5

Iaoe?iiaeueiA aeaaeai?ss iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai iaoai?ee ? iaoaiaoeee ?i. ss.N.
I?aeno?eaa/a

OII’ssE IEEIEA IEEIEAEIAE*

OAeE 539.3

?ICA’ssCOAAIIss EIIOAEOIEO CAAeA* OA?OAAOEO IEANOEI ? IAIEIIIE IA AAC?
OOI*IAIEO IIAeAEAE IAOIAeII NE?I*AIIEO AEAIAIO?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 01.02.04 —

iaoai?ea aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? iaoai?ee oiieino?iieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e
?inoeoooo i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai iaoai?ee ? iaoaiaoeee
?i. ss.N. I?aeno?eaa/a IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Euea?a.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, no. iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Ia?/oe Ieoaeei Aieiaeeie?iae/,

?IIII ?i. ss.N. I?aeno?eaa/a IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo iaoai?ee oiieino?iieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Inaae/oe Aaneeue Aioiiiae/,

Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaeaaeiaiiy oa oaoiieia?? caa?thaaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iooa ?ai? Noaoaiiae/,

Euea?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?aaia O?aiea,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? iaoaiaoeee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo iaoai?ee ?i. N.I. Oeiioaiea IAI Oe?a?ie,
i. Ee?a,a?aeae?e ia/enethaaeueieo iaoiae?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_13_” _aa?aciy__ 2000 ?ieo i “_15_” aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.195.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai iaoai?ee ? iaoaiaoeee ?i. ss.N. I?aeno?eaa/a IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 79601, i.Euea?a, INI, aoe. Iaoeiaa, 3-A.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai iaoai?ee ? iaoaiaoeee ?i. ss.N. I?aeno?eaa/a IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 79601, i.Euea?a, INI, aoe. Iaoeiaa, 3-A.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ____10 ethoiai 2000 ?.____

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.?. Oaa/oe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaeii?th c oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae no/anieo
oaoiieiaie i ae?iaieoeoa ? iioaineaia canoinoaaiiy iao?aaeeoeieieo
iaoa?iaeia c iaiaoiaeieie i?iaeaiii-i?i?ioiaaieie aeanoeainoyie. Oniioe
no/anii? oiii?, oiceee oa iaoaiiee i?eaaee aei noai?aiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa?iaeia oa?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e c ?aaoeueiaaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie uiaei
i?oeiino? e niaiaa?oinoi. ?aeaoia e aaiaoeieia oaoiiea,
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i?iieneia? oa iiaeaia?ii nii?oaee — oaeee iaiiaiee
niaeo? canoinoaaiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a. ?ic?aooiie iano/i?
caeaoiino? aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e ?c eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a
iia’ycaiee c iaiao?aei?noth iiaoaeiae aaeaeaaoieo iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae
oa aoaeoeaieo aeai?eoi?a, a oaeiae c aeei?enoaiiyi iia?oi?o
ia/enethaaeueieo cania?a. Aeey i?aeoeee iniaeeai aaaeeeaei ? aiiiiy
oaeaeei e oi/ii ioeiieoe iniiaii ia?aiao?e iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio (IAeN) aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e ye ia aoaii i?iaeooaaiiy, cie?aia,
i?e i?aeai?? eiiiiiaio?a o iaeao? oa??a, oae i i?e ?aaeueieo oiiaao
aenieoaoaoei?. Aeaia ?iaioa ii?aeio? a nia? iaoai?eo eiiiiceoe?eieo
ieanoei ? iaieiiie, iaoiae ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a (INA), a oaeiae
ia’?eoii-i???ioiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei noai?aiiy i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy.
Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue eiiieaenii ?ica’ycoaaoe aeinoaoiuei oe?ieee eean
caaea/ i?i i?aeoa?iaee eiioaeo a oiiaao ye ?aeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? oa??a,
oae ? c a?aooaaiiyi ?icoa?oaaiiy, i?ieiacoaaiiy oa ?ioeo, ui iiaea
yeinii ciiieoe iiaaaeiieo aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ia’?eoa a oeieiio, eiai
i?oei?noue oa iano/o caeaoi?noue. A?aeii? aeaa iniiai? i?aeoiaee aei
?ic?aooieo IAeN oa?oaaoeo ieanoei ? iaieiiie: 1) caiiia oa?oaaoi?
no?oeoo?e aeayeei aiiioaoe/iei iaoa?iaeii c «i?eaaaeaieie»
aeanoeainoyie; 2) aeene?aoiee ?icaeyae ie?aii eiaeiiai c oa?ia.
I/aaeaeii, ui ae?oaee i?aeo?ae ? a?eueo ?ioi?iaoe?eiei ? aaeaeaaoiei
naia a caaea/ao i?i i?aeoa?iaee eiioaeo. Iiaeaethaaiiy a?aieoei ?icaeieo
ia’?iieo oac-oa?ia iiaa?oiath, ia ye?e aecia/athoueny eiioaeoi?
iai?oaeaiiy e no?eaee ia?ai?uaiue ? iaa?oioiaaiith aeueoa?iaoeaith
oiieeo i?ii?aeieo oa??a. O aeai?e ?iaio? ia?aeaaeueiee i?aeoa?iaee
eiioaeo caaea?oueny oiiaaie oeio ??aiinoae aai ia??aiinoae ia aeiionoei?
cia/aiiy eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue ? no?eae?a ia?ai?uaiue ia iiaa?oiyo
?icae?eo. A?aieoei cii iioeiaeaeaiue iiaeooue aooe iaa?aeiieie ?
ciaoiaeyoueny a i?ioean? ?ica’yceo caaea/?. Iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo
e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e noiniaii ?ic?aooieo oa?oaaoeo eiiiiceo?a, aeaiee
eean caaea/ i?i IAeN oa?oaaoeo ieanoei ? iaieiiie iaeaaeeoue aei
i?aeoe/ii cia/eieo, aea iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaieo ? iio?aao?,
cie?aia, ?ic?iaee iiaeo, a iaai?e i??? oi?aa?naeueieo i?aeoiae?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aea?aiee iai?yi aeine?aeaeaiue
a?aeiia?aea? iaoeia?e oaiaoeoe? a?aeae?eo iaoai?ee oiieino?iieo
aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e ?IIII IAIO, aea aeeiiaia aeena?oaoe?y, a naia,
ia? o?niee ca’ycie c aea?aeaaieie iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie «?ic?iaea
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio oa?oaaoeo
iaiaeii??aeieo no?oeoo? ia aac? iiaeaeae aeuiai ii?yaeeo c o?aooaaiiyi
no?oeoo?ii? iioeiaeaeaiino?» (?,1993-?V,1997) ? «Noai?aiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo
iiaeaeae oa oai?aoeei-aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeaoi?iaoeaiino? ? i?oeiino? eiino?oeoe?e c eiiiiceo?a c a?aooaaiiyi
aieeao oa?iiiaoai?/ieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a» (?,1998-?V,2002).

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea aeinoaoiuei oi?aa?naeueieo /enaeueieo iaoiae?a
?ic?aooieo oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo? i?e aeene?aoiiio ?icaeyae? oa??a ia iniia?
INA c a?aooaaiiyi ia?aeaaeueiiai i?aeoaciiai eiioaeoo, ?o oanooaaiiy ?
?ica’ycie i?eeeaaeieo caaea/. Iinoaaeaia iaoa ia?aaeaa/a?: 1) aeyaeaiiy
ni?eueieo iciae oa iniaeeainoae ??ciiiai?oieo iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae
oa?oaaoeo ieanoei ? iaieiiie; 2) aa??aoe?eio iinoaiiaeo ci?oaieo
a?aie/ieo caaea/ aeey oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo? ye iniiao iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo
aeaiaio?a; 3) ?ic?iaeo aoaeoeaieo aei/ieo oa ?oa?aoe?eieo iaoiae?a aeey
iiooeo aeno?aioio io?eioaaieo eaaae?aoe/ieo ooieoe?iiae?a; 4)
?ica’ycoaaiiy iecee oanoiaeo caaea/ ? aecia/aiiy i?aeoa?iaeo eiioaeoieo
iai?oaeaiue ye i?e ?aeaaeueiiio eiioaeo?, oae ? i?e iayaiino?
iioeiaeaeaiue; 5) /enaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio oa?oaaoeo ieanoei ? iaieiiie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a: 1) iinoaiiaoe? aa??aoe?eii? caaea/? oa
iiaoaeia? ?ic?aooieiaeo noai aeey oa?oaaoeo ieanoei ? iaieiiie a ?aieao
ooi/iaieo iiaeaeae c a?aooaaiiyi ia?aeaaeueiiai i?aeoa?iaiai eiioaeoo,
iiia?a/ieo cnoa?a oa iaoeniaiiy; 2) aeiaaaeaii? oai?aie i?i n?aeeiao
oi/eo iiaoaeiaaiiai ooieoe?iiaea, ?nioaaiiy oa ?aeeiino? ?ica’yceo aeey
??cieo oiia i?aeoa?iaiai eiioaeoo (i?ieiacoaaiiy, ?icoa?oaaiiy oa ?i.);
3)  ?aae?caoe?? ci?oaiiai iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a a oi?i?
ia?ai?uaiue – eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue ?c canoinoaaiiyi
ia’?eoii-i???ioiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aeey eiioaeoieo caaea/ oa?oaaoeo
ieanoei ? iaieiiie; 4) ?ic?iaoe? ?oa?aoe?eiiai aeai?eoio iiooeo
aeno?aioio ooieoe?iiaea i?e iaiaaeaiiyo ia eiioaeoi? iai?oaeaiiy ?
no?eaee ia?ai?uaiue; 5)  aiae?c? aieeao iioeiaeaeaiue ia eiioaeoi?
iai?oaeaiiy a ieanoei? i?e oeee?iae?e/iiio caei? a ?aieao
m,n-ai?ieneiaoe??; 6)  /enaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?aeoa?iaeo eiioaeoieo
iai?oaeaiue o caaea/ao caeio eaaae?aoieo a ieai? aeai- e o?eoa?iaeo
ieanoei oa oeee?iae?e/ieo iaiaeae.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue oa aeinoia??i?noue iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a aeieeaa? c
ei?aeoiino? e no?iaino? iaoaiaoe/ieo iinoaiiaie caaea/, aeiaaaeaieo
oai?ai ?nioaaiiy oa ?aeeiino? ?ica’yce?a, aeei?enoaiiy ai?iaiaaieo aeey
ieanoei ? iaieiiie i?ioeaaeo? iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a oa ii??aiyiiy
a /anoeiaeo aeiaaeeao c a?aeiieie aiae?oe/ieie ?acoeueoaoaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe iieyaa? a iiaoaeia? oa
?aae?caoe?? eiioeaioe?? ia’?eoii-i???ioiaaiiai INA ye iiooaeiiai
/enaeueiiai iaoiaeo aeey ?iaeaia?ii? ioe?iee eiioaeoii? aca?iiae??
aeaiaio?a oa?oaaoeo eiino?oeoe?e. ?ic?iaeai? i?ia?aie, eeane ? iaoiaee
?ic?aooieo iiaeooue neoaeeoe i?ioioeiii i?ioan?eiiai (eiia?oe?eiiai)
i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo?.
Io?eiai? a aeena?oaoe?? /enaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe canoiniai? aeey ioe?iee
eiioaeoii? aei?noeino? oa?oaaoeo ieanoei ? iaieiiie, a oaeiae ye
iaoiaee/i? i?eeeaaee aeey ?ic?aooie?a a?eueo neeaaeieo caaea/.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. An? ?acoeueoaoe, ui noinothoueny iniiaiiai
ci?noo aeena?oaoe??, io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. A ioae?eaoe?yo
(ca?aeii c? nieneii a e?ioe? aeaiiai aaoi?aoa?aoo), ye? iaienai? a
ni?aaaoi?noa?, iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a neeaaea?: [1] —
aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e ooieoe?iiaea caaea/?; [3] — ?ic?iaea a?ae?ioaee
eean?a a?aooaaiiy cii ia?aeaaeueiiai eiioaeoo; [4] — /anoeiai ?ic?iaea ?
iaa?oiooaaiiy aa??aoe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo, oai?aia aeai?noino?; [5] —
iiaoaeiaa ?ic?aooieiaeo noai aeey oa?oaaoeo oeee?iae?e/ieo iaieiiie; [7]
— aeine?aeaeaiiy aeayeeo aniaeo?a iinoaiiaee caaea/ aeey oa?oaaoeo
no?oeoo? oa ?ic?iaea oaee-aei/iiai aeai?eoio ?ica’ycoaaiiy nenoai
e?i?eieo aeaaa?a?/ieo ??aiyiue, io?eioaaieo i?e canoinoaaii? ci?oaiiai
iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a. Aeey oeeo ?ia?o caeiaoaa/ai aeeiiaia
iniiaia /anoeia i?ia?aiii? ?aae?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaii /enaeueiee
?ic?aooiie iinoaaeaieo caaea/, a oaeiae acyoa o/anoue a ia?iaoe? oa
aiae?c? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue,
aeeeaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeeny ia VIII I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? ii iaoai?oe? eiiiiceoieo iaoa??ae?a (?eaa, 1993),
??? I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Iaeeane/i? i?iaeaie oai??? oiieino?iieo
aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e oa o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iaoai?ee eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a” (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1995), ia I?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo “No/ani? i?iaeaie iaoai?ee ? iaoaiaoeee” e “?ic?iaea oa
canoinoaaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a o iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo”
(Euea?a, 1998) , VI Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Canoinoaaiiy
ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee, iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoiae?a o iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo” (Euea?a, 1999). ?iaioa a oe?eiio
aeiiia?aeaeany e iaaiai?thaaeany ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao a?aeae?eo
iaoai?ee oiieino?iieo aeaiaio?a eiinooeoe?e oa i?iaeaiiiio nai?ia??
«Iaoai?ea aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea» i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
/eaia-ei?aniiiaeaioa IAI Oe?a?ie ss.E. Ao?aea oa cano. aee?aeoi?a c
iaoeiai? ?iaioe I.?. Oaa/oea a ?inoeooo? i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai iaoai?ee ?
iaoaiaoeee ?i. ss.N. I?aeno?eaa/a IAI Oe?a?ie.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 5 noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao
oa a 2 iaoa??aeao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?ii aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeeth/ath/e oaiaoe/iee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoeo. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe 119 noi??iie
oaenoo, a oiio /ene? 37 iaethie?a, 3 oaaeeoei. Nienie oeeoiaaii?
e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 163 aeaea?aea ? caeia? 15 noi??iie, aeiaeaoie A —
5 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaiae?ciaaii
noai i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? e niaoeeo?eo caaea/ i?i i?aeoa?iaee eiioaeo a
eiiiiceoe?eieo ieanoeiao oa iaieiieao, aecia/aii iaoo ?iaioe,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoeiao iiaecio e iaa?oioiaaii aeinoia??i?noue iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoao?a oa ?o i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Aeacaii iniaenoee aianie
caeiaoaa/a a ioae?eaoe?yo oa ??aaiue ai?iaaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a
aeena?oaoe??.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Oaeyae e?oa?aoo?e» iaaiai?ththoueny ioae?eaoe??,
i?enay/ai? iiaoaeia? iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ? ?ic?aooieo oa?oaaoeo
ieanoei oa iaieiiie, na?aae yeeo a?aei?/aii ooiaeaiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe
N.A. Aiaa?oeoiyia, A.A. Aieio?ia, A.A. Aan?eue?aa, A.?. A?eaiethea,
ss.I. A?eai?aiea, I.I. Aocy,  TH.I. Iia?/eiaa, A.A. Inaae/oea,
A.E. Iaeaoa, A.A. I?neoiiaa, I.I. ?anneaciaa, A.I. Oaioaea,
A.A. Oaoa?na, E.I. Oi?iooia. Iaea?eueo iiaiee aiae?c a ?aieao oai???
i?oaeiino? ? ia?aoe?iiaeueiei /a?ac a?ii?caee?noue iiaeae?, ui iio?aao?
cia/ieo ia/enethaaeueieo ?ano?n?a, a i?eaaaeaiiy iaeaoo oa??a aei
iiiioa?o c aeayeeie ona?aaeiaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ia caaaeaee iieno?
iniaeeaino? iiaaae?iee eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a (iai?eeeaae,
iiaeaoeeaino? ia cnoa) oa ia a?aoiao? iaoai?ci?a i?aeoa?iaiai eiioaeoo.
Iaa?oioiaaii ia?aaaao aeene?aoiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?icaeyaeo oa??a a
caaea/ao, ui a?aoiaothoue eiino?oeoeaio ia?aaoey?i?noue ii oiauei?
oa?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e e iioeiaeaeaiiy ia a?aieoe? ?icae?eo oa??a
(iai?ieea?, i?ieiacoaaiiy oiui). Iniiaio oaaao aeine?aeaeaiiy
cina?aaeaeaii ia ooi/iaieo oai??yo ieanoei ? iaieiiie a ?aieao
m,n-ai?ieneiaoe??, io?eiaieo ?iceeaaeii on?o eiiiiiaio IAeN ie?aieo
i?oio?iiieo oa??a a ?yaee ca iie?iiiaie Eaaeaiae?a a?ae eii?aeeiaoe,
ca’ycaii? c oiaueiith, ? oi/iiio caaeiaieaii? oiia a iai?oaeaiiyo ia
eeoeueiaeo iiaa?oiyo oa?o. ?icaeoeo ne?i/aiii-aeaiaioiiai aiae?co
ieanoei ? iaieiiie, ui ? iniiaith aeaii? aeena?oaoe??, i?enay/aia cia/ia
e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e, cie?aia ne?ae a?aei?oeoe ?iaioe
ss.I. A?eai?aiea ? A.O. Aaneeaiea, ?.A. ??ea?aena, E.I. ?ic?ia,
ss.A. Naaoee, N.I. Naoa?iaa, A.A. Oeiea?aiea, a na?aae a/aieo aeaeaeiai
ca?oa?aeaey — Ae?iina (B.M. Irons), A?a???na (J.H. Argiris), Aaaooeo (I.
Babuska), Aan?aeco (E. Washizu), Aaeeaaa?a (R.H. Gallagher), Caieaae/a
(O.C. Zienkiewicz), Iaeaia (J.T. Oden), I?aia (T.H.H. Pian), Ni?eea?a
(R.L. Spilker), No?aiaa (G. Strang), Nuey?ea (P.G. Carlet), O?ena
(G.J. Fix). INA a ia?ai?uaiiyo, ci?oai? oa a?a?eaei? eiai oi?ie e
a?aeiia?aei? aa??aoe?ei? i?eioeeie oe?iei aena?oeai? a e?oa?aoo??, a
c?inoaiiy ca inoaii? ?iee a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo ioae?eaoe?e
noiniaii eiioaeoieo caaea/ c a?aooaaiiyi iioeiaeaeaiue no?oeoo?e,
iniaeeainoae /enaeueii? oa i?ia?aiii? ?aae?caoe?? na?ae/eoue i?i
ia?niaeoeai?noue aeine?aeaeaiue a oeueiio iai?yieo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo? ?
canoinoaaiiy INA» nenoaiaoeciaai? a?aeii? aeo?aei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey
oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo? i?e aeene?aoiiio ?icaeyae? oa??a, oeiia? ca
a?ii?caee?noth ? i?eeiyoeie a?iioacaie, i?aeoe/iei canoinoaaiiyi ?
??aiai no?oeoo?iiai aiae?co, i?eaaaeaii ?o aaeoi?ii-iao?e/iee
aea?aaeaio, ui c?o/ii aeey iiaeaeueoi? iiaoaeiae a?aeiia?aeieo noai INA.
Aeyaeaii oi?aa?naeuei? noi?iie oa iniaeeaino? iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ?
/enaeueieo aeai?eoi?a, ui ? iaiao?aeiei aeey aecia/aiiy ia o?eueee
ia?aiao??a IAeN oa?oaaoeo eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a, aea e aeey
a?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae aeaoi?ioaaiiy oa yaeu ia a?aieoeyo ?icae?eo
oa??a aeey ia’?eo?a aeia?eueii? aaiiao???, ?aaoey?ii? ? ia?aaoey?ii?
no?oeoo?e ( ?en. 1a ? 1a a?aeiia?aeii), i?e oe?ieiio niaeo?? o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae oa ciai?oi?o iaaaioaaeaiue.

?en. 1.

Coai i?aeoa?iai? aca?iiae?? i?iiiio?oueny iienoaaoe aaeoi?ii eiioaeoieo
iai?oaeaiue wmetafile8?
??B???A????????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@???&? ?yyyy??x????AyyyYyyy???e?? ???&? ?MathType??`????
??????7r???uath??????A ?aieao aeei?enoaii? aeua iiaeae? oeio
no?eaea i?e aeene?aoiiio ?icaeyae? oa??a i?eaaaeaii ye aaciaee
iiaeeo?eiaaiee aa??aoe?eiee i?eioeei Eaa?aiaea

(1)

ui ia? ??aiyiiyie Aeea?a ??aiyiiy ??aiiaaae oai??? i?oaeiino? a
ia?ai?uaiiyo (i?e aeeiiaii? aaiiao?e/ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue oa
ocaaaeueiaiiai caeiio Aoea) e oiiaaie Aeea?a — a?aie/i? oiiae ia
eeoeueiaeo iiaa?oiyo ? oi?oeyo oa??a. E?iaiaoe/i? oiiae i?aeoa?iaiai
eiioaeoo

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A ???&??yyyy?????Ay!y`a ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????a?aoiaai? a (1) iaoiaeii iiiaeiee?a
Eaa?aiaea i?e oi/iiio aeeiiaii? oiia neeiaiai eiioaeoo:

wmetafile8? ?? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A
???&??yyyy?????Ay!yaa ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????A
?aieao m,n-ai?ieneiaoe?? ni?aa?aeiioaiue oai??? i?oaeiino? aeaii??iee
ooieoe?iiae aeey oa?oaaoeo ieanoei ? iaieiiie o oa?i?iao neaey?ieo
aeiaooe?a caieoaoueny oae:

(4)

aea;,;,wmetafile8?
??’????????????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
AA???&? ?yyyy??x????Ayyy§yyy???g?? ???&? ?MathType??`?
???u????????»????-?????d?U???d????
???????F???u@th?????? , (5)

ui aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe iaoeniaiiy e iayai?noue i?ii?aeiiai oa?o.

Ia iniia? ooieoe?iiaea (4) ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea iiaoaeiae ?ic?aooieiaeo
noai ci?oaiiai iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a a ia?ai?uaiiyo na?aaeeiieo
iiaa?oiiue–eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiiyo aeey 1,2- ? 1,0-ai?ieneiaoe??. Aiia
a?oioo?oueny ia no?oeoo?iiio aiae?c? e oaaee/iiio cia?aaeaii?
eaaae?aoe/ieo ? a?e?i?eieo oi?i ooieoe?iiaea (4), oa ia?aoai?aiiyo ia
iniia? oi?ioee A??ia, aeiaaaeaii? aea?aaeaioiino? aa??aoe?eii? oa
aeeoa?aioe?aeueii? iinoaiiaie ci?oaieo e?aeiaeo caaea/.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy ni?eueieo ?en aeene?aoiiai i?aeoiaeo a ?aieao
m,n-ai?ieneiaoe?? oa i?aeoiaeo ia iniia? a?iioace i?i e?i?eiee ?iciiae?e
ia?ai?uaiue ii oiauei? oa?o ?icaeyiooi oanoeiiaeaeueio oai??th cnoaieo
iaieiiie, aeey yei? i?eeiyoi:

wmetafile8? ??P?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ay°y? ???&?
?MathType??`????&??yyyy??????????????????? E? aai , (6)

aea wmetafile8? ??A???‰????????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  ????&? ?yyyy??x????Ayyy1/4yyy@???? ???&?
?MathType??p???? ??????ae•???u y????Aeey an?o oei?a iiaeaeae
oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo? i?e aeene?aoiiio ?icaeyae? oa??a oa?aeoa?iith ?
aei/ia no?oeoo?a iia?aoi?a caaea/? (1) aai (4), a ioaea, e nenoaie
e?i?eieo aeaaa?a?/ieo ??aiyiue (NEA?) aeey aeene?aoiiai aiaeiaa:

, (7)

, (8)

i?e/iio aeey m,n-ai?ieneiaoe?? aeie wmetafile8? ??y????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ay°ya ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????Iniaeea?noue ci?oaiiai INA — a iacaeaaei?e
ne?i/aiii-aeaiaioi?e ai?ieneiaoe?? ye ia?ai?uaiue, oae ? eiioaeoieo
iai?oaeaiue, ui aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy inoaii?o
(a?aeiaaea? iio?aaa /enaeueiiai aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy) ? iiaoaeoaaoe
iaeii??aeiee ia/enethaaeueiee i?ioean.

?icae?e 3 «Iniiae ci?oaiiai INA a ia?ai?uaiiyo–eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiiyo»
noino?oueny ?ic?iaee iiai? oi?ie INA. Nii/aoeo aena?oeai? iaoaiaoe/i?
aniaeoe aa??aoe?eii? iinoaiiaee caaea/? i?i i?aeoa?iaee eiioaeo. Aeey
no?oeoo?e a oe?eiio, yea neeaaea?oueny c N oa??a, aaaaeaii i?inoi?e
ooieoe?e ia?ai?uaiue, ?ioaa?iaaieo c eaaae?aoii ?acii c? nai?th ia?oith
iio?aeiith wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
  ???&??yyyy?????Ay!y`A ???&? ?MathType??P????u@th?????? ,
(9)

yea caaea? iiiaeeio ooieoe?e c? ne?i/aiieie ?ic?eaaie ia eiioaeoieo
iiaa?oiyo. Iien iiiaeeie K iineoue oi?iaeueiee oa?aeoa?, ine?eueee
no?eaee wmetafile8? ??@???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????Ay!y@a ???&? ?MathType?? ????u@th?????? ,
(10)

ui ? i?aei?inoi?ii V, ? oiio a?i ? a?eueo “c?o/iei” aeey canoinoaaiiy
INA, i?ae iiiaeeia wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
Aa???&??yyyy?????Ay?y 

aea, i?e aeeiiaii? oiia i?aeoa?iaiai eiioaeoo (3) aeey ia?ai?uaiue, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue ae?eniiio IAeN ? iaeaaeaoue aeiionoei?e iiiaeei?
wmetafile8? ??¶????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A`???&??yyyy?????Ay?y  (11)

Ae?oaa noia a (11) ia aieeaa? ia i?i?ioi ooieoe?iiaea wmetafile8?
??AE???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  A???&??yyyy?????Ay?y?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u@th?????? (12)

yeee ?icaeyiooi ia i?aei?inoi?? wmetafile8? ?? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ay°yA ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????
wmetafile8? ??th???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A 
???&??yyyy?????Ay!y` a ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????Oiio
caaea/? (11) ? (13) aea?aaeaioi? a oiio nain?, ui aeathoue iaeei ? oie
naiee ?ica’ycie aeey ia?ai?uaiue ie?aieo oa??a. Ii??aithth/e (11) ?
(12), eaaei aa/eoe, ui oi?iaeueii aaaaeai? i?e iiaoaeia? wmetafile8?
??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @????&??yyyy?????Ay!y@a ???&? ?MathType??
????u@th??????Oai?aia (aeai?noino?). ?ica’ycie (13)—ae?eni?
ia?ai?uaiiy wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
``???&??yyyy?????Ay0?  (14)

? iaaiaee, yeui n?aeeiaa oi/ea wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@`???&??yyyy?????Ay!y a ???&? ?MathType?? ????u@th??????
(15)

oi wmetafile8? ??c????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
????&??yyyy?????Ay?y@? ???&?
?MathType??P????u@th??????Aeiaaaeaiiy oai?aie i?iaaaeaii ii aiaeia??,
ye aeey ooieoe?iiaea c iaiaaeaiiyie.

Aeiaaaeaii ?nioaaiiy oa ?aeei?noue e?aeiai? caaea/? aeey oa?oaaoi?
no?oeoo?e c iaioeueiaith ieiuath ?aeaaeueiiai i?aeoa?iaiai eiioaeoo oa
i?e oi/eiaiio eiioaeo? a nain? neaaei? ca?aeiino?. Aeey oeueiai
aeei?enoaii a?aeii? ?acoeueoaoe i?i ?nioaaiiy oa ?aeei?noue ?ica’yceo
aeey iaeiiai oa?o a ?aieao oai??? i?oaeiino?, aai c ocaaaeueiaiiyi
iiiyooy ne?aeo ca?aeii c oi?ioeith (5) aeey ooi/iaieo iiaeaeae iaieiiie
? ieanoei.

Aeae? a aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaiee aei/iee aeai?eoi ?ica’ycoaaiiy NEA?
aeaeyaeo (8), ui a?oioo?oueny ia aneiao?e/i?e noai? oaeoi?ecaoe??
iao?eoe? c aea?aaiaeaeiei aii?yaeeoaaiiyi

. (16)

Ia eiai iniia? aoaeo?oueny iie?ieiaee ?oa?aoe?eiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy cii
ia?aeaaeueiiai eiioaeoo:

1. ?i?oe?ae?caoe?y. Iieeanoe iiia? ?oa?aoe?? wmetafile8?
??O???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ay?yA2. I?e caaeaieo wmetafile8?
?? ??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  ????&??yyyy?????Ay?y@T ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th?????? . (17)

Ciaeaeai? aaee/eie wmetafile8? ??1???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`A???&??yyyy?????Ay°y? ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????3.
I?iaeooaaiiy 1. sseui wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ay°y@ ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????4.
Aeiaeaoeiaee e?eoa??e caaa?oaiiy ?oa?aoe?e. sseui

wmetafile8? ??a????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ay°yA ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????oiaoi aeinyaiooi iaeneioio ?oa?aoe?e
wmetafile8? ??????|????????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `@???&? ?yyyy??x????Ayyy·yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`???? ?????????uath??????5. I?iaeooaaiiy 2.
Iiaoaeoaaoe iiiioiiiee iaia?a?aiee iia?aoi?

wmetafile8? ??)???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `A
???&??yyyy?????Ay°y?  ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????yeee
aa?aioo? ca?aei?noue iine?aeiaiino? wmetafile8? ??®????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
a???&??yyyy?????Ay?y O ???&? ?MathType?? ????u@th?????? .

sseui wmetafile8? ??…???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ay!y ! ???&? ?MathType???????u@th??????6.
E?iaoeue. (Aai ?iaioa iinoi?ioeani?a).

Iia?aoi? wmetafile8? ??!???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ay°y? ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????

Ca?aene caaaeueia oi?ioea iia?aoi?a wmetafile8? ??!???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ay°y? ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th?????? .

Oiae? ia aeiionoeieo wmetafile8? ??U????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ay!yAa ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th?????? .

Aeey ianooiii? ?oa?aoe?? a?cueiaii

, .

I?e??no eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue i?ae aeaiia ?oa?aoe?yie aoaea

. (19)

Aeey ca?aeiino? ?oa?aoe?eiiai i?ioeano aeinoaoiuei ca?aeiino? eiioaeoieo
iai?oaeaiue, ine?eueee wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
A???&??yyyy?????Ay®y?I ???&? ?MathType??
????u@th??????Aeae? ?icaeyaeathoueny aniaeoe ia’?eoiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
i?ia?aiii? ?aae?caoe?? ci?oaiiai INA, iiaoaeiaaii a?ae?ioaeo eean?a aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?oaaoino? (SOKIL), aeeth/ath/e caaaeueio i?aai?caoeith
ia/eneaiue, aoaeoeai? iaoai?cie ia?iaee ? i?aaenoaaeaiiy ao?aeieo
aeaieo, iiaeeea?noue aaeaioaoe?? e cai?ie ie?aieo iiaeoe?a aeey ??cieo
iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ? aa??aio?a iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a.

?icae?e 4 «*enaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo?» neeaaea?oueny c
aeaio ioieo?a, aea i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaoe?? oa canoinoaaiiy
?icaeyiooeo iiaeaeae ? cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiae?a. Eia?/iee ?yae caaea/
aea?aii a ii?yaeeo ia?inoaiiy neeaaeiino? oae, uia ?acoeueoaoe
iiia?aaeiueiai e?ieo neoaeeee oanoii aeey ianooiiiai.

O ioieo? 4.1, ui neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio i?aeioieo?a, aeine?aeaeaii
oeee?iae?e/i?e caei aeai- ? o?eoa?iaeo ieanoei a ?aieao ??cieo iiaeaeae:
m,n-ai?ieneiaoe??, c e?i?eiei ?iciiae?eii ia?ai?uaiue ii oiauei? oa?o, c
a?aooaaiiyi i?ii?aeiiai oa?o, a oaeiae ieinei? oai??? i?oaeiino?.
Cie?aia, iiaoaeiaaii ?ic?aooieia? noaie aeey 1,0- ? 1,2-ai?ieneiaoe??,
aeine?aeaeaii aieea aeaeo iaaaioaaeaiiy (?iciiae?eaiiai – ?I aai
cina?aaeaeaiiai – CI) ? a?aie/ieo oiia (eiinieueia cauaieaiiy aai e?a?
oa?i??ii iia?o?) ia i?iaeie ? eiioaeoi? iai?oaeaiiy.

Ia ?en. 2 i?eaaaeaii noaio iaaaioaaeaiiy, ii??aiyeuei? a?ao?ee i?iaei?a
wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
` ???&??yyyy?????Ay0?`

?en. 2.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aeaioa?iai? ieanoei c oeaio?aeueiei ?ic??cii
ieaeiueiai oa?o ? ia?inoath/ith (aea o?eniaaiith) ciiith ?icoa?oaaiiy
aeyaeaii nooo?aee aieea aaee/eie iioeiaeaeaiiy wmetafile8?
??^???w????????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a@???&? ?yyyy??x????Ayyy*yyy???·?? ???&? ?MathType??0????
???????Z???u@th??????Ia ?en. 4 i?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?ica’yceo
iae?i?eii? caaea/? (noaia iaaaioaaeaiiy aiaeia?/ia aei i?eaaaeaii? ia
?en.2) c iaia?aae iaa?aeiieie i?ee?aeiaeie ciiaie ieanoe/iiai
i?ieiacoaaiiy wmetafile8? ??U???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????Ay!y@! ???&? ?MathType???????u@th??????

?en. 3.

?en. 4.

Oanooaaiiy noai INA a ?aieao a?iioace e?i?eiiai ?iciiae?eo, oai???
i?oaeiino? ? c a?aooaaiiyi oiieiai i?ioa?eo iieacaee oi?ioee ca?a
/enaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a i?ae niaith ? c ?icaeyiooith aeua
m,n-ai?ieneiaoe??th a caaea/? caeio oa?i??ii-iia?oi? aeaioa?iai?
ieanoeie.

O ioieo? 4.2 ?icaeyiooi iecea caaea/ i?i aecia/aiiy eiioaeoieo
iai?oaeaiue a eaaae?aoi?e oa?oaao?e ieanoei?, on? noi?iie yei? oa?i??ii
iia?o?, ? a iieia?e oa?oaao?e oeee?iae?e/i?e iaiae? (c a?eueieie
e?eaie?i?eieie ? oa?i??ii iia?oeie i?yiie?i?eieie noi?iiaie) i?e caei?
??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiei ii?iaeueiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi wmetafile8?
??y??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A ???&??yyyy?????Ay!yaa ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????

?en.5.

Oa?aeoa? eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue (aeioe/ieo wmetafile8?
??u???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? AA???&??yyyy?????Ay!y?a ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????

?en. 6.

?icaeyiooi o?eoa?ia? ieanoeie ianeiao?e/ii? no?oeoo?e c oiaueiaie oa??a
wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@a???&??yyyy?????Ay!y a ???&? ?MathType?? ????u@th??????

?en.7.

?en.8.

Aeyaeaii, ui ??aaiue ii?iaeueieo iai?oaeaiue wmetafile8?
??C??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A`???&??yyyy?????Ay!y a ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????Aeine?aeaeaii caaea/? caeio aeey N-oa?iai?
eaaae?aoii? a ieai? oeee?iae?e/ii? iaieiiee c a?aooaaiiyi caeaaeiino?
?aae?ona oa?o a?ae wmetafile8? ??

AENIIAEE

A aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaia oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy ? iiaa ae??oaiiy
iaoeiaiai caaaeaiiy —aecia/aiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
iiaeaoeeaeo aeaoi?iaoe?yi o?ainaa?naeueiiai cnoao ? iiia?a/iiai
iaoeniaiiy oa?oaaoeo ieanoei ? iaieiiie c a?aooaaiiyi ia?aeaaeueiiai
i?aeoa?iaiai eiioaeoo, ui iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo
aeaiaio?a o ci?oai?e oi?i? a?aeiinii ocaaaeueiaieo ia?ai?uaiue ?
eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey /enaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio eiiiiceoe?eieo no?oeoo? c
iioeiaeaeaiiyie.

Aei aieiaieo iaoeiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? ne?ae
a?aeianoe ianooiia:

·  i?e aeene?aoiiio ?icaeyae? oa??a c a?aooaaiiyi aeanoeainoae ooi/iaieo
iiaeaeae noi?ioeueiaaia aa??aoe?eia iinoaiiaea caaea/ aecia/aiiy
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio oa?oaaoeo ieanoei ? iaieiiie i?e
iayaiino? ia?aeaaeueiiai i?aeoa?iaiai eiioaeoo;

·  ?ic?iaeaii oa iaa?oioiaaii ci?oaio oi?io iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a
noiniaii ia?ai?uaiue eiaeiiai oa?o ? i?aeoa?iaeo eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue,
ui aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy inoaii?o;

·  ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? ci?oaii? oi?ie iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a oa
ia’?eoii-i???ioiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?ia?aiii? ?aae?caoe?? iiaoaeiaai?
niaoe?aeuei? aeai?eoie ciaoiaeaeaiiy /enaeueieo ?ica’yce?a eiioaeoieo
caaea/ aeey oa?oaaoeo ieanoei ? iaieiiie, ui a?oioothoueny ia aei/iiio
cia?aaeaii? iao?eoe? nenoaie e?i?eieo aeaaa?a?/ieo ??aiyiue oa
?oa?aoe?eiiio iaoiae? iie?ieiaiai a?aeooeaiiy cii ia?aeaaeueiiai
i?aeoa?iaiai eiioaeoo;

·  /enaeueiee ?ica’ycie caaea/ caeio aeai- ? o?eoa?iaeo ieanoei ?c
ciiaie ia?aeaaeueiiai i?aeoa?iaiai eiioaeoo oeio ?icoa?oaaiue aai
ieanoe/iiai i?ieiacoaaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?a?iciiae?eo eiioaeoieo
iai?oaeaiue ye iiaeeco, oae ? a naieo ciiao iioeiaeaeaiue;

·  io?eiaii oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo i?aeoa?iaeo eiioaeoieo iai?oaeaiue a
aeai- ? o?eoa?iaeo eaaae?aoieo ieanoeiao ? oeee?iae?e/ieo iaiaeyo i?e
iiia?a/iiio caei? aiane?aeie ae?? ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai ii?iaeueiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy oa i?e ??ciiiai?oieo oiiaao cae??ieaiiy ie?aieo oa??a, ui
aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe aeieeiaiiy aeaii??ieo cii ii?ooaiiy ?aeaaeueiiai
i?aeoa?iaiai eiioaeoo.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Iaeao A.E., Oiiye I.I. Eiioaeoiay i?iaeaia aeey neienouo eiiiiceoia
i?e iaeeiaeiuo iaaeoaciuo acaeiiaeaenoaeyo // Iaoaieea eiiiiceoiuo
iaoa?eaeia.-1994. — ? 1. — C.105-111.

2. Oii’ye I.I. Ia’?eoii-i???ioiaaiee iaoiae ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a a
caaea/ao aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo iie?a oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo? // A?niee
Aea?ae. oi-oo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. — 1998. — ? 337. — N 407 — 410.

3. Ia?/oe I.A., Oii’ye I.I., *ia?oe I.I. Eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy
oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo? c iioeiaeaeaiiyie ia a?aieoeyo ?icae?eo oac // A?ni.
Euea?a. oi-oo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea ”. — 1998. — ? 349. — N. 99 —
105.

4. Ia?/oe I.A., Oii’ye I.I. Aa??aoe?eiee i?aeo?ae a caaea/? i?i
ia?aeaaeueiee i?aeoa?iaee eiioaeo // A?ni. Euea?a. oi-oo. Na?.
iao.-iao., 1999, aei. 52. — N. 96 — 107.

5. Ia?/oe I., Iaeio A., Oii’ye I. ?ic?aooieiaa noaia iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo
aeaiaio?a aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio oa?oaaoeo
oeee?iae?e/ieo iaieiiie // Iaoeiiciaanoai. — 1999. — ? 3. — N. 3 — 9.

6. Oii’ye I.I. *enaeueiee iaoiae ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ iaoai?ee
oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo? c i?aeoacieie iae?i?eieie aeaoaeoaie// Iaoa??aee
aeiiia?aeae ??? I?aeia?iaeiiai neiiic?oio “Iaeeane/i? i?iaeaie oai???
oiieino?iieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e oa o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iaoai?ee
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a”, O.2, ?a.-O?aie?anuee, 1995.- N. 150 — 153.

7. Ia?/oe I.A., Oii’ye I.I. Aeai?noa iinoaiiaea ? i?yiee iaoiae
?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/? i?i i?aeoa?iaee eiioaeo // Iaoa??aee I?aeia?.
iaoe. eiio. “No/ani? i?iaeaie iaoai?ee ? iaoaiaoeee”. — Euea?a. — 1998.
— N.139.

Oii’ye I.I. ?ica’ycoaaiiy eiioaeoieo caaea/ oa?oaaoeo ieanoei ? iaieiiie
ia aac? ooi/iaieo iiaeaeae iaoiaeii ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a.— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.02.04 “Iaoai?ea
aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea”. — ?inoeooo i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai iaoai?ee ?
iaoaiaoeee ?i. ss.N. I?aeno?eaa/a IAI Oe?a?ie, Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia /enaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaiith
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio oa?oaaoeo ieanoei ? iaieiiie ?c
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a. A ?aieao aeene?aoiiai ?icaeyaeo oa??a
nenoaiaoeciaaii iniiai? aa??aioe iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ? iiaoaeiaaii
a?aeiia?aei? ooieoe?iiaee aia?a?? c a?aooaaiiyi i?aeoa?iaeo
iioeiaeaeaiue. Aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? aa??aoe?eieo iinoaiiaie caaea/, ia
iniia? ci?oaii? oi?ie iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a ?ic?iaeaii
?ic?aooieia? noaie ? niaoe?aeuei? aeai?eoie iiaoaeiae /enaeueieo
?ica’yce?a, cai?iiiiiaaii ia’?eoii-i???ioiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei i?ia?aiii?
?aae?caoe??. Aiae?c io?eiaieo ?ica’yce?a iecee caaea/ caeio aeai- ?
o?eoa?iaeo ieanoei ? oeee?iae?e/ieo iaieiiie c ?aeaaeueiei oa
ia?aeaaeueiei i?aeoa?iaei eiioaeoii iieaco? ia?niaeoeai?noue aeaiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei ioe?iee eiioaeoii? i?oeiino? oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo? ia noaae??
?o i?iaeooaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aa??aoe?eia caaea/a, eiiiiceoe?ei? iaoa??aee, eiioaeoi?
iai?oaeaiiy, iaoiae ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a, ia’?eoii-i???ioiaaiee
i?aeo?ae, iioeiaeaeaiiy, oa?oaao? ieanoeie oa iaieiiee.

Oiiye I.I. ?aoaiea eiioaeoiuo caaea/ neienouo ieanoei e iaiei/ae ia aaca
ooi/iaiiuo iiaeaeae iaoiaeii eiia/iuo yeaiaioia.— ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.02.04 “Iaoaieea
aeaoi?ie?oaiiai oaa?aeiai oaea”. Einoeooo i?eeeaaeiuo i?iaeai iaoaieee e
iaoaiaoeee ei. ss.N. Iiaeno?eaa/a IAI Oe?aeiu, Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia /eneaiiiio enneaaeiaaieth
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey neienouo ieanoei e iaiei/ae ec
eiiiiceoiuo iaoa?eaeia. A ?aieao aeene?aoiiai ?anniio?aiey neiaa
nenoaiaoece?iaaii iniiaiua aa?eaiou iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae e iino?iaiu
niioaaonoaothuea ooieoeeiiaeu yia?aee n o/aoii iaaeneieiuo
iia?aaeaeaiee. Auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe aa?eaoeeiiiuo iinoaiiaie caaea/, ia
iniiaaiee niaoaiiie oi?iu iaoiaea eiia/iuo yeaiaioia ?ac?aaioaiu
?an/aoiua noaiu e niaoeeaeueiua aeai?eoiu iino?iaiey /eneaiiuo ?aoaiee,
i?aaeeiaeai iauaeoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiue iiaeoiae e i?ia?aiiiie ?aaeecaoeee.
Aiaeec iieo/aiiuo ?aoaiee ?yaea caaea/ ecaeaa aeaoo- e o?aoneieiuo
ieanoei e oeeeeiae?e/aneeo iaiei/ae n eaeaaeueiui e iaeaeaaeueiui
iaaeneieiui eiioaeoii iieacuaaao ia?niaeoeaiinoue aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea e
ioeaiea eiioaeoiie i?i/iinoe neienouo no?oeoo? ia yoaia i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aa?eaoeeiiiay caaea/a, eiiiiceoiua iaoa?eaeu,
eiioaeoiua iai?yaeaiey, iaoiae eiia/iuo yeaiaioia,
iauaeoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiue iiaeoiae, iia?aaeaeaiey, neienoua ieanoeiu e
iaiei/ee.

Khomyak M.M. Solution of Contact Problems of Layered Plates and Shells
based on Revised Models by the Finite Element Method. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the Candidate’s Degree in Physics and Mathematics by
speciality 01.02.04 — Mechanics of Solids. — Pidstryhach Institute of
Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics, L’viv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to numerical investigation of the
stress-strained state of layered plates and shells of composite
materials.

The structure of dissertation is the following: introduction, four
chapters, which include the bibliography review, conclusion, references
and an appendix.

In the introduction to the dissertation the author stresses out the
reasons of choosing the theme for dissertation, the purpose, the
innovations produced, the approbation of the researcher’s results
(publications, conferences).

The First Chapter contains the bibliography review, where the modern
stage in mechanics of the composite plates and shells, variational
problems and finite element methods are analyzed and actuality of the
interphase contact problem with damages such as delaminations and
sliding zