”. A oiio i?ae /an ?in?enueei- oo?aoeueei?
a?eie 1806-1812 ??. oea?nueeee o?yae noai?ea Onoue — Aeoiaenueea
(Aoae — aeaoeueea) eicaoeueea a?enueei, yea ?nioaaei c 20 ethoiai
aei 14 /a?aiy 1807 ?ieo. Ca ?aooiie eicaoeoaa oea?nueea
aaei?i?no?aoe?y iaiaaaeany ci?oeieoe nai? a?enueea oa iinoaaeoe
i?ae iaaeyae oe?a?inueeo ai?a?aoe?th ia Aeoia?. Ca ciai?oi?ie
iciaeaie Onoue — Aeoiaenueea a?enueei iaaaaeoaaei A?enueei
Caii?icueea. Iani?aaae? aiii iiai?noth i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeiny
?in?enueeiio eiiaiaeoaaiith.

I?ae /an ?in?enueei — oo?aoeueei? a?eie 1828 — 1829 ?ie?a
oea?nueeee o?yae noai?ea Aeoiaenueea (Iiai?in?enueea) eicaoeueea
a?enueei. Aeey eicae?a, ye? anooiaee aei a?enueea,
anoaiiaethaaeeny i?eueae: eiaei?e ?iaeei? iaaeaaaeinue 30 aeanyoei
caie?, eicaee ca?eueiyeenue a?ae iaaei?iie, a?enueeiaiai iinoith
ia 10 ?ie?a oa ?i. A iaaee??//? Aei?no?a oa Aeoiath eicaee
oeueiai a?enueea canioaaee iaeeiaaeoeyoue noaieoeue ? oooi??a.

O 1828 ?ioe? a?ey oeny/? eicae?a Caaeoiaenueei? N?/? ia
/ie? c eioiaei ioaiaiii E.Aeaaeeei ia?aeoee i?ae ?cia?eii ia
a?e ?in?enueei? a?i??, aeiiiiaaaee ?e ia?ai?aaeoenue ia i?aaee
aa?aa Aeoiath, acyee o/anoue o aieiaeo iia?aoe?yo i?ioe Oo?a//eie.
Oo?aoeueeee o?yae ?ic?aiaa Caaeoiaenueeo N?/ ? aei?noiei
?ici?aaeany c ?? ianaeaiiyi. ?in?enueeee o?yae, ia?aoo?,
aeinyaioa nai?? iaoe: Caaeoiaenueeo N?/, yea i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano
aeeaeea ianaeaiiy e?ath aeooii oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, aoei
cieuaii.

Iie?oeea oea?nueeiai o?yaeo uiaei eieii?caoe?? Aanna?aa?? aoea
iaiaeiicia/iith. Iaiaaath/enue ia?aoai?eoe ?? o i?eaaaeeaee aeey
ia?iae?a Aaeeai e?ae, oea?eci aoa caoe?eaaeaiee o oaeaeeiio
canaeaii? Aanna?aa?? ia o?eueee eieii?noaie, aea e aoiea/aie,
ia?anaeaiiy yeeo ia aeiaaaei aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao. A oie aea /an
oea?nueea aaei?i?no?aoe?y iaiaaaeany caaeiaieueieoe aeiiae
iii?uee?a — iiaa?iooe e??iae?a — ooiea/ia ia eieeoi? i?noey
iaoeaiiy. O canaeaii? e?ath oea?nueeee o?yae iaaeaaaa ia?aaaao
?iicaiiei eieii?noai, ui i?ecaaei aei cia/ieo aoi?/ieo c?ooaiue:
ciaioeeanue ieoiia aaaa oe?a?ioe?a ? ?in?yi, c?inea — aieaa?,
aaaaoc?a, i?ioe?a oiui. A?eueo? i?eueae, e?au? caiaeuei? ae?eyiee
iaea?aeaee eieii?noe c Cao?aeii? ?a?iie — o?aioeoce, i?ioe?. O
neeaaeieo oiiaao iieieeeny aieaa?nuee? ia?anaeaioe?. Iinaeaioe? c
Oe?a?ie oa ?in?? iaiaaeoaaeenue o a?iiaaeyinueeeo i?aaao, aeey
ieo ia aenoa/aei caiaeueieo iaae?e?a, eioo?a ia aoae?aieoeoai
aeeoea, i?eaeaaiiy ooaeiae e ?aiaiaioo oa ?i. C 1812 ii 1861
?iee, ethaei?noue Aanna?aa?? c?inea a /ioe?e ?ace ? neeaaeaea
aeecueei 1 i?eueeiia /ie., na?aae ieo a?ey 300 oeny/ oe?a?ioe?a
? ?in?yi.

Caeaaaeiny a, ui aeeth/aiiy caiaeue Aanna?aa?? aei neeaaeo
?in?? i?eaaaea aei a?ae?iaeaeaiiy neia’yinoaa. I?ioa iani?aaaei a
aeeooy ai?iaaaeaeoaaeany io?oe?eia aeieo?eia iai?onecio, ca?aeii c
yeith “aea?aeaaia ia?iaei?noue” iiaea neeaaeaoeny c ??cieo
ia?iae?a oeyoii “anei?eyoe??”. I?eeo/aiiy ethaeiino? e?ath aei
iaaeaaiue iaoee ? eoeueoo?e a?aeaoaaeiny ia?aaaaeii /a?ac
?in?enueeo iiao, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaaei ia ?icaeoie aoiieoeueoo?,
ca?aeithaaei aeooiaiee na?o ethaeae, neiaoaaei ? eiina?aoaaei
aoi?/io naiina?aeii?noue. A o? iaeeiaee, ye? i?ae?eiaeeny aei
??aiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, c oeo /e ?ioeo i?e/ei caeeoaee
e?ae. ?o cai?iyea ca?aeaeaea c?oneo?eiaaia ?ioae?aaioe?y, yea ia
iiaea ia?aeiyoeny aeooiaieie ?ioa?anaie aoiin?a e?ath.

AENIIAEE

Aeineiaeaeaiiy a?o?aieo aeaea?ae i iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o
aeicaiey? aecia/eoe o aeiaaio?eaaeiio i?ioean?
no?aeiineia’yinueei? eieii?caoe?? I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa?? o?e iin —
e?aeiaieo aoaie : ia?oee (V — ia?oa iieiaeia XIV no.) — /ane aaeeei?
neia’yinueei? eieii?caoe?? oa aoiaeaeaiiy oeeo caiaeue aei neeaaeo
Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae oa Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoaa; ae?oaee
(ae?oaa iieiaeia XV — e?iaoeue XVIII no.) — ?iee oo?aoeueeiai
iaioaaiiy; o?ao?e (e?iaoeue XVIII — ia?oa iie. XVIII no.) — ia??iae
ai?ioueae Oo?a//eie ? ?in?? ca caie? I?ai?/ii — Cao?aeiiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y.

A?oaieia?/i? ?iceiiee ? ienueiia? aeaea?aea na?ae/aoue, ui o
IV-VII no. caie? i?eii?nueei? /anoeie iaaee??//y Aei?no?a oa
Aeoiath aoee iiaiiaai? ieaiaiaie aio?a. Aionueea ieai?iia
aea?aeaaia ia’?aeiaiiy — oea a?aei?aaiee ?noi?e/iee ia??iae
ooaa?aeaeaiiy ia oeeo caieyo i?aaeaiii-no?aeieo neia’yinueeeo
ieaiai. C?noaaeaiiy ienueiiaeo aeaea?ae i?i neia’yi oeueiai
?aa?iio (ea?oa ?einueeiai aaia?aoa Eanoi??y (360 ?.), Iaao?iaa?ia?
oaaeeoe? (e?iaoeue ??? no. ), i?aoe? Ei?aeaia, I?ieii?y
Eana??enueeiai, Iaiaiae?a, Oaio?eaeoa N?iieaooe oa ?i.) c iiaeie
a?oaieia?/ieie ?ica?aeeaie neia’yinueeeo noa?iaeeoiinoae V no.
aeicaieythoue caiiaieoe oo o?iiieia?/io eaeoio, yea ?nioaaea a
?noi??? oeueiai e?ath i?ae iaioaaiiyi ?eieyi ?
?aiiueina?aaeiueia?/iei /anii neia’yinoaa. Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy
cia/iith i??ith i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?ai?oa aenoiooo a?iioaco i?i
oa, ui a /ane aaeeei? neia’yinueei? eieii?caoe?? i?a?aoe?y
I?ai?/ — I?aaeaiue aoea iiaoi?ii — cai?ioiith. Neia’yie i?eoiaeeee
o Iiaeoiaa’y oeyoaie, yeeie ?o i?auo?e naiai /ano eoee ia
I?ai?/ ? I?ai?/iee No?ae.

I?aaeaiii — no?aeiei neia’yinueeei ieaiaiai iaeaaeaea
i?ia?aeia ?ieue a iiaioaaii? oeueiai e?ath. Aiie caii/aoeoaaee
ooo ainiiaea?nuee? ? aoiieoeueoo?i? i?ioeane, ye? o?eaaeee /an
iaee aeieaiiniee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie iie?aoi?/iiai
ianaeaiiy e?ath. Aieea neia’yinoaa ia an? noa?e noni?eueiiai
aeeooy o Iiaeoiaa’? cia/ii iineeeany a ia??iae aoiaeaeaiiy oeeo
caiaeue aei neeaaeo Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae oa Aaeeoeueei —
Aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoaa.

Neia’yinueea eieii?caoe?y iaea ia?aaaaeii ie?iee,
caiea?ianueei — neioa?nueeee oa — ?aeoa?. Neea ? oyae?noue ??
iieyaaea oaeiae a oiio, ui i?aaeaiii — no?aei? neia’yie iino?eii
caa?aaaee ca’ycie c nai?i aoi?/iei yae?ii, caaacia/oaaee naith
a?aeiinio oe?e?ni?noue.

A?oaieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy 70 — 90 — o ?ie?a ia i?aaei?
Iaeanueei? iaeano? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue,

ui neia’yinueea eieii?caoe?y oeueiai e?ath aoea i?ia?aeiith,
i?ioa ia ?aeeiith. Iaee i?noea ooo aeaiaioe eieii?caoe??
o?ae?enueei?, a?aoeueei?, ?einueei?, i?ci?oa aieinueei —
iieaeianueei?, ui ? iaoiiaeei aeineoue neeaaeio aoi?/io no?oeoo?o
?aa?iio.

Iiiaiei — oaoa?nueea iaaaea nooo?ai aieeioea ia aoi?/io
neooaoe?th a I?aaeaii?e Aanna?aa??. *anoeia neia’yi aeiooaia aoea
ia?ai?noeoeny ia i?ai?/, aeeae/a aei e?niaeo ianea?a.
No?aeiineia’yinueea eieii?caoe?y a oeae e?ae iii?oii
nei?i/o?oueny. I?ioa iniiaiee aoi?/iee ianea caa??any. I?noeaaa
ianaeaiiy ia?aaaaeaei o i?eii?nuee?e cii? iaaee??//y Aei?no?a oa
Aeoiath, oaoa?e iiaioaaee Aoaeaeaoeueeee noai.

Oo?aoeueea ieoiaoe?y ia o?eaaeee /an ??cei nei?ioeea
no?aeiineia’yinueeo eieii?caoe?th o iiieccy Aei?no?a oa Aeoiath.
I?eieea ao?ea/?a c oeaio?aeueieo oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue iineeeany
i?ney Ethae?inueei? oi?? (1569 ?.). Oo?aoeueea ?ai aeey aaaaoueio c
ieo aoei ia a??oa iaaiaonueei — oeyoaonueeiai ia ??aei?e caie?.
Iniiaiee iio?e ia?anaeaioe?a o oe? /ane aoa ni?yiiaaiee aei
iieaeianueeiai eiyc?anoaa, aea ?nioaaei oae caaia “iieaeianueea
i?aai” — naeyie aeeiioaaee iiaeiiino? ia?aaaaeii ia ei?enoue
aea?aeaae.

O iieaeianuee? oa oo?aoeuee? aieiae?iiy o?eaee o/anieee
eicaoeueei — naeyinueeeo iianoaiue a Oe?a?i? e?ioey XVI — ii/aoeo
XVII no., i?ci?oa — o/anieee iianoaiiy 1702 — 1704 ?ie?a ia
I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i?, a caiaeii — aaeaeaiaee.

Aeiaaio?eaaea oo?aoeueea iaioaaiiy ?oeioaaei, a iiaeaeoaee e
caaei iai?aaoeue o? ainiiaea?nueei — eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane, ye?
caii/aoeoaaee ia oeeo caieyo neia’yinuee? ieaiaia. Oe?a?ioe? ye
aoiin aoee cianeeai?, ciae?iaeai?, a?ae??aai? a?ae iniiaiiai
aoi?/iiai yae?a. A eiai aoiieoeueoo?ia na?aaeiaeua oa?eoee a?oie
ethaeae ?ioiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Oe?a?inuee? eicaee aoee iniiaiith neeith caaa?oaeueiiai aoaio
no?aeii — neia’yinueei? eieii?caoe?? caiaeue I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa??.
Naia ooo aoee noai?ai? Caaeoiaenueea, Onoue-Aeoiaenueea
(Aoaeaeaoeueea) oa Aeoiaenueea (Iiai?in?enueea) eicaoeuee?
oi?ioaaiiy. Eicaee oeeo oi?ioaaiue canioaaee o Iiaeoiaa’? iiiaae
30 iinaeaiue.

Eicaoeueei — naeyinueeo eieii?caoe?th e?ath oeueiai /ano
iiaeia oiiaii iiae?eeoe ia aeaa ia??iaee : ia?oee — e?iaoeue XVIII
no. — aei ?in?enueei — oo?aoeueei? a?eie 1806 — 1812 ?ie?a,
ae?oaee — ?in?enueei — oo?aoeueea a?eia 1806 — 1812 ?ie?a — aei
e?ioey ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX noie?ooy. Ia?oee ia??iae oe???
eieii?caoe?? aoa iia’ycaiee c e?ea?aeaoe??th Caii?icueei? N?/?,
Aaoueiaiueie ? aaoiiiiieo i?aa Oe?a?ie c aieo ?in?enueeiai
oea?ecio. A oo?aoeuee? aieiae?iiy ia?anaeeeany cia/ia /anoeia
caii?icueeeo eicae?a, a i?ae ?o i?ee?eooyi — iie??ia/ai? naeyie. O
ae?oaiio ia??iae? io?oe?eia eieii?caoe?y e?ath ii?aeioaaeany c
noeo?eiith, aeiooaiith. Oea?nueeee o?yae iaiaa?oaaa i?ae
iii?ueeaie, ye? aeiaaaee iiaa?iaiiy e??iae?a — ooiea/ia, ?
iaiao?aei?noth inai?oe iaeicanaeai? i?aaeaiii — aanna?aanuee? caie?
aeey iiaeaeueoi? aeniain?? ia Aaeeaie.

A e?ioe? 30-o ?ie?a XIX no. a Aanna?aa?? iianthaeii aoea
ai?iaaaeaeaia oea?nueea nenoaia oi?aae?iiy. Ii/aeiny caneeey
oea?nueeeo /eiiaiee?a, caiaioaaea nooe?eueia ?oneo?eaoe?y.
Oea?nueeee o?yae iaiaaaany noai?eoe a Aanna?aa?? iaae?eio
nioe?aeueio iii?o a inia? aaaaoeo ?iicaiieo eieii?no?a. Iineeaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ai?oo ci?ieee noaaeaiiy
i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy aei oea?nueei? aeaaee, aei ?in?? ia a??oa.
Aaaaoi iaoeaioe?a e?ath naiia?eueii ia?ai?noeeeny ia oa?eoi??th
Iieaeiae.

?iicaii? eieii?noe aeeaeeenue ia iiaeoiaenuee? caie?, ye ia
i?noea, aea iiaeia aoei i?aai?coaaoe caiiaeia ainiiaea?noai.
Cia/i? i?eueae, e?au? caie? iaea?aeaee eieii?noe c Cao?aeii?
?a?iie — o?aioeoce, i?ioe?. Ca caieth oa ?io? i?eueae aiie aoee
aaey/i? oea?nuee?e ?in??, a ?ioa?ane i?noeaaiai ethaeo
(oe?a?ioe?a, ?in?yi, iieaeiaai) ? eiai aoiieoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe??
aoee ?i /oae?.

I?ioa iii?e on? iaaa?acaee, eiaeia c aoi?/ieo a?oi caa?aaea
naith iiao, aoi?/io naiiaooi?noue. Iaea?eueo iiaii aiia
caa?aaeany o noa?? n?iaeii-iiaooiaeo noinoie?a, ia?yaeiaino?,
a??oaaiiyo oa ?ioeo aeaeao o?aaeeoe?eii — iiaooiai? eoeueoo?e. Oea
aaeeea aeaai, ? eiai iio??aii iiaiith i??ith aeei?enoaoe a
?icaoaeia? noaa?aiii? Oe?a?ie.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH
AeENA?OAOe??

Iaeueieeiaa E. N. Neia’yie ia Aeoia? a na?aaeei? ia?oiai
oeny/ie?ooy iaoi? a?e // Oe?a?inueea I?eaeoiaa’y : ?noi?e/i?
ia?aaeeaie aoooy ? no/ani?noue. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. — Aei. 2. —
E., 1997. — N. 22 — 28.

Iaeueieeiaa E. N. Eicaee o I?ai?/ii — Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’?
(e?iaoeue XVIII — ia?oa iieiaeia XIX no.) // Oe?a?inueea eicaoeueea
aea?aeaaa: Aeoiee oa oeyoe ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ( Iaoa?. VI
Anaoe?a?inueeeo ?noi?e/ieo /eoaiue ). — Ee?a — *a?eane, 1997. — N.
162 — 169.

Iaeueieeiaa E. N. Aaei?i?no?aoeaii — iie?oe/iee ono??e
I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa?? i?ae oo?aoeueeei iaioaaiiyi a XVI — XVII?
no. // Iaoeiaee a?niee ?cia?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
?inoeoooo. — Aei. 3. — ?cia?e, 1998. — N. 231 — 238.

Iaeueieeiaa E. N. C ?noi??? caethaeiaiiy e?ath // Oe?a?inueea
I?eaeoiaa’y. — Ei. 1. — ?cia?e, 1998 . — N. 81 — 110.

AIIOAOe??

Iaeueieeiaa E.N. No?aeiineia’yinueea eieii?caoe?y I?aaeaiii?
Aanna?aa?? / V — ia?oa iieiaeia XIX no. /. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeue —

i?noth 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeana, 1999.

Caoeua?oueny ?oeiien aeena?oaoe??, a ye?e eiiieaenii
aeine?aeaeothoueny iniiai? aoaie no?aeiineia’yinueei? eieii?caoe??
I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa??: a /ane aaeeei? neia’yinueei? eieii?caoe??,
i?ae /an oo?aoeueeiai iaioaaiiy ? a ia??iae ai?ioueae Oo?a//eie
? ?in?? ca aanna?aanuee? caie?.

A aeena?oaoe?? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iniaeeaino? eiaeiiai aoaio
no?aeiineia’yinueei? eieii?caoe??, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ??
oaiaeaioe?? oa caeiiii??iino?. Iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny o?e
/anoei? I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa??, yea aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo Oe?a?ie.
Iieacaia i?ia?aeia ?ieue i?aaeaiii — no?aeiiai neia’yinueeiai
ianaeaiiy a ainiiaea?nueei — eoeueoo?iiio iiaioaaii? caiaeue
I?aaeaiii? Aanna?aa??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa : I?aaeaiia Aanna?aa?y, Oe?a?inueea Iiaeoiaa’y,
iiieccy iaaee??//y Aei?no?a ? Aeoiath, aaeeea neia’yinueea
eieii?caoe?y, aeoiaenueea eiioeaioe?y, no?aeiineia’yinuee? ieaiaia,
oe?a?inueeee aoiin, oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai, aeiooaia eieii?caoe?y,
noeo?eia eieii?caoe?y.

Iaeueieeiaa E.N. Ainoi/iineaayineay eieiiecaoeey THaeiie
Aanna?aaee / V — ia?aay iieiaeia XIX no. /. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — enoi?ey Oe?aeiu
— Iaeanneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. E.E. Ia/ieeiaa,
Iaeanna, 1999.

Caueuaaony ?oeiienue aeenna?oaoeee, a eioi?ie eiiieaenii
enneaaeothony iniiaiua yoaiu ainoi/iineaayineie eieiiecaoeee
THaeiie Aanna?aaee: ai a?aiaia aaeeeie neaayineie eieiiecaoeee, a
aiaeu oo?aoeeiai ainiiaenoaa e a ia?eiae ai?ueau Oo?oeee e
?innee ca aanna?aaneea caiee. Oa?aeoa?ecothony iniaaiiinoe yoeo
yoaiia, iao/ii iainiiaaiu oaiaeaioeee e caeiiiia?iinoe
ainoi/iineaayineie eieiiecaoeee. Iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony oie
/anoe THaeiie Aanna?aaee, eioi?ay aoiaeeo a ninoaa Oe?aeiu.
Iieacaia aaaeouay ?ieue thai-ainoi/iiai neaayineiai ianaeaiey a
oicyenoaaiii — eoeueoo?iii inaiaiee caiaeue yoiai ?aaeiia.

Ia?aue ?acaeae “Enoi?eia?aoe/aneee e enoi/ieeiaaae/aneee iaci?
i?iaeaiu” iinayu?i aiaeeco enoi/ieeia e eeoa?aoo?u ii oaia
aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey. A i?i ?ane?uaaaony o?iaaiue
enoi?eia?aoe/aneie ?ac?aaioee oaiu, i/a?/aia a? enoi/ — ieeiaay
aaca.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea “Ianaeaiea ieciauey iaaeaeo?a/uey Aeiano?a
e Aeoiay a ia?eiae aaeeeie neaayineie eieiiecaoeee”
aiaeece?othony neiaeiua yoie/aneea i?ioeannu a yoii

?aaeiia, ?anniao?eaaaony aeoiaeneay eiioeaioeey i?a?iaeeiu neaayi,
niiinoaaeythony ?aiiea ienueiaiiua enoi/ieee i neaayineeo ieaiaiao
a ieciauea iaaeaeo?a/uey Aeiano?a e Aeoiay n iiaaeoeie
a?oaieiae/aneeie e eeiaaenoe/aneeie enneaaeiaaieyie. Iieacaia ?ieue
Iiaeoiaauey a ?aiiae enoi?ee neaayi.

Ianiio?y ia acaeiiaeaenoaea iiiaeo ia?aiauoiuo eoeueoo? a
Iiaeoiaauea y?ei i?ineaaeeaaaony o?aaeeoeey caieaaeaeue/anei —
neioiaiae/aneiai auoa, iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u,
naycuaathuay ianoiia ianaeaiea n ianaeaieai caiaeue, noaaoeo
iicaea ianoii oi?ie?iaaiey yae?a oe?aeineiai yoiina. Yoa
o?aaeeoeey auaea?aeaea eniuoaiey noieaoee e nua?aea aaaeioth
?ieue a aeaeueiaeoae enoi?ee yoiai e?ay.

N VI a. neaayia noaiiayony aeaaiui yoiinii a Iiaeoiaauea.
?annaeaiea eo auei aeeeoaeueiui e a iniiaiii ie?iui. Aei
ia?aciaaiey Eeaaneiai ainoaea?noaa ia oa??eoi?ee Iiaeoiaauey aeeee
neaayineea ieaiaia oeaa?oeaa e oee/ae. A 912 — 972 aa. yoe
ieaiaia auee i?eniaaeeiaiu e Eeaaneiio ainoaea?noao, eioi?ia
aeaaioai?ii aeeyei ia ?acaeoea iiaeoiaeneeo caiaeue.

A O a. Naaa?i — Caiaaeiia I?e/a?iiii?uea auei caiyoi
ia/aiaaaie, a caoai iieiaoeaie (eoiaiaie). Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
XII a. iieiaoeu nicaeaee caeanue nai? ainoaea?noaaiiia
iauaaeeiaiea iiae iacaaieai “I?eaeoiaeneay Eoiaiey”. Iiae
aeaaeaieai ia/aiaaia e iieiaoeaa en/acee n iieeoe/aneiai
ai?eciioa ieaiaiiua iauaaeeiaiey oee/ae e oeaa?oeaa. Cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue eo ioioea ia naaa? ( a i?aaeaeu Aaeeoeeiai eiyaeanoaa )
e ca Aeoiae.

A eiioea XII — ia/. XIII aa. caiee aeoiaenei —
aeiano?ianeiai ieciauey aioee a ninoaa Aaeeoeeiai eiyaeanoaa.
Ianaeaiea e?ay oaaee/eeinue ca n/?o ia?anaeaioeaa ec Aaeeoeee,
aaaeaaoeo io naiaaieey ianoiuo aiy?.

Ia yoie/aneoth neooaoeeth a Iiaeoiaauea nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea
ieacaei oaoa?i — iiiaieueneia iaoanoaea. *anoue neaayi —
ia?anaeaioeaa a eioi?ue ?ac ia?aianoeeanue ia naaa?, aeeaea e
eaniui ianneaai. Neaayinei — oe?aeineay eieiiecaoeey a Iiaeoiaauea
caiaoii nie?aoeeanue. Iaeiaei iniiaiie yoie/aneee iannea
nio?aieeny. Ianoiia, i?ae — iouanoaaiii neaayineia, ianaeaiea
i?aiaeaaeaei a i?eii?neie ciia, oaoa?u caaeaaeaee Aoaeaeaeneie
noaiueth.

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea “Iieiaeaiea oe?aeioeaa e ae?oaeo
neaayineeo yoiinia iiae aeanoueth Oo?oeee” enneaaeoaony iieiaeaiea
neaayi ianaeyaoeo THaeioth Aanna?aaeth iiae aeanoueth Oo?oeee,
iieacaia ?ieue oe?aeineiai eaca/anoaa a eo auaeeaaiee,
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aioeneaayineay iieeoeea oo?aoeeiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa,
eioi?ia ioaeaaaei i?aeiouanoai iiaaeoeai, ai?iui aieioai e oaeei
ia?acii no?aieeinue aeaneaayiece?iaaoue yoio e?ae. Aeaaeu/anoai
Oo?oeee i?eaaei e cia/eoaeueiui eciaiaieyi a yoie/aneii ninoaaa
ianaeaiey. Oe?aeineee yoiin iaanneeeaaeny, iaane?iaeeaaeny,
i?eoiaeee a oiaaeie, oa?ye niiniaiinoue e ai?ueaa. Iieuenei —
Eeoianeia ainoaea?noai, a ninoaa eioi?iai aoiaeee oiaaea iniiaiie
iannea oe?aeineeo caiaeue, ia niiaei i?aaieciaaoue iaaeeaaeauee
ioii? oo?aoeei — oaoa?neei aa?anni?ai. Iniiaiie neeie, acyaoae ia
naay ienneth caueou naieo aaeeiie?iaiuo a?aoueaa, auei oe?aeineia
eaca/anoai.

Iinea eeeaeaeaoeee Caii?iaeneie Na/e ia/aeinue ianniaia aaanoai
eacaeia ia oa??eoi?eth Oo?oeee. Iinaeyeenue iie a I/aeianeie
ie?oaa, aicea ?ae Aa?acaiue e Oeeeaoe, eeiaia Oaaeaeeaay e a.
Aaeou, a ieciauea Aeiano?a — io Aeea?iaia aei Aaiaea?, a
Aoaeaeaea, onoueyo Aeoiay — a Aeeeiai, Eeeea, aicea Ooeue/e e
Aaeaoea. Oo?aoeeee ieeoiaoeeiiiue ?aaeei, ianiio?y ia aai
aioeneaayineia iai?aaeaiea, ia aeeeoaeueiia eacaoeei — oo?aoeeia
i?ioeainoiyiea, aue a yoi a?aiy aieaa nienoiaeeoaeueiui e
eacaoeeei aieueiinoyi, /ai eiia?neee ?inneeneee.

A /aoa??oii ?acaeaea “Eacaoeei-e?anoueyineay eieiiecaoeey
ieciauey iaaeaeo?a/uey Aeiano?a e Aeoiay a eiioea XVIII — ia?aie
iieiaeia XIX no.” enneaaeoaony aeaeueiaeoaa inaiaiea Iiaeoiaauey
oe?aeineei eaca/anoaii, oa?aeoa?ecoaony yeniaineaiay iieeoeea
?innee e Oo?oeee a Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii I?e/a?iiii?uea.

Aeaaiay ?ieue a neaayinei-oe?aeineie eieiiecaoeee ieciauey
Aeiano?a e Aeoiay a yoi a?aiy i?eiaaeeaaeaea oe?aeineiio
eaca/anoao. Oo?aoeeia i?aaeoaeuenoai, iaaeaynue eniieueciaaoue
eacaeia a ai?ueaa i?ioea ?innee, a 1778 a. i?eieiaao eacaeia a
nai? iiaeaeainoai, auaeaeyao ei aeey iinaeaiey ino?ia nayoiai
TH?ey, Noeeineia e Eaoe?eaaeneia (Aai?aeaaneia) ae?ea Aeoiay.
Caeanue eacaee iniiaaee naie Eio. Ca i?etho e i?aaeinoaaeaiiua
eueaiou eacaeai i?eoiaeeeinue aei?iai ieaoeoue — i?eieiaoue o/anoea
a iioiaeao oo?aoeeie a?iee, a ea?aoaeueiuo iia?aoeeyo i?ioea
aieaa?neeo, na?aneeo, a?a/aneeo iianoaioeaa.

A aieiao n Oo?oeeae ?inney iauaeoeaii niaeaenoaiaaea
inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueaa neaayineeo ia?iaeia Iiaeoiaauey e Aaeeai
i?ioea oo?aoeeeo caoaao/eeia, ii a oiaea a?aiy iia i?aneaaeiaaea
i?aaeaea anaai naie eiia?neea eioa?anu, ia o/eouaaea
iiiaiyoie/aneiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey THaeiie Aanna?aaee, i?iaiaeeea
ae?noeoth ?oneoeeaoeeth, ioaeaaaea i?aaeii/oaiea eiino?aiiui
eieiienoai, aunaeyea eacaeia a ae?oaea ?aeiiu eiia?ee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa : THaeiay Aanna?aaey, Oe?aeineia Iiaeoiaauea,
ieciauey iaaeaeo?a/uey Aeiano?a e Aeoiay, aaeeeay neaayineay
eieiiecaoeey, aeoiaeneay eiioeaioeey, ainoi/iineaayineea ieaiaia,
oe?aeineee yoiin, oe?aeineia eaca/anoai, auioaeaeaiiay
eieiiecaoeey, noeoeeiay eieiiecaoeey.

Melnikova L.S. The East — Slavonic Colonization of Southern
Bessarabia

/ V — the 1st half of XIX centuries /. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate of historical science by specialiti
07.00.01 — history of Ukraine. — Odessa I.I. Mechnikov
State University, Odessa, 1999.

Defended the manuscript of thesis in which undertaken
attempts to consider the main stages of the east — slavonic
colonization of Southern Bessarabia : at times of great slavonic
colonization, in the period of the Turkish supremacy and
Turkey and Russia’s struggle for the Bessarabian lands.

In the dissertation are characterized the peculiarities of
each stage of the east — slavonic colonization, its well —
grounded tendencies and regularities. The attention is paid to
that part of Southern Bessarabia, which forms a part of
Ukraine. Shown the leading role of south — eastern slavonic
population in the economic and cultural seizureof the Southern
Bessarabia lands.

Key words : Southern Bessarabia, the Ukrainian part of the
Danube, the lower part of the Dniestre and the Danube, the
great slavonic colonization, east — slavonic tribes, Ukrainian
ethnos, the Ukrainian Cossacks, foreed colonization, simultaneous
colonization.

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