IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO A?OAIEIA??

NEIIIAIEI Ieaenaiae? Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 902/904 (477) (478.9)“529”:93

NA?IAOE I?AI?*IIAI I?E*I?IIII?’ss.

O?IIIEIA?ss, IA??IAeECAOe?ss OA AOII-IIE?OE*IA ?NOI??ss

?noi?e/i? iaoee — 07.00.04 — a?oaieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? ne?oi-na?iaonueei? a?oaieia?? ?inoeoooo
a?oaieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee,

IAENEIIA ?aaai Aieiaeeie?iae/;

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

UOE?I Ia?e Ai?eniae/,

Aea?aeaaiee A?i?oaae,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio,

NI?I*AI Na?a?e Ai?eniae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi??? noa?iaeaaiueiai na?oo

oa na?aaei?o a?e?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
?noi??? noa?iaeaaiueiai na?oo oa na?aaei?o a?e?a,

i.Oaeai?iae

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “25 “ aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.234.01 aeey caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe i?e
?inoeooo? a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

254655, Ee?a-210, i?iniaeo Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea, 12.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: i.Ee?a, i?iniaeo Aa?i?a
Noae?ia?aaea, 12.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 8 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.I.Iao?aoaiei

A aeaai?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?noeue iin?aea?
na?iaonueea aeiaa. ??aiiiiai? ieaiaia ei/iaee?a-na?iao?a i?ioyaii iaeaea
600 ?ie?a neeaaeaee aieiaio aoii-iie?oe/io neeo a noaio oa e?ninoaio
Oe?a?ie oa a?ae?a?aaaee cia/io ?ieue a ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo oa?eoi??e,
eio?? aiie caeiaee ? c yeeie iaaeoaaee. Na?iaoe a?aee aeoeaio o/anoue a
ao?oeeaeo iie?oe/ieo iiae?yo, ui i?ioiaeeee a aioe/iiio na?o? a 2 no.
aei i.a. — 4 no.i.a. U?eueii eiioaeooth/e c caiea?ianueeeie ieaiaiaie
ca?oaeiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e, i?ci?ie ne?oaie Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y oa
E?eio, na?iaoe iaaiith i??ith aieeaaee ia ?o iaoa??aeueio oa aeooiaio
eoeueoo?o. Na?iaoe, ?aiiy ?noi??y yeeo iia’ycaia c aeiaith i?ciuei?
aeaaieie, ia caeeth/iiio aoai? naiai ?nioaaiiy a?aee?eaathoue aeiao
Aaeeeiai ia?anaeaiiy ia?iae?a, aeiao na?aaeiueia?//y.

Aeooaeuei?noue aea/aiiy ?noi??? ? eoeueoo?e na?iao?a aecia/a?oueny
aaaeeea?noth ?o ?ie? a ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie. Na?iaoe I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y aoee iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith aaee/aciiai ianeao ei/iaee?a,
ui i?inoe?aany a?ae O?aeo aei Oai?ueie. Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo
e?euee?noue a?oaieia?/ieo iai’yoie o ?aa?ii?, ui aea/a?oueny, ? iaoeiaeo
?ia?o, i?enay/aieo ?i, a iaooe? aein? a?aenooi? ocaaaeueithth/a
aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e na?iaonueeiai na?oo I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y, yea a?aeiia?aeaei a no/aniiio noaiia? iaoa??aeo. Ia iaio
aaaeeeaeie ? e ie?ai? aniaeoe i?iaeaie: inoaoi/ia aecia/aiiy /ano oa
oa?aeoa?o ii/aoeiaiai aoaio i?iieeiaiiy na?iao?a ia oa?eoi??th
eieeoiuei? Ne?o??, o?iiieia?y oa ia??iaeecaoe?y na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e
I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y a na?oe? iia?oi?o ?ic?iaie na?iaoiciaanoaa,
a?oioiaia a?oaieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ??cieo ia??iae?a ?icaeoeo
na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e ia Oe?a?i?, ?ica’ycaiiy ia iniia? no/aniiai
iaoa??aeo i?iaeaie aca?iia?aeiinei na?iao?a c ioi/oth/ei ianaeaiiyi
(in?e? aa?aa?nuee? eoeueoo?e oa aioe/iee na?o) ? ona?aeiieaiiy ?o ?ie? a
aoiiaaiaoe/ieo i?ioeanao ia aeaai?e oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie a 1 oen. i.a.,
aeine?aeaeaiiy ca’yce?a, noiaeino? oa a?aei?ie na?iaonueeeo eoeueoo?
I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y ? Ac?aonueei? Na?iao??, ei?aeooaaiiy oa
ae??oaiiy aeayeeo aeeneon?eieo ieoaiue na?iaoiciaanoaa. Iaeiae c oeueiai
ia?ae?eo i?iaeai, eiaeia c yeeo iiaea aooe oaiith ie?aiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaea?eueo aeooaeueieie oyaeythoueny ?ic?iaea o?iiieia??
na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y oa ?? ia??iaeecaoe?? ?
?aeiino?oeoe?y ia i?aenoaa? an?o eaoaai??e aeaea?ae aoii-iie?oe/ii?
?noi??? na?iaonueeeo ieaiai ?aa?iio. Aeooaeuei?noue ia?oeo aeaio i?iaeai
i?iaeeeoiaaia, c iaeiiai aieo — aaaeeea?noth o?iiieia?/ieo ?iaeeeaoi??a
ye iniiae aeey aeaooaaiiy na?iaonueeeo iai’yoie, c ?ioiai — neaaith
?ic?iaeai?noth oeueiai ieoaiiy noiniaii oa?eoi???, ui aea/a?oueny,
ye?nieie ci?iaie aeaea?aeiai? aace ia oeae /an oa iayai?noth iia?oi?o
o?iiieia?/ieo ?ic?iaie ii ?ioei ?aa?iiai Na?iao??. Aeooaeuei?noue
o?aouei? iieyaa? ia?aae on?i a oiio, ui na?iaoe I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y
ciaoiaeeeenue a iino?eieo oa u?eueieo eiioaeoao c ioi/oth/ei
aa?aa?nueeei oa aioe/iei na?oii. A?aeiia?aeii, aea/aiiy eiai ?noi???
iaiiaeeeaa aac iiae?aieo ?ic?iaie ii na?iaoao. E??i oiai, niaoeeo?ea
aeaea?ae aeicaiey? c iaea?eueoith a??ia?aei?noth ae??ooaaoe naia ieoaiiy
aoii-iie?oe/ii? ?noi???. Ae??oaiiy oeeo i?iaeai, ui i?iiiio?oueny a
aeai?e ?iaio?, caaacia/o? ?? iaoeiao iiaecio.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo oai a?aeae?eo ne?oi-na?iaonueei? a?oaieia??
“Aeaaiy ?noi??y Oe?a?ie” oa “A?oaieia?/i? aeaea?aea aei aea/aiiy
aeaaiueiai ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie aeiae ?aiiueiai cae?ca”.

Caaaeaiiyie cai?iiiiiaaii? ?iaioe ?:

a) e?eoe/iee iaeyae ?nioth/eo a a?o/eciyi?e oa caei?aeiii?e iaooe?
oi/ie ci?o ia ??ci? aniaeoe oaie;

a) aiae?c ienueiiaeo aeaea?ae ii oai? oa ?o ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ia no/aniiio
??ai? iaoeiaiai ciaiiy. Ni?anoaaeaiiy aeaieo ienueiiaeo aeaea?ae c
iayaieie aeaieie a?oaieia?? ye iaiao?aeia oiiaa iaea?aeaiiy aaeaeaaoii?
oyae i?i caeeaaeaio a ieo ?ioi?iaoe?th;

a) oeiieia?/iee oa o?iiieia?/iee aiae?c a?oaieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo ?
?ic?iaea ia oe?e iniia? o?iiieia?? ? ia??iaeecaoe?? na?iaonueeeo
iai’yoie I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y.

a) aeei?enoaiiy aeaieo a?oaieia?/iiai aiae?co oa ienueiiaeo aeaea?ae
aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? aoii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a o na?iao?a I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y.

Iaoith ?iaioe ii aeeiiaii? oeeo caaaeaiue ? ?aeiino?oeoe?y
aoii-iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? na?iao?a I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y.

Aeaea?aeiaa aaca neeaaea?oueny ia?o ca ana c na?iaonueeeo iioiaaiue oa
aeiaaeeiaeo ciao?aeie, cia/ia /anoeia yeeo ia aeaeaia e iaiaaeaii
a?aeiia iaoeiaiio caaaeia?. Ca noaiii ia 1998 ?. a?aoiaaii 1256
iioiaaiue oa ie?aieo ciao?aeie na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e. O?iiieia?/ii aiie
?iciiae?eythoueny ia 74 ?aiiueina?iaonueeeo (2 — 1 no. aei i.a.), 738
na?aaeiueina?iaonueeeo (1 — na?aaeeia 2 no.i.a.) oa 444
i?ciueina?iaonueeeo (ae?oaa iieiaeia 2 — 4 no.i.a.). Aeaa inoaii?o /enea
iiaeooue aa?’??oaaoe a iacia/ieo iaaeao ca ?aooiie iaiiaeeeaino? a
ie?aieo aeiaaeeao oi/ii i?iaeaooaaoe iai’yoeo, aea oea ia a?aeaeaa?oueny
ia caaaeuei?e neooaoe??. E??i oiai, a ?iaio? yeiiiaa iiaii aeei?enoai?
aeai? aioe/ii? ienueiiai? o?aaeeoe??, aoiia?ao??, iaeaiaaia?ao??,
aio?iiieia??, ai?a?ao?/i? oa ioi?ciaoe/i? aeaea?aea.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ?iaioe (2 no. aei i.a. — 4 no.i.a.) ioiieththoue an?
ia??iaee ?icaeoeo na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e: ?aiiuei-, na?aaeiuei- ?
i?ciueina?iaonueeee.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee ?iaioe — noai oa e?ninoai i?ae Aeiiii oa I?ooii.
Oaeei /eiii, aei aiae?co caeo/ai? iioiaaiiy oa aeiaaeeia? ciao?aeee
na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e c oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ? Iieaeiae.

Iaoiaeieia?/ieie canaaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee o?aaeeoe?ei? iaoiaee
aiae?co: ii??aiyeueii-oeiieia?/iee, ?ao?iniaeoeaiee, o?iiieia?/iee,
iaoiae «aocueeeo aeaooaaiue», ea?oia?ao?/iee. I??ith iaiao?aeiino?
canoiniao?oueny oi?iaeueii-noaoenoe/iee iaoiae.

Oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaii? o?iiieia?/iiai oa
?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/iiai ci?noo iiiyooy na?iaonueea eoeueoo?a I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y, a ?aeiino?oeoe?? aoii-?noi?e/ieo i?ioean?a na?iaonueeiai
/ano ia oa?eoi???, ui aea/a?oueny.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? eiiieaeno aeaooth/eo
iciae (o?iii?iaeeeaoi??a) aeey na?iaonueeeo iai’yoie, a aeae?eaii?
a?oaieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y. Aieiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
i?e iaienaii? ocaaaeueithth/eo ?ia?o oa o/aiaeo iin?aiee?a c a?oaieia??
?aiiueiai cae?ciiai a?eo ? aeaaiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa Iieaeiae aeey
AOC?a ? na?aaei?o oe?e, i?e neeaaeaii? iocaeieo aeniiceoe?e, oaeno?a
eaeoe?e oiui.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a aei ?ia?o o ni?aaaoi?noa?, ?aea? ? ?ic?iaee
yeeo aeei?enoai? a aeena?oaoe??, iieyaa? a oaeiio. A iaei?e c iiiia?ao?e
(Neiiiaiei, Eiaae, 1991) iiith iaienai? Anooi, 3,5 ?icae?ee c 4,
Aeniiaee. I?iaaaeaiee oeiieiai-o?iiieia?/iee aiae?c iaoa??aeo, iiaeaia
?aeiino?oeoe?y aoii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a ?aa?ii?. A ae?oa?e iiiia?ao??
(Aoiyoyi, Io?cei, Neiiiaiei, 1998) iaienaiee ?icae?e, i?enay/aiee
noa?iaeeoiinoyi na?iao?a oa i?ci?o ne?o?a (5,5 ae.a.). A ?iaioao,
iaienaieo ?acii c N.A.Iie?iei (Iieei, Neiiiaiei, 1990; 1997), iiith
i?iaaaeaia /anoeia aiae?co iaoa??ae?a oa e?eoeea ienueiiaeo aeaea?ae
uiaei na?iao?a. A noaooyo, iaienaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.A.?a?aei oa
I.TH.O?aenoa?ii (?aaa, Neiiiaiei, O?aenoa?, 1990; Raev, Simonenko,
Treister, 1991) aeia?aiee iaoa??ae c oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, iaa?oioiaaia
eiai aeaooaaiiy oa aoi?/ia iaeaaei?noue. A ioae?eaoe?yo (Eoaeoaa,
Iieeyoeueeee, Neiiiaiei, 1987; Agulnikov, Simonenko, 1993; Eo?/aoia,
Neiiiaiei, *??eia, 1995; Podobed, Simonenko, 1998) iiith iaienaii
aiae?oe/io /anoeio.

Ai?iaaoe?y aieiaieo iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeeeany ia can?aeaiiyo
ne?oi-na?iaonueeiai a?aeae?eo ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, ia
?aa?iiaeueieo oa i?aeia?iaeieo nai?ia?ao, neiiic?oiao oa eiioa?aioe?yo a
Oe?a?i?, Iieaeia?, ?in??, Oai?uei?, I?ia//ei?.

No?oeoo?ii ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e oa ?ethno?aoe?e. Ianya
?iaioe: oaeno — 357 n.; nienie e?oa?aoo?e — 43 n. (565 iaeiaioaaiue);
aeiaeaoee: 50 oaaeeoeue ?ethno?aoe?e oa iiyniaiiy aei ieo.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Anooi i?noeoue iaa?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? oaie, a iueiio
aecia/athoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, oa?eoi??aeuei? oa o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iiaeathoueny aeai? i?i eiai
iaoiaeeeo oa aeaea?aeiao aaco, i?i iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a ?iaioe
o ni?aaaoi?noa?, ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a, no?oeoo?o oa ianya.

?icae?e 1. Aea/aiiy na?iao?a I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y ? aieiai? i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1.1.?noi??y aea/aiiy. A oeueiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny aa??aioe
ia??iaeecaoe?? aea/aiiy na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e, ui ?niothoue a iaooe?,
i?iaaaeeoueny iaeyae ?noi??? a?oaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iai’yoie, a
oaeiae aiae?c iayaii? e?oa?aoo?e c na?iaonueei? i?iaeaiaoeee, ii/eiath/e
c ?ia?o I.?.Oaoa?eea, A.A.Eaoeoaaa, O.A?aoia, A.I?iica, I.?.?inoiaoeaaa.

1.2.No/aniee noai na?iaonueei? i?iaeaiaoeee. Iaea?eueo aeooaeueieie
ieoaiiyie na?iaoiciaanoaa eeoathoueny: /an oa oa?aeoa? iiyae na?iao?a ia
oa?eoi??? no/anii? Oe?a?ie; aecia/aiiy o?iiieia?/ieo iaae ??cieo
ia??iae?a na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y;
ocaaaeueithth/a aeine?aeaeaiiy na?iaonueeeo iai’yoie no?aeii? Oe?a?ie oa
Aei?i?i-Aei?no?ianueeiai iaaee??//y; aeine?aeaeaiiy eiioaeo?a na?iao?a c
non?aeaie — iin?yie in?eeo aa?aa?nueeeo eoeueoo? oa aioe/iei na?oii;
ca’ycee na?iaonueeeo iai’yoie Oe?a?ie c iai’yoeaie Aeiio, Eoaai?,
Iiaieaey, Aeoueieueaea oa Aeia?oaeae? ? anoaiiaeaiiy ?o ?noi?e/iiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy; aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo eaoaai??e iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e
na?iao?a Oe?a?ie.

1.3.Caaaeuei? caoaaaeaiiy aei o?iiieia?? ? ia??iaeecaoe?? na?iaonueei?
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? ni?eueiioe. A ??ci? /ane aoei cai?iiiiiaaii
aeae?eueea ??cieo o?iiieia?/ieo noai ?icaeoeo na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e
(I.?.?inoiaoeaa, I. ?ao, E.O.Ni??iia, A.I.A?aeia). Aei inoaiiueiai /ano
an? aeine?aeieee ei?enooaaeeny o?iiieia?/iith noaiith E.O.Ni??iiaa —
A.I.A?aeiaa, ca?aeii yei? aeae?eyeeny naa?iiaonueea aai
aethiaioaeueaenueea, ?aiiueina?iaonueea aai i?ioi??anueea,
na?aaeiueina?iaonueea aai none?anueea oa i?ciueina?iaonueea aai
aeainueea eoeueoo?e. Iaocaiaeaeai?noue i?ae a?oaieia?/iei iaoa??aeii ?
aeaieie aioe/ii? ienueiiai? o?aaeeoe??, ui iii?/aeany ana /ano?oa,
i?eioneea aeine?aeiee?a ua ?ac ia?aaeyiooe canaaee aeey o?iiieia?? ?
ia??iaeecaoe?? na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? ni?eueiioe. Iacaeaaeii
iaeei a?ae iaeiiai N.A.Iie?i oa A.N.Ne?eieei ae?eoee aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui
aa?oith o?iiieia?/io iaaeo ?aiiueina?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e ne?ae
a?aenoiooe aei ?oaaaeo i.a. Niinoa?aaeaiiy iacaaieo aaoi??a noinoaaeeny
Ieaeiueiai Iiaieaey oa I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, iaeiae aiaeia?/ieo
aeniiae?a caiaeii ae?eoee aeine?aeieee na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e I?eeoaaiiy
oa Ieaeiueiai Aeiio. Oaeei /eiii, ca iiaith o?iiieia??th
?aiiueina?iaonueea eoeueoo?a c ?? ao?eaooaie iiaooo? aei ?oaaaeo i.a. Ia
Ieaeiueiio Aeii? oa a Iiaieae? ca?aeii c aeaieie aioe/ieo aeaea?ae aiia
iia’yco?oueny c ai?naie, ia Eoaai? — c n??aeaie, a a I?ai?/iiio
I?e/i?iiii?’? — c ?ienieaiaie oa yceaaie.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca a?oaieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie na?aaeiueina?iaonueei?
eoeueoo?e iieacaee, ui ?? aieiai? iciaee a iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae?
(ia?aaaaeaiiy iniiaieo iioiaaiue, eaaae?aoi? yie c ae?aaiiaeueiei
iieiaeaiiyi iaa?ae/eea, o?ecie oa caoiie?ei? aea?e ia i?aeeo?aaii?e
iiaa?oi?, ?iae) oa ?a/iaiio eiiieaen? (ia?aaaaeaiiy eeeieiai? ca?i? c
e?eueoeaaei iaaa?oyi, aii/a?ia n??iaeeiyia ea?ai?ea, i?ee?ane
«a??thciai-cieioiai» noeeth, eacaie c ciiii?oieie ?o/eaie, eeoaenuee?
ethno?a oa aeaye? ?io? ?a/? no?aeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy) c’yaeythoueny ia
?ai?oa 1 no.i.a. Oey eoeueoo?a a ?? noaeiio aeaeyae? iiaooo? aei
na?aaeeie 2 no.i.a. Eeoa a ae?oa?e iieiaei? oeueiai noie?ooy a
iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? oa iaoa??aeuei?e eoeueoo?? na?iao?a
a?aeaoaathoueny ??ce? ci?ie, ui ae?aaiinoothoue ii/aoie iiaoooaaiiy
iiai? — i?ciueina?iaonueei? — eoeueoo?e.

Oaeei /eiii, ca iiaith o?iiieia??th ia??iaeecaoe?y na?iaonueei?
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? ni?eueiioe iaaoaa? oaeiai aeaeyaeo:
?aiiueina?iaonueea eoeueoo?a — 2 — 1 no. aei i.a., na?aaeiueina?iaonueea
— 1 — na?aaeeia 2 no.i.a., i?ciueina?iaonueea — ae?oaa iieiaeia 2 —
ia?oa iieiaeia 4 no.i.a.

Aeine?aeieee, ui aea/aee na?iaonuee? iai’yoee I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y,
cae/aeii aeio?eioaaeeny ia??iaeecaoe?? E.O.Nie?iiaa — A.I. A?aeiaa.
Uii?aaaea, a?oaieia?/iee iaoa??ae ?iiae? cioooaaa ?o i?iaaaeeoe a?eueo
ae??aia o?iiieia?/ia /eaioaaiiy aai aeae?eyoe «ia?ao?aei?» a?oie, oiaoi
noa?a noaoe/ia noaia ia ni?aoeueiaoaaea, aea aeeoe ca ?? iaae?
aeine?aeieee ia ?eceeoaaee, aaeath/enue aei aeiae?eueieo oeyo?a.
I.?.Aycuei?o?ia ?icae?eeea na?iaonuee? iai’yoee Oe?a?ie ia ?aii? (4 — 3
no. aei i.a. c «ia?ao?aeiith» a?oiith 2 — 1 no. aei i.a.), na?aaei? (1
no. aei i.a. — 1 no.i.a.) oa i?ci? (2 — 4 no.i.a.). I?ae aeaiia
inoaii?ie aiia oaeiae aeae?eeea «ia?ao?aeio» a?oio ae?oai? iieiaeie 1 —
2 no.i.a. A.?.Einoaiei cai?iiiioaaa ia ia?oee iiaeyae, aeieeaaeia, aea
iaaiith i??ith ooo/ia e a?ii?caeea /eaioaaiiy: iai’yoee 3 no. aei i.a.,
3 — 2 no. aei i.a., 2 — 1 no. aei i.a., 1 no. aei i.a. — 1 no.i.a., 1
no. i.a., ?oaaaeo 1 — 2 — e?ioey 2 no.i.a., e?ioey 2 — na?aaeeie 3
no.i.a. I.I.Aeceaianueeee oa A.?.A?ino ia?oee aoai inai?iiy na?iaoaie
I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y aeaoothoue ?oaaaeai — 1 no.i.a. Aeae?
aaoi?e aeae?eythoue o?iiieia?/i? a?oie: ae?oai? iieiaeie 1 — 2 no.i.a.,
e?ioey 2 — 3 no.i.a., ae?oai? iieiaeie 3 — 4 no. i.a. (A.?.A?ino);
ia?oi? iieiaeie 2 no.i.a., ae?oai? iieiaeie 2 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 3
no.i.a., ae?oai? iieiaeie 3 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 4 no.i.a.
(I.I.Aeceaianueeee). ?ioeo ni?ia i?iaaaeaiiy o?iiieia?/iiai /eaioaaiiy
na?iaonueeeo iai’yoie I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y ia aoei.

A iniiao cai?iiiiiaaii? a ?iaio? ia??iaeecaoe?? iieeaaeaiee i?eioeei
aca?iicono??iooino? aeaooth/eo ?a/ae, ui ii?aeiothoueny a iaaeao iaaieo
ia?yaeiaeo a?oi. Aeey oeueiai aoei neeaaeaii nienee, ye? aeeth/athoue
iaea?eueo oeiia? aeey oiai /e ?ioiai o?iiieia?/iiai a?aeoeieo ciao?aeee.
Oe? nienee ei?aeththoueny c iciaeaie iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo, ui aea?
ciiao cao?enoaaoe a?oie iai’yoie, iaiaaeai? o?iiieia?/ii ? iia’ycai?
ni?eueieie iciaeaie.

1.4. Na?iaonuee? iai’yoee I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y ? nenoaia
?a?iiaenueei? o?iiieia??. Iniiaith nenoaie ?a?iiaenueei? o?iiieia?? ?
?einuee? ?iii?oi? ae?iae, ciaeaeai? a iai’yoeao aa?aa?nueeeo eoeueoo?
?a?iie. Aiie ae noaee aacith aeey aecia/aiiy o?iiieia?/ii? iiceoe??
na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y a oe?e nenoai?.
Iaea?eueo ?aii? ?a?iiaenuee? ?iii?oi? ae?iae a na?iaonueeeo iai’yoeao
I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y a?aeiinyoueny aei 2 — 1 no. aei i.a. (o?aoee
na?aaeiueieaoainueei? noaie, oieiie i?aaeaiiia?aoeuee? oa Iiioaoi?o?ii,
n?ooee Aaaa?n 21-23). Oe? ?a/? ae?aaiinoothoue caaaeii nooi?iue ( Eaoaio
aai oace A1 — A3 i?ciueiai ia?aae?einueeiai /ano ?a?iiaenueei?
o?iiieia??. Ca ia??iaeecaoe??th na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e aiie
ni?aiaaeathoue c ?aiiueina?iaonueeei ia??iaeii (nooi?iue A). Ianooiia
a?oia o?iii?iaeeeaoi??a — o?aoee ?aiiuei-?einueeeo oa cao?aeieo oei?a,
a?ioee, ??ciiiai?oi? i?aea’yci?, i?yiieooi? ethno?a, “ia?eiiainuee?”
i?yaeee, /a?aiiieaeiaa ea?ai?ea, oayinia? i?iiec?-aioeaoe, ?einueeee
a?iiciaee iinoae — oa?aeoa?i? aeey nooiaith A2 ?a?iiaenueei? o?iiieia??.
Aiie ni?aiaaeathoue c iciaeaie iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue eoeueoo?o ianaeaiiy na?aaeiueina?iaonueeiai /ano. Oaeei
/eiii, ii/aoeiaith aeaoith ianooiii? nooiai? (A) a?aeiinii? o?iiieia??
na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y o?aaa aaaaeaoe 50/70
??.i.a. Uiaei ?? e?ioeaai? aeaoe, oi aiia iaaaaaoi ?ai?oa ca aeaoo
o?iaeo nooiai? A2 (170 ?.i.a.) — /an i?aae?iiy Aioii?ia I?y, a oi/i?oa —
150-a ??.i.a.

Ianooiio oaco ?icaeoeo na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e ae?aaiinoothoue o?aoee c
aenieei i?eeia/ai, neeueiii?ioeeueiaai? cao?aeieo oa i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo
oei?a, neeyi? eaeeoe ia i?aeaeii?, ia?aiaiia iaoaeaaa aa?i?oo?a, aioi?e
“iaaiieuenueeiai” oeio. A niieo/aii? c iiaeie ?enaie iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo o?iii?iaeeeaoi?e aecia/athoue ?aiee oe??? oace (A1) a iaaeao
ae?oai? iieiaeie 2 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 3 no.i.a., ui a oe?eiio neio?iiia
nooiai? N1 ?einueeiai /ano ca ?a?iiaenueeith o?iiieia??th.

O?iii?iaeeeaoi?aie ianooiii? oace (A2a) ? aioi?e “oaia?nueeiai” oeio,
oiaii oeio Eiaeaiue, iie?o?iii? i?ee?ane “na?aeie?eiaiai” noeeth,
aeca?eaea oeio *i?-A?eaaoe?i. A niieo/aii? c i?aeaiyie oa eaoaeiiaaie,
aea cono??ioo? oe? ?a/?, aeaoa oace iiaea aooe aecia/aia a iaaeao
ae?oai? iieiaeie 3 — ii/aoeo 4 no.i.a. A ?a?iiaenuee?e o?iiieia?/i?e
oeae? ?e a?aeiia?aea? nooi?iue N2 (260-290 ??.) oa ii/aoie nooiai? N3.

I?iaioo? i?aea’yci? o?aoee “/a?iyo?anueei?” na???, e?noyi? a?aaai?,
aioi?e “?iea?iainueeiai” oeio, eii?/i? neeyi? eaeeoe, i?ee?ane a noee?
eeoaciiia cono??ioo? a iaei?ci?oeo eiiieaenao oace A2a, ui
neio?iieco?oueny c e?ioeai nooiai? N3 ?a?iiaenueei? oeaee (350/380 ??.).
Oea iioiaaiiy a eaoaeiiaao, neio?iii? /a?iyo?anuee?e eoeueoo??.

?icae?e 2. ?aiiueina?iaonuee? iai’yoee I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y.

2.1.Iioiaaeueiee ia?yae. Iai’yoee, ui i?noyoue ?a/? 1 nieneo,
?ai?acaioiaai? iioiaaiiyie, aeiaaeeiaeie ciao?aeeaie oa eiiieaenaie, ui
iaea?aeaee a e?oa?aoo?? iacao «nea?ae». Iaeaea an? iioiaaiiy aionei? (48
c 51, 94,1%). Aeii?iothoue i?aei?yiieooi? yie (47%), o?e iioiaaiiy
(5,9%) a yiao c caie?/eaie, iaeia — a eaoaeiia?. C 53 iioiaaiue,
i???ioaoe?y yeeo cao?eniaaia, a?eueo, i?ae iieiaeio (30) aoei
i???ioiaaii a i?ai?/iiio naeoi??, iaeaea i’yoo /anoeio (10) — a
i?aaeaiiiio, o?e iioiaaiiy aoei i???ioiaaii ia no?ae. Oaeei /eiii,
ia?aaaaea? i???ioaoe?y a i?ai?/iiio naeoi??, ui ? iaei??th c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo iniaeeainoae ?aiiueina?iaonueeeo iai’yoie Oe?a?ie. Ia
noiae? a oeae /an ia?aaaaea? i???ioaoe?y a i?aaeaiiiio naeoi??, yea
neeaaea? 82,9% a Iiaieae? — Iiaeiii? oa a?eueo i?ae 50% ia Ieaeiueiio
Aeii? — ??cieoey /eiaea. O?eueee a noaiao i?aaiaa?aaeaey Ieaeiueiai
Aeiio ? acaeiaae eiai e?aiai aa?aaa, caoiiethth/e /anoeio aanaei?a
Iaie/o ? Naeo, aeine?aeaeaia ?ai?acaioaoeaia a?oia iai’yoie,
i???ioiaaieo a i?ai?/iiio naeoi??. Aeae? ia no?ae i?ai?/ia i???ioaoe?y
??aee?nia aae aei e?ioey 2 no.i.a.

«Nea?ae» ?aiiueina?iaonueeiai /ano — oea ciaeaeai? a ianeiao eo?aai?a
aai a i?e?iaeieo i?aeaeuaiiyo eiiieaene ?c noaeei iaai?ii i?aaeiao?a:
a?iiciaa iinoaeeia (n?ooea aai eacai), aaaaoa e?inueea nii?yaeaeaiiy,
oieiie cao?aeieo oei?a, ca?iy, i?ee?ane. Aiie iaeiioeii? c iiae?aieie
ciao?aeeaie a Iiaeiii? oa I?eeoaaii? ? neeaaeathoue ?aeeia eiei
noa?iaeeoiinoae, iia’ycaieo c iiieiaeueiith ia?yaei?noth.

2.2.Iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a. Aieiaieie aeaooth/eie ?a/aie oeueiai nieneo
? eeeieiaa ca?iy, a?no?y no??e, oieiie, e?inueea nii?yaeaeaiiy, o?aoee,
aeca?eaea, aeaye? oeie iinoaeo.

Eeeieiaa ca?iy. ?ai?acaioiaaia ia/aie oa eeiaeaeaeaie aeaio oei?a: c
na?iiiiae?aiei iaaa?oyi (oei 1) oa c ?oe?a’yi — ooe?ai (oei 2).
Aiaeia?/ia no?aei?e ca?i? i?ioi??anueei? eoeueoo?e. Eiiieaene
aeaoothoueny 2 — 1 no. aei i.a.

A?no?y no??e ia/eneaii?. An? cae?ci?, aooeue/ano? (1 a?aeae?e) oa
/a?aoeia? (2 a?aeae?e), o?eeiiaoaa? (oei 1), /ioe?ea?aii? (oei 2) oa
ieane? (oei 3). A iaeiiio iioiaaii? ciaeaeaiee iaaaeeeee (8 aec.)
naaaeaea/iee iaa??, ?aooa ciao?aeie — iiiaeeiie?. Iioiaaiiy c a?no?yie
aeaoothoueny 2 — 1 no. aei i.a.

Oieiie. A ?aiiueina?iaonueeeo eiiieaenao I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y
ciaeaeai? 7 oieii?a — aeaa i?aaeaiiia?aoeueeeo (aooe/ieo,
inaaaeiaooe/ieo) ? i’youe Iiioaoi?o?ii. *an aeaioiaeaiiy oaeeo oieii?a —
4 — 3 no. aei i.a., iaeiae a eiiieaenao No?aeii? ?a?iie aiie
aeaoothoueny e?ioeai 2 — 1 no. aei i.a.

E?inueea nii?yaeaeaiiy. Oey eaoaai??y ciao?aeie aeeth/a? aoaeeea,
inae?? oa i?ee?ane aocaee — iaeiaieee ? oaea?e.

An? aoaeeea cae?ci? aeaieie?i/ano?, iaaiith oa?aeoa?iith ?enith ?o ?
ia?aaeo? a?ecea ia aeayeeo c?aceao. Oey iniaeea?noue ? o?iiieia?/iith
iciaeith, o na?aaeiueina?iaonueeeo aoaeee a?ecea caaaeaee aeaaee?.

Inae?? aeaio oei?a — o?anoiiiae?ai? oa N-iiae?ai?. Inoaii? iathoue
cae?i/aiiy aeaio ??ciiaeae?a — o aeaeyae? eoeueie oa noee?ciaai?
ciiii?oi?. O?anoiiiae?ai? inae?? a 3 — 1 no. aei i.a. iioe?ai? iaeaea
aeeeth/ii ia Eoaai? o n??ae?a oa iaio?a. I?e/i?iiii?nuee? iai’yoee c
o?anoiiiae?aieie inae?yie aeaoothoueny 2 — 1 no. aei i.a. N-iiae?ai?
inae?? a oe?eiio neio?iii? o?anoiiiae?aiei.

Iaeiaieee c aa/eii iiae?eythoueny ia oeie ca oi?iith ei?iono: oei 1 (o
aeaeyae? i?yiiai no?eaeiy) — 5 aec., oei 2 (c niee?iiiae?aiith ieaneith
eiiaooth) — 11 aec., oei 3 (c e?aieeiiiiae?aiith eiiaooth) — 3 aec.
Aeaoothoueny e?ioeai 2 — 1 no. aei i.a.

N??ai? ciei/ai? oaea?e i?ee?aoai? ?ineeiiei i?iaiaioii. E??i ieo, a
o?ueio eiiieaenao ciaeaeai? c?acee ?c nai???aeiei a?eiaei aeaei?ii,
iioeaaie «naaia?iaa eieana» oa iioeeeiith a oeaio??.

O?aoee. A?eueo?noue neeaaeathoue a?iicia? cano?aee
na?aaeiueieaoainueei? noaie (19 ciao?aeie). A?aeii? a?ioee,
ca?oaeiaoeuee? ? «ai?inuee?» o?aoee. O?aoee na?aaeiueieaoainueei? noaie
aeaio aa??aio?a: ne??ieai? (13 aec.) oa «iaaiieuenuee?» (6 aec.). Ia?o?
aeaoothoueny 2 — ia?oith iieiaeiith 1 no. aei i.a., ae?oa? — 1 no. aei
i.a. O?e a?ioee ??cieo oei?a: cieioa iie?o?iiia, a?iiciaa oa cieioa
ooaiiiaai?. Noia?ia aeaoa oaeeo cano?aie 2 — 1 no. aei i.a.
Ca?oaeiaoeueea o?aoea c aocueeei o?eeooiei ueoeii aac caoaeaiiy i?aeee
(1 no. aei i.a. — ii/aoie 1 no.i.a.). «Ai?inueea» o?aoea c i?iaiooith
i?aeeith ia i?ci?oa ca ia?o? aeaa aeanyoee?ooy 1 no.i.a.

Ethno?a. A?aeiii 17 ciao?aeie (29% iai’yoie) ??cieo oei?a. Oei1.
E?oae?, ieane?, iai?iaiaioiaai?, iaaaeeeiai ae?aiao?o (6-8 ni). Oei 2.
E?oae?, aaeeeiai ae?aiao?o (16-18 ni), c i?oaeeii ii e?ath oa ei?ioeith
?o/eith-ooe?ai. ?iiae? i?ee?aoai? a?aa??iaaiith 6-iaethnoeiaith
?icaoeith. Oei 3. C on?ia iciaeaie iiia?aaeiueiai, aea aac ?o/ee-ooe?y.
Oei 4. E?oae?, ieane?, aaeeeiai ae?aiao?o (15-18 ni), ?iiae? ia cai?io?
a?aa??iaaiee i?iaiaio. Iniaeea?noth i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo iai’yoie ?
ia?aaaaeaiiy ethnoa? 1 oeio.

Ea?ai?eo ciaeaeaii iaeaea a iieiaei? (49,2%, 30 eiiieaen?a) iioiaaiue.
?ai?acaioiaaia e?iiith (22,9%) oa aii/a?iith (27,9%). O neeaae? e?iiiai
iinoaeo ai?ueee, aeaee ? ienee. Na?aae ai?uee?a aeae?eai? aeaa aieiaieo
oeia, iaeei c yeeo ia’?aeio? na?iaonueeee ca iioiaeaeaiiyi iinoae,
ae?oaee — i?ciueine?onueeee. Aeaee aeania na?iaonuee? oa ?aie?ee
aioe/iiai iinoaeo. Ienie ciaeaeaii o?e, aea? c ieo ca?oaeiaoeueeiai
oeio. Aii/a?iee iinoae ?ai?acaioiaaiee aeaeaie, ieneaie, ai?ueeaie,
eaioa?aie, aaeuecaia??yie. Ca oaeoo?ith aeae?ey?oueny /a?aiii- ?
n??iaeeiyia, /i?ii-, ao?i- oa /a?aiiieaeiaa, /i?iieiuaia ea?ai?ea.
Ia?aaaaeathoue ainii?nuee? oa iaeiac?enuee? iinoaeeie aeiae i?ciueiai
aee?iecio.

Ca?a iciae iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo oa aieiaieo oei?a aeaooth/eo ?a/ae
aeicaiey? ie?aneeoe o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ?aiiueina?iaonueeeo iai’yoie a
iaaeao 2 — 1 no. aei i.a.

?icae?e 3.Na?aaeiueina?iaonuee? iai’yoee I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y.

3.1.Iioiaaeueiee ia?yae. A oeae /an c’yaeythoueny eo?aaie c iniiaieie
iioiaaiiyie. Iaeiae aionei? e?euee?nii ia?aaaaeathoue, aei oiai ae a
oiiia?ao?? oeo oa ?ioeo ? nooo?a? a?aei?ie. Ia?o? aai ?iceeaeai? ii an?e
aeine?aeaeoaai?e oa?eoi??? ? a oeueiio ?ac? neeaaeathoue iacia/iee
a?aenioie ia oe? aioneieo iioiaaiue, aai eiioeaio?othoueny a
iiaeeueieeao. Ae?oa? ??aiii??ii iioe?ai? ii an?e oa?eoi???.

Aionei? iioiaaiiy. Ia?aaaaeath/ee oei iai’yoie 1 — na?aaeeie 2 no. aei
i.a. Cae?eniai?, ye i?aaeei, a ianeiao aeiae a?iice, a ne?onueeeo
eo?aaiao a?eueo ??aee?ni? A na?aaeiueina?iaonueeee /an ca?eueoo?oueny
e?euee?noue oei?a iioiaaeueieo nii?oae. E??i i?yiieooieo yi,
c’yaeythoueny iaaeuei?, o?aiaoeaiiae?ai?, yie c caie?/eaie oa eaia?i?
iiaeee — i?aeai? oa eaoaeiiae. Aeii?ioaaiiy i?yiieooieo yi aiai?eoue i?i
caa?aaeaiiy ia?yaeiaeo ii?i iiia?aaeiueiai /ano. 78% iai’yoie ia
E?aiaa?aaeae? oa 36% ia I?aaiaa?aaeae? Aei?i?a noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue
iaiooiueith ?aeath.

Ia?aaaaea? i???ioaoe?y a i?ai?/iiio naeoi?? — a?ae 44,4% a Aeiiaan? aei
75,7 — 83,6% i?ae Aei?i?ii oa Aeoia?i. Oaeei /eiii, a
na?aaeiueina?iaonueeiio ia??iae? i???ioaoe?y a i?ai?/iiio naeoi??, ui
niinoa??aaeany ye i?noeaaa ?ena aioneieo iioiaaiue ua a
?aiiueina?iaonueeee /an, i?iaeiaaeo? a?ae??ciyoe ?o a?ae a?eueo
no?aeieo, aea, ye ? ?ai?o, ia?aaaaea? i???ioaoe?y a i?aaeaiiiio naeoi??.

Iniiai? iioiaaiiy. A 1 — na?aaeei? 2 no.i.a. cina?aaeaeai? a aaeeeeo
(Iiei/ainueeee, Onoue-Eai’yiea, I?aeai?iaeia) ? iaeeo (Aa?aee,
I?eii?nueea, Aeiia?aaeia, Aiaoneaa, Oo?eaee, A?eie?nny) iiaeeueieeao.
E?euee?noue ianei?a a ieo — a?ae 71 (Onoue-Eai’yiea) aei 3-5 (Aiaoneaa,
Aa?aee, Aeiia?aaeia). Ianeie, ye i?aaeei, e?oae?, ae?aiao?ii aei 20 i,
caaaeoee a?ae ??aiy aeaaiueiai ai?eciioo a?ae 0,3 aei 2 i. Iioiaaeuei?
nii?oaee iniiaieo iioiaaiue ia’?aeiothoueny a i’youe oei?a:
aeaeiaaeaii-i?yiieooi?, c caie?/eaie oa eaaae?aoi? yie, i?aea?ei? iiaeee
oa eaoaeiiae. Cian?i iiaei yaeuai a eoeueoo?? na?iao?a I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y noaee eaaae?aoi? yie c ?icoaooaaiiyi e?noyea ca
ae?aaiiaeeth. A?aeiia 51 iioiaaiiy oeueiai oeio. A?aae ae?aaiiaeueieo
iioiaaiue — Aeiiaan, noaie no?aeiiai I?eacia’y, iaaee??//y I?ae? e
Naia?e, aanaei Aacaaeoea. Noaeith ?enith oeeo iioiaaiue ? i???ioaoe?y
iioiaaieo a i?aaeaiiiio naeoi?? (84%). An? iiaeee oeueiai oeio, ui
i?aeaeathoueny aeaooaaiith, i?noyoue ?a/? 1 — na?aaeeie 2 no.i.a.

Aiae?coth/e ia?yae iniiaieo iioiaaiue 1 — na?aaeeie 2 no.i.a., ne?ae
coieieoeny ia iiaeeueieeao oeio I?aeai?iaeia — Onoue-Eai’yiea. Aiie
caeeoai? ie?aiith a?oiith ianaeaiiy (ieai?iiei ia’?aeiaiiyi?), ui
aiaeii/an i?a?e?oaaei aei noai?a I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y. Aeoiaey/e c
oiiia?ao?? iiaeeueiee?a, iin?? oe??? ia?yaeiai? ii?ie caeiaee iaaio
oa?eoi??th: Aeiiaan, I?eacia’y, aeae? ia i?ai?/iee cao?ae ii e?i??
Iiei/ia — Eiiea — Aacaaeoe, ia i?ai?/ a?ae ia? — aei Iii?aeey. A ?ioeo
?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie iiae?aieo iai’yoie iaia?.

3.2. Iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a. Aieiaieie aeaooth/eie ?a/aie oeueiai
nieneo ? eeeieiaa ca?iy, a?no?y no??e, o?aoee, aeca?eaea, i?yaeee,
iaoaeaaee oa ea?ai?/iee iinoae.

Eeeieiaa ca?iy. A na?aaeiueina?iaonueeee /an ii?yae c ia/aie 2 oeio
c’yaeythoueny iia? oeie eeeieiai? ca?i? a?aeiia?aeii ?c caaaeueieie
ci?iaie a na?iaonueeiio na?o?: c aioaiiiiae?aiei (oei 3) oa e?eueoeaaei
(oei 4) iaaa?oyi. Ca?iy oeio 3 ia/eneaiia (4 aec.), aeaoo?oueny 1no.i.a.
Ia/? oa eeiaeaeaee oeio 4 a 1 — na?aaeei? 2 no.i.a. ia?aaaaeathoue
(a?eueo i?ae 60 aec.). Aieiaia iana ?o aeaoo?oueny 1 — ii/aoeii 2
no.i.a.

A?no?y no??e. A 1 — na?aaeei? 2 no.i.a. iiaooothoue a?no?y o?eueee 2
a?aeae?eo — cae?ci? /a?aoeia?. Ca oi?iith aie?aee aiie iiae?eythoueny ia
o?eeiiaoaa? (1 oei), y?oni? (2 oei), /ioe?ea?aii? (3 oei) oa ieane? (4
oei). Iaea?eueo iioe?ai? a?no?y 1 oeio, ye? ca ?ici??aie iiae?eythoueny
ia aeae?eueea aa??aio?a. ?aooo cono??iooi o?eueee a iaeiiio
naaaeaea/iiio iaai?? (Ii?iae), aiie ? ?iii?oieie c?aceaie no?aeiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy.

O?aoee a na?aaeiueina?iaonueeeo iioiaaiiyo /eneaii? oa ??ciiiai?oi?.
?aiiuei?einuee? oa?i??i? o?aoee aeae?eueeio oei?a: Aooeena aa??aio?a 1a
oa 2a (3 aec.), c aeoaiiiae?aiith ieaneith nieieith (2 aec.), c
?aeue?oiith nieieith (1 aec.). Aeaoothoueny ae?oaith iieiaeiith 1
no.i.a. «Ai?inuee?» o?aoee (5 aec.) aeaio iiaeeo?eaoe?e — c iaeaea
i?yiei oa c aeoaiiiae?aiei aai i?iaiooei ei?ionii. Iioiaaiiy c oaeeie
o?aoeaie iiaeooue aeaooaaoeny ia?oith iieiaeiith 1 no.i.a. O?aoe c
aaeo?iei i?eeia/ai a?aeiii aea? — o?aoea «aie?a» oa ii?eoeueea
«eiaeeiiiae?aia» (iaeaea? ii/aoeo 1 no.i.a.). I?oaeeii? o?aoee c
aeaaeeei ei?ionii oa i?ee?aoaiei i?eeia/ai aeae?eueeio aa??aio?a, an? 1
no.i.a. Aeinoaoiuei iioe?ai? o?aoee «eaa’yaeeinueei?» na??? (9 aec.).
Aeaoothoueny 1 no.i.a., c?acee c iiacaeiaaeiei ?aa?ii caoiaeyoue o 2
no.i.a. A?ioee iiiaeeiie? (5 aec.), aeaoothoueny ae?oaith iieiaeiith 1 —
ii/aoeii 2 no.i.a. Aeia?a ?ai?acaioiaai? ia oeueiio aoai?
neeueiii?ioeeueiaai? o?aoee cao?aeieo oei?a (12 aec.) ae?oai? iieiaeie 1
— ii/aoeo 2 no.i.a. A?aeii? 4 neeueiii?ioeeueiaai? i?e/i?iiii?nuee?
o?aoee c iaienoeiith ia aie?aoe? oa aa/eii aeey oyoeae, oa?aeoa?i? aeey
ae?oai? iieiaeie 1 no.i.a. Iaea?eueo /eneaii? a?iicia? oa cae?ci?
eo/eia? i?aea’yci? o?aoee 1 na??? (22 aec.) ia?oeo o?ueio aa??aio?a.
O?iiieia?/ii aiie iiae?eythoueny oaeei /eiii: 1 aa??aio — 1 no. i.a.
(iiaeeeai, iaeiiaei?oeie oae? cano?aee aoee a eiai ia?o?e iieiaei?), 2
aa??aio — ae?oaa iieiaeia oeueiai noie?ooy, 3 aa??aio — ia?oa iieiaeia 2
no.i.a.

Ethno?a ciaeaeai? iaeaea a eiaei?e o?ao?e ae?ii/?e iiaee? (106 aec.).
Ioia?aoe?y oei?a nooe?eueia, ii/eiath/e c ?aiiueina?iaonueeiai ia??iaeo.
Oei 1. Aeii?iothoue a iai’yoeao 1 — na?aaeeie 2 no.i.a. (66 aec.). Oei
3. Aaeee? aeeneiiiae?ai? ethno?a c i?oaeeii ii e?ath, iioeeeiith a
oeaio?? oa aieiaith ?o/eith-ooe?ai (6 aec.). Oeiia? aeey no?aeieo
na?iaonueeeo iai’yoie, aea ?iciianthaeaeothoueny c 1 no.i.a. ?o iiyaa a
i?e/a?iiii?nueeiio na?iaonueeiio ina?aaeeo iia’ycaia ?c no?aeiei
?iioeuenii a na?aaeei? 1 no.i.a. Oei 5. Iae? ethno?a c i?oaeeii ii
e?ath, iioeeeiith a oeaio?? oa iaoeath aeey i?aea?ooaaiiy (11 aec.).
Aeia?a a?aeii? o na?iao?a oa oa?aeoa?i? aeey 1 no.i.a. Oei 6. C aeeneii
na?aaeiueiai ?ici??o (10 — 12 ni), i?ee?aoaiei eiioeaio?e/ieie eieaie (3
aec.). Iiaeeeai, ?einueeee ?iii?o, ciaeaeai? a eiiieaenao ae?oai?
iieiaeie 1 no.i.a. Oei 7. C ieaneei aeeneii oa iaeeaaeiith ?o/eith (3
aec.). Oei 8. I?yiieooi? (4 aec.). ?iii?oi? ?einuee? ae?iae. Ciaeaeai? a
eiiieaenao ae?oai? iieiaeie 1 — ii/aoeo 2 no.i.a.

I?yaeee ca oi?iith ?aiee iiae?eythoueny ia oae? oeie. Oei 1. C e?oaeith
?aieith (38 aec.). Aeaoothoueny a iaaeao 1 — na?aaeeie 2 no.i.a.,
a?eueo?noue — 1 no.i.a. Oei 2. C aeaeiaaeaiith i?yiieooiith ?aieith (5
aec.). Oeiiaa na?iaonueea cano?aea 1 no.i.a. Oei 3. O?ao?i? iaeii/anoi?
i?yaeee c iaaeueiith aai e?oaeith ia?aaeiueith e o?aiaoeaiiae?aii
aeaeiaaeaiith caaeiueith /anoeiith ?aiee («ia?eiiainuee?», 5 aec).
Cono??/athoueny o?eueee a eiiieaenao ae?oai? iieiaeie 1 no.i.a. E??i
ia?a?aoiaaieo, ciaeaeai? iiiaeeiie? i?yaeee c eaaae?aoiith oa iaaeueiith
?aieith, a oaeiae aea? 8-iiae?ai?.

Iaoaeaaee iinoae ?ai?acaioiaaiee /a?iaeaie Aaaa?n 137 — 140, 142, 144,
oacaie Aaaa?n 100, 102, oe?aeeeeaie Aaaa?n 160, aeaeaie Aaaa?n 124,
Geglierte kanne, Blechkanne. A?eueo?noue oaeeo iinoaeei a Na?iao??
ciaeaeaii a eiiieaenao ae?oai? iieiaeie 1 — ia?oi? o?aoeie 2 no.i.a.
Eacaie 4-o oei?a: o?e — eeo? na?iaonuee?, /aoaa?oee — eiaai? oei?a
Aeaaaeo ? ?iaii? oa ?o ?aie?ee.

Ea?ai?/iee iinoae ciaeaeaiee a 87% iioiaaiue. E?iiee ?ai?acaioiaaiee
ai?ueeaie, aeaeaie, ieneaie oa ?eooaeueieie iinoaeeiaie —
eo?eeueieoeyie. Ai?ueee ca iioiaeaeaiiyi i?ciueine?onuee? (?1), no?aeii
— (?2 — ?3) oa cao?aeii — (?4) na?iaonuee?. Ia?i? eo?eeueieoe? oei?a E1
— E4 — iaeei c /?oeeo o?iiieia?/ieo oa eoeueoo?ieo ?iaeeeaoi??a iai’yoie
1 — na?aaeeie 2 no.i.a. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui a?eueo?noue oi?i e?iii?
ea?ai?ee (ca aeiyoeii eo?eeueieoeue) i?iaeiaaeoaaei iiaoooaaoe i?eiaeii?
aei na?aaeeie 3 no.i.a. Aii/a?iee ca iaoa??aeii oa oaoiieia??th
iiae?ey?oueny ia n??iaeeiyiee, /a?aiiiaeeiyiee oa /a?aiiieaeiaee, ca
i?ecia/aiiyi — ia eooiiiee, noieiaee, ooaeaoiee oa oa?iee, ca
iioiaeaeaiiyi — ia aa?aa?nueeee (na?iaonueeee, iaionueeee,
i?ai?/iieaaeacueeee) oa aioe/iee. A?eueo?noue n??iaeeiyiiai iinoaeo
(oeie N1 — N8) iaionueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, /anoeia — aioe/iiai. Aioe/ia
/a?aiiiaeeiyia oa /a?aiiieaeiaa ea?ai?ea aeia?cia (iaeiac?enueea) oa
i?noeaaeo oeaio??a (Ieuea?y, Ainii?). Aioi?e a ?aa?ii? iioe?ai?
iaiaaeaii, ia?aaaaeathoue na?oeiaeeiyi? aocueeiai?e? ia e?eueoeaaiio
i?aeaeii? oeio A ca Ae.A.Oaeiaei.

Oaeei /eiii, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee na?aaeiueina?iaonueeeo iai’yoie
I?ai?/iiai I?e/a?iiii?’y ie?aneththoueny a iaaeao 1 — na?aaeeie 2
no.i.a.

?icae?e 4. I?ciueina?iaonuee? iai’yoee I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y.

I?e ia?iaoe? iaoa??aeo i?ciueina?iaonuee? noa?iaeeoiino? /?oei
?iciiae?eeeeny ia aea? oace: ii/aoeiao (ae?oaa iieiaeia 2 — na?aaeeia 3
no.i.a.) oa o?iaeueio (ae?oaa iieiaeia 3 — 4 no.i.a.).

4.1. Iioiaaeueiee ia?yae. A i?ciueina?iaonueeee /an aieiaieie oeiaie
iioiaaeueieo iai’yoie ? a?oioia? iiaeeueieee, aionei? oa iniiai?
eo?aaii? iioiaaiiy.

A?oioia? iiaeeueieee. Aeinoaiaiii a?aeiii 4 iai’yoee (Aieaie, E?eie/ia,
A?eicaie, Ia?eaooee). An? a?aeiinyoueny aei ii/aoeiai? oace.
Niinoa??aa?oueny ?aaoey?ia ieaioaaiiy, ia?aaaaeathoue a?aee?eo? yie,
i?aeai? ??aee?ni? (E?eie/ia). I???ioaoe?y a i?ai?/iiio naeoi??, a
Aieaiao aaeeeee a?aenioie aeaoi?iiaaieo /a?ai?a. Ca ia?yaeii oa
?iaaioa?ai ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae neio?iiieo eo?aaiieo oa caeeoai?,
nei??o ca ana, ei/iaeeaie. A?aenooi?noue ii?yae iinaeaiue ni?inoiao?
aeoieo i?i i ieo ye ?iaeeeaoi?ao in?aeaiiy.

Aionei? iioiaaiiy. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai ia??iaeo, a
i?ciueina?iaonueeee /an aionei? iioiaaiiy ia?anoathoue aooe
ia?aaaaeath/ei oeiii iioiaaeueii? iai’yoee. Iiith a?aoiaaia 21 iiaeea
ae?oai? iieiaeie 2 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 3 no.i.a., ui neeaaea? 5,9 %
anueiai ianeao iai’yoie oeueiai /ano. Aei ae?oai? iieiaeie 3 — 4 no.i.a.
iaeaaeaoue 2 aioneieo iioiaaiiy (3,2%). Ia?aaaaeathoue i?aei?yiieooi?
yie (71,4%), a?aeii? i?aeai? (14,3%). E?noyee eaaeaee aei?inoaii ia
niei?, a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae oe??? iiceoe?? ia a?aei?/ai?. Aeii?io?
i???ioaoe?y a i?ai?/iiio naeoi?? (72%), a i?aaeaiiiio — 9,5%. Cae/ae
iieeaaeaiiy iaiooiuei? ?ae? ia i?aeoeeo?oueny.

Aionei? iioiaaiiy ii/aoeiai? oace ?icoaoiaai? a oeaio?aeuei?e oa
cao?aei?e /anoeiao noaio, a?eueo i?ci? — a e?aiaa?aaeiiio e?ninoaio.

Oaeei /eiii, aionei? iioiaaiiy aeaiiino?othoue, c iaeiiai aieo, iaaio
oeiieia?/io iano?ee?noue, c ?ioiai — aeayeo niaaeei?ii?noue
na?aaeiueina?iaonueeeo o?aaeeoe?e. Oe? iciaee aeoi? c iaeith e?euee?noth
iioiaaiue aeaii? ia?yaeiai? a?oie aiai?youe i?i oa, ui, nei??o ca ana,
aionei? iioiaaiiy ii/aoeiai? oace caeeoai? iauaaeeaie
na?aaeiueina?iaonueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Iniiai? iioiaaiiy. Aieiaia ia?yaeiaa ii?ia a i?ciueina?iaonueeee /an.
Eo?aaie c iniiaieie iioiaaiiyie cono??ioo? ye iiiaeeiie?, oae e
ii?aeiai? a aaeee? (Noa?? Eoeiiaooe — 82, Iao?aooe — 42, Aanee?aea — 23,
Oieinueea — 21, Aeeae?y — 18) oa iae? (Iia? Aaae?aaee — 7, Ae?yaa — 5,
Oaaeaeeaea?-II — 6) iiaeeueieee. Ia noiae? aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi???
a?eueo?noue iniiaieo iioiaaiue ?icoaoiaaia i?ae iiiaeeiieeie ianeiaie, a
iiaeeueieee eiioeaio?othoueny a iaaee??//? Aei?no?a oa I?ooa. Ianeie
iiiaeeiieeo i?ciueina?iaonueeeo eo?aai?a e?oae? a ieai?, a aeaio
aeiaaeeao — iaaeuei?. Aenioa a?ae 2 aei 1,6 — 1 i. A iiaeeueieeao
ianeie iiai?noth ?ici?ai?. A?aecia/a?oueny oaiaeaioe?y noai?aiiy
iiaeeueieea iaaeiei iaeiiai — aeaio aenieeo eo?aai?a aeiae a?iice.

Ia aeayeeo iiaeeueieeao oa a iiiaeeiieeo eo?aaiao cao?eniaaia iiaa oa
iacae/aeia aeey na?iao?a aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? yaeua — e?oae? aai
eaaae?aoi? oa i?yiieooi? ?iae, ye? ?iiae? ioi/othoue iioiaaiiy, ?iiae?
ia i?noyoue iiaeee o aioo??oiueiio i?inoi??. Iaeaea an? aiie
?icoaoiaai? ia iai’yoeao iaaee??//y Aei?no?a ? I?ooa, a no?aei?e /anoei?
Oe?a?ie e?oae? ?iae cao?eniaai? eeoa ia A?eeueianueeiio iiaeeueieeo.
Eaaae?aoi?, i?yiieooi? ? o?aiaoeaiiae?ai? ?iae aeaoothoueny ae?oaith
iieiaeiith 2 — ii/aoeii 3 no.i.a. e aiaaiaii iiaeooue aaaaeaoeny
o?iii?iaeeeaoi?ii ii/aoeiai? oace. Iaei?ci?oeie ? e?oae? ?iae
iiaeeueiee?a Eoaae oa Eo?/?, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei o?iaeueii? oace.

E??i aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi???, aiaeia?/i? nii?oaee ?ai?acaioiaai? ua
a aeaio ?aa?iiao iaoeaiiy na?iao?a — a Oai?uei? oa ia Ieaeiueiio Aeii?.
A ia?oiio aiie c’yaeythoueny iai?ee?ioe? 2 no.i.a. oa iiaooothoue aei
ii/aoeo 5 no., a ae?oaiio aieiaia iana ?ia?a a?aeiineoueny aei ae?oai?
iieiaeie 3 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 4 no.i.a.

Iiooee i?ioioei?a oeueiai iiaiai aeey na?iao?a ia?yaeo (iniaeeai
eaaae?aoieo ?ia?a aac iioiaaiue o aioo??oiueiio i?inoi??) ii?iaeeee aea?
aieiai? a?iioace ?o iioiaeaeaiiy: no?aeio — “??ainueeo” (A.A.Aoaeeiaa,
I.I.Oiea?a, N.?. Aacoaeia, I.A.Caoa?ia, A.Eoeue/a?) oa cao?aeio —
“eaeueoi-aa?iainueeo” (A.I. Aea?aa/ia, I.A.Neiiiaiei). Eaiaiai
niioeeaiiy ia oeyoo “??ainueei?” a?iioace noaaaea a?aenooi?noue oaeeo
nii?oae o na?iao?a a iiia?aaei?e /an. Ia “eaeueoi-aa?iainueeo” a?iioaco
i?aoethaaea aaeeea e?euee?noue aiaeia?/ieo ?ia?a a ioaai?nuee?e
eoeueoo?? ia i?ai?/ieo cao?ae a?ae ?aeii?a ?o eiioeaio?aoe?? o na?iao?a
oa neio?iii?noue oaeeo nii?oae a iaio eoeueoo?ao. Ieoaiiy ?ica’ycaeiny
a?aee?eooyi a II *a?oiaeoeueeiio oa Iena??anueeiio iiaeeueieeao ia
?.Ai?iiaae ii?yae c eo?aaiaie 1 no.i.a. oanoe iiae?aieo nii?oae, ye?
iiai?noth (aae aei ?ici???a) ni?aiaaeaee c i?e/i?iiii?nueeeie. Ia
aeeeth/aii, ui naia ia?anaeaioe? c Na?aaeiueiai Aeiio i?eianee oeth
ia?yaeiao ii?io a I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeia I?e/i?iiii?’y.

Iioiaaeuei? nii?oaee aeae?eueeio ??cieo oei?a: i?yiieooi? oa
i?aei?yiieooi? yie, yie c caie?/eaie oa c i?aeai?i, eaoaeiiae.

A?aee?eo? yie. Neeaaeathoue a?ae/ooio aeieth a iiaeeueieeao ii/aoeiai?
oace: a?ae o?aoeie (Aeea?c?y, 36,4%) aei a?eueo i?ae iieiaeie
(Oieinueea, 57,1%) ? iiaiiai aeii?ioaaiiy (Noa?? Eoeiiaooe, Iia?
Aaae?aaee). Caaaeii, oaea a?aenioeiaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aea? iiaeeea?noue
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ia ii/aoeia?e oac? a?aee?eo? yie i?yiieooieo eiioo??a
ia?aaaaeaee. Ia o?iaeuei?e oac? aiie cieeathoue, iinooiath/enue i?noeai
iioiaaeueiei nii?oaeai ?ioeo oei?a. ?o i?aeoe/ii iaia? a Iiaei?no?ia’? —
Iiaeoiaa’?, a ia noiae? a?aeii? o?eueee aeaa iioiaaiiy ae?oai? iieiaeie
3 a.i.a. a i?yiieooi?e yi?: Aaeee, 12/1 oa Aiaiaea?. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui e
aeae? ia no?ae, a Iiaeiii?, oae? yie a oeae /an oaeiae iaeaea iaa?aeii?.

ssie c caie?/eaie — ua iaeei iioe?aiee oei iioiaaeueii? nii?oaee i?ci?o
na?iao?a. ?o a?aei?ia a?ae iiaee iiia?aaeiueiai oeio neeaaea?oueny a
iayaiino? caie?/e?a acaeiaae aeiaaeo no?iie. Aiie cina?aaeaeai? a
iiaeeueieeao Iiaei?no?ia’y — Iiaeoiaa’y ii/aoeiai? oace: Aanee?aea
(21,7%), Aeeae?y (44,5%), Oaaeaeeaea?-II (66,6%), Aeea?c?y (36,4%),
Oieinueea (38%), neeaaeath/e a?ae/ooio aeieth. Ia noiae? a?aeiii eeoa
iaeia iioiaaiiy a yi? c caie?/eaie (Aa?aee-III, e.4).

Oaeei /eiii, ia ii/aoeia?e oac? yie c caie?/eaie noathoue iaeiei c
i?ia?aeieo oei?a iioiaaeueii? nii?oaee. Aiie eiioeaio?othoueny ia
caoiae? aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? oa ni?aaeythoue a?aaeaiiy eieaeueiiai
aa??aioo. Oe?eaai, ui aeaeyae ia/eiiy iioiaaiue a yiao c caie?/eaie
caaaeii ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae oaeiai a i?inoeo yiao, oiaoi oea ia
?iieoeueoo?ia yaeua. Ia o?iaeuei?e oac? yie c caie?/eaie iaeaea
cieeathoue. Aiie aeine?aeaeai? o?eueee a iiaeeueieeo Eo?/?.

Iieiaeaiiy e?noyea a iioiaaeueieo nii?oaeao iaio oei?a noaiaea?oia:
aei?inoaii ia niei?, aieiaith ia Ii c a?aeoeeaiiyie. A iioiaaeueiiio
ia?yae? oeeo ia?yaeiaeo a?oi ia i?aeoeeo?oueny cae/ae iieeaaeaiiy
iaiooiuei? ?ae?.

I?aea?ei? iiaeee. ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iioiaaeueieo nii?oae oeueiai oeio
aaaaea?oueny iaei??th c oa?aeoa?ieo ?en i?ciueina?iaonueeiai /ano, oi/a,
ye ie ia?aeiiaeenue, i?aea?ei? iiaeee iioe?ai? e a iiia?aaeiueiio
ia??iae?. I?ioa, a i?ciueina?iaonueeeo iai’yoeao oeae oei iioiaaeueii?
nii?oaee ia? ae?enii aenieo ieoiio aaao (Aanee?aea — 34,7 % an?o iiaee,
Oaaeaeeaea?-II — 33 %, Aeea?c?y — 27,2 %, E?eie/ia — 25 %, Eo?/? — 58,3
%, Eoaae — 50 %, iiaeeueieee A?eeueiaea ? Oaa/aiei neeaaeaeeny o?eueee c
i?aea?eieo iiaee).

I?ciueina?iaonuee? i?aea?ei? iiaeee ca nai?ie eiino?oeoeaieie
iniaeeainoyie /?oei ?iciaaeathoueny ia aeaa ??ciiaeaee, eiaeai c yeeo, a
naith /a?ao, ? o?iiieia?/iith iciaeith. Aeey ii/aoeiai? oace oa?aeoa?i?
a?aeiinii aocuee? ao?aei? yie ? oae? ae i?aeai? na?aaei?ie ?ici??aie 1,8
o 0,5, aeeaeiith aei 1 i. I?aea?ei? iiaeee o?iaeueii? oace
ca?eueoothoueny ca ?ici??aie: ao?aei? yie a?ae 2 aei 3 i a aeiaaeeio ?
aei 1,5 i caaoe?oee, eaia?e i?eaeecii oeo aea i?iii?oe?e. Nooo?ai
ci?ith?oueny aeeaeia: a?ae 2 — 2,5 i aei aeoaea aeeaieeo (A?aaeaoea —
4,75 i, *aoo — aei 5 i) iiaee. A niieo/aii? c aaaaoei ia/eiiyi oey
ianoaaeia ua ?ac aeaco? ia caeaaei?noue ?ici???a iiaeee a?ae
nioe?aeueiiai noaoono iie?eiiai.

Iica iioiaaieo — aei?inoaii ia niei?, i???ioaoe?y — Ii c a?aeoeeaiiyie.
?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?aea?eieo iioiaaiue a i?ciueina?iaonueeee /an iiaeiii
iia’ycoaaoeny c i?a?aoe?eiith oaeeath ae?oai? iieiaeie — e?ioey 2
no.i.a., eiee oeae ia?yae noa? ianiaei yaeuai ia noiae?. Ii/aoie
i?iieeiaiiy eiai iin??a aei I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y o?eno? iiaeeueiee
Oaa/aiei, aea oeae ia?yae ua ia? ae?aci? no?aei? ?ene.

Eaoaeiiae. Iioiaaeuei? nii?oaee oeueiai oeio oa?aeoa?i? aeey o?iaeueii?
oace. Iaea?eueo iioe?ai? eaoaeiiae II oeio ca E.O.Ni??iiaei. A oeueiio
a?aeiioaii? aeaiee ?aa?ii a?ae/ooii i?ioenoaaey?oueny Ieaeiueiio
Iiaeiiith oa Oeaio?aeueiiio Ia?aaeeaaeaccth, aea e ?icoaoiaaia
a?eueo?noue aiaeia?e iaoei nii?oaeai. Oai ia niinoa??aa?oueny iiae?aia
oi?o?eaoe?y, eaoaeiiae a?aecia/athoueny ??ciiiai?oi?noth eiino?oeoe?e,
a?eueo /ano? eaoaeiiae I ? III oei?a. Na?aaei? ia?aiao?e ao?aeieo yi
a?eueoino? eaoaeiia: 2 — 3 i caaaeiaaeee, 0,8 — 1 i caaoe?oee, aeeaeia
aei 3 i. A?aecia/athoueny aaeee? yie aeayeeo eo?aai?a iiaeeueiee?a Eoaae
(2,5 o 1,8 o 3 i) oa O??eaoeae (3,21 o 1 o 5,4 i). A?aeiia?aeii aei
?ici???a ao?aeieo yi ciaoiaeyoueny e ?ici??e eaia? (a?ae 0,8 o 0,7 — 1,4
i a Aa?aeao aei 2,9 o 2,5 o 5,9 i o O?eeaoea?). Na?aaeiy aeeaeia eaia?e
a?ae e?ath ao?aeii? yie — a?ey 3 i.

Iieaciai, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia aeinoaoith a?oaieia?/io aea/ai?noue
oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie Oe?a?ie, i?ciueina?iaonuee? eaoaeiiae ooo ia
cono??ioo?. Aiie eiioeaio?othoueny a aeaio a?aeaeaeaieo iaeei a?ae
iaeiiai ?aa?iiao: ia iaae? noaio ? e?ninoaio Aei?i?ianueeiai
E?aiaa?aaeaey oa a iiieccyo Aeoiath. A?eueo?noue i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo
eaoaeiia ia? i?yi? a?aeiia?aeiino? na?aae neio?iiieo iai’yoie Ieaeiueiai
Aeiio oa Oeaio?aeueiiai Ia?aaeeaaeaccy.

4.2. Iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a. Aieiaieie aeaooth/eie ?a/aie ? eeeieiaa
ca?iy, ueoe, o?aoee, aeca?eaea, i?yaeee oa ia?aiaiia aa?i?oo?a,
iie?o?iii? i?ee?ane, iaoaeaaee oa neeyiee iinoae, aioi?e.

Eeeieiaa ca?iy. A i?ciueina?iaonueeee /an aiia ?ai?acaioiaaia ia/aie oa
eeiaeaeaeaie aeaio oei?a: c ?oe?a’yi-ooe?ai oa e?eueoeaaei iaaa?oyi.
Ia?o? aeiaa? (aei 100 ni), c ?oe?a’yi o aeaeyae? ooe?y aai /a?aoea,
?iiae? oa?i/aiei iaaa?oyi c e?noee, aeaaano?o, oaeoeaaeiio aai ?ioeo
iai?aeiooiaieo i?ia?ae?a. O ca?i? oeueiai oeio iaoaeaa? ia?ao?anoy
??aee?ni?.

Iaai? eiino?oeoeai? iniaeeaino? ia/?a oeueiai oeio ? o?iiieia?/ieie
iciaeaie. C?acee ae?oai? iieiaeie 2 — na?aaeeie 3 no.i.a. iathoue a?eueo
aocueeee (caaoe?oee aei 4 ni) eeeiie, yeee ia?aoiaeeoue a ?oe?a’y-ooe?
i?ae ooiei eooii, ui oa?aeoa?ii aeey aeania na?iaonueei? ca?i?. Ia/e
ae?oai? iieiaeie 3 — 4 no.i.a. a?eueo ianeai?, caaoe?oee aei 5-7 ni, c
i?yiei, ye i?aaeei, eooii ia?aoiaeo a ?oe?a’y. Oe? ?o ?ene oa?aeoa?i?
aeey i?ciuei?einueeeo oa aionueeeo eeeie?a.

Ca?iy c e?eueoeaaei iaaa?oyi ?iiae? cono??/a?oueny ia ii/aoeia?e oac?
(Oaa/aiei, 9/1; Noa?? Eoeiiaooe II, 21/1; Iia? Aaae?aaee, ii.1-6). Oaea
a?oa?/ia aeey oeueiai /ano ca?iy c??aeea o?aiey?oueny e ia noiae?. ??
ia?aiao?e ?icaeyaeaeeny a ?icae?e? 3 ? a i?ciueina?iaonueeee /an i?ye ia
ci?ieeeny.

Ueoe. Ciaeaeai? a iiaeeueieeao Eo?/? (17/1) oa Ica?ia 3. Inoaii?e
a?aeiineoueny aei oeio E1 ca I.Oeeee?iaii ? aeaoo?oueny oacith N3
i?ciueiai ?einueeiai /ano (310 — 350 ??.). Ueo c Eo?/? (oeio Eiaeaiue
aai E2 ca I.Oeeee?iaii) aeaoo?oueny oacith N2 (260 — 290 ??.).

O?aoee. Ia ii/aoeia?e oac? iiaooothoue eo/eia? i?aea’yci? 3 — 5
aa??aio?a 1 na???, neeueiii?io?eueiaai? o?aoee cao?aeieo oa
i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo oei?a, ?c caaeoeii ia e?ioe? nooe?eueiiai
ieanoei/anoiai i?eeia/a, c aenieei ieanoei/anoei i?eeia/ai ? aeiaaith
i?oaeeiith, i?ci? aa??aioe oa?i??ieo. O?iaeueio oaco ae?aaiinoothoue
eo/eia? i?aea’yci? o?aoee 3 na??? aeaio aa??aio?a: 1 — c ianeaiith
aeoaeeith ? aeaaeeith i?aeeith, 2 — c ieaneith aeoaeeith, i?e/iio
aeoaeea oa i?aeea i?iaiaioiaai? oaoeaooaaiiyi aai a?aa??oaaiiyi. Oae?
o?aoee oa?aeoa?i? aeey ae?oai? iieiaeie 3 — ii/aoeo 4 no.i.a. Cano?aea
??aee?niiai C aa??aioo ?c nieieith o aeaeyae? ieanoeie, iinoaaeaii? ia
?aa?i, ciaeaeaia a iiaeeueieeo Eoaae, 8/1. ?? ciaeaeaii ?acii c
i?yaeeith, oa?aeoa?enoeee yei? ia?aaeaa/athoue aeaoo ia ?ai?oa na?aaeeie
4 no.i.a. A?aeii? i?iaioo? i?aea’yci? o?aoee, ui ?iiae? caooueny
“/a?iyo?anueeeie”, oi?eaeueia cieioa o?aoea, ?ie?onoiaaia na?aeie?eaie a
oaoi?oe? eeoaciiia (O??eaoeae).

Aeca?eaea i?aaenoaaeai? iiaeie ii??aiyii c iiia?aaei?i /anii oeiaie.

Oei 9. Aeca?eaea-i?aea?nee c i?iaiaioiaaiith cai?ioiith noi?iiith (38
aec.). E?ae aeeneo oaeeo aeca?eae, ye i?aaeei, neioaiee, ? c aieo
i?iaiaioo ii iueiio i?ioiaeeoue iaaenieee i?oaeie, ui caoiieth?
aenooi-iaoeth. Ae?aiao? aeeneo iaaaeeeee — a?ae 4 aei 5 ni. A oeaio??
cai?ioiiai aieo iaaenieee oiaii. Ioa?? aeey i?aea?ooaaiiy aai
i?yiieooiee, aai iaeaiueeee e?oaeee. Ia cai?ioiiio aioe? aeeneo
?aeue?oiee i?iaiaio. Eiai iioeae ??ciiiai?oi?: /ano?oa ca ana oea
aa??aoe?? niey?ieo neiaie?a (??ci? eiia?iaoe?? eiea oa ?aae?aeueieo
i?iiai?a) aai oaiaiiiae?ai? ciaee.

A?eueo?noue aeca?eae 9 oeio ciaeaeai? a iioiaaiiyo ii/aoeiai? oace,
iaeiae oae? ae?iae i?iaeiaaeoaaee iiaoooaaoe o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 3
no.i.a. (Aaeee, 12/1, Eoaae, 3/1, Aeaaee/aiue, 5/1, Eo?/?, 13/1).

Oei 10. C iaaenieith oeaio?aeueiith iaoeath (oae caaiee oei
*i?-A??aaoeoe?i). ?aeeiee ae??a oeueiai oeio ciaeaeaiee a e.26
iiaeeueieeo A?aaeaoea. Aeca?eaea oeueiai oeio a?aeii? a
i?ciueina?iaonueeeo iai’yoeao Ieaeiueiai Iiaieaey c na?aaeeie 3 ii 4
no.i.a. ? a Oaia?n? oeueiai ae /ano. Iiaeeueiee A?aaeaoea aeaoo?oueny
i?aea’ycieie o?aoeaie 3 na??? oa i?aaeiaoaie a iie?o?iiiiio noee?
ae?oaith iieiaeiith — e?ioeai 3 no.i.a.

I?yaeee ca eiino?oeoe??th ii?aeiothoueny a aeaa a?aeae?ee: iaeii/anoi?
(?ai/ano?) oa aeai/anoi? (ueoeia?). Ana?aaeei? a?aeae?e?a ca oi?iith
?aiee oa ueoea aeae?eythoueny oeie. Ine?eueee aeai/anoi? i?yaeee, ia
ci?ithth/e oeiiooai?thth/eo iciae, iioe?ai? i?ioyaii anueiai
i?ciueina?iaonueeiai ia??iaeo, uia caiia?aoe oa?i?iieia?/i?e ieooaiei?,
aeae?eai? o?iiieia?/i? aa??aioe: A — ii/aoeiai? oace, A — o?iaeueii?
oace.

A?aeae?e I. Iaeii/anoi? (?ai/ano?) i?yaeee. Ia?aaaaeathoue cae?ci? (32
aec.), /anoeia (18 aec.) — a?iicia?.

Oei 1. C e?oaeith aai iaaeueiith ?aieith. Iaeiioe?ai?oa oi?ia.
Ia?aaaaeathoue iaaeuei? ?aiee. O i?yaeie ii/aoeiai? oace ?aiee iaei???
oe?eie aai ?c iacia/ii iioiauaiith ia?aaeiueith /anoeiith, yce/ie aac
i?io?ethaaiiy, ?c caaino?aiei e?i/eeii. I?yaeee o?iaeueii? oace
a?aecia/athoueny iioiauaiith ia?aaeiueith /anoeiith ?aiee oa
nooi?i/anoei c??cii a?ey iniiae yce/ea, e?iaoeue yeiai neeueii iaaena?
iaae e?a?i ?aiee.

Oei 2. C i?yiieooiith ?aieith (3 aec.). Ae?iae o?aaiaioiaai?, oiio
?ioi?iaoe?y iaiaaeaia aecia/aiiyi ?ici???a (oe?eia a?ey 3,5 ni).

A?aeae?e ??. Aeai/anoi? (ueoeia?) i?yaeee. Neeaaeathoueny c ?aiee oa
?ooiii c’?aeiaiiai c iath ueoea, aei yeiai e??ieany ?ai?iue. Aeaioiaeai?
c eiooiaieo oa eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a (cieioa, n??aea, a?iice), ??aeoa c
cae?ca. Ca oi?iith ueoea oa ?aiee iiae?eythoueny ia /ioe?e oeie.

Oei 1. C i?yiieooiei ueoeii oa caie?oaeaiith ?aieith (21 aec.).
Ia?aaaaeii a?iicia? (11 aec.), n??ai? (7 aec.), cae?ci? (2 aec.), iaeia
i?yaeea a?iaoaeaaa.

I?yaeee oeio 1a (ae?oaa iieiaeia 2 — ia?oa iieiaeia 3 no.i.a.) /ano?oa
iathoue e?oaeo ?aieo. Ia?aaei?e e?ae iaaeueieo ?aiie iioiauaiee
iacia/ii. ssce/ee i?yi?, ??aeoa i?iaioo?. E?iaoeue yce/eo caaino?aiee,
?iiae? aeaui caaiooee, iiaoi?thth/e i?io?eue ?aiee. sse aa??aio oeio
ne?ae aeae?eeoe i?yaeee aac yce/ea, ui i?aaeee aai aeey i?aea?ooaaiiy
i?aaeiao?a, aai aeey i?inoaaiiy a ieo ?aiai?a.

Aaaeeeaith a o?iiieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii? iniaeea?noth oeeo i?yaeie ?
a?aenooi?noue oaoeaooaaiiy oa i?io?ethaaiiy an?o /anoei: ?aiea ? yce/ie
iai?ae?oae? a ia?aoei?, ueoee ieane?. Aeoiaey/e c ciao?aeie ?o in situ,
oea aoee /ano?oa ca ana acooo?a? cano?aee.

I?yaeee oeio 1a (ae?oaa iieiaeia 3 — 4 no.i.a.) a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae
ae?ia?a aa??aioo A ieceith aeaoaeae. Ia?o ca ana, ?o ?aiee,
i?aeei?yth/enue caaaeuei?e iiae? oiai /ano, cia/ii iioiauai? nia?aaeo.
Iaeaea an? aiie iaaeuei?, e?oae? ??aee?ni?. ssce/ee aeiaa?, o
iaei?ci?oeo (ae?oaa iieiaeia 4 no.) iaaenathoue iaae e?a?i ?aiee.
I?yaeee a ian? nai?e a?eueoa ?aii?o.

O?iiieia?/iei ?iaeeeaoi?ii oeeo ae?ia?a ? iayai?noue ia ?aieao, yce/eao
oa ueoeao icaeiaeaiiy oaoeaooaaiiyi ? i?io?ethaaiiyi. Oaoeaoothoueny
e?a? ?aiee, iaaeath/e ?e o?aiaoeaiiae?aiiai ia?aoeio, e?a? ueoea ca
ia?eiao?ii aai ae?eyieaie. Iniiaa yce/ea ioi?ieaia nooi?i/anoei c??cii
oa i?yiieooiith ieiuaaeeith ia?aae iei, ia e?i/eeo c’yaey?oueny o?eeooia
ieiuaaeea aai nooi?i/anoee c??c.

Oei 2. C i?yiieooiei ueoeii oa i?yiieooiith ?aieith. Oae? i?yaeee
iiiaeeiie? (4 aec.). An? a?aeiinyoueny aei ii/aoeiai? oace ia??iaeo.

Oei 3. C caie?oaeaiei ueoeii oa caie?oaeaiith ?aieith. I?yaeee oeueiai
oeio e?euee?nii ia?aaaaeathoue. ?aiee ?o, ye e i?yaeie oeio 1, e?oae?, a
/ano?oa iaaeuei?. Ueoee aeaio eiio?ao?aoe?e — iaeaiuee? (iaio? ca ?aieo)
ie?oae? oa aaeee? (??ai? ca ?ici??aie aai a?eueo? ca ?aieo) iaaeuei?.

I?yaeee oeio 3a (ae?oaa iieiaeia 2 — ia?oa iieiaeia 3 no.i.a.)
ia/eneaii? (6 aec.). Ia ieo ana ua iaia? oaoeaooaaiiy, ?aiee oa ueoee
aeaaee?. I?yaeee oeio 3a (ae?oaa iieiaeia 3 — 4 no.i.a.) cia/ii
/eneaii?o? ca iiia?aaei? (34 aec.). A?eueo?noue ?o a?iicia?,
cono??/athoueny n??ai?. ?aiee ia?aaaaeii iaaeuei?, c iai?ae?oaeiai a
ia?aoei? a?onea. Ia?aaeiy /anoeia ?aiee, i?aeei?yth/enue caaaeuei?e
iiae? oiai /ano, cia/ii iioiauaia, caaeiy ?iiae? i?yia, ?c ceaiii oi?ie
aeey c?o/iiai e??ieaiiy ueoea. Aaaeeeaith a o?iiieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii?
?enith ?icaeyaeoaaieo i?yaeie ? iiyaa ia ?o ?aieao oaoeaooaaiiy. ssce/ee
aeiaa?, iaaenath/? iaae ?aieith. O?iiieia?/ieie iieaae/eeaie, ye ? o
i?yaeie iiia?aaei?o oei?a oeueiai /ano, ? iaeaea iaia’yceiaee
nooi?i/anoee c??c oa i?yiieooia ieiuaaeea (??aeoa) o iniiae yce/ea, a
oaeiae oaoeaooaaiiy a?/ieo a?aiae ? e?i/eea. E?a? ueoe?a /anoi
oaoeaoiaai?.

Oei 4. C caie?oaeaiei ueoeii oa i?yiieooiith ?aieith. ?aeeia i?yaeea
oeueiai oeio iioiaeeoue c e.21 iiaeeueieea Aeeae?y. ?aiea oaoeaoiaaia,
yce/ie aac nooi?i/aoiai c??co oa ieiuaaeee a iniia?, caaiooee ia e?ae
?aiee. Ueoie iaaeueiee, oeeueia /anoeia eiai o?aiaoeaiiae?aia, c aeaiia
caeeaieaie. I?yaeea aeia?a aeaoo?oueny ae?oaith iieiaeiith 2 — ii/aoeii
3 no.i.a.

Iaoaeaaa ia?aiaiia aa?i?oo?a neeaaeaeany c ia?aiaiieo iaeeaaeie oa
iaeiia/iee?a ?aiai?a, ye? ia’?aeiai? a 2 a?aeae?ee. Oeie aeae?eai? ca
eiino?oeoe??th (iaeii/anoi? oa aeai/anoi?). Cae/aeia ia?aiaiia aa?i?oo?a
aeaioiaeyeany c n??aea oa a?iice. A?aeii? ?ice?oii i?ee?aoai? a
iie?o?iiiiio noee? iaeeaaeee oa iaeiia/ieee c cieioa, n??aea oa ?o
eiia?iaoe?e.

A?aeae?e I. Ia?aiaii? iaeeaaeee. Oei 1. Iaeii/anoi?. Aeoaea ia/eneaii?
(5 aec.). Ia’?aeiai? a iaeei oei ca ii?oieia?/iith iciaeith — ieane?
i?yiieooi? ieao?aee, ui e??ieeeny ia ?ai?iue.

Oei 2. Aeai/anoi?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iaeeaaeie oeio 1 aoee aeineoue
iiioey?i? (12 aec.). Neeaaeathoueny c aeaio i?yiieooieo ieao?aie —
eeoeueiai? oa oeeueii? (ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?aiaiy). C’?aeiai? o?ueiia
caeeaieaie. Aeaioiaeai? /ano?oa c n??aea (5 aec.), iaeia a?iiciaa, aea?
a?iaoaeaa?.

Aa??aio A — eeoeueia? ieao?aee aeaaee? aai c i?yieie oanaoeaie
acaeiaae aeiaaeo aie?a, ui ia?a?eaathoueny a na?aaei?e /anoei?.
Ciaeaeai? a iioiaaii? ia?oi? iieiaeie 3 no.i.a.

Aa??aio A — aiaeia?/i? ca oi?iith iiia?aaei?i, aea eeoeueiaa oa oeeueia
ieao?aee neeaaeai? ?c c?aiooi? iaai?e oa c’?aeiaii? caeeaieaie iaei???
nioaeee iaoaeo. I?e oeueiio ieaeiy /anoeia iaeeaaeee a i?noe? ia?aaeio
caoaeaia oa ooai?th? iaoeth. Oaoeaooaaiiy caa??aa? eieeoith noaio, aea
aei ia? aeiaeathoueny iai?ae?oae? oanaoee ia e?ioeyo oa a na?aaei?e
/anoei? ieao?aee

A?aeae?e II. Iaeiia/ieee ?aiai?a. Oey eaoaai??y aa?i?oo?e /eneaii?oa
(25 aec.). Iaeiia/ieee aeaioiaeai? aieiaiei /eiii c a?iice (13 aec.) oa
n??aea (10 aec.), a?aeiii ii iaeiiio cieioiio oa cae?ciiio. Ca
eiino?oeoe??th iaeiia/ieee iiae?eythoueny ia aeaa oeie — iaeii/anoi? oa
aeai/anoi?.

Oei 1. Iaeii/anoi? (15 aec.). O aeaeyae? i?yiieooii? ieao?aee c
caaino?aiei aai caie?oaeaiei e?ioeai. A?eueo?noue iaeiia/iee?a (9 aec.)
i?ee?aoaia oaoeaooaaiiyi ca ia?eiao?ii, eeoa aa?oiy /anoeia eeoa?oueny
aeaaeeith. Ciaeaeai? a iioiaaiiyo ii/aoeiai? oace.

Oei 2. Aeai/anoi? (10 aec). Neeaaeathoueny c i?yiieooii? iaieie oa
?ooiii i?ee??ieaiiai aei ia? aeania iaeiia/ieea. Iaieia, neeaaeaia c
c?aiooi? iaai?e ieao?aee aai aeaio ieao?aie, e??ieeanue aei ?aiaiy
iaei??th aai aeaiia caeeaieaie. Aeaioiaeai? c n??aea (5 aec.), a?eeiio
(1 aec.) oa a?iice (4 aec.). Ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi aeiaaeeie iaieie oa
iaeiia/ieea aeae?eai? aeaa aa??aioe.

Aa??aio A — c ei?ioeith iaieiith. Aeiaaeeia iaieie o ae?ia?a oeueiai
aa??aioo neeaaea? ia a?eueo ye 1/4 aeiaaeeie iaeiia/ieea. Oa?aeoa?i?
aeey ii/aoeiai? oace.

Aa??aio A — c aeiaaith iaieiith, ui neeaaea? a?eueo i?ae iieiaeio
aeiaaeeie iaeiia/ieea. Iaieie i?yiieooi? aai aeaui caoaeai? aei e?ioey.
Iaeiia/iee, ia a?aei?io a?ae aa??aioo A, cae??ieaiee ia ai?eooe aei
iaieie oa?i??ii, a i?aea?oaiee ia aocuee?e iaoaeueoe?. Iiaoooaaee ia
o?iaeuei?e oac?.

Cano?aee — ”a?aoae?” c a?iice oa n??aea ?iiae? o?aieythoueny a
i?ciueina?iaonueeeo iioiaaiiyo Iieaeiae oa Aoaeaeaeo. Aiie
neeaaeathoueny c aeaio ieao?aie, c?aiooeo o iai?aoeee?iae? oa anoaaeaieo
iaeia a iaeio. Aa?oi?e e?iaoeue ae?iao ne??ieaiee e?eueoeai, ui c’?aeio?
iaeaea? iieiaeie, a ieaei? e?ioe? ?o anoaaeai? aai e?eueoey, aai
eaioethaeee c o?ueio — /ioe?ueio eaiie. Oe? cano?aee niaoeeo?/i? aeey
i?ciueina?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y ae?oai?
iieiaeie 2 — na?aaeeie 3 no.i.a.

Ae?iae a iie?o?iiiiio noee? (aocaea/eiaa oa iiynia aa?i?oo?a, iniaeno?
i?ee?ane). Ii?aeio? ?o aeeiiaiiy a ??cieo aa??aioao iie?o?iiiiai noeeth
i?ciuei?einueeiai /ano — “na?aeie?eiaiio” ? eeoaciiia.

“Na?aeie?eiaee” noeeue. Oey iaaiith i??ith oiiaia iacaa aecia/a?
nai???aeiee ? oeiieia?/ii noaeee thaae??iee aeaei?. sse i?aaeei, iniiao
ae?iao neeaaeaea a?iiciaa ieao?aea, eeoeueiaee a?e yei? ieaeoaaany
ciei/aiith n??aiith. Aaaeeeaith iniaeea?noth noeeth ? iaianaiiy ia
a?iiciao iniiao ?aeue?oiiai i?iaiaioo, yeee iio?i a?aeaeaa?oueny ia
ieaeoaaii?. Oeaio? eiiiiceoe?? caeiathoue iaeei aai e?eueea ieaneeo
na?aeie?eiaeo eaaioii?a eaaae?aoii?, iaaeueii? aai e?aieeiiiiae?aii?
oi?ie.

A oeueiio noee? i?ee?aoai? e?inueea aa?aiiy c e.5 iiaeeueieea *aoo,
iiyni? ieao?aee, iaeiia/ieee ?aiai?a oa iaaa?oy ia/a c e.9 iiaeeueieea
A?aaeaoea, na?aaeee c e.26 oeueiai ae iiaeeueieea. *an iiaoooaaiiy
“na?aeie?eiaiai” noeeth o na?iao?a ne?ae aecia/eoe ye e?iaoeue 3 — ia?oo
iieiaeio 4 no.i.a.

Noeeue eeoaciiia. Oeae noeeue, ui ?iaeoa caaoueny ia?aai?iae/anoith
?ie?onoaoe??th, iioe?th?oueny a 5 no.i.a. Iaeiae ae?iae, i?ee?aoai? a
noee? eeoaciiia, ?ai?acaioiaai? e a aeiaoinueeee /an. A?i
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iie?eooyi iiaa?oi? iini?eue ?ie?onoaoe??th
eieuei?iaith aiaeeth aai ieanei a?aeoe?oiaaieie eai?ioeyie, ye? ai?uai?
a ooai?ai? ia?aai?iaeeaie ai?caea ??cieo aaiiao?e/ieo oi?i, ii?aeiaieo
a i?iaiaioaeuei? eiiiiceoe??.

Ae?iae oeueiai noeeth ?ai?acaioiaai? i?ee?anaie aocaee c e.14 a?ey
Eacaee??, o?aoeith c iiaeeueieea O??eaoeae oa ueoeii i?yaeee c
iiaeeueieea Eoaae. Ae?iae a noee? eeoaciiia a na?iaonueeeo iai’yoeao
I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y i?aaeyoue ca o?iiieia?/i? ?iaeeeaoi?e ae?oai?
iieiaeie 4 no.i.a.

Iaoaeaaee iinoae. Iaoaeaa? iinoaeeie ia/eneaii?. Na?aae ieo a?iicia?
aeae oeio Blechkanne c iiaeeueieea Eioeiaeia, eacaiie Aeaaaeo ia
cae?ci?e ?o/oe? c iiaeeueieea Oaa/aiei ? n?ooea c A?aaeaoee, 9/1.

Aeoiaey/e c eiai noaio, aeae c Eioeiaeie aeei?enoiaoaaany aeoaea aeiaai
? ? eeane/iei i?eeeaaeii “cai?cithaaiiy” ?iii?o?a a na?iaonueeeo
iiaeeao. Eiai ?o/eo ao?a/aii, ? cai?noue ia? i?e?iaeaii a?oao cae?cio, c
aaiaeaaeai iaaeiei ai?ea. Iiaeeueiee aeaoo?oueny ii/aoeiaith oacith
ia??iaeo.

A?iiciaee eacaiie c cae?ciith ?o/eith c iiaeeueieea Oaa/aiei ia? oi?io?
aiaeia?? a i?ciueina?iaonueeeo iioiaaiiyo Ac?aonueei? Na?iao?? e?ioey 2
— ia?oi? iieiaeie 3 no.i.a.

A e.9 e?ioey 3 no.i.a. iiaeeueieea A?aaeaoea aoei ciaeaeaii a?iiciao
n?ooeo i?ciueiai aa??aioo oeio Oaiii?.

Neeyiee iinoae. Oea neeyiee, o?aee, eaeeoe, aeae ? oa??e?, a oaeiae
ooaeaoi? iinoaeeie — oeaeii, aaeuecaia??? oa a??aae.

Neeyiee ia/eneaii? (2 aec.) ? ciaeaeai? a iioiaaiiyo ii/aoeiai? oace.

O?aee aeaio ??ciiaeae?a. Caie?oaeaia iinoaeeia c Naiai?aee (3/1)
a?aeiineoueny aei oae caaieo “aac eueieueinueeiai oeio”, ui aoee
i?iaeoeoe??th ?aeinueeeo iaenoa?aiue ia?oeo noie?oue i.a. ?aeinueeith ae
i?iaeoeoe??th ne?ae aeciaoe oeaiee neeaaeii aeaei?iaaii? o?aee ae?oaiai
??ciiaeaeo (*aoo, 5/1).

Eaeeoe ?ai?acaioiaai? a?aeiinii aeia?a (8 aec.). O?e iaeiioeiieo
iinoaeeie iai?anoa?e/ii? oi?ie ia e?eueoeaaiio i?aeaeii? iioiaeyoue c
iioiaaiue ii/aoeiai? oace. Eaeeo iiae?aii? oi?ie c iioiaaiiy o?iaeueii?
oace (A?aaeaoea, 26/1) aac i?aeaeiio, i?ae a?ioeyie ? ii aa?oi?e /anoei?
ei?iono a??ci? e?i??. Eii?/i? eaeeoe c Oaaieaoa ? Aeiooaee?aee i?ci?o?.
Aiie iaeaaeaoue /eneaiiiio eeano i?ciuei-?einueeiai neea, aeia?a
?ai?acaioiaaiiio a /a?iyo?anueeeo oa oeaio?aeueii-?a?iiaenueeeo
noa?iaeeoiinoyo e?ioey 3 — ii/aoeo 5 no.i.a.

?aeeiee aeae (Ia?aiiaenuee) c caeaiiai neea ia? eaaae?aoiee aenieee
ooeoa oa ei?ioea oeee?iae?e/ia ai?ei. Ca E.Aeneian oea oi?ia 51b,
iioe?aia a ?oae?? oa cao?aeieo i?ia?ioe?yo c /ano Oeaa??a ii 2 no.i.a.

Ooaeaoi? iinoaeeie ?ai?acaioiaai? aaeuecaia??yie (I?eii?nueea, Iayee,
3/6), a??aaeii (Aieaie, i.10) ? oeaeiiii (Ia?aiiaenuee). An? c?acee
a?aeiinyoueny aei ii/aoeiai? oace.

Aioi?e oa ?o o?aaiaioe aeineoue iioe?ai? a i?ciueina?iaonueeeo
iai’yoeao (18 ioieo?a). Aiie ciaeaeai? a iioiaaiiyo, ianeiao eo?aai?a oa
eo?aaiieo ?iaao.

A iai’yoeao ii/aoeiai? oace iae/ano?o? na?oeiaeeiyi? aocueeiai?e?
aioi?e oeio N ca Ae.A.Oaeiaei aai “iaaiieuenuee?”. Oeae oei aeaoo?oueny
2 no.i.a. Aeaui i?ci?o? — ia?oi? iieiaeie 3 no.i.a. aioi?e oeio Ae c
O?nia?, 4/1 oa Ieaiaoo, 16/1.

A iai’yoeao o?iaeueii? oace ia?aaaaeathoue aioi?e i?ci?o oei?a —
“oaia?nuee?” oa “?iea?iainuee?”. Ia?o? aeaooaaeenue Ae.A.Oaeiaei ia?oith
iieiaeiith 3 no.i.a., iaeiae iauiaeaai? ciao?aeee iieacaee, ui aeione
aioi? oeueiai oeio ia i?eieieany i?ney iia?iio i?noa (yeee ca?ac
aeaoo?oueny 60-ie ??. 3 no.i.a.). “?iea?iainuee?” aioi?e aeaoothoueny
e?ioeai 3 — 4 no.i.a.

?icae?e 5. Ia?en aoii-iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? na?iao?a I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y.

5.1. Caaaeueia neooaoe?y a ?aa?ii? ia ?oaaae? 3 — 2 no. aei i.a.
Caaaeueia e?eca aioe/iiai na?oo i?ney ?iceeaaeo aea?aeaae Ieaenaiae?a
Iaeaaeiinueeiai a?aeaeeany e ia i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo iie?nao. I?ney
a?ae/ooiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aeeiio iai?ee?ioe? 4 — a ia?o?e iieiaei? 3
no. aei i.a. Ieuea?enueea aea?aeaaa anooia? a nioao e?ece. A na?aaeei? 3
no. aei i.a. o?eaa?oueny aeeooy ia a?eueoino? n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue
oi?e. Iai?ee?ioe? 3 — ia ii/aoeo 2 no. aei i.a. caciathoue ciai?oi?o
oaea??a ? oaeiae iio?aieythoue a nioao e?ece I?eii?e oa O??a. C
na?aaeeie 3 no. aei i.a. oey ae aeiey ni?oeaea Oa?niian oa Ainii?nueea
oea?noai. E?aei?e i?ai?/ii-no?aeiee oi?iino aioe/iiai na?oo Oaia?n
iai?ee?ioe? 3 — ia ii/aoeo 2 no. aei i. a. iaaiaeeoueny iiaeie io?aie e
aaaeaie, ?aaaoth/e ia yeonue iaaaciaeo (nei??o ca ana, na?iaonueeo).
Oaeei /eiii, iaeyae ?noi??? aioe/ieo oeaio??a I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y
aeaiiino?o? e?ecia? yaeua a ieo ia ?oaaae? 3 — 2 no. aei i.a.

Ia i?aii/? ?aa?iio a e?ninoaiiaiio Iiaei?i?ia’? a oeae /an iaoeaee
ieaiaia ca?oaeiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e, a iiieccyo Aei?i?a oa a E?eio
oi?ioaaeany i?ciueine?onueea eoeueoo?ia ni?eueiioa. Oaeei aoei
aoii-iie?oe/ia oei iaia?aaeiaei? na?iaonueei? aeiae.

5.2. Aeaye? caoaaaeaiiy aei ?aeiino?oeoe?? aoi?/ii? ?noi??? na?iao?a.
I?iaeaia ioioiaeiaiiy a?oaieia?/ieo iai’yoie na?iao?a c iaaieie
ieaiaiaie aai ieai?iieie ia’?aeiaiiyie — iaeia c iaeneeaaei?oeo. ??
??oaiiy oneeaaeith?oueny ieceith ianoaaei. Ii-ia?oa, aein? ia c’yniaaii,
ui naia cia/aoue aoi?eiie, ia?aaeai? aioe/ieie aaoi?aie — iacae
eiie?aoieo ieaiai /e aaeeeeo ieai?iieo oa?oiiaaiue, iacaaieo ca ?i’yi
ieaiai?-aaaaiiia. A?eueo?noue a/aieo aaa/a? a ai?nao, yceaao,
?ienieaiao, aeaiao «iaeaieaa e?oiiua e?aiiycu/iua ieaiaia eee
iieeoe/aneea nithcu ieaiai…», ye? «…aeeth/aee, eiia/ii, e ae?oaea
iaeeea ?iaei-ieaiaiiua iiae?acaeaeaiey ei/aaieeia, ia ioia/aiiua
ienueiaiiuie enoi/ieeaie» (E.O.Ni??iia).

Aoi?/ia ao?eaooe?y a?oaieia?/ieo iai’yoie oneeaaeith?oueny e oei, ui ia
aaeee?e oa?eoi??? iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a na?iao?a aeineoue iaeiiiai?oia.
A?oaieiae iaiaaathoueny ?ic/eaioaaoe oe?, caaaeii ?aeei?, iaoa??aee,
aeae?eyth/e ye?nue eieaeuei? a?aei?ie (aieiaiei /eiii, ia iniia?
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo), ye? iiaeia aoei a ni?aa?aeianoe c ie?aieie
ieaiaiaie, caaaeaieie a ienueiiaeo aeaea?aeao. Aeaye? ?acoeueoaoe aea?
oaeiae a?aene?aeeoaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e, ye? ? aoiia?ao?/ieie iieaae/eeaie.

5.3. ?aiiueina?iaonueeee ia??iae. Ienueiia? aeaea?aea, ye?
caeo/athoueny ye aeieace o??? aai ?ioi? aeaoe i?iieeiaiiy na?iao?a aei
I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, ia caaaeaee aeineoue iaai?. Ca iaei??th c
a?iioac, oiiii?i «Na?iao?y» aia?oa c’yaeany a o?oae? Aa?aee?aea
Iiio?enueeiai (380 — 310 ??. aei i.a.), yeee ia caa??any. Iineeaiiy ia
iueiai ? o Aio?aiia Ea??nonueeiai (3 no. aei i.a.), yeee, a naith /a?ao,
iineea?oueny ia Eaee?iaoa (310 — 235 ??. aei i.a.). Ae.I.Ia/einueeee,
aoaeo/e i?eoeeueieeii i??i?eoaoo Aa?aee?aea o anoaiiaeaii? ?nioaaiiy
Na?iao?? aaea iai?ee?ioe? 4 no. aei i.a., caa?oa? oaaao, ui i?ci?oa,
iiaoi?thth/e aeai? Aa?aee?aea, ?n?aii I?eaenueeee oa Nio?ii ci?iththoue
neiai «Na?iao?y» ia «caiey naa?iiao?a» ca ?ii?enueeith ienueiiaith
o?aaeeoe??th.

Iaeiae oaea i??eoaaiiy ua ia ? oaa?aeei aeieacii oiai, ui a i?ea?iae?
(o Aa?aee?aea) aoa aaeeoee oa?i?i «Na?iao?y». Nai Ae.I.Ia/einueeee
aaaaea?, ui oeae oiiii?i i?a aaanoe e Aio?aii, ine?eueee ia?oiaeaea?aei
ia caa?aaeiny. Any oey iaaiaaiai?noue ia aeicaiey?, ia i?e iiaeyae,
aaaaeaoe o?oae Aa?aee?aea iaae?eiei na?ae/aiiyi ?nioaaiiy Na?iao?? a 4
no. aei i.a.

Aeieacii iaoeaiiy na?iao?a aaea a 4 no. aei i.a. a ?a?ii? (oiaoi, ia
cao?ae a?ae Aeiio) aaaaeathoueny aeai? ?aaeiena Eieaenueeiai ?
Inaaaei-Ne?eaea. Ia?oee (a?ey 370 — 365 ??. aei i.a.) eieae?co? iiaeeco
Oaia?na yeeoinue n??iao?a. A ia??ie? Inaaaei-Ne?eaea (a?ey 338 ?. aei
i.a.) eaeaoueny: «Ca ne?oaie n??iaoe ia?iae ? ??/ea Oaia?n, ui ? iaaeith
?a?iie ? Ac??». O ii?yaeeo ia?ae?eo aeine?aeieee aaa/athoue aeieac
iaoeaiiy n??iao?a naia ia i?aaiio aa?ac? Aeiio. Aithny, ui oea —
ia?aiai?oaeaiiy aeaea?aea, aaeaea e aeac?aeo ?aaeiena («iiaeeco») iiaeia
i?e aaaeaii? iioe?eoe ia iaeaeaa aa?aae. Ia?aoo?, aieiaia: a iaio
aeaea?aeao eaeaoueny ia i?i na?iao?a, a i?i n??iao?a. O?eaae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy anoaiiaeee, ui aoi?eii syrmatae ne?ae
iia’ycoaaoe c iaei??th c a?oi i?ci?o naa?iiao?a. Iaoeaiiy inoaii?o ii
iaeaeaa aa?aae Oaia?na ie a eiai ia aeeeeea? caia?a/aiue, aea i?ye ia
aeaoo? iiyao cao?aei?oa Aeiio na?iao?a.

Aaaaea?oueny, ui iaeiei c iae?ai?oeo ienueiiaeo na?ae/aiue i?i iaoeaiiy
na?iao?a a I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’? ? eaaaiaea i?i Aiaao, ia?aeacaia
aaoi?ii 1 no.i.a. Iie??iii. Aiia, ca I.?.?inoiaoeaaei, noiaeeoue aei
?noi?e/ieo ?aae?e, a?aeaeoeo a i?aoe? O?ea?oa, yeee ciaeueiaoaaa iiae??
272 — 220 ??. aei i.a. I?e aecia/aii? ?? aeaoe ? iioiaeaeaiiy
I.?.?inoiaoeaa aeoiaeea c naiai aeaooaaiiy /ano i?iieeiaiiy na?iao?a aei
Ne?o??, oiio i??eoaaiiy i?i aeaoo iiae?e eaaaiaee ooai?ththoue eia?/ia
eiei. Eiee aooe iaoia?aaeaeaiei, oi ne?ae aeciaoe, ui aeaoa iiae?e,
iia’ycaieo c ae?yeuei?noth Aiaae, aiaaiaii ia anoaiiaeth?oueny.

Aaaeeeaei na?aeioeoaii ?nioaaiiy ?a?iiaenueei? Na?iao?? iaiia ae aaea
ia ii/aoeo 2 no. aei i.a. aaaaea?oueny ie?ia oaiaea 180 — 179 ??. aei
i.a., ui ?? oeeaee Oa?iae Iiio?enueeee oa oea?? Ia?aainueeee ?
A?o?inueeee, aea caaaeo?oueny «… c /enea ?a?iiaenueeeo aieiaea??a
Aaoae, oea?ue na?iaonueeee…». Iiooee aieiae?iue Aaoaea a I?ai?/iiio
I?e/i?iiii?’? caaaeaee aoee coiiaeai? oyaaie aeine?aeiee?a i?i Oaia?n ye
iaaeo ?a?iie oa Ac?? aeey aioe/ieo aaoi??a. Iei? aaaaea?oueny
aeiaaaeaiei, ui aieiae?iiy Aaoaea ?icoaoiaoaaeenue a I?eeoaaii?
(N.A.Iie?i, ?.?. Ia?/aiei).

Iaeiei c aeieac?a ?aiiuei? aeaoe i?iieeiaiiy na?iao?a ia o?eueee a
noaie i?ae Aeiiii oa Aei?i?ii, aea e ia I?aaiaa?aaeaey ?, ia aeoieo
I.E.Ea?eoeianueeiai, E.O.Ni??iiaa oa Ae.I.Ia/einueeiai, ieuea?enueeee
aeae?ao ia /anoue I?ioiaaia (e?iaoeue 3 — ii/aoie 2 no. aei i.a.).

Caaaeai? a aeae?ao? nae?, ia aeoieo aeayeeo aeine?aeiee?a (O.A?aoi,
ss.Oa?iaooa, O.Nethna?aiei, E.O.Ni??iia, I.E.Ea?eoeianueeee), aoee
na?iaoaie («oea?nuee? na?iaoe»). Oea ia aeeeth/aii. Aea noaa?aeaeaiiy
E.O.Ni??iiaa i?i aeae?ao ye i?i aeaea?aei, ui o?eno? iaoeaiiy na?iao?a
iiaeeco Ieuea??, ia i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny a?oaieia?/ii. Iiaeeeai,
e?ea?aeoaaoe oeth noia?a/i?noue aeiiiiiaea aeneiaeaia naiai /ano
i?eiouaiiy (I.A.Neiiiaiei, A.?.Eiaae), ui nae? Naeoaoa?ia — oea na?iaoe,
aea iaoeaioe? aeiinueeeo aai i?eeoaainueeeo noai?a, ye? cae?enithaaee
ia?caee ia Ieuea?th. Ia iaiieyaath/e inoaoi/ii ia na?iaonueeo
iaeaaei?noue nae?a Naeoaoa?ia, i?iiiioth cai?noue noaa?aeaeaiiy «nae?
aoee na?iaoaie» iaiaaeeoenue i?eiouaiiyi «nae? iiaee aooe na?iaoaie».

Aaaaea?oueny, ui Ae?iaei?ii N?oeee?enueeei a «?noi?e/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?»
ciaeueiaaiee oaeo caaithaaiiy Ne?o?? na?iaoaie. Iaeiae Ae?iaei? ienaa
na?e o?oae a 1 no. aei i.a. oa i?ye ia aeaooaaa iiae?? «caaithaaiiy»,
i?i ye? iia?aeiiea. 2 no. aei i.a., yeei ?o cae/aeii aeaoothoue, aoei
cai?iiiiiaaia ia i?aenoaa? oeo iaaaaaoueio na?iaonueeeo iai’yoie
I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, ye? a?aeiinyoueny aei oeueiai /ano (ciia
eia?/ia eiei!). E??i oiai, a o?oae? Ae?iaei?a eaeaoueny i?i naa?iiao?a,
a ia na?iao?a. Eiioaeno o?eaeo aiai?eoue i?i oa, ui ciaeueiaai?
Ae?iaei?ii iiae?? yeui e a?aeaoaaeeny, oi ca aeiae ne?onueei? a?oa?ee, a
6-5 no. aei i.a.

Ia?oei ai?a?ao?/iei aeaea?aeii, ui aeinoia??ii aoanoo? na?iao?a ia oe?e
oa?eoi???, ne?ae aaaaeaoe oa?niianueeee aeae?ao ia /anoue Ae?ioaioa. sse
nithcieee ne?onueeiai oea?y Iaeaea a ne?oi-oa?niianuee?e a?ei? 112-110
??. aei i.a. a aeae?ao? iacaai? ?aaen?iaee. «Aaia?ao?y» No?aaiia (c 31
?. aei i.a. ii 24 ?.i.a.) ?acii c aeae?aoii ia /anoue Ae?ioaioa ia?
aaaaeaoeny ia?oei ca /anii aeinoia??iei ienueiiaei aeaea?aeii, ui
eieae?co? na?iao?a a I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’?. No?aaii aeaco? ia
oa?eoi??th iaoeaiiy ?ienieai («a aieioao a?ey Iaio?aee»). A?i aea
ie?aneth? ?oaaae? ?ienieainueeeo caiaeue: «??aieie i?ae Oaia?nii ?
Ai?enoaiii». Oea — ia?oa ca /anii caaaeea ?ienieai a aioe/ieo
aeaea?aeao.

?aeaioeo?eoth/e iaai? a?oaieia?/i? iai’yoee na?iao?a c ?ienieaiaie,
ne?ae caa?iooeny ia?o ca ana aei oeo c ieo, ye? oa?eoi??aeueii oa
o?iiieia?/ii ni?aiaaeathoue c iia?aeiieaiiyie aeaea?ae. Ia caieyo «i?ae
Oaia?nii ? Ai?enoaiii» ieie ? aionei? iioiaaiiy 2 — 1 no. aei i.a.,
i???ioiaai? a i?ai?/iiio naeoi??.

Na?aae iaoeaioe?a I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y a ?aiiueina?iaonueeee /an
No?aaii oa Aii?ai iaceaathoue ycea?a. Iiaeeeai, c ieie ne?ae
ioioiaeithaaoe iioiaaiiy 2 — 1 no. aei i.a., i???ioiaai? a i?aaeaiiiio
naeoi??. I?eiaeii?, naia oae i???ioiaai? /eneaii? iioiaaiiy ycea?a
Oai?ueie 1 — 4 no.i.a., ui aoee iauaaeeaie ia?anaeaioe?a c I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y.

Iie?oe/i? ?aae?? ?aiiueina?iaonueeiai /ano iaeaea ia a?aeaeo? a
ienueiiaeo aeaea?aeao. sseui aeciaoe ?noi?e/iith iniaith oea?eoeth
Aiaao, oi iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe iaai? c?oeiaiiy ?c ne?oaie a oeae ia??iae.
Ua iaeei oaeo ?aiiueina?iaonueei? ?noi??? — nithc ?ienieai Oan?y ?c
ne?oaie Iaeaea. Aiae?coth/e iiae?? 1 no. aei i.a., iaiiaeia iaieiooe
I?o?eaeaoia? a?eie. Ia?oa c ieo ii/aeany 89 ?. A i?e ia aioe?
Iiio?enueei? aea?aeaae acyee o/anoue e i?e/i?iiii?nuee? aa?aa?nuee?
ieaiaia. Aii?ai na?aae a?enuee A?oaeay, iieeiaiaeoey I?o?eaeaoa, 86 ?.
iaceaa? ne?o?a. sseui ooo ia eaeaoueny i?i aeeeth/ii i?ciueine?one?
eiioeiaaioe, oi, nei??o ca ana, i?i na?iaonuee? (aioe/i? aaoi?e /anoi
ioioiaeithaaee oeo oa ?ioeo). O/anoue i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo na?iao?a a
o?ao?e I?o?eaeaoia?e a?ei? (74 — 63 ??. aei i.a.) a?aecia/ea Aii?ai:
«i?e?aeiaeeny aei iueiai (I?o?eaeaoa — I.N.) …c naa?iiao?a oae caai?
oea?nuee? yceae…».

?ienieaie (yeui aeciaoe cai?iiiiiaaio ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th c ieie
i?ai?/ii-i???ioiaaieo iioiaaiue) caeiaee oeaio?aeueio oa i?aaeaiio
/anoeie e?aiaa?aaeiiai noaio. Aeoiaey/e c oiiia?ao??
i?aaeaiiii???ioiaaieo iai’yoie, yceae aeeee ia i?ai?/ oa no?ae a?ae
?ienieainueeeo ei/?aie. A 1 no. aei i.a. na?iaoe aoee iaeaeeae/eie
non?aeaie i?ciueine?onueeeo ai?iaeeu Ieaeiueiai Aei?i?a. Oiae? ae aiie
ii/aee iaiaaeaoe ia ca?oaeiaoeuee? ai?iaeeua Na?aaeiuei?
Iaaeaei?i?yiueie. Aeaye? ciao?aeee a iiaeeao i?aaeiy (Aeea?iaiue-?,
11/13, Eueaiai, 1/1) ia aeeeth/athoue oiai, ui a ieo aoee iioiaai?
ca?oaeiaoeuee? ae?iee — a?aiee. Iaeiae aaciaith oa?eoi???th ei/?aie
caeeoaeeny i?e/i?iiii?nuee? noaie. Eeoa iai?ee?ioe? inoaiiueiai noie?ooy
aei i.a. (a oeueiio aeiaaeeo — yaii i?ney ?iceeaaeo aaonueeiai
ia’?aeiaiiy Ao?aa?noe) na?iaoe iaea?aeaee iiaeeea?noue aacia/ii
ia?anoaaoeny ii I?aaiaa?aaeaeth. Iai’yoie oeueiai /ano ooo iaei — Eoo,
Eueaiai, Oeiio??aea, Oieinueea, i.4. Nei??o ca ana, aeaeae? ?aeaee ia
Aeoiae (iai?eeeaae, 16 ?. aei i.a.) cae?enithaaeeny c e?aiaa?aaeieo
oa?eoi??e.

27 ?. aei i.a. aoea ooai?aia iiaa ?einueea i?ia?ioe?y Iueic?y. sse
iino?eio caa?ico iueic?enueeiio e?iano, a?aei?/a? ia ii/aoeo 1 no.i.a.
ycea?a caneaiee a oeae /an aei Oii Ia?ae?e. Eiai «na?iaoe» oa «yceae»
c’yaeythoueny ? caa?iaeothoue «naeyiai» caaaeaee c-ca Aeoiath. Oea
i?aee?aneth? e No?aaii ia ii/aoeo i.a.: «Ai ae ? iei? oe? ia?iaee
(na?iaoe — I.N.) …aeeaooue ii?yae c o?ae?eoeyie, aieiaiei /eiii ii oie
a?e ?no?o, aea ii/anoe e ii nae a?e». Iaeiae c na?aaeeie 1 no.i.a. yceae
aoanoothoueny Oaoeeoii ? Ie?i??i Noa?oei aaea ia Oai?nueeee ??aiei?,
iiaeeco ei?aeii?a Iaiiii??. A?aeoiae? aeaieo i?i iaoeaiiy ycea?a a
I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’? aioe/i? aeaea?aea ia i?noyoue.

?aiiueina?iaonueeee ia??iae a I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’? caii/aoeoaaa
noai?aiiy ?a?iiaenueei? Na?iao??. Aiae?c a?oaieia?/ieo iai’yoie ?aii?o
na?iao?a ?aa?iio iieacaa aaci?aenoaai?noue ni?ia a?aeianoe /an
i?iieeiaiiy na?iao?a ia oeth oa?eoi??th aei 4 — 3 no. aei i.a. A
iaaee??//? Aeiio oa Aei?i?a iaia? aeiaeiiai na?iaonueeiai eiiieaeno,
yeee i?a ae aiaaiaii aeaooaaoeny /anii ?ai?oa 2 no. aei i.a.

5.4. Na?aaeiueina?iaonueeee ia??iae. A ia?o?e iieiaei? 1 no.i.a. a
I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’? a?aeaoeeny ao?oeea? ?noi?e/i? iiae??, ui
aaciina?aaeiuei noinoaaeeny iaoeaaoeo ooo na?iaonueeeo ieaiai.
A?oaieia?/i? iai’yoee oeueiai /ano iaeaea ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae
iiia?aaei?o. A iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? i?iaeiaaeothoue aeii?ioaaoe aionei?
iioiaaiiy a i?aei?yiieooieo yiao c i???ioaoe??th a i?ai?/iiio naeoi??,
aeaui iaioee a?aenioie neeaaeathoue i???ioiaai? a i?aaeaiiiio.
?iciianthaeaeaiiy iai’yoie ia cao?ae a?ae Aei?i?a (Eaeaioa?ai,
Ino??aaoeue, Noa?? Aeoainna?e, Aacaie) ie?aneth? iai?yiie ?icnaeaiiy
ycea?a oa ?ienieai.

Aeoiaey/e c aeaieo aioe/ieo aaoi??a oa a?oaieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a, aaea a
ia?o?e iieiaei? 1 no.i.a. na?iaoe ?icoe?ththoue oa?eoi??th nai?o ei/?aie
aei Ieaeiueiai Aeoiath. Ao?i, c na?aaeeie 1 no.i.a. «na?iaonueea»
aoiiea?oa noai?a I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y ii/eia?
ci?ithaaoenue. Iiiiii?e Iaea a?ey «aeaeio Iaio?aee» ii?yae c ??/eith
Aoean (Neaao) ai?uo? aiaenia??a — «oeo, ui aeeaooue o aicao». Ua aeae?
ia cao?ae ai?n?a-aiaenia??a eieae?co? aeaui i?ci?oa (aei 79 ?.i.a.)
Ie?i?e Noa?oee. O ciaeaeaiiio a?ey i?aei?aeaey Iaiaoia oeaieo
ieuea?enueeiai ia?io?iaiai aeae?aoo 1 no.i.a. eaeaoueny i?i iinieuenoai
aei «iaeaaeeeeo oea??a Ai?n??» Oiaa?y ? eiainue ua, /e? ?i’y (aai ?iaia)
ia caa?aaeeny. Iaeaea iaia? noii?ao, ui oey Ai?n?y ciaoiaeeeanue ii
non?aenoao c Ieuea??th.

Aeaie a I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’?, e??i o?oaea Ie?i?y, aia?oa
caaaeothoueny o Naiaee: «Ooo ?no?, ui iaaea? oeyoe aeey aoa/? aeeeei
aeaiai». Ia E?aiaa?aaeae? Aei?i?a ?icoaoiaai? iiaeeueieee c iniiaieie
i?aeeo?aaiieie iioiaaiiyie. ?o iciaee aeanoea? na?aaeiueina?iaonuee?e
eoeueoo?? 1 — na?aaeeie 2 no.i.a. Iiaeiiiy — Iiaieaey, yeo iia’ycothoue
naia c aeaiaie.

Iia? ei/iaeee oaeaeei noai?eee aeineoue i?oeia iie?oe/ia ia’?aeiaiiy.
sseanue /anoeia ?o ia?aea i?noeai nai?o ei/?aie i?aaiaa?aaeaey
Na?aaeiuei? Iaaeaei?i?yiueie. A?aee?eoee a inoaii? ?iee iae?iiieue
na?iaonueei? oeyooe ae?oai? iieiaeie 1 no.i.a. a Na?aaeiueiio
Iiaei?no?ia’? (A?ooea, Naaa?ei?aea, Ai?ae??aea, Iena??aea, Ii?iae, Iie?a
— an? iioiaaiiy a ?aae?on? ia a?eueo ye 20 ei) iiaea aooe nai???aeiei
«Aa??inii» iiaeo aieiaea??a. ? oi/a ia aeeeth/aii, ui a ?o neeaae? aoee
?aii? aeaie (ye?, aeoiaey/e c aeaeyaeo iai’yoie oeyooe, i/iethaaee
i?aeo), ana ae oea ianaeaiiy aoei a?aeiia non?aeai ye ai?ne. I?i oea,
e??i aeaieo Ie?i?y Noa?oiai, na?ae/eoue ? iaiaoinueeee iaien i?i
iinieuenoai ieuea?iiieeo?a a Ai?n?th. ?iaia “iaeaaeeeeo oea??a”, ui ia
caa?aaeeny ii?yae c ?i’yi Oiaa?y, iiaee aooe ?iaiaie Oa?ciy aai ?i?niay.

Aeania, c ae?yeueiino? oeeo oea??a iai a?aeiiee eeoa oie oaeo, ui a?ae
ieo yeeiinue /eiii caeaaeaea Ieuea?y, ui ea?aoaaea cieio? oa n??ai?
iiiaoe c ?o ?iaiaie ? oaiaaie 64 — 79/80 ??. (Oa?cie) oa 79 — ia ii/aoeo
80-o ??. (?i?niae). Oeae oaeo ii?iaeea /eneaii? a?iioace i?i
aca?iia?aeiineie oeeo oea??a oa Ieuea?enueei? aea?aeaae. Ii/aoeiaa
?ic?iaea oeeo a?iioac i?eaaea aaoi??a a?ae aecia/aiiy i?ciueine?onueei?
aoi?/ii? iaeaaeiino? Oa?ciy oa ?i?niay aei aeciaiiy ?o aiaeaeyie
na?iao?a. Iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/ai? noinoieai na?iao?a Oa?ciy
oa ?i?niay c Ieuea??th. Ooo aeoiee ?icae?eeeeny. I.A.Uoe?i aaaaeaa, ui
oe? aieiaea?? anoaiiaeee aeaaeo iaae i?noii. Cieio? aien?? Oa?ciy a?i
?icaeyaea? ye aioe?einueeo aeaiiino?aoe?th, noaa?aeaeoth/e oaeei /eiii
iayai?noue ieuea?enueei-?einueei? eiio?iioaoe??. Ia a?aeeeaeath/e oaeo
iiaeeea?noue, aea aeoiaey/e c iayaiino? ia iiiaoao iiiia?ai a?oiio?a,
oiaoi na?ae/aiiy i?i caa?aaeai?noue iie?nieo ?inoeooo?a aeaaee, y
cai?iiiioaaa ?ioee ci?no ieuea?enueei-na?iaonueeeo aca?iei — nithc i?e
iii?iaeueiiio i??i?eoao? na?iao?a. A na?oe? oie oaee iie?oeee
i?ioaeoe?ii?cio aa/eoue neooaoe?th TH.A.Aeiia?aaeia, i?eioneath/e,
iaeiae, i?i?einueeo i???ioaoe?th nithciee?a. ?ioa aeoiea o
A.A.E?ai?a?ii?. Aiia aaaaea? Ieuea?th ? na?iao?a Oa?ciy i?eoeeueieeaie
?eio, aea oe?eeii naiino?eieie noi?iiaie, ia iia’ycaieie i?yeeie
a?aeiioaiiyie, a ea?aoaaiiy Oa?ci?i cieioi? iiiaoe — eeoa aeei?enoaiiyi
iei ieuea?enueeiai iiiaoiiai aeai?o (aea aeoe??th, aeica?e ia yeo
aea?oaaa oeaca?). Aithny, ui i?e iei?oiueiio noai? aeaea?ae iaeiicia/ii
ae??oeoe oea ieoaiiy iiee ui iaiiaeeeai, aea iaeaea? oi/ee ci?o iathoue
i?aai ia ?nioaaiiy — iaeaooi? iieaaea, aea ?noeia.

Iauiaeaaii iioae?eiaai? aeai? i?i ciao?aeeo 1918 ?. iiaeeco Eice?ee (?)
eaoaeiiae c iiaea?eiei iioiaaiiyi oeyoaoieo na?iao?a, yeeo iioiaaee c
aaaaoei ia/eiiyi, ui aeaco? ia aenieee nioe?aeueiee noai. Oe?
a?enoie?aoe aeeee (ine?eueee iio?i aoee iioiaai? oai) ia oa?eoi???
Ieuea?enueei? aea?aeaae. Uiaei ieai?iii? iaeaaeiino? Oa?ciy oa ?i?niay
oa i/iethaaii? ieie i?aee ?niothoue aeae?eueea aeoiie. A.N.?ony?aa
aaaaea? ?o n??aeaie. Naiai /ano y aeneiaea aeoieo i?i ai?nueeo
iaeaaei?noue oeeo oea??a. I?ioa ia iicaaaeaia naino i?eiouaiiy N.I.
ssoeaiea, yeee aaaaea?, ui na?aae oeeo ei/iaee?a aoea ia’?aeiaia c
ai?nueeith oeyooith /anoeia aeai, yea ia ei?ioeee /an iieieeany a
I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’?. Ae?enii, yne?aa? no?aei? ?a/? c Ii?ia?a, Iie?e
oa A?ooee aai oaiae noaie Oa?ciy oa ?i?niay yaii aeainueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy. Ia ni?inoiaothoue oea e aeai? Ie?i?y Noa?oiai oa Naiaee.

?io? ?aa?iie I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, ianaeai? na?iaoaie, iai?ee?ioe?
1 — a ia?o?e iieiaei? 2 no.i.a. caeeoeeeny iica oaaaith aioe/ieo
aaoi??a. Oiio ?aeiino?othaaoe ?noi?e/i? iiae?? aeineoue aaaeei.
Iioiaaiiy oeueiai /ano ciaeaeai? a noaiiaiio oa ia?aaea??nueeiio E?eio,
ui ? a?aeaeoeii aoiaeaeaiiy oeeo oa?eoi??e aei a?aaeo na?iaonueeeo
ei/?aie. A Iaaiie? Ne?onueeiio ca iaoa??aeaie iae?iiieth a?ae/oaa?oueny
na?iaoecaoe?y ianaeaiiy.

Caaaeyee na?iaoai aaaeeea? ci?ie a?aeaoeeny a Na?aaei?e
Iaaeaei?i?yiuei?. Iino?eia i?iaeeaaiiy ooo cia/ii? na?iaonueei? i?aee,
iaaooue, c?iaeei inoaoi/ii ianoa?iiei aeeooy i?ciueica?oaeiaoeueeiai
ianaeaiiy. Aiii ?icnaey?oueny iiaeae? a?ae iaaacia/ieo non?ae?a — ia
i?aaeaiiee cao?ae, aea aeieea? ai?eciio iai’yoie ?aoie — Ii/ai, a
caieaao Aei?i?a oa ia i?ai?/iee no?ae, a Iiaeanaiiy, aea i?ci?oa
oi?io?oueny ee?anueea eoeueoo?a. Oe?eaai, ui i?ney oaei?
aeanoaa?e?caoe?? aoii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? na?iaoe caeeoeee nii?iaei?eo
Na?aaeith Iaaeaei?i?yiueio — ?o iai’yoee i?ney na?aaeeie 2 no.i.a. oai
iaa?aeii?.

Ioaea, aeoiaey/e c a?oaieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo, ?nioaaiiy a I?ai?/iiio
I?e/i?iiii?’? eoeueoo?e na?aaeiueina?iaonueeiai /ano ? ?? iin??a —
ii/anoe iauaaee?a ?aiiueina?iaonueeeo ieaiai (?ienieai), ii/anoe
i?eeaeaoi?o ei/iaee?a (ai?n?a oa aeai) — i?iaeiaaeoaaeiny aeanue aei
na?aaeeie 2 no.i.a. sseui iaoa c N.A. Aoenueeeo a?iioaca i?i oa, ui
«oaa?ine?oe» Eai?oie?ia — oea i?ci? na?iaoe ? a??iith, oi /an ?o
i?inoaaiiy ia oa?eoi??th I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y ie?aneth?oueny a
iaaeao e?ioey i?aae?iiy Aioii?ia I?y (aei 161 ?.). Iai’yoee
i?ciueina?iaonueeiai /ano noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ?a/aie, aeaoa yeeo ia
?ai?oa ae?oai? iieiaeie 2 no.i.a.

5.5. I?ciueina?iaonueeee ia??iae. Oeae aeineoue aeiaaee a?aeoeiie /ano
iiae?ey?oueny ia aea? oace: ii/aoeiao (ae?oaa iieiaeia 2 — na?aaeeia 3
no.i.a.) oa o?iaeueio (ae?oaa iieiaeia 3 — 4 no.i.a.). Iaeiae a
i?ciueina?iaonuee?e eoeueoo?? I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y ii/aoeiai? oace
ii?yae ?c no?aeieie ?iiiaaoe?yie caa??aa?oueny iecea ?en iiia?aaeiuei? —
na?aaeiueina?iaonueei? — eoeueoo?e. Oea i?ai?/ia i???ioaoe?y iioiaaieo,
ia?aaaaeaiiy a?aee?eoeo i?yiieooieo yi, i?iaeiaaeaiiy i?aeoeee aioneieo
iioiaaiue. Caaaeii, aanue aeaeyae i?e/i?iiii?nueei? i?ciueina?iaonueei?
eoeueoo?e (iniaeeai a cao?aei?e /anoei? ?aa?iio) i?e iayaiino? iaaii?
noiaeino? c iai’yoeaie Ac?aonueei? Na?iao?? ia? naith i?noeaao
niaoeeo?eo. Eeoa iiaeeueiee Oaa/aiei, ui ciaoiaeeoueny aeaeaei ia
noiae?, iiaeeco a?aaeo aeiinueeeo iai’yoie, aeaiiino?o? oioiaei?noue
inoaii?i. Iai? caea?oueny, iiyniaiiy oeueiio a oiio, ui ia caoiae?
?aa?iio iia? i?eoaeueoe? (aeaie) ia neeaee nooo?ai? a?eueoino? e aeeee
ie?/-i-ie?/ c iauaaeeaie iiia?aaeiueiai ianaeaiiy (?ienieaiaie).
I?ioyaii ei?ioeiai /ano nii??aeiai? eoeueoo?e iaio ieai?iieo ia’?aeiaiue
ceeeeny, aeaaoe a ?icaeoeo niaoeeo?/io cao?aeiina?iaonueeo eoeueoo?o.

Aiaeia?/io ea?oeio ie niinoa??aa?ii e a iiia?aaei?e ia??iae. Iiyaa a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? 1 no.i.a. no?aeii? i?aee nooo?ai ia ci?ieea ieai?iiee
neeaae na?iaonueeiai ianaeaiiy. Iia? i?eoaeueoe? (aeaie oa ai?ne)
iaoeaee a iaaiiio ?aa?ii?, ni?a?nioth/e c iauaaeeaie ?ienieai 2 — 1 no.
aei i.a., ui /enaeueii ia?aaaaeaee.

Oiiia?ao?y iai’yoie ae?oai? iieiaeie 2 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 3 no.i.a.
iaaiith i??ith i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oe? i??eoaaiiy. Aiie ?icoaoiaai? aeaiia
eiiiaeoieie ianeaaie: iniiai? iiaeee E?aiaa?aaeaey oa
Iiaei?no?ia’y-Iiaeoiaa’y, i?ae yeeie ?iceeaeai? ia/eneaii? aionei?
iioiaaiiy. Oyaey?oueny, ui e?aiaa?aaei? iai’yoee (c ia?aaaaeaiiyi
no?aeieo ?en) ? cao?aeiith ia??oa???th iiaiecueei-aeiinueeiai a?aaeo
i?ciueina?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e, a iiaei?no?ianuee? (a yeeo no?aei? ?ene
aaea ?icieo?) caeeoai? i?aaenoaaieeaie eoeueoo?ii? a?oie, ui
noi?ioaaeany.

167-175 oa 177-180 ??. i.a. na?iaoe I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y (aeaie oa
?ienieaie) a?aee o/anoue a Ia?eiiainueeeo a?eiao aa?aa?nueeeo eiae?oe?e
i?ioe ?eio. sse e i/?eoaaeiny, a?ae/ooieo a?oaieia?/ieo ne?ae?a oeeo
iiae?e ia aeine?aeaeoaai?e oa?eoi??? iaia? Iaeiae iaoa??aee na?ae/aoue
i?i aeaye? ia?anoaaiiy na?iao?a i?ney aai a i?ioean? Ia?eiiainueeeo
a?ei. Ia oa?eoi??? Aeoueieueaeo a 2 no.i.a. c’yaeythoueny aeaa iiaeo
oeie na?iaonueeeo iai’yoie. Iaeei c ieo — oea aeia?a ?ai?acaioiaai? a
Iiaei?no?ia’?-Iiaeoiaa’? iiaeeueieee c eaaae?aoieie, i?yiieooieie oa
e?oaeeie ?iaaie. Ae?oaee — eo?aaii? iioiaaiiy c a?ae/ooieie no?aeieie
aeaiaioaie, ui oa?aeoa?i? aeey “aa?oieeiaeo” iiaee Ac?aonueei? Na?iao??.
Oe? iai’yoee, ye? aeaoothoueny e?ioeai 2 — ii/aoeii 3 no.i.a., nei??o ca
ana, o?enothoue aea? oaee? ia?anaeaiiy aei Aeoueieueaeo no?aeieo
na?iao?a — ?ienieai Iiaeoiaa’y (iiaeeueieee c ?iaaie) oa aeai Iiaeiiiy
(eo?aaii? iioiaaiiy c “aa?oieeiaeie” ?enaie).

A ii/aoeia?e oac? i?ciueina?iaonueeiai ia??iaeo ia aeine?aeaeoaai?e
oa?eoi??? a?aeaoaa?oueny aeoaea aaaeeeaa aoii-iie?oe/ia iiae?y, yea
iaaeiaai aecia/eea niaoeeo?eo ?? ?noi??? — ia?anaeaiiy nthaee ieaiai
aionueeiai nithco. Oey iiae?y a?aeiineoueny aei inoaiiuei? /aa?o? 2
no.i.a. Aaaeei aiaaiaii ?aeiino?othaaoe na?iaoi-aionuee? eiioaeoe
oeueiai /ano. Iayai?noue a na?iaonueeeo iai’yoeao e?ioey 2 — ii/aoeo 3
no.i.a. aionueeeo (a onyeiio ?ac?, oaeeo, ui iioiaeyoue c ina?aaeeo
oeaio?aeueii-?a?iiaenueeeo aa?aa??a) ?a/ae aiai?eoue i?i ye?nue eiioaeoe
na?iao?a oa ieaiai aionueeiai nithco. E oi/a ie ia ia?ii i?yieo
iieacaiue aioe/ieo aaoi??a, y ia aeeeth/ath o/ano?
cao?aeiii?e/i?iiii?nueeeo na?iao?a a ia?oeo “ne?onueeeo” a?eiao 3
no.i.a.

A ia?o?e iieiaei? — na?aaeei? 3 no.i.a. a ?aa?ii? c’yaeythoueny ia?o?
iinaeaiiy oa iiaeeueieee /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e (Aeai/aie, Aoaeaooe,
Oainueea-Eooa??y, Oe?aoi?, ?oaee/aiea, Inae?aea, AEo?aaea, Einaiiai oa
?i.). Ianaeaiiy, ui caeeoeei ?o, aacoiiaii, eiioaeooaaei c iaoeaaoeie ia
i?aaeaiue na?iaoaie, na?aeioeoai /iio — ?a/? aionueeiai aeaeyaeo a
i?ciueina?iaonueeeo iioiaaiiyo. I?ci?oa, aiane?aeie o?eaaeeo ni?eueieo
iioiae?a i?ae /an “ne?onueeeo” a?ei oe? eiioaeoe ci?oei?ee,
i?aeooiaoioaoe aoii-?ioaa?aoe?ei? i?ioeane. Iaaaeyea cia/aiiy iaea e
iiooaeia i?a?aoe?eia oaeey na?aaeeie — ae?oai? iieiaeie 3 no.i.a. —
i?eo?ae ?c noiaeo na?iao?a — iin??a eaoaeiiaiiai ia?yaeo
(aeaie-oaia?oe). Iiaia ci?ia ia?yaeo oa eoeueoo?e na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
iiia?aaei? na?iaoe (?ienieaie) ao?aoeee na?e aoiia?ao?/iee aeaeyae.
*anoeia ?o oa?eoea aei neeaaeo iiaeo i?eoaeueoe?a, /anoeia ua ?ai?oa
a?aeei/oaaea ia Oai?nueeo ??aieio, /anoeia — aeeeany a /a?iyo?anueea
na?aaeiaeua. Naia inoaii? aoee iioiaai? aaea ia /a?iyo?anueeeo
eeaaeiaeuao 4 no.i.a., aea ca ia?yaeii nai?o i?aaee?a (yie c
caie?/eaie), a?ae yeeo ?o a?aeae?eyei ia a?eueo ye 50 ?ie?a — no?ie
aeeooy iaeiiai iieie?iiy. Iaeaea iiaia iaci?ii?noue ?en na?iaonueeiai
ia?yaeo i?e yaii /a?iyo?anueeiio aeaeyae? ?a/ae aiai?eoue i?i oa, ui
na?iaoe, ye? oa?eoee aei neeaaeo /a?iyo?anueeiai ianaeaiiy, caa??aaee
nai? a??oaaiiy, i?eeiyaoe niin?a aeeooy oa eoeueoo?o iiaeo
ni?aieai?iiee?a. Ua iaeia na?iaonueea ?ena a /a?iyo?anueeiio
iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? — eaia?i? iiaeee 4 no.i.a. (A?eaiueea, A?eoi?iaea,
?aiaeaaa) — aiai?eoue i?i oa, ui caiaeii aei /a?iyo?anueeiai na?aaeiaeua
iinooiiai aeeeany e /anoeia iiaeo i?eoaeueoe?a — aeai-oaia?o?a.

Aeoiaey/e c a?oaieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a, na?iaoe a E?eio ia ii/aoeia?e
oac? i?ciueina?iaonueeiai ia??iaeo ci?ooaaeeny c i?ci?ie ne?oaie oa
oaeaeei anei?ethaaeeny ieie. Iaeiae a na?aaeei? 3 no.i.a. aei E?eio
aaea?eeny aionuee? ae?oaeeie, iiaeeeai, ?acii c na?iaoi-aeaiaie —
iin?yie eaoaeiiaiiai ia?yaeo. Na?iaoe caeiyee i?ai?/i? ia?aaea??’y
(iiaeeueieee Ae?oaeia, Iaecaoe, ?iea?iai, *i?ia ??/ea, Aaeueaae I), a
aioe — i?aaeaiiee aa?aa E?eio. C oeei aoi?aiaiiyi oa oi?ioaaiiyi
eoeueoo?e iiaeo iaoeaioe?a ia?anoa? ?nioaaoe ye aoii-iie?oe/ia oe?ea
i?ciueine?onueea eoeueoo?a E?eio.

Aea?aeaaa A?iaia??oa, ui aeieeea a I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’? oa
iai?e/oae aeia?a ni?aiaaea? c a?aaeii /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e ae?oai?
iieiaeie 3 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 4 no.i.a., iaiiaae ?iceieiea na?iaonueeee
na?o iaaeai?. Ia noiae?, a i?eacianueei-aeiiaoeueeeo noaiao ia/eneaii?
i?ciueina?iaonuee? iioiaaiiy o?iaeueii? oace oa?eoi??aeueii oyae?thoue
aei Ieaeiueiai Aeiio oa iaaeothoue c a?aaeii /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e.
Oaea oiiia?ao?y iai’yoie aiai?eoue, ia i?e iiaeyae, i?i oa, ui na?iaoe
oe??? oa?eoi??? (aeaie-oaia?oe,) ia aoiaeeee aei aionueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy.
?ioa neooaoe?y neeaeany a Ieaeiueiio Iiaeoiaa’?, aea ?icoaoiaaia
cao?aeia a?oia na?iaonueeeo iai’yoie o?iaeueii? oace. Ooo na?iaonuee?
iiaeeueieee ciaoiaeyoueny aaciina?aaeiuei ia /a?iyo?anuee?e oa?eoi???.
Oe? iai’yoee y iia’ycoth c “?a?iiaenueeeie aeaiaie” Aii?aia Ia?oeaee?ia
— oaaea?aoaie aionueeeo ei?ie?a.

O?iae na?iaonueei? aeiae a I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’? iia’ycaiee c
aoi?aiaiiyi iaii/aoeo 370-o ??. aoi?a. Na?iaonuee? iai’yoee oeueiai /ano
aeineoue ia/eneaii? (Eacaee?y, 14/1, Eoaae, 8/1, E?oa/?aea,
Aeiooaee?aea, 13/1, oaooa Iinieinueea). An? aiie noia?ii aeaoothoueny
inoaiiueith o?aoeiith 4 no.i.a., aea iane?eueee ni?aa?aeiinyoueny c
aoinueeith iaaaeith — aaaeei neacaoe. sse caaaeaee, ao?oeea? ?noi?e/i?
eaoaee?cie o?iaeo iaei??? aeiae ? ii/aoeo ianooiii? iaeaea ia
caeeoathoue a?oaieia?/ieo ne?ae?a.

Aeniiaee i?noyoue noene? i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ? oaeeie. Na?iaoe
c’yaeeeny ia aeine?aeaeoaai?e oa?eoi??? a 2 no. aei i.a.
Oeiieiai-o?iiieia?/iee aiae?c iai’yoie aecia/a? aeaoo
?aiiueina?iaonueeiai ia??iaeo a iaaeao 2 — 1 no. aei i.a.,
na?aaeiueina?iaonueeiai — 1 — na?aaeeie 2 no.i.a., i?ciueina?iaonueeiai
— ae?oai? iieiaeie 2 — 4 no.i.a. A ?aiiueina?iaonueeee /an I?ai?/ia
I?e/i?iiii?’y ianaeyee yceae oa ?ienieaie, a na?aaeiueina?iaonueeee /an
yceae c I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y a?aeei/oaaee ia Oai?nueeo
??aieio, a ?o oa?eoi??th caeiyee i?eeaeaoi? c Iiaieaey — Iiaeiiiy ai?ne.
Ia noiae? E?aiaa?aaeaey a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 1 — ia ii/aoeo 2 no.i.a.
iaoeaea aeainueea i?aea. A ii/aoeia?e oac? i?ciueina?iaonueeiai ia??iaeo
ca o/anoth aeiinueeeo ieaiai ia caoiae? Na?iao?? noi?ioaaeany nai???aeia
eoeueoo?a i?ci?o ?ienieai oa aeai. A ae?oa?e iieiaei? 3 no.i.a. iauaaeee
?? iin??a neeaee iaeei c eiiiiiaio?a /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e. O?iae
na?iaonueei? eoeueoo?e I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y iia’ycaiee c iaaaeith
aoi?a a inoaii?e o?aoei? 4 no.i.a.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii aeaeaii 65 ae?oeiaaieo ?ia?o. Aieiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo:

1.Na?iaou Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai I?e/a?iiii?uey a 1 a.i.y. (Eiaae A.E.). —
E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1991. — 110 n

2.Na?iaou Oaa?ee. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1993. — 142 n.

3.Ia na?oaieo ?noi??? (Aoiyoyi E.I., Io?c?i A.TH.). — E.: Aeaeaaie/?e
ae?i Aeueoa?iaoeae, 1998. — 336 n.

4. Na?iaoe // Aeaaiy ?noi??y Oe?a?ie (o/aiaee iin?aiee). — E.: Eea?aeue,
1995. — Ei.1. — N.137-156

5. Na?iaoe // Aeaaiy ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — E.: Aeaeaaieoeoai ?inoeoooo
a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. — O.2. — N.154-176

6. Iiaua na?iaoneea iia?aaaiey Ieaeiaai Iiaeiai?iauey // Neeou e
na?iaou. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1977. — N.221-230

7.I?i aca?iia?aeiineie na?iao?a oa iin??a ca?oaeiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e
(Eoaeoaa A.?., Iieeyoeueeee I.A.) // A?oaieia?y. — 1987. — ? 58. —
N.56-63

8.Ec enoi?ee acaeiiioiioaiee Ieueaee e na?iaoia a 1 a.i.y. // Aioe/iay
oeeaeeecaoeey e aa?aa?neee ie? a Iiaeiiuea — I?eaciauea. — Iiai/a?eanne,
1987. — N.13-15

9.Eaeueoi-eoaeeeneea oeaiu ia oa??eoi?ee Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu // Iaiyoieee
a?iiciaiai e ?aiiaai aeaeaciiai aaeia Iiaeiai?iauey. — Aeiai?iiao?iane:
Ecae-ai AeAO, 1987. — N.104-113

10. I?i aoi?/io iaeaaei?noue Oa?ciy oa ?i?niay (A.?.Eiaae) //
A?oaieia?y.-1989.-N1. — N.41-46

11.I ia?eiaeecaoeee na?iaoneie eoeueoo?u // Neeoey e Ainii?.
A?oaieiae/aneea iaoa?eaeu e eiioa?aioeee iaiyoe aeaaeaieea I.E.
?inoiaoeaaa. — Iiai/a?eanne, 1989. — N.117-120

12.Eiii?oiia i?oaeea o na?iaoia // Ei/aaieee aa?aceeneeo noaiae e
aioe/iue ie? (i?iaeaiu eiioaeoia). — Iiai/a?eanne, 1989. — N.56-64

13.»?aiiana?iaoneea» iia?aaaiey Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey (Iieei N.A.) //
Enneaaeiaaiey ii a?oaieiaee Iiaeiai?iauey. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: Ecae-ai
AeAO, 1990. — N.73-93

14.Yo?onnei-eoaeeeneea e eaeueoneea oeaiu a Ainoi/iie Aa?iia (?aaa A.A.,
O?aenoa? I.TH.) // Ae?aaiea iaiyoieee Eoaaie. — E?aniiaea?, 1990. —
N.117-135

15.Na?iaoneea iia?aaaiey ni ?aaie eae enoi?e/aneee enoi/iee //
Ae?aaiaeoea iauanoaa caieaaeaeueoeaa e neioiaiaeia Naaa?iiai
I?e/a?iiii?uey (5 oun. aei i.y. — 5 a.i.y.). — Eeoeiaa: Ooeeioea,1990. —
N.212-214

16.?ienieaie (iiooe a?oaieia?/ieo a?aeiia?aeiinoae) // A?oaieia?y. —
1991. — ? 4. — N.17-28

17.?aoe.: A?ino A.E. O?iiieiaey iaiyoieeia na?iaoneie eoeueoo?u
Aeiano?ianei-I?ooneiai iaaeaeo?a/uey // A?oaieia?y. — 1992. — ? 2. —
N.153-157

18.Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey na?iaoia
Oaa?ee // Aioe/iay oeeaeeecaoeey e aa?aa?neee ie?. — Iiai/a?eanne, 1992.
— *.1. — N.24 — 34

19.Oa?cie e Eieniae — ai?nu eee aeaiu? // AAeE. — 1992. — ? 3. —
N.148-162

20.»Eeaaeu» nia?yaeaiey anaaeieea 2 — 1 aa. aei i.y.: iiuo
eeanneoeeaoeee e yoie/aneie eioa?i?aoaoeee // Aoi?ay Eoaaineay
a?oaieiae/aneay eiioa?aioeey. — E?aniiaea?, 1993. — N.89-90

21.Iauaa e iniaaiiia a na?iaoneie eoeueoo?a Aeo?eueaea e Naaa?iiai
I?e/a?iiii?uey // Ae?aaiaa I?e/a?iiii?uea. — ENIAI. — Iaeanna, 1993. —
N.109-111

22.Sarmatian Tribes of the Great Hungerian Plain and the North Pontic
Region. Problem of migrations // Specimina Nova. — P(cs, 1993. — P.59 —
64

23.?aiiueina?iaonueeee ia??iae a I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii? SYMBOL 39 \f
«Times New Roman Cyr» \s 14 ? // A?oaieia?y. — 1994. — ? 1. — N.32-48

24.Naaa?iia I?e/a?iiii?uea a nenoaia na?iaoneie eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie
iauiinoe // I?iaeaiu enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u na?iaoia. — Aieaia?aae: Ecae-ai
AieAO, 1994. — N.15 — 17

25.The problem of the Sarmatiah penetration into the North Pontic area
according to archaeological data // Il Mare Nero. — Roma, Paris, 1994. —
P.99-136

26.Na?iaonueeee ai?inueeee iiaeeueiee ia Na?aaeiueiio I?oo? (Eo?/aoia
N.?., *e?eia A.TH.) // A?oaieia?y.-1995.-N1. — C.112-123

27.Catacomb graves of the Sarmatians of North Pontic region // Studia
archaeologia 1. — MFM(. — Szeged, 1995. — P. 345 — 374

28.Eine sarmatische Bestattung von S(dlichen Bug // Eurasia Antiqua. —
Mainz, 1997. — Band 3. — S.389-407

29.Neeoey e na?iaou (Iieei N.A.) // Aeiineea ae?aaiinoe. — Aui.5. —
Acia, 1997. — N.87-98

30.Na?iaonueea iioiaaiiy c oaiaaie ia oa?eoi??? Ieuea?enueei? aea?aeaae
// A?oaieia?y. — 1999. — ?1. — N.106-118

Neiiiaiei I.A. Na?iaoe I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y. O?iiieia?y,
ia??iaeecaoe?y oa aoii-iie?oe/ia ?noi??y. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.04 — a?oaieia?y. — ?inoeooo a?oaieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith na?iaonueeeo iai’yoie
I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y. Anoaiiaeaii, ui na?iaoe c’yaeeeny ia
aeine?aeaeoaai?e oa?eoi??? a 2 no. aei i.a. Oeiieiai-o?iiieia?/iee
aiae?c iai’yoie aecia/a? aeaoo ?aiiueina?iaonueeiai ia??iaeo a iaaeao 2
— 1 no. aei i.a., na?aaeiueina?iaonueeiai — 1 — na?aaeeie 2 no.i.a.,
i?ciueina?iaonueeiai — ae?oai? iieiaeie 2 — 4 no.i.a. A
?aiiueina?iaonueeee /an I?ai?/ia I?e/i?iiii?’y ianaeyee yceae oa
?ienieaie, a na?aaeiueina?iaonueeee /an yceae c I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y a?aeei/oaaee ia Oai?nueeo ??aieio, a ?o oa?eoi??th caeiyee
i?eeaeaoi? c Iiaieaey — Iiaeiiiy ai?ne. Ia noiae? E?aiaa?aaeaey a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? 1 — ia ii/aoeo 2 no.i.a. iaoeaea aeainueea i?aea. A
ii/aoeia?e oac? i?ciueina?iaonueeiai ia??iaeo ca o/anoth aeiinueeeo
ieaiai ia caoiae? Na?iao?? noi?ioaaeany nai???aeia eoeueoo?a i?ci?o
?ienieai oa aeai. A ae?oa?e iieiaei? 3 no.i.a. iauaaeee ?? iin??a neeaee
iaeei c eiiiiiaio?a /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e. O?iae na?iaonueei?
eoeueoo?e I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y iia’ycaiee c iaaaeith aoi?a a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? 4 no.i.a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: na?iaoe, o?iiieia?y, eoeueoo?a, ?ienieaie, yceae,
ai?ne, aeaie.

Simonenko A.V. The Sarmatians of North Pontic region. Chronology,
Periodisation and ethnic-political History. — The manuscript.

The thesis for the dontor’s degree by the speniality 07.00.04 —
archaeology. — The Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of
Science of Ukraine. Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the investigation of the Sarmatian relics of
the North Pontic area. It is determined that the Sarmatians appeared in
the region under study in the 2nd cent. B.N. According to the
typologic-chronological analysis of the archaeological records the Early
Sarmatian period in the North Pontic region dates to the 2nd — 1st nent.
BN., the Middle Sarmatian period — to the 1st — middle 2nd nent. A.D.,
the Late Sarmatian period — to the second half of the 2nd — 4 th cent.
A.D. During the Early Sarmatian period the territory under study was
inhabited by Roxolanae and Yazygi. In the middle 1st cent. A.D. the
latters had left the Ukraine and roamed to the Great Hungarian plane.
Their lands were occupied by Aorsi, who has come from Lower Don and
Wolga steppes. On the Eastern lands of the left bank of Dnieper Alanae
lived. In the initial phase of the Late Sarmatian period the original
Western Sarmatian culture has formed with the participation of the
Don-area tribes. In the second half of the 3rd cent. A.D. the
descendants of it became the one of the components of Tcherniakhov
culture. The final of the Sarmatian culture of North Pontic region
connected with the Hunn’s invasion in the second half of the 4th cent.
A.D.

Key words: Sarmatians, chronology, culture, Roxolanae, Yazygi, Aorsi,
Alanae.

Neiiiaiei A.A. Na?iaou Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey. O?iiieiaey,
ia?eiaeecaoeey e yoii-iieeoe/aneay enoi?ey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.04 — a?oaieiaey. — Einoeooo a?oaieiaee IAI
Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth na?iaoneeo iaiyoieeia Naaa?iiai
I?e/a?iiii?uey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeaieaa ?aiiea iaiyoieee ioiinyony e
na?aaeeia 2 a. aei i.y. (iia?aaaiey n oeaoeaie n?aaeiaeaoaineie noaiu).
?aiiana?iaoneea iaiyoieee Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey (aioneiua iia?aaaiey
e “eeaaeu”) aeaoe?othony 2 — 1 aa. aei i.y.

Iaiyoieee n?aaeiana?iaoneie eoeueoo?u io/aoeeai aeaeyony ia aeaa
a?oiiu: aioneiua iia?aaaiey e iiaeeueieee n iniiaiuie iia?aaaieyie.
Iaoa?eaeu aioneiuo iia?aaaiee aeaiiino?e?otho oianeaaeiaaiea eoeueoo?iuo
o?aaeeoeee i?aaeoanoaothuaai a?aiaie. Iniiaiay ianna aioneiuo
n?aaeiana?iaoneeo iia?aaaiee Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey inoaaeaia
iioiieaie ianoiiai ?aiiana?iaoneiai ianaeaiey. Iniiaiua iia?aaaiey,
iiyaeythueany ia ?aiaa na?aaeeiu 1 a.i.y., aeaiiino?e?otho aeecinoue
iaeiioeiiui iiaeeai Aceaoneie Na?iaoee. Iaiyoieee yoie oeiieiae/aneie
a?oiiu ?aniieiaeaiu e ainoieo io eeiee ?. Aacaaeoe — Eiiea — Iiei/iay,
eiioeaio?e?oynue a I?aeue-Naia?neii iaaeaeo?a/uea e THaeiii I?eaciauea.
Iie aeaoe?othony na?aaeeiie 1 — ia/aeii 2 a.i.y. e nicaeatho aia/aoeaiea
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo iaeiiio — aeaoi iieieaieyi. Yoe iaiyoieee inoaaeaiu
a?oiiie (ieaiy? i?aea?) i?eoeuo ec Aceaoneie Na?iaoee ei/aaieeia.

Iicaeiana?iaoneee ia?eiae a Naaa?iii I?e/a?iiii?uea ?aniaaeaaony ia
aeaa o?iiieiae/aneeo oacu: ia/aeueioth (aoi?ay iieiaeia 2 — na?aaeeia 3
a.i.y.) e oeiaeueioth (aoi?ay iieiaeia 3 — 4 a.i.y.). Aeey ia?aie
oa?aeoa?ii iaee/ea iaaieueoiai eiee/anoaa aioneiuo e i?aiaeaaeaiea
iniiaiuo iia?aaaiee, na?oiie?iaaiiuo a iiaeeueieee. Eiathony ianeieueei
a?oioiauo iiaeeueieeia e ioaeaeueiuo iia?aaaiee. A oeiaeueiie oaca
n?aaee iia?aaaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee aeiieie?otho aeoaieea iiaeaie e
eaoaeiiau. A eiioea 3 a.i.y. ieii/aoaeueii ioi?ieyaony ?acaeaeaiea
iicaeiana?iaoneeo iaiyoieeia ?aaeiia ia aeaa a?oiiu. Ainoi/iay
?aniieaaaaony iieinie io Naia?i-I?aeueneiai iaaeaeo?a/uey ia thai-ainoie
e Aeiio, iaiyoieee caiaaeiie eiioeaio?e?othony a Ieaeiai Iiaeoiaauea.
Oaeay oiiia?aoey iauyniyaony iaee/eai /a?iyoianeie eoeueoo?u,
caieiathuae i?ino?ainoai iaaeaeo iaaeie a?oiiaie.

Ia?auie iaeoaoaeyie noaiae auaoae Neeoee auee ieaiaia ?ienieai e
ycuaia. ?ienieaineeie iiaoo n/eoaoueny iaiyoieee 2 — 1 aa. aei i.y. n
i?eaioaoeeae a naaa?iii naeoi?a, a?aae eioi?uo niaiaaeaao n oeacaieai
No?aaiia: noaie iaaeaeo Aeiai?ii e Aeiiii. N o/aoii aaconeiaii ycuaneeo
iaiyoieeia Aaiaa?neie ?aaieiu, aaea i?aiaeaaeaao thaeiay i?eaioaoeey,
naaa?ii?e/a?iiii?neea iia?aaaiey 2 a. aei i.y. — na?aaeeiu 1 a.i.y. n
yoei i?eciaeii n aeinoaoi/iie aa?iyoiinoueth iiaoo n/eoaoueny
inoaaeaiiuie ycuaaie.

A na?aaeeia 1 a.i.y. i?ienoiaeeo cia/eoaeueiia niauoea a na?iaoneie
enoi?ee Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey — ia?anaeaiea nthaea aieueoie i?aeu n
ainoiea. N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec aeaiiuo aioe/iuo aaoi?ia, yiea?aoe/aneeo
e a?oaieiae/aneeo iaoa?eaeia iicaieyao eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue yoi ianaeaiea
n ai?naie e aeaiaie. Iineaaeiea, nei?aa anaai, aicaeaaeyee a?oiie?iaeo,
iaeiaei eo iaiyoieee nin?aaeioi/aiu ainoi/iaa, ia Eaaiaa?aaeuea, a oi
a?aiy eae ei/aauey ai?nia ?aniieaaaeenue a noaiyo aannaeiia THaeiiai
Aoaa e Aeiano?a. Caeanue oi?ie?oaony neeueiia iieeoe/aneia iauaaeeiaiea
na?iaoia (oea?noai Oa?ciy — Eieniay, iii aea Ai?ney iaiaoineiai
aeae?aoa). Yoi iauaaeeiaiea onoaiiaeei oi?iaeueiue i?ioaeoi?ao iaae
Ieueaeae, canoaaeei ca?oaeiaoeeia ianaeaiea N?aaeiaai Iiaeiai?iauey
iieeiooue i?aaeiea ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa e ioieoe ia naaa?i-ainoie.

N na?aaeeiu 2 a.i.y. a Naaa?iii I?e/a?iiii?uea, eae e ia inoaeueiie
oa??eoi?ee Na?iaoee, ia/eiaaony iicaeiana?iaoneee ia?eiae. Aai ia/aei
naycaii n i?iaeaeaeaieai ia caiaae i/a?aaeiie aieiu na?iaoneeo ieaiai,
noi?ie?iaaaoeony a Caaieaeuea — THaeiii I?eo?aeuea. Aioe/iua aaoi?u e
yiea?aoe/aneea enoi/ieee iacuaatho eo aeaiaie. Ioiineoaeueii auno?i
i?ieaey oeaio?aeueioth /anoue Oe?aeiu, iiaua i?eoaeueoeu noieeioeenue n
iaeoaoaeyie noaiae Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai I?e/a?iiii?uey — ?ienieaiaie. Iaeee
caiaaeii-na?iaoneeo iaiyoieeia aiai?eo i oii, /oi ainoi/iay eoeueoo?iay
aoaeue iea?aioia auno?i ?anoai?eeanue a ianoiie n?aaea,
neioace?iaaaoenue a naiaia?aciue caiaaeiue aa?eaio iicaeiana?iaoneie
eoeueoo?u.

A iineaaeiae /aoaa?oe 2 a.i.y. a Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii I?e/a?iiii?uea
iiyaeeenue aioneea ieaiaia, a a ia?aie iieiaeia 3 a.i.y. ia/aeinue
oi?ie?iaaiea /a?iyoianeie eoeueoo?u. A i?ioeanna “neeoneeo” aiei
i?ienoiaeeea aeaeueiaeoay acaeiiay eioaa?aoeey /anoe aioia e na?iaoia.
Aua iaeiei oie/eii e iae iineoaeee i?eoiae a na?aaeeia 3 a.i.y. a
Aoaeaeae iiaie aieiu na?iaoneeo ia?anaeaioeaa — ieaeiaaeiineeo iineoaeae
eaoaeiiaiiai ia?yaea. Nei?aa anaai, iie auoanieee noa?uo iaeoaoaeae
noaiae — ?ienieaii-aeai ia/aeueiie oacu, inoaoee eioi?uo aeeeenue a
/a?iyoianeoth eoeueoo?o, i?eaiany a iaa, a /anoiinoe, ia?yae yi n
caiea/eeaie, oa?aeoa?iue aeey ieo. A yoi aea a?aiy i/a?aaeiay aieia
na?iaoia niaianoii n aioaie i?iieeaao a E?ui.

Iiaua i?eoaeueoeu, iacuaaaoeany ia ?iaeeia aeaiaie-oaiaeoaie, a
Iiaeoiaauea noaee ecaanoiu eae aa?iiaeneea aeaiu. Noaey ii oiiia?aoee eo
iaiyoieeia, iaee/eth a iiaeeao 4 a.i.y. /a?iyoianeeo aauae e iiyaeaieth
ia ninaaeieo /a?iyoianeeo iiaeeueieeao oa?aeoa?iuo aeey yoeo na?iaoia
eaoaeiia e iiaeaiaa, iie (eee /anoue eo) aoiaeeee a aicieeoaa a eiioea 3
a.i.y. iieeoe/aneia iauaaeeiaiea aioia — aea?aeaao Y?iaia?eoa.

Iinea ?aca?iia iineaaeiae aoiiaie a 370-o aa. /anoue na?iaoia eaeia-oi
a?aiy aua aeeea a noaiyo, aaea ecaanoiu eo iaiiiai/eneaiiua iia?aaaiey.
Caoai a 5 a.i.y. eo yoii-iieeoe/aneay enoi?ey caeai/eaaaony n
ianooieaieai aoiineie yiioe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: na?iaou, o?iiieiaey, eoeueoo?a, ?ienieaiu, ycuae,
ai?nu, aeaiu.

PAGE

PAGE 37

Похожие записи