AeIIAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Neai?oeiaa E?ae?y Ieaen??aia

OAeE–971/979

NAEUeAAAeI? A OIIAAO IA?AOIAeO A?Ae AeEEOAOO?E AeI AeAIIE?AO?? (70–90-O?
?IEE XX NOIE?OOss)

07.00.02. — Anana?oiy ?noi??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa

?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Aa?eoi?eia N.A., aeioeaio
eaoaae?e iiai? oa iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe A?eiaieia TH.A.,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei oa ciai?oii? iie?oeee
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Aoaa?aa A.E., aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi???
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Ee?aneee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana
Oaa/aiei

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 14 aeiaoiy 1999?. i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E. 11.051.02 aeey caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e a
Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (340055, i. Aeiiaoeuee,
aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24, ae?oaee o/aiaee ei?ion, aoae. 32)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ( 340055, i.Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “13” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.A. E?ai?a?i

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeineiaeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia aeaeieueeiia aniaeoaie:
ii–ia?oa, iineeaiiyi oaiaeaioe?e aei aeaiie?aoecaoe?? iie?oe/ieo nenoai
o aaaaoueio e?a?iao na?oo, aei /enea yeeo aoiaeeoue Oe?a?ia. Oi?eaeueiee
? /anii ae?aiaoe/iee aeina?ae Naeueaaaei?o ia oeyoo aei aeaiie?ao?? —
aea?aeaae, yea i?ieoea /a?ac a?enueeiai–aaoi?eoa?iee ?aaeei, a?enueeiaee
ia?aai?io oa o?eaaeee ca?ieiee eiioe?eo, yea caciaea aea?aeaaiiai
oa?i?ecio, ?ai?an?e oa ?ic/a?oaaiiy ?aoi?ienonueeeie oa ?aaeeeaeueieie
i?iaeoaie noni?eueii? ia?aaoaeiae a?aeaeaa? ye caaaeuei? ?ene na?oiaiai
aeina?aeo aeiiii?/ii? oa iie?oe/ii? iiaea?i?caoe??, oae ? niaoeeo?/i?
?ene, nai???aei?noue iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a o iae?e ? caeaaei?e e?a?i?, ui
ciaoiaeeoueny o noa?? aieeao aaeeeeo eai?oae?coe/ieo aea?aeaa.

Ii–ae?oaa, aeooaeuei?noue oaie iaoiiaeth?oueny ?? iaaeinoaoi?i aea/aiiyi
o a?o/eciyi?e eaoeiiaia?eeai?noeoe? a o?iiieia?/ieo iaaeao
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?o ca ana c iiaeyaeo eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei
aea/aiiy ?noi??? iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie oa iaiao?aei?coth iiaeaoe
ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c aioo??oiuei-iie?oe/ieo ianoaaei Naeueaaaei?o a
inoaiith /aa?oue OO noie?ooy c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeo i?aeoiae?a, a?aei?iieo
a?ae oeo, ye? iaioaaee ?ai?o.

Ii–o?ao?, o ca’ceo c eiioe?eoieie i?ioeanaie a iino?aaeyinueeiio
i?inoi?? iniaeeaee ?ioa?an noaiiaeoue aiae?c aneaeaoe??
naeueaaaei?nueeiai eiioe?eoo oa oeyo?a eiai a?aaoethaaiiy, ui aeicaiey?
aeei?enoaoe naeueaaaei?nueeee aeina?ae aeey oieeiaiiy aiaeia?/ieo
i?iaeai a iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie. A aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o ?ooo aei
aeaiie?ao?? ? ia?aoeiae aei ?? eiinie?aeaoe?? aaaeeea? c iiaeyaeo
?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ oe??ieaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?inoeooo?a a Oe?a?i? oa
?ioeo e?a?iao NIAe. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, aecia/aiiy iaoai?ci?a aca?iiae??
aea?aeaae e noni?euenoaa a oiiaao «iiai? aeaiie?aoi?» aeyaeythoueny
aeooaeueieie ia oieueee a iaoeiaiio, aea e o i?aeoe/iiio ieaii.

Ii–/aoaa?oa, i?iaeaie o?aaoethaaiiy aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai eiioeieoo,
noai?aiiy iaoaiiciia ie?ieo oaiae, ?icca?i?iiy ca?ieieo oa?oioaaiue oa
io caeo/aiiy aei iieioe/iiai aeeooy ia iaio aeooaeueii aeey e?a?i NIAe,
yei cioeioeeny c ?aaeiyie ca?ieieo nooe/ie, ia?oecainueeeo aiei i
iiaeia?iaeiiai oa?i?ecio, ui aeicaiey? aeaeieeoe «ciie ?eceeo»
ia?aoiaeieo noniieuenoa i ae?iaeoe oi?ioeo caiiaiaaiiy iaaaaeaiei
iieioe/iei aenoeanai, yei iaaacia/ii aeanoaaieicaoei?th noni?euenoaa.

Ii–i’yoa, naeueaaaei?nueeee eiioeieo aoa iia’ycaiee c aoceiaeie
i?iaeaiaie oeaio?aeueiiaia?eeainueei? e?ece i oiio aeinaiae Naeueaaaei?o
ia oeyoo ia?aoiaeo aei aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae a aiaeiai? c iioeie
e?a?iaie Oeaio?aeueii? Aia?eee oaeiae ? aeooaeueiei aeey Oe?a?ie.
Ae?aiaoe/iee aeina?ae, yeee aoa iaeiie/aiee Naeueaaaei?ii o ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae, iiaea aooe ei?eniei o ae?iaeaii? iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a
?ica’ycaiiy i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a, a oaeiae iiaeae?
“oeea?e?ciaaiiai ni?a?nioaaiiy” a iaaeao ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa.

I?aaeiaoii aeineiaeaeaiiy ? aiaeic iieioe/ieo iiaeie o Naeueaaaei?i a
inoaiith /aa?oue OO noieiooy, ui ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy a iaaeao aea/aiiy
iieioe/ii? inoi?i? e?a?i Oeaio?aeueii? Aia?eee e aeicaiey? ioeiieoe
«yeinoue» ?aaeeio, ui ciiiea aeeeoaoo?o, aecia/eoe iiaeeeainoi
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aeaiie?aoi?, niiaaiaeianoe iieioe/ii yaeua o
Naeueaaaei?i c iioeie e?a?iaie Oeaio?aeueii? Aia?eee, Noiaeii? ?a?iie oa
NIAe, yei oaeiae ia?aaeeaathoue ia?aoiaeiee ia?iiae.

Ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiiy ia?aii iieioeeo aienueeiaeo i oeeaieueieo
o?yaeia, aeiyeueiinoue iieioe/ieo ia?oie i ca?ieii? iiiceoei?, ?icoiiiiy
e ioeiiea ieie i?iaeai noniieueiiai ?icaeoeo a aeineiaeaeoaaiee ia?iiae.
Eiiieaenia aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae inoi?i? ?icaeoeo Naeueaaaei?o ?icoe?th?
oaiaoeeo aeineiaeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo i?iaeaiai iinoaaoi?eoa?ecio, i a
oeieiio aeiiiaith? ?iaioe c oaei? oaiaoeee, aeicaiey? aeineiaeeoe
iieioe/ii yaeua a Naeueaaaei?i a eiioaenoi ?icaeoeo e?a?i «o?aoueiai
naioo».

O?iiieiai/ii iaaei aeineiaeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia?iiae 70–90-o ?ieia OO
noieiooy, oiaoi aiae ii/aoeo e?ece iieioe/ii? nenoaie, /a?ac ca?ieiee
eiioeieo 80-o ?ieia, aei aeoiaeo c e?ece a 90-oi ?iee. Aeoeaiooth/e a
aeineiaeaeaiii iieioe/ii? inoi?i? e?a?ie ia oaeeo o?iiieiai/ieo iaaeao,
aaoi? ea?o?oueny oei, ui a oei ?iee aiaeaoaa?oueny yeinia ciiia
aea?aeaaii? no?oeoo?e noniieuenoaa, onoaiiaeaiiy iaeaieiai/ieo
i?i?ioe?ia oa aaiethoeiy iieioe/ieo ia?oie, yei aecia/athoue no/anio
iieioeeo Naeueaaaei?o, a oaeiae i?eeia?oueny Eiinoeoooeiy, a yeie
caeeaaeaii iniiaii canaaee aeaiie?aoi?.

Iaoa aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia ?ice?eoe iniaeeainoi e ie?aneeoe
iniiaii iai?yiee iieioe/ii? inoi?i? Naeueaaaei?o a 70-90-oi ?iee OO
noieiooy, cina?aaeaeoth/enue ia aioo?ioiio oaeoi?ao, yei aecia/athoue
iai?yiee ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae a oiiaao ia?aoiaeiiai ia?iiaeo aiae
aeeeoaoo?e aei aeaiie?aoi?. Aiaeiiaiaeii aei oeueiai aaoi? noaaeoue oaei
caaaeaiiy a aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi:

1) aeaoe ioe?ieo iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo Naeueaaaei?o a 70-o? ?iee
a?aeiia?aeii c iiaeie i?aeoiaeaie a ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo;

2) aeaeieeoe i?ia?aei? i?e/eie e?ece a?enueeiai-aaoi?eoa?iiai ?aaeeio,
iniiaii aocee noia?a/iinoae aeaaee e iiiceoei? ;

3) aecia/eoe aeeiai?eo aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiai eiioe?eoo o 80-o? ?iee oa
nooi?iue aieeao iiiceoe?? ia oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/iiai eo?no ea??aieoeoaa
e?a?ie;

4) i?inoaaeeoe ae?yeuei?noue a?iiaaeyinueeeo o?yae?a e??cue i?ecio
?aoi?i oa aecia/eoe ?o cia/aiiy a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae;

5) ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe i?ioean ie?iiai a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eoo o eiioaeno?
c aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iith i?iaeaiaoeeith;

6) aeyaeoe iniiaii oaiaeaioei? iieioe/iiai ?icaeoeo, i?iaeaie e
o?oaeiiui iieioe/ii? iiaea?iicaoei? a 90-oi ?iee;

7) ioeiieoe ia?niaeoeae iieioe/ii? noaaieicaoei?, noaiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noniieuenoaa a iinoeiioe?eoiee ia?iiae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoei?. Iaoeiaa iiaecia oaie aeena?oaoei?
caeaaieueoiai iaoiiaeth?oueny oei, ui o aio/eciyiie eioa?aoo?i aei
oeueiai /ano iaia? eiiieaeniiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iieioe/ii? inoi?i?
Naeueaaaei?o inoaiiuei? /aa?oi OO noieiooy. Oey aeena?oaoeiy ? ia?oith
ni?iaith inieneeoe oeth neeaaeio e aaaaoia?aiio oaio oa ia iniiai
a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e, oe?ieiai eiea
aeieoiaoaeueieo aeaea?ae i?iaanoe eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae
iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo Naeueaaaei?o a 70-90-o? ?iee . E?ii oiai, o
i?ioeani ?iaioe aaoi? caeo/a? iiaee iaoa?iae, oiieaeueii aeieoiaioe, yei
ua ia aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a iaoeiaiio iaiao.

O aeena?oaoei? aeineiaeaeaii oeieee eiiieaen iaeaino?ioeo i?iaeai, c
yeeie cioeioany Naeueaaaei? — iiaea?iicaoeiy aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?,
noai?aiiy e ciioeiaiiy iinoeoooia aeaiie?aoi?, caaino?aiiy
aioo?ioiueiiieioe/ii? neooaoei?, iiyae ?aoeeaeeaia oa?i?ecio oiui —
?ioa?an aei aeine?aeaeaiiy yeeo iii?oii ciaioeany c o?aaoethaaiiyi
eiioe?eoo, a?aeiia?aeii i?iaeaie iiaeaeueoi? aaiethoe?? e?a?ie
caeeoeeeny iaaeine?aeaeaieie.

O aeena?oaoei? ii-iiaiio noaaeyoueny ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiai eiioe?eoo. Aecia/aiiy iniiaieo neeaaeiaeo e?ece
aaoi?eoa?iiai ?aaeeio (e?ece eaa?oeiiino?, oi?aae?iiy, iiyaa ca?ieii?
iiiceoe?? o? ?? ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo) aeaee iiaeeea?noue iiaiai
o?aeooaaiiy oa?aeoa?o e aeeiai?ee iie?oe/iiai eiioe?eoo, ui aeicaieeei
aaoi?o i?inoaaeeoe i?e/eie aoiaeo oa aeoiaeo c eiioe?eoo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoei?. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoei?
iiynith?oueny aaee/aciith oaaaith naioiai? niieueiinoi, i?eeooi? aei
Oeaio?aeueii? Aia?eee i?ioyaii aieueoa, iiae aeanyoeeiooy, i iieyaa? a
oiio, ui i?iaaaeaiee aiaeic i?iaiaeieo aniaeoia aioo?ioiueiaea?aeaaiiai
eiioeieoo a Naeueaaaei?i aeicaiey? aeyaeoe ia oieueee oa?aeoa? i
no?oeoo?o oeueiai eiioeieoo, aea e ni?iaiicoaaoe aa?iaioe eiai ?icaeoeo,
a oaeiae ?ic?iaeoe iiaeaeue ?aaiiiaeueiiai ?ica’ycaiiy eiioeieoia.
Iaoa?iaee e aeniiaee aeena?oaoei? iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioeani aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia o aeeeaaeaiii iiaioiuei? inoi?i?
Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee, Naeueaaaei?o, a oaeiae iiae /an iiaeaioiaee
niaoeeo?nia c iieioe/ii? inoi?i? e?a?i Oeaio?aeueii? Aia?eee i a yeinoi
inoi?iia?aoi/iiai aeaea?aea.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei?. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy e aeniiaee
aeena?oaoei? aeeeaaeaii a aeiiiaiaeyo ia aocianueeeo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioeiyo i?ioani?nueei–aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo, iaaiai?thaaeenue ia caniaeaiiyo eaoaae?e
iiai? oa iiaioiuei? icoi?i? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo,
aeeeaaeaii a noaooyo.

NO?OEOO?A I CIINO AeENA?OAOeI?

Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny ci anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icaeieia (iaeeiaaeoeyoe
iiae?icaeieia), aeniiaeia, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e
(243 iacae).

O anooii iaoiiaeth?oueny aeooaeueiinoue aeineiaeaeaiiy, iiaeathoueny ??
o?iiieiai/ii iaaei, aecia/athoueny i?aaeiao, iaoa, caaaeaiiy
aeena?oaoei?, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Ia?oee ?icaeie «Inoi?iia?aoiy, aeaea?aeueia aaca e iaoiaeieiaiy
aeineiaeaeaiiy» iinoeoue inoi?iia?aoith ieoaiiy, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny ca
i?iaeaiii–o?iiieiai/iei i?eioeeiii, oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaea?ae i
iaoiaeieiai/io iniiao aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Naeueaaaei?nueea oaiaoeea a aeineiaeaeoaaiee ia?iiae iaaeinoaoiuei
?ic?iaeaia o aio/eciyiie i ca?oaiaeiie eaoeiiaia?eeaiinoeoei a
eiiieaeniiio iiaeoiaei aei aea/aiiy iieioe/ii? inoi?i? ie?aieo e?a?i
Oeaio?aeueii? Aia?eee, ui iicia/a?oueny ia noaii inoi?iia?aoi?
aeineiaeaeaiiy. O aieueoinoi ioaeieaoeie oaaaa aaoi?ia noieoniaaia ia
ie?aieo aniaeoao oei?? i?iaeaie. Oaaao aaoi?ia, oaeeo ye
O.?. Ai?iaeaeeiii?, A.I. A?eoeia, I.N. Eaiiiaa, I.A. Aa?eoaaa, o oei
?iee i?eaa?oaee i?iaeaie ooai?aiiy e aeiyeueiinoi ?aaiethoeieieo
ia?aiicaoeie i ianiaeo ?ooia, oaie ?aaiethoei? e eiio??aaiethoei?.
?aaiethoeieia oaiaoeea noaea iniiaith eieaeoeaieo iiiia?aoie
?aaeyinueeeo eaoeiiaia?eeaiinoia.

Aaaeeeaa iaoiaeieiai/ia cia/aiiy o aea/aiii ia?aii? oaie iathoue
eieaeoeaii iiiia?aoi? ca ?aaeaeoei?th I.O.Ooeueaianueeiai, yei iinoyoue
aiaeic naeueaaaei?nueei? iieioe/ii? nenoaie, ?icii eiioeaioei?
iieioe/iiai ?icaeoeo 70–o-ii/aoeo 80–o ?ieia, a oaeiae ?iaioe A.I.
Ie?nueeiai e I.O. Ooeueaianueeiai, i?enay/aieo aeineiaeaeaiith
iieioe/ii? ?iei a?ii?, i?iaeai naeueaaaei?nueeiai iieioa?ecio oa
aienueeiaiai aaoi?eoa?ecio.

O ieaii ia?oieii–iieioe/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee aaaeeeaeie ? noaooi
I.E. Noaoeaiea oa ?.A. Eaioaaa, yei ?icaeyaeathoue iaeaieiaith e
iieioeeo i?iaiaeieo iieioe/ieo ia?oie e?a?ie a oiiaao ca?ieiiai
eiioeieoo e iinoaaoi?eoa?ii? o?ainoi?iaoei?, ciaoiaey/enue iica oaiaoeee
aeineiaeieeia, iia’ycaii? c aeiyeueiinoth ?aaiethoeieieo i?aaiicaoeie i
eiaeo ia?oie.

Iiaeia?iaeii aniaeoe oeaio?aeueiiaia?eeainueei? e?ece aenaioeaii a
?iaioao A.I. Noaea?aaa, I.E. Eaieiiia, I.I. Iai?ioiai?, A.O. Ia?oeiiaa,
a yeeo aieiaia i?iaaeeia a aiaeici ciaiioiueiiieioe/ieo aniaeoia
iieyaaea a oiio, ui i?iaeaia a?aaoethaaiiy aoea aiaei?aaia aiae
oa?aeoa?enoeee aioo?ioiueiiieioe/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee. Iiaee iiaeoiae
aiaeie?aieth? eieaeoeaio iiiia?aoith ?inienueeeo eaoeiiaia?eeaienoia, a
yeie aiaeic iieioe/ieo i?ioeania iiaea?oueny a eiioaenoi aeiaaeueieo
oaiaeaioeie naioiaiai ?icaeoeo c o?aooaaiiyi aioo?ioiio
eiioeieoiaeith/eo oaeoi?ia.

Ni?iaith eiiieaeniiai aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeai ?icaeoeo e?a?i
Oeaio?aeueii? Aia?eee ia?iiaeo 70-o-ii/aoeo 80-o ?ieia noaea eieaeoeaia
iiiia?aoiy aio/eciyieo eaoeiiaia?eeaiinoia, aea aecia/aii iniiaii ?ene e
caeiiiii?iinoi noniieueiiai ?icaeoeo, aeyaeaii niaoeeoieo ?icaeoeo
e?a?ie, iiaeaii ioeiieo ia?niaeoea ?aaiethoe?iiiai ?ooo. Oaeiae
aaaaoianiaeoiith ? ?iaioa I.I.No?iaaiiaa, a yeie aaoi? eiiieaenii
i?iaiaeicoaaa ia?iiae iieioe/ii? iiaea?iicaoei? Naeueaaaei?o iiney
a?aaoethaaiiy eiioeieoo.

Aiaeico i?iaeai iaoeiiiaeueiiai i?eie?aiiy e iinoaaoi?eoa?iie
o?ainoi?iaoei? i?enay/aii i?aoei I.E. *oiaeiai?, a yeeo i?aaenoaaeaii
aa?iaio ?icaeieoaaiiy eiioeieoo a eiioaenoi c ie?ioai?/eie coneeeyie
noi?ii, yei aa?ooue aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o eiioeieoi, iaaino?aeueii
iai?yie no/aniiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie, ui aeiiiiiaei aecia/eoe niaoeeoieo
ia?aoiaeiiai ia?iiaeo e iiaeaeueoee oiae aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo
Naeueaaaei?o.

*ieueia iinoea ca?aae aaeeeiai ianeao ?iaio ca?oaiaeieo aaoi?ia
iiniaea? eieaeoeaiee cai?iee aia?eeainueeeo a/aieo, a a yeiio ii?ooaii
oe?iea eiei ieoaiue naeueaaaei?nueei? iieioe/ii? icoi?i?. Aaoi?e
i?eoiaeyoue aei aeniiaeo i?i oeeeei/iinoue oeaio?aeueiiaia?eeainueei?
inoi?i?, i?i «caeaaeio aeaiie?aoith» a Naeueaaaei?i, i iaiaaathoueny
?iaeoe i?iaiice noiniaii oeyoia ?ic’ycaiiy eiioeieoo e iiaeaeueoi? aeiei
aeaiie?aoi?.

Aaeeeee iioa?an yaeythoue niaith ?iaioe ?. Aiiia?a e Aeae. Aeaiea?eay, a
yeeo iiaeaii aiaeic iieioeee NOA a Naeueaaaei?i, ?ice?eoi iniaeeainoi
iieioe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie 70-o ?ieia, i?aaenoaaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo
naeueaaaei?nueeiai ?aaeeio.

Aaaeeeaa iinoea iiniaeathoue ?iaioe eaoeiiaia?eeainueeeo a/aieo
A. Oi??ana–?iaana, I. Aeueyeo?ia, ?. Iaioiaa?a, ui aeineiaeaeothoue oaie
e?ece aeaaee, naeueaaaei?nueeiai aaoi?eoa?ecio, aea?aeaaiiai
ianeeuenoaa. Aaeeeee aeoeaio aaoi?e noaaeyoue ia i?iaeaiao nioeiaeueii?
ia?iaiinoi, caeaaeii? aeiiiiiee, aiaenooiinoi aeaiie?aoi? i iaeiinoaeii
iiaiaeaeothoueny c aeoieith, ui ianeeuenoai aieie ia ni?e/eieoue
ae?ioaiiy eiioeieoo, a ?. Iaioiaa? i?iiiio? noeaia?ie iieioe/iiai
a?aaoethaaiiy eiioeieoo.

Iaaecae/aeii ei?enieie a aeineiaeaeaiii ieoaiue oeyoia ?aaiethoeieiiai
?ooo a Naeueaaaei?i aeyaeeenue ?acoeueoaoe niinoa?aaeaiue o/aieo
O. Iiioaiia?i, Aeae. Ii?oa, A. Aiaeiii, Ae. Iin, ?. Oiiaeoa, a iniiai
yeeo eaaeeoue ieoaiiy ?icaeyaeo aeiyeueiinoi oa aiaeiinei eiaeo ia?oie i
iianoainueeeo i?aaiicaoeie. Aaoi?e aeneiaeththoue neiiaoi? eiaei i, yeui
Aeae.Ii?o ni?iaoaaa c?iaeoe i?iaiic iieioe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie a ?aci
i?eoiaeo aei aeaaee ?aaiethoeieiiai o?yaeo, ia caia?a/oth/e ae?oaeo
aa?iaioia ?icaeoeo iiaeie, oi iioi iinoaaeee ia ia?aiiao ?aaiethoei?,
ciiiath/e ieoaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy ie?iiai a?aaoethaaiiy ca?ieiiai
eiioeieoo ia ei?enoue aeaiie?aoi?.

Iaaiee aianie o ?ic?iaeaiiy oaiaoeee, i?enay/aii? i?iaeaiai ?aeiinoi
eiaeo nee, c?iaeee ioaeieaoei? i?ioanieieo ?aaiethoeiiia?ia
A. Iiioana, O. Oaiaeaey, O. Aieueyeiaina, O. Aa??iina, ui iinoyoue
aaaaoee iaoa?iae aeey aea/aiiy no?aoaai? e oaeoeee ?aaiethoeieii? eiai?.

Oaeei /eiii, aiai?y/e i?i iniiaii inoi?iia?aoi/ii aniaeoe i?iaeaie,
o?aaiaioa?ii aenaioeaieo o ?iaioao ?icieo aaoi?ia, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe
oie oaeo, ui iica oaaaith iaoeo iiia?aaeieeia caeeoeeenue aaeeea
eieueeinoue ieoaiue c i?iaeai aioo?ioiueiiieioe/iiai ?icaeoeo
Naeueaaaei?o, a ia?oo /a?ao iiceoeie i iiaeyaeia iieioe/ieo ia?oie ia
ia?niaeoeae noniieueiiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. I?aeoe/ii ia ?ic?iaeaiii
ieoaiiy, ca’ycaiii c ?ioaiiyi i?iaeai iinoeiioeieoiiai ?icaeoeo inoi?i?
aea?aeaae. I iaeaieiaiioith i?iaaeeiith ? aiaenooiinoue eiiieaenii?
ocaaaeueithth/i? i?aoei c iieioe/ii? inoi?i? Caeueaaaei?o ca inoaiith
/aa?oue OO noieiooy. O aeena?oaoei? iaaeaii iiaeeeainoue aeeaieiai
aenaioeaiiy iniiaieo ieoaiue iieioe/iiai ?icaeoeo Naeueaaaei?o a ia?iiae
iiaioiuei? inoi?i?.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco noaiiaeoue ?iciiieaiiaee eiiieaen aeaea?ae, yeee
caaacia/o? aeena?oaoei? ai?iaiaeiicoue inoi?e/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie aeaea?ae iaeaaeaoue aea?aeaai? aeieoiaioe. C oei??
a?oie aeaea?ae caneoaiaothoue ia oaaao Eiinoeoooei? e?a?ie 1962 oa 1983
?ieia, aiaeiiaiaeii aei yeeo aecia/athoueny i?aaiicaoeiy aea?aeaaiiai
iaoaiicio, i?aaiaa iniiaa aeaaee. Aeaea?aea oei?? a?oie ?
oaeoieiai/iith iniiaith aeey aiaeico iieioeee aea?aeaae oa iniaeeainoae
?? aioo?ioiuei? no?aoaai?.

Ae?oao a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue aeieoiaioe, yei coinothoueny
iiaeia?iaeieo i?aaiicaoeie oa eiaeioeie, III oa iioeo aea?aeaa, i
aeicaieythoue c’ynoaaoe noaaeaiiy naioiai? niieueiinoi aei
naeueaaaei?nueeiai eiioeieoo. ?iciiiaiioii aa??aioe ie?ieo oaiae,
aeieoiaioe cono?i/ae ia aeuiio ?iaii, iiae?aaiiiaeueieo eiioa?aioeie
aeicaieythoue i?inoaaeeoe noaiiaeaiiy eiioeaioei? ?ica’ycaiiy eiioeieoo,
ii?ie oa i?eioeeie ie?ioai?/i? aeiyeueiinoi. A oeueiio ieaii
?ioa?an aeeeeea? O?aiei–iaeneeainueea aeaeea?aoeiy, a iniiai yei?
eaaeeoue i?eioeei aeciaiiy ca?ieii? iiiceoei? OIAOI ye ?iaiii?aaii?
iieioe/ii? neee e?a?ie c aieo aaeeeeo eaiioaeinoe/ieo aea?aeaa, ui noaei
iiooiaoii aei eaaioeiaoei? OIAOI ona?aaeeii e?a?ie e oaeoii aeciaiiy
eiai ia iiaeia?iaei?e a?ai?.

Ia iaio aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy caneoaiao? aa?iaio Aeoa ie?o, a yeiio aoee
caeeaaeaii i?eioeeie ie?o a Naeueaaaei?i e iinoaaeaia oi/ea
aiae?aooaaiiy ?icaeoeo a?iiaaeyinueeeo aiaeiinei.I?iaeaia caa?aaeaiiy
iieioe/ieo i?aa ethaeeie ciaoiaeeoueny iiae ieeueiith oaaaith c aieo
iiaeia?iaeii? i?aaiicaoei? — I?aaiicaoei? ia’?aeiaieo iaoeie (III), e
i?eeiyoi iath ?aciethoei? o aiaeiioaiii Naeueaaaei?o, yei aiaecia/eee
aaaaoi ii?ooaiue i?aa ethaeeie, aeiiiiiaathoue i?ieeoe naio ia
aioo?ioith i?e?iaeo eiioeieoa, c?icoiioe iaeae nioeiaeueii–iieioe/ieo
aioo?ioieo i?ioe?i/.

Aei o?aouei? a?oie aeaea?ae iaeaaeaoue i?ia?aiii aeieoiaioe oa cayae
iieioe/ieo ia?oie i iianoainueeeo i?aaiicaoeie, yei aiaeaeaathoue
?iciiiaiioiinoue iaeaeii–iieioe/ieo oa/ie i iinoyoue aiaeiiinoi i?i
ioeiiee aaiethoei? iiaeyaeia ea?iaieoeoaa ia?oie, no?aoaai? e oaeoeee
iianoainueeeo i?aaiicaoeie, iniaeeainoae aeai?/eo eaiiaiie. Ciaeiinoai c
aeieoiaioaie iieioe/ieo ia?oie, i?aaiicaoei? «iieiaeeo ioioea?ia»
aeicaiey? c?icoiioe ?o no?oeoo?o e ninoaa, iniiaii ooieoei? i iieioe/ii
caaaeaiiy, iinoea i ?ieue a iieioe/iiio aeeooi e?a?ie.

Iaaeoi oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaii aeieoiaioe eiaeo nee Naeueaaaei?o —
Eiioiinoe/ii? ia?oi? oa ?aaiethoeieieo i?aaiicaoeie (OIAOI e ?AeO). Oea
iaoa?iaee VII c’?caeo EIN, caa?iaiiy, iaiioanoe oa i?iiiceoei?
i?aaiicaoeie,aacaoe «Aaina?aiin», yei aeaeaaaeeny iiaeiieueii.
Ii?iaiyeueiee aiaeic aeieoiaioia aeicaieythoue aeyaeoe caaaeueii oa
aiaeiiiii iieiaeaiiy a iieioe/ieo onoaiiaeao oeeo i?aaiicaoeie,
c?icoiioe oa?aeoa? ?o aca?iiaiaeiinei, i?inoaaeeoe aaiethoeith
iiaeyaeia ea?iaieoeoaa eiaeo nee ia ?icieo aoaiao a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie.

*aoaa?oa a?oia aeaea?ae iinoeoue iaioa?e iieioe/ieo aeiy/ia, o/anieeia
iianoainueeiai ?ooo, aaoa?aiia a?ii?, aei ioeiiie yeeo aaoi? noaaeoueny
iaa?aaeii /a?ac oa, ui aiie iaeaaeaoue aei ?icieo nioeiaeueieo aa?noa i
iieioe/ieo ia?oie, i aiaeiiaiaeii aei ?oiio iieioeei–iaeaieiai/ieo
ianoaiia /anoi iathoue i?ioeeaaeii iiaeyaee oa iaea?, /anii
iaaaeaeaaoii aeieniinoi. Na?aae oei?? a?oie aeaea?ae ne?ae aeaeieeoe
niiaaaee iieeiaieea naeueaaaei?nueei? a?ii? Eano?i Ii?aia, oaaaa yeiai
cina?aaeaeaia ia aioo?ioiio i?iaeaiao a?ii?, cie?aia oi?ioaaiith
ca?ieii? no?aoaai? e oaeoeee ye iaiaoiaeieo oiia aeoiaeo c e?ece,
oa?aeoa?enoeee c oi/ee ci?o naeueaaaei?nueeiai aaia?aeioaoo iieooe/ii?
eiioeaioei? i?aaiicaoei? «iieiaeeo ioioea?ia».

I’yoo a?oio aeaea?ae noaiiaeyoue ia?iiaee/ii coniieueii–iieioe/ii
aeaeaiiy Naeueaaaei?o, oeaio?aeueiiaia?eeainueeeo aea?aeaa, a oaeiae
aio/eciyia ia?iiaeeea, a yeeo iinoyoueny ioaeieaoei? aea?aeaaieo caya,
aeaeea?aoei? iieioe/ieo ia?oie i noniieueieo i?aaiicaoeie. Iniaeeao
oeiiiicoue yaeythoue aeieoiaioaeueii aeiaeaoee aei aeo?iaeia Estudios
centroamericanos (i?aai eaoieeoeueeiai Oiiaa?neoaoo Nai–Naeueaaaei?o) i
oaiaoe/ii aeaeaiiy Oeaio?aeueiiaia?eeainueeiai iinoeoooo iieioe/ieo
aeineiaeaeaiue (INCEP) o Aaaoaiaei, ui aeeth/athoue /eneaiii aeiai?ee
aeieoiaioia c eeth/aaeo i?iaeai noniieueii–iieioe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieiai/io iniiao aeena?oaoei? noaiiaeoue nenoaia iaoeiaeo
i?eioeeiia i iaoiaeia iiciaiiy, yei a?oioothoueny ia aeiaeaeoeoei,
aeinyaiaiiyo aio/eciyii? oa ca?oaiaeii? inoi?e/ii? iaoee e ni?yiiaaii ia
ia’?eoeaia, anaai/ia aenaioeaiiy iiaeie, oaeoia ia iniiai
i?iaeaiii–o?iiieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeo. O ?iaioi aeei?enoiao?oueny
oi?iaoeieiee iiaeoiae aei aiaeico noniieueii-iieioe/ieo yaeu. ?iaioa
a?oioo?oueny ia i?eioeeiao inoi?ecio e ia’?eoeaiinoi, eiiieaeniiai e
nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaeo aei ia?aii? oaie.

O ?icaeiei II «Ai?ioueaa iniiaieo iieioe/ieo nee c ieoaiue
nioeiaeueii–iieioe/iiai ?icaeoeo Naeueaaaei?a a 70-oi ?iee» iiaeaii
oa?aeoa?enoeeo iieioe/ii? nenoaie e?a?ie a ia?iiae aaoi?eoa?ecio,
i?ieiiaioiaaii nioeiaeueio aaco iiiceoei? inioth/iio ?aaeeio, iieacaii
c?inoaiiy aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo, ie?aneaii iciaee iiaeeaeaiiy iieioe/ii?
e?ece 1979 ?ieo i i?iaiaeiciaaii iiaei? aienueeiaiai ia?aai?ioo, ui noaa
ii/aoeii iaaeiiiy aeeeoaoo?e e ia?aoiaeii aei oeeaieueii? oi?ie
i?aaeiiiy.

Aecia/aeueiith ?enith iieioe/iiai ?icaeoeo Naeueaaaei?o a 70-oi ?iee
aoei iaioaaiiy aaoi?eoa?iiai aienueeiaiai ?aaeeio c aeiiiioth/ith ?ieeth
a?ii?, i?aaaethth/a noaiiaeua yei? aoei ioioeieii cae?iieaia a
Eiinoeoooei? 1962 ?ieo i iieioeei–i?aaiaeo aeieo?eiao aea?aeaae.
Ianeiaeeii oaeiai aeiyoeiaiai noaiiaeua aienueeiaeo, ye aa?aioa
noaaieueiinoi e ii?yaeeo, aeyaeeinue anoaiiaeaiiy eiio?ieth a?ii? iaae
aea?aeaaith. Iieioe/io iiaeo?eieo ?? iaioaaiiy caaacia/oaaea i?aaa
Ia?oiy iaoeiiiaeueiiai i?eie?aiiy (III), a nithc c aa?a?iith ieiaa?oi?th
ooai?thaaa aeiiiii/io iniiao aeaaee aienueeiaeo.

Eaaaeueii eaiaee aeey aeyao iioa?ania iioeo nioeiaeueieo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy (nooaeaioia, ?iaioieeia, nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?ieaoa?iaoo) aoei cae?eoi.A e?a?ii,aoee aiaenooii a?iiaaeyinueei
naiaiaee,ii?oooaaeeny eiinoeoooeieii ii?ie, ?acoeueoaoe aeai?ia
oaeueneoieoaaeeny, ui caaania/oaaei i?eoiae aei aeaaee /a?aiaeo
noaaeaiieeia aienueeiaiai ?aaeeio. Iieioe/ia nenoaia, yea ia
caaacia/oaaea eaiaeia aca?iiaei? aeaaee e noniieuenoaa oa ia aeiioneaea
o/anoi a?iiaaeyi o iieioe/iiio i?ioeani, noaea aaeueiii noniieueiiai
?icaeoeo oa aaia?aoi?ii aioo?ioiueiai eiioeieoo.

Iaeiei ic /eiieeia iieioe/ii? iiaieicaoei? ian noaee eiai i?aaiicaoei?,
yei, ciaai?eaoenue o eaaaeueieo caniaao aeneiaeaiiy i?ioanoo, i?eeoee
aei iaiaoiaeiinoi noai?aiiy aienueeiai–iieioe/ieo i?aaiicaoeie i
aeyaeeeny i?ioeaaaith ?ai?aneaiie iaoeii aeeeoaoo?e.

Ca?ieia iiiceoeiy o aeaeyaei aienueeiai–iieioe/ieo i?aaiicaoeie,
iacaaaeath/e ia iaeaieiai/ii i?ioe?i//y, ?icaiaeiinoi a oaeoe/ieo i
i?aaiicaoeieieo iaoiaeao ai?ioueae, aoea ?aeeiith a ioeiieao aeeaeie
e?ece i aecia/aiiy niieueiinoi aeyaeaiiy caaaeaiue (iiaaeaiiy inioth/iai
?aaeeio oa i?eoiae aei aeaaee ?aaiethoeieii–aeaiie?aoe/ieo o?yaeia,
oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aaeeeaeueieo noniieueieo ia?aoai?aiue). I?ioa, ciaaaiiy
?aaiethoeieieo i?aaiicaoeie ca eiaea?noai, iaaieioaiiy ia
iieioa?enonueeeo iaoiaeao ai?ioueae c aeeeoaoi?nueeei ?aaeeiii i
i?eoieueiinoue aei ?aaiethoeieii? oai?i? ianeeuenoaa oa, ye ?acoeueoao
oeueiai, oa?i?enoe/ii oi?ie aeie, yei caeaaieueoiai iaee ?icaiaeiinoi c
?oiiie i?ia?aiieie ianoaiiaaie, noaee ia?aoeiaeith aeey ia’?aeiaiiy
eiaeo nee o 70-oi ?iee.

Ia oei iiaeeaeaiiy nioeiaeueii–iieioe/ii? e?ece ?ieue ?aoi?iaoi?ia
inioth/i? iieioe/ii? nenoaie acyea ia naaa iaeaieueo iieioeciaaia a?oia
ianaeaiiy — iieiaei ioioea?e. Aianeiaeie aienueeiaiai ia?aai?ioo 1979
?ieo aia?oa a e?a?ii ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio aeanyoeeioue aei aeaaee
i?eeoea aienueeiai–oeeaieueia ooioa, ui c?iaeea ia?oi ianiieeai e?iee ia
oeyoo eiaa?aeicaoei? iieioe/iiai aeeooy, i noai?eea iiaeeeainoue
iiaea?iicaoei? aea?aeaae oa noniieuenoaa. Iaeiae, ia?ioo/icoue ?? /eaiia
i iaiineiaeiaiicoue ?oiio aeie i?ecaaee aei ao?aoe iiaeo?eiee eaaaeueii?
iiiceoei?, oaeaeeiai ia’?aeiaiiy i?aaeo aienueeiaeo, yei iiiiaeee naith
?aaeoeieio aeiyeueiicoue. Aoii, aoei aiaee?eoi oeyo aei ?aoi?ioaaiiy
a?oa?/ieo aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?, noai?aii ia?aaeoiiae ?ai?aaiicaoei?
iinoeoooeieii? nenoaie.

O ?icaeiei III «Iniaeeainoi oeeaieueiiai i?aaeiiiy a Naeueaaaei?i (80-oi
?iee)» aiaeico?oueny i?ioean ia?aa?oioaaiiy nee o i?aaey/iio aeioei,
ie?aneaii aoaie eiinieiaeaoei? ca?ieii? iiiceoei?, iiaea?oueny aiaeic
oi?i oa iaoiaeia ai?ioueae eiaeo nee c i?aaey/ei ?aaeeiii,
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iieioeeo ia?oiai oeeaieueiiai o?yaeo, yeee aeiya o
ai?iieo oiiaao, aiaeia?aaeaii aeeiaiieo aeai?/eo eaiiaiie ye aeieac
i?inoaaiiy e?a?ie aei aeaiie?aoi?, a oaeiae ?icaeoie ie?ieo ia?aaiai?ia
ye naiae/aiiy ii/aoeo a?aaoethaaiiy naeueaaaei?nueeiai eiioeieoo.

Aiaeic iieioe/ieo ianoaaei o 80-oi ?iee aiai?eoue i?i inoioii ciiie, ui
aiaeaoeeny a nenoaii i?aaeiiiy. Ooioa noaea oi?th ia?aoiaeiith
no?oeoo?ith, yea caaacia/eea iiaoaiiinoue ia?aoiaeo aiae
aienueeiai–oeeaieueiiai aei oeeaieueiiai i?aaeiiiy a iniai Iaiieaiia
Aeoa?oa oa ia?oi? o?enoeyinueeeo aeaiie?aoia. Eiinoeoooeiy, i?eeiyoa
1983 ?ieo, eaaioeiii iiaeoaa?aeeea anoaiiaeaio oi?io i?aaeiiiy, a
i?eioeeie ia ii?ie, cae?iieaii a noaooyo iniiaiiai caeiio, aiaee?eaaee
oeyo aeey i?inoaaiiy e?a?ie aei aeaiie?aoecaoei?. Aeeiaiiea aeai?/eo
eaiiaiie, iacaaaeath/e ia iiaeeaeaiiy ca?ieiiai eiioeieoo, noaea
/eiieeii eaaioeiicaoei? o?yaeo e ua iaeiei naiae/aiiyi i?inoaaiiy e?a?ie
oeyoii aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aoi?i.

I?ioa «o?ioio aeaiie?aoi?», a naia oae ?icoeiithaaa Aaoeiaoii ia?aoiae
aei oeeaieueiiai i?aaeiiiy, ia i?ecaia aei ?ica’ycaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
eiioeieoo. Aoee noai?aii ia?aaeoiiae aeey eiinieiaeaoei? «ca?ieii?
iiiceoei?,yea i?iiiioaaea aeueoa?iaoeaiee aa?iaio aeoiaeo c e?ece oeyoii
anoaiiaeaiiy ?aaiethoeieii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? oi?ie i?aaeiiiy. Ca noai?aiiyi
O?iioa iaoeiiiaeueiiai aecaieaiiy iiaii Oa?aaoiaei Ia?oi (OIIOI) , ye
aienueeiaiai yae?a ?aaiethoeieieo nee, oa ?aaiethoeieii–aeaiie?aoe/iiai
o?iioo (?AeO), ye oe?ieiai aioeiiia?iaeinoe/iiai nithco, caaa?oeany
oiioa?iee i?ioean ia’?aeiaiiy eiaeo nee.

Iiaeaeueoa ai?ioueaa eiaeo nee c i?aaey/ei ?aaeeiii iaaoea oa?aeoa?o
ca?ieiiai i?ioenoiyiiy e ia?a?inea a o?eaaeo a?iiaaeinueeo aieio.
C?inoaiiy eieueeinoi iianoaioeia, iiioey?iinoue iaea? ?aaiethoei?,
?icoe?aiiy ?aeiiia, yei ia iiaeei?eeeny caeiiiiio o?yaeiai, aeciaiiy ia
iiaeia?iaeiiio ?iaii naiae/eee i?i aeeaieee ?iceie noniieuenoaa. A
oiiaao ai?ioueae ca aeaaeo ni?iae ie?ieo iiioeiaoea aca?iiaeeeth/aeenue,
ui aeeeeeaei iiaee iaa?o ianeeey, iioeiioa caoyaoaaany aocie i?ioe?i/.

C oiiae iieioa?ecaoei? e?a?ie, ni?iae aea?aeaae iineeeoe eiio?ieue iaae
aeiiiiieith oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy no?oeoo?ieo ?aoi?i a aeiiiii/iie i
nioeiaeueiie noa?ao aeeooy noniieuenoaa ia ciyee aino?ioe i?iaeai i
noaee aeieacii iani?iiiaeiinoi ia?oiai oeeaieueiiai o?yaeo aeaanoe
e?a?io c o?eaaei? e?ece. C?ea ieaio i?aceaeaioa «Oeyo aei ie?o 1985-1989
??.», noaaea ia aienueeiao neeo, iaaaaeaiiy eoe ia iieioe/ii eiii?iiice
ye c aieo o?yaeo, oae i c aieo OIAOI ia i?eaaee, oa e ia iiaee i?eaanoe,
e?a?io aei i/ieoaaiiai ie?o, ui ni?e/eieei ciiiea ?icoaooaaiii
iieioe/ieo nee o ia?iiae i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaiaionueeeo i i?aceaeaionueeeo
aeai?ia.

Aeeiaiiea aeai?/eo eaiiaiie aeicaieeea aeaeieeoe cia/ii ciiie a
iieioe/iiio aeeooi e?a?ie. Ii–ia?oa, iiaenoiee i?aaeiiiy Aeoa?oa e
?iciaae OAeI i?ecaaee aei ?? ii?acee ia ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai?ao 1988
?ieo oa noaee i?e/eiith i?iaiuaiiy o?ioioo o?aouei? neee a e?a?ii a
ia?aci ia?oi? A?AIA. Iaa?aaeia iieioe/ia oaeoeea ia?oi?, oe?iea
nioeiaeueia i?iiaaaiaea, ia?aaeyae iaeaieiai/ieo i iieioe/ieo i?ia?aiieo
iieiaeaiue, cai?iiiiiaaiee A?AIA iaieiina?aaoeaiee aa?iaio aeoiaeo
e?a?ie c o?eaaei? e?ece — ni?eyee c?inoaiith iiioey?iinoi ia?oi? i
coiiaeee ia?aiiao ?? eaiaeeaeaoa ia i?aceaeaionueeeo aeai?ao 1989 ?ieo.
Ii-ae?oaa, ?iciaae OIAOI–?AeO i iiaeaeueoa eaaaeicaoeiy ?AeO naiae/eee
i?i e?eco eiioeaioei? ?aaiethoeieii? aieie, i?i iinooiiaa aeciaiiy
iaaoaeoeaiinoi ca?ieieo iaoiaeia ai?ioueae ca aeaaeo, i?i ciiie o
naiaeiiinoi eiaeo nee ia ei?enoue ia?niaeoea caeiiii? o/anoi iianoaioeia
o iieioeoei aea?aeaae e iiaeeeainoi oeeaieiciaaieie iaoiaeaie aanoe
ai?ioueao ca aeaaeo e ooaa?aeaeaiiy nai?o i?eioeeiia.

Ca oiiae iaoiai? ceooaoei? ia o?iioao, i?iaeiaaeaiiy aieie aoei
aacaeocaeei. Aaaiiee iiaeia?iaeiee /eiiee, yeee oeacoaaa ia
iaiaoiaeiinoue iieioe/iiai a?aaoethaaiiy, a oaeiae ciiie a ianiaie
naiaeiiinoi, ui ia?aeoee a aioeai?iii aenooie, noai?eee oiiae aeey
ii/aoeo ie?ieo ia?aaiai?ia. I iacaaaeath/e ia o?oaeiiui e ia?aoeiaee a
ia?aaiai?iiio i?ioeani, oiae i ?acoeueoaoe aeiaeiao naiae/eee i?i ?oo o
iiooeo aeinyaiaiiy ie?o.

O ?icaeiei IV «Iiaea?iicaoeiy iieioe/ii? nenoaie Naeueaaaei?o a 90-oi
?iee» aenaioeaii oiae i ?acoeueoaoe ie?ieo ia?aaiai?ia, aiaecia/aii
i?iaeaie e aiaeia?aaeaii o?oaeiiui iieioe/ii? iiaea?iicaoei? ia oeyoo
?icaoaeiae i?aaiai? aea?aeaae e a?iiaaeyinueeiai noniieuenoaa.

Ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ieia aoei aiaee?eoi oeyo aeey caaa?oaiiy i?ioeano
ie?iiai a?aaoethaaiiy naeueaaaei?nueeiai eiioeieoo. Oea noaei iiaeeeaei
caaaeyee aeoeaiei coneeeyi ie?ioai?ieoeueei? iini? naioiai? ciieueiinoi,
iaeiie/aiith ineoieiai/ii? aoiie ianaeaiiy aiae aieie, ciiiai iiaeoiaeia
OIAOI i naeueaaaei?nueeiai o?yaeo aei ieoaiue ie?o. O ni/ii 1992 ?ieo
ie?ii oaiaee aoei aeiaaaeaii aei oniioiiai caaa?oaiiy, ui noai?eei
ni?eyoeeai oiiae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aiiai A?AIA iaieiaa?aeueiiai eo?no
?icaeoeo e?a?ie.

I?ioa, ianeiaeee ?ica’ycaiiy eeth/iaeo i?iaeai /anoi noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue
oaeeyie ianeeuenoaa e oa?i?ecio, nioeiaeueii? iai?oaeaiinoi a
noniieuenoai, ui iiaeaeuoaaei a?aceeainoue o?yaeo a?aiinoia i aieeaaei
ia iiioey?iinoue ia?oi? a e?a?ii. Iaeiae, oniioia ciaiioiy iieioeea,
caeiaoooy i?aceaeaioii E?enoiaii eaa?ia ie?ioai?oey caa?aaee eiaea?nueei
iiceoei? ia?oi? i noaee aiceoiith ea?oeith oniioiiai eiioey
i?aceaeaioueneeo aeai?ia 1994 ?ieo aeey eaiaeeaeaoa aiae ia?oi?-
Eaeueaea?iia Niey, yeee i?iaeiaaeea eiiith niaaeeiainoi o?yaeiaiai eo?no
a?aiinoia.

Nooo?ai ciiieeany iieioe/ia iaaeaoaeiaa e?a?ie — aiaeaoeany eaaaeicaoeiy
OIAOI i ia?aoai?aiiy eiai ia iieioe/io ia?oith, iicia/eaoe ia?aoiae
eiai? iiiceoei? aei iieioe/ii? ai?ioueae ia caeiiiaeaa/ie iniiai.
Aiaeiiaeaoenue aiae iaeaieiai/ieo i?i?ioe?ia i ia?aioeiieaoe aeayei nai?
i?ia?aiii iieiaeaiiy, ia?oiy ia ciiieea naiai iieioe/iiai eo?no —
caaithaaiiy aeaaee e ?icaoaeiae nioeiaeicio. Nioeiaeueii–iieioe/ia
iai?oaeaiinoue aeicaieeea eiaie iiiceoei? i?aaenoaaeoe aeueoa?iaoeao
iaieiaa?aeueiiio eo?no o?yaeo e io?eiaoe iiooaeio iiaeo?eieo aeai?oeia
cai?iiiiiaaii? ieie iiaeaei ?icaeoeo ia ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai?ao 1997
?ieo, ui aea? i?ae?aniee oain ia ia?aiiao ia i?aceaeaionueeeo aeai?ao
1999 ?ieo.

Iaii/aia a 90-oi ?iee c?ooaiiy a noniieueieo iano?iyo ia ei?enoue
iaoeiiiaeueiiai eiinainono noai?eei oaiaeaioei? aeey anoaiiaeaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueeeo aiaeiinei i ?icaeoeo iinoeoooia a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noniieuenoaa, o i?ioeani noai?aiiy yeeo acyee o/anoue ?icii no?oeoo?e
iieioe/ii? nenoaieo?yaeiai e iao?yaeiai i?aaiicaoei?, iieioe/ii ia?oi? e
noniieueii ?ooe, a?iiy oa oea?eaa — ui ia’?eoeaii ?icoe?th? iieioe/io
o/anoue a?iiaaeyi ia oeyoo iiaeeaeaiiy aeaiie?aoecaoei?. Iaae?ath/a neeo
«ieciaa aeaiie?aoiy» yaey? niaith iaeei c aeyaia iiai? oi?ie o/anoi ian
o i?eeiyooi noniieueii–iieioe/ieo ?ioaiue, ?aaeueii iaaeeaeath/enue aei
ia?iaeiaeaaeaey, a oea aiai?eoue ia ei?enoue iinooiiaiai ciioeiaiiy
aeaiie?aoi? a e?a?ii.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoei? iiaeaaaeaii iiaenoiee aeineiaeaeaiiy,
noi?ioeueiaaii iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe, aiaecia/aii i?aeoe/ii
?aeiiaiaeaoei?. Aeineiaeaeaiiy iieioe/ii? icoi?i? Naeueaaaei?o aeicaiey?
aeaeieeoe aieiaii iai?yiee oa aoaie iieioe/ii? aaiethoei? e?a?ie ca
inoaiith /aa?oue OO noieioooy. Ii-ia?oa, iieioe/ia nenoaia
naeueaaaei?nueeiai noniieuenoaa 70-o ?ieia, a iniiai yei? noiya
aienueeiai–aaoi?eoa?iee ?aaeei, caaacia/oaaea aei?noeo aaoi?eoa?io
noaaieicaoeith oa iieioeei–nioeiaeueiee eiio?ieue aea?aeaae iaae
noniieuenoaii. Aea?aeaaia eiina?aaoeaia iieioeea, ui ia aeiioneaea
o/anoi a?iiaaeyi o iieioe/iiio aeeooi e?a?ie, i?ecaaea aei aiae?eao
aeaaee aiae noniieuenoaa oa aeeeeeaea c?inoaiiy eiai?aaeeeaeueii?
ca?ieii? iiiceoei?, nieane aioo?ioiueiai eiioeieoo. Ni?iaa aeaiie?aoe/ii
iaeaooiaaii? /anoeie aienueeiaeo ?aoi?ioaaoe inioth/o iieioe/io nenoaio
iai?eeiioei 70-o ?ieia, c iaeiiai aieo, aiaee?eea iiaeeeainoue aei
iiaoaiiiai ia?aoiaeo e?a?ie aiae aienueeiaiai i?aaeiiiiy aei
oeeaieueiiai, c ae?oaiai aieo, ni?e/eieea i?enei?aiiy iieioe/ieo
i?ioeania, a iniiai yeeo eaaeaea ai?ioueaa iiae eiina?aaoeaieie,
?aoi?iinonueeeie oa ?aaiethoeieieie neeaie, ui iaaoea oa?aeoa?o
ca?ieiiai i?ioenoiyiiy oa ia?a?inea a a?iiaaeyinueeo aieio.

Ii-ae?oaa, ia?aoiae aei oeeaieueiiai i?aaeiiiy a oiiaao aieie, yea
cia/iith ii?ith aecia/aeany iaeaeii–iieioe/iei i?ioenoiyiiyi
iaaeaea?aeaa, oneeaaeithaaa ?ia’ycaiiy i?iaeai iieioe/ii? iiaea?iicaoei?
aea?aeaae. Iaeiae, iinooiiaee ?icaeoie caeiiioai?/i? aeiyeueiinoi iiney
aeoiaeo c e?ece oa caaacia/aiiy iieioe/ii? noaaieueiinoi, ioi?ieaiiy
no?oeoo? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noniieuenoaa, iiyaa eaiaeia eaaaeueii?
iieioe/ii? o/anoi ia?iaeieo ian, ?icaeoie aeaeoi?aeueieo i?ioeania noaee
iaiaoiaeieie oiiaaie ?icaeoeo aeaiie?aoi? a e?a?ii oa ni?eyee iiai?ioo
noniieueii? naiaeiiinoi ia iiooe aeinyaiaiiy ie?o. Aieea iiceoeaieo ciii
o iiaeia?iaeieo ianoaaeiao oa ?icoiiiiy aacia?niaeoeaiinoi neeiaeo
iiaeoiaeia o ?ica’ycaiii noia?a/eeaeo ieoaiue noai?eee ni?eyoeeai
ia?aaeoiiae aeey ii/aoeo ie?ieo ia?aaiai?ia.

Ii-o?ao?, ie?ia a?aaoethaaiiy ca?ieiiai eiioeieoo i?enei?eei i?ioean
iieioe/ii? iiaea?iicaoei? e?a?ie, a iniiao yei? iieeaaeaii eo?n ia
ciioeiaiiy i?aaenoaaieoeueei? iieioe/ii? nenoaie, iaoeiiiaeueia
i?eie?aiiy, aeaiie?aoecaoeith noniieuenoaa oa noai?aiiy i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae. sseinii ciiie a oa?aeoa?i iieioeei–aeiiiii/ii? nenoaie e?a?ie
ni?e/eieee ?icoe?aiiy iaeanoi eiino?oeoeaii? aca?iiaei? ?icieo
nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ieo nee e?a?ie a iioa?anao ie?o e ?icaeoeo
niia?iaioieoeoaa. Iieioe/ia noaaieueiinoue i ?icaeoie aeaiie?aoe/ieo
i?ioeania aoaeooue caeaaeaoe aaaaoi a /iio aiae caeaoiinoi i?aaey/i?
ia?oi? i?iaiaeeoe iieioeeo aiaeiiaiaeii aei iioa?ania aieueoinoi
ianaeaiiy, aeei?iieoe ianeeey e nioeiaeueio iai?oaeaiinoue, noai?eoe
oiiae aeey ?icaoaeiae i?aaiai? aea?aeaae i anoaiiaeoe a?iiaaeyinueei
aiaeiineie a noniieuenoai. A iioiio aeiaaeeo, ?acoeueoaoe
i?aceaeaionueeeo aeai?ia 1999 ?ieo iiaeooue aeyaeoeny ia ei?enoue eiaeo
nee, a oea caeaoii aeeeeeaoe iaaacia/ii nioeiaeueii–iieioe/ii
aenia?eiaioe, i?eieiaiiy aeiiiiiae c aieo aaeeeeo eaiioaeinoe/ieo
aea?aeaa, yei aenooiathoue niiini?aie aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?iaeoia,
ai?iaiaeiinoth iiaiai oeeeeo iieioe/iiai eiioeieoo.

Aeoiaey/e c aeinaiaeo iieioe/iiai ?icaeoeo Naeueaaaei?o a ia?aoiaeiee
ia?iiae iiaeia aeaeieeoe ?yae i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoeie aeey
nueiaiaeiioiuei? Oe?a?ie. Ii–ia?oa, oea noino?oueny iaoaiicio
?ica’ycaiiy eiioeieoia i ?icaeoeo ie?ioai?ieoeoaa i caiae/eoue i?i oa,
ui ?ica’ycaiiyi noia?a/eeaeo ieoaiue iiaeiai noaoe o?eaaeee ia?aaiai?iee
aeiaeia ia ei?enoue aeinyaiaiiy eiii?iiino a ii’y ie?o i ceaaiaee.
Ii–ae?oaa, o ae?ioaiii caaacia/aiiy iieioe/ii? noaaieueiinoi oa
iiaeieaiii iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioeie o nioeiaeueii–aeiiiii/iie iaeanoi,
aaaeeeai a?aoiaoaaoe noaaieicoth/ee iioiaoeiae iioaa?aoeiiieo no?oeoo?,
caa?aaeaiiy aaea inioth/eo aeiiiii/ieo ca’yceia. A caiaene ia i?aaey/eo
eieao eaaeeoue aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoue o aeai?i aienueeiaeo nithcieeia,
ciaiioiueiai eo?no, nioeiaeueii–aeiiiii/ii? iieioeee aea?aeaae
aiae?iaiaeii aei iioa?ania aieueoinoi ianaeaiiy e iaoeiiiaeueii? aaciaee
Oe?a?ie. Aiae ai?iiai aeai?o aaaaoi a /iio aoaea caeaaeaoe ia?niaeoeaa
?icaeoeo aiaeiinei aea?aeaaii? aeaaee e noniieuenoaa, i?inoaaiiy
nioeiaeueii–aeiiiii/ieo ?aoi?i, onoaeaiinoue i i?ioeaioaiiy
noniieuenoaa.

NIENIE IOAEIEAOeIE AAOI?A

1. Aeaeoi?aeueii i?ioeane a Naeueaaaei?i ca a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie (aei
i?iaeaie ia?aoiaeo aiae aaoi?eoa?ecio aei aeaiie?aoi?) // Ieoaiiy iiai?
oa iiaioiuei? inoi?i?–Ee?a: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oiiaa?neoao ii. O. Oaa/aiei,
1998.-N.160-170 (0,6 ae?.a?e.);

2. Naeueaaaei?nueea a?iiy: i?iaeaie, aieea ia noniieuenoai i
niiaaiaeiioaiiy c aeaaeieie no?oeoo?aie e?a?ie (80-oi ?iee) // Cai?iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue – Ee?a: Aienueeiai–aoiaiioa?iee iinoeooo,
Aei.5.–1998.-N.33-45 (0,6 ae?.a?e.)

3. Aei i?iaeaie aeaiie?aoecaoei? i aeaiieioa?ecaoei? o Naeueaaaei?i ia
?oaaaei 80–90–o ?ieia // Cai?iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue — Ee?a:
Aienueeiai–aoiaiioa?iee iinoeooo, 1998.-Aei.5.-N.46-56 (0,5 ae?.a?e.)

4. Naeueaaaei?: iieeoe/aneee e?ecen e ia?aai?io 1979 aiaea // Ainiee
AeiiAeO Na?iy «A» aoiaiioa?ii iaoee ? 2. — Aeiiaoeuee: AeiiAeO,
1998.–N.95-99 (0,5 ae?.a?e.)

5. Ia?oey aeanoe A?AIA e aa yaiethoeey // Iaoa?iaee aocianueei? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioei? i?ioani?nueei–aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ca iiaenoieaie
iaoeiai–aeineiaeieoeueei? ?iaioe: inoi?e/ii iaoee, iieioieiaiy –
Aeiiaoeuee, 1997.-N.268-270 (0,3 ae?.a?e.)

6. Iiuo o?aaoee?iaaiey naeueaaaei?neiai eiioeeeoa (aiaoiaiieeoe/aneee
aniaeo) — ?oeiienue aeaiiie?iaaia a AIOA Oe?aeiu, ? 1866 — Oe 96 io
09.10.96.

AIIOAOeII

Neai?oeiaa Eiaeiy Ieaeni?aia Naeueaaaei? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aiae
aeeeoaoo?e aei aeaiie?aoi? (70-90-oi ?iee OO noieiooy) — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa inoi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 07.00.02. – Ananaioiy inoi?iy – Aeiiaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao, Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoeith i?enay/aii aeineiaeaeaiith iieioe/ii? inoi?i? Caeueaaaei?o
ca inoaiith /aa?oue OO noieiooy. O aeena?oaoei? aeaeieaii aieiaii
iai?yiee e aoaie iieioe/iiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae a ia?aaee?eciaee,
e?eciaee, oa iinoeiioeieoiee ia?iiaee. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o aiaecia/aieo
o?iiieiai/ieo iaaeao aiaeaoeany yeinia ciiia aea?aeaaii? no?oeoo?e
noniieuenoaa, noaiiaeaiiy iniiaieo iieioe/ieo ia?oie, yei aecia/athoue
no/anio iieioeeo aea?aeaae. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiai iiaeoiaee e o?aeoiaea
oa?aeoa?o c o?aooaaiiyi aioo?ioiio eiioeieoiooai?thth/eo oaeoi?ia oa
aaaeeeaicoth ioeiiee ia?niaeoea iinoeiioeieoiiai ono?ith Naeueaaaei?o a
90-oi ?iee Aiaeic oi?i oa iaoiaeia caeiaooeia iaoeiiiaeueiiai i?eie?aiiy
aeicaiey? ae?iaeoe iiia?aaeii ?ioaiiy, ni?yiiaaii ia caiiaiaaiiy oa
a?aaoethaaiiy eiioeieoieo neooaoeie. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe
i?aoei aeeeaaeaii o 6 iaoeiaeo noaooyo i iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioeani aeueo o/aiaeo caeeaaeia, a oaeiae a yeinoi
inoi?iia?aoi/iiai aeaea?aea ca oaiith oeueiai aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Eeth/iai neiaa: e?eca, eiioeieo, iieioe/ia ia?oiy, aeai?e, ?aoi?ie,
ie?ia a?aaoethaaiiy, noniieuenoai.

Neai?oeiaa E.A. Naeueaaaei? a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea io aeeeoaoo?u e
aeaiie?aoee (70–90-a aiaeu OO aaea) — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 – Anaiauay enoi?ey – Aeiiaoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiiaoee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee Naeueaaaei?a
a iineaaeithth /aoaa?oue OO aaea.Aia?aua i?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea
eiiieaenii–enoi?e/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey i?iaeai nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai
?acaeoey a ?aieao ioaeaeueii acyoie no?aiu oeaio?aeueiiaia?eeaineiai
?aaeiia a ia?eiae 70-90-o aiaeia.

A ?aaioa auaeaeaiu aeaaiua iai?aaeaiey e yoaiu iieeoe/aneiai ?acaeoey
ainoaea?noaa a i?aaee?eceniue, e?eceniue e iinoeiioeeeoiue ia?eiaeu.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a iaicia/aiiuo o?iiieiae/aneeo ?aieao i?iecioei
ea/anoaaiiia eciaiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie no?oeoo?u iauanoaa, noaiiaeaiea
eaeaieiae/aneeo i?eaioe?ia, yaiethoeey iniiaiuo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee,
ii?aaeaeythueo nia?aiaiioth iieeoeeo ainoaea?noaa.

A aeenna?oaoeee aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea naeueaaaei?neie iieeoe/aneie
nenoaiu ia?eiaea aaoi?eoa?ecia, i?iaiaeece?iaai oiae ai?ueau iniiaiuo
iieeoe/aneeo nee ii aii?inai nioeeaeueii–iieeoe/aneiai ?acaeoey
Naeueaaaei?a a 70-a aiaeu. Ioia/aii, /oi ia oiia oaeoaeaiey e?ecena a
no?aia i?ienoiaeeo aeoeaecaoeey aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey,
?anoe?yaony nioeeaeueiay aaca iiiiceoeee aeeeoaoi?neiio ?aaeeio,
iac?aaaao aeoaieee eiioeeeo a iauanoaa. Yoi ai iiiaii iaoneiaeei i?e/eiu
aicieeiiaaiey, iniaaiiinoae i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee aeey ai?ueau n aeeeoaoo?ie.

A /anoiinoe i?iaiaeece?iaaia ?ieue aeaeaeaiey «iieiaeuo ioeoea?ia» a
iiaeaioiaea e i?iaaaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aai?ioa 1979 aiaea,
iieiaeeaoaai eiiaoe aeeeoaoo?a a no?aia e iaicia/eaoaai ia?aoiae io
aiaiiiai, eioi?ue en/a?iae naie aiciiaeiinoe, e aiaiii–a?aaeaeaineiio
i?aaeaieth. N nicaeaieai aiaiii–a?aaeaeaineie ooiou ioe?ueanue
aiciiaeiinoue aeey o?ainoi?iaoeee ainoaea?noaa e iauanoaa ii iooe
aeaiie?aoecaoeee e i?ia?anneaiuo nioeeaeueii–yeiiiie/aneeo
i?aia?aciaaiee.

A aeenna?oaoeee aia?aua ?anniao?eaathony iniiaiua aniaeou
naeueaaaei?neiai e?ecena n o/aoii aioo?aiieo eiioeeeoiia?acothueo
oaeoi?ia, /oi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue i?ineaaeeoue i?e/eiu, aeeiaieeo
?acaeoey, iooe auoiaea ec eiioeeeoa, a oaeaea iaicia/eoue iaiaoiaeeiua
i?aaeiinueee aeaiie?aoecaoeee. Aeaiu aiaeec e ioeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe
aiaiii–a?aaeaeaineie ooiou, iieeoeee ia?aiai a?aaeaeaineiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa a ia?eiae ?acaeoey aii?oaeaiiiai eiioeeeoa. Iiiuoee
i?iaanoe no?oeoo?iua ?aoi?iu a yeiiiieea e nioeeaeueiie iieeoeea
?anoai?eeenue a o?yneia eiioeeeoa e ia niyee ino?iou
nioeeaeueii–yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai. ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaeoaeuenoaa I.Aeoa?oa iieacuaaao, /oi iooue no?aiu e aeaiie?aoee
aiciiaeai oieueei a oneiaeyo iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?eie?aiey.

Ia iniiaaiee oaeoaeaiiiai eco/aiey eiiieaena enoi/ieeia, ioiinyueony e
aii?ino ?acaeoey ?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey a Naeueaaaei?a, ?anniio?aia
iieeoeea e no?aoaaey aii?oaeaiiie iiiiceoeee,ninoiyaoae ec aeiea eaauo
ia?oee e ?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?aaiecaoeee e i?aaeeaaaaoae aeueoa?iaoeaiue
aa?eaio ?acaeoey no?aiu. Nicaeaiiue a 1980 aiaeo OIIOI yaeeny
eiinieeaee?othuei oaeoi?ii anao eaauo nee a ai?ueaa n i?aayuei ?aaeeiii.
Iaeiaei, ai?ueaa ca aeanoue eae ni noi?iiu eaauo oae e ni noi?iiu i?aauo
nee ioiaeaeioee ia aoi?ie ieai aiciiaeiinoe iienea iooae e iieeoe/aneie
noaaeeecaoeee iauanoaa.

A aeenna?oaoeee inaauaiu oiae e ?acoeueoaou ie?iuo ia?aaiai?ia.
Iiaeienaiea ie?iiai niaeaoaiey 1992 aiaea nicaeaei aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey
aeey iiaea?iecaoeee ainoaea?noaa ii iooe aeaiie?aoee. Aiaeec oi?i e
iaoiaeia aeinoeaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?eie?aiey iicaieyao au?aaioaoue
iia?aaeathuea ?aoaiey, iai?aaeaiiua ia i?aaeioa?auaiea e o?aaoee?iaaiea
eiioeeeoiuo neooaoeee.

A aeenna?oaoeee iaicia/aiu i?iaeaiu e ioia?aaeaiu o?oaeiinoe
iieeoe/aneie iiaea?iecaoeee ia iooe iino?iaiey aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
iauanoaa. Enneaaeiaaia aeayoaeueiinoue aoi?iai a?aaeaeaineiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, aai ?ieue a ?acaeoee aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannia a
no?aia. Eoiae aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoaa a?aienoia (1989–1994) noaee
aeceoiie ea?oi/eie oniaoiiai enoiaea i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ia 1994 aiaea
aeey eaiaeeaeaoa ia?oee A?AIA, iaia?aiiiai i?iaiaeeoue iieeoeeo
i?aainoaaiiinoe ia?oeeiiai eo?na.

A ?aaioa aeai aiaeec i?ioeanna i?aia?aciaaiey OIIOI a eaaaeueioth
iieeoe/aneoth ia?oeth, noaiiaeaiey no?oeoo? a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa.
Ioia/aii, /oi aeeth/aiea o?iioa a aeaiie?aoe/aneee i?ioeann, ?acaeoea
yeaiaioia «iiaie aeaiie?aoee» yaeeenue oaeoi?aie a iieueco oe?aieaiey
iieeoe/aneie aeaiie?aoee, ?anoe?aiey o/anoey a?aaeaeai a
iauanoaaiii–iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu.

Iaoiaeieiae/aneoth iniiao aeenna?oaoeee ninoaaeyao nenoaia iao/iuo
i?eioeeiia e iaoiaeia iiciaiey: i?eioeeiu iao/iie iauaeoeaiinoe e
enoi?ecia. A ?aaioa i?eiaiyaony oi?iaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e aiaeeco
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo yaeaiee, eioi?ue iicaieyao oaeaeaoue iauaa e
ioee/ea a i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeeia e
iauanoaaiiiai no?iy a ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey
no?aiu.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey e ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou eceiaeaiu a 6 iao/iuo noaoueyo
e iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a o/aaiii i?ioeanna a aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaieyo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: e?ecen, eiioeeeo, iieeoe/aneay ia?oey, auai?u, ?aoi?iu,
ie?iia o?aaoee?iaaiea, iauanoai.

Skvortsova L.A. Salvador in conditions of transition from dictatorship
to democracy (70-90 years of XX century) – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree by speciality 07.00.02. – Universal
history. – Donetsk state university, Donetsk,1999.

The dissertation is devoted research of a political history of Salvador
in the last quarte of XX the century. In the research directions and
stages of political development of a state at the periods befor crisis,
of crisis and postconflicts are allocated. It established, that in
designated chronological frameworks qualitative change of a state
structure of society, determination of ideological orientations,
evolution of main political parties, determining modern policy of this
state. New approaches and explanation of the character and of dynamic of
the political conflict in view of internal conflicts making factors and
by importance of valuation of prospects of postconflict settlement of
Salvador in 90’s are offered. The analysis of forms and of methods of
the achievement of national reconciliation permits to forestalling
decisions, directed at prevention and settlement of conflicts
situations. The main theses and results this research are state in 6
scientific articles and can be used in an educational process in high
school esteblishments.

Key words: crisis, conflict, a political parties, elections, reforms,
peace settlement, society.

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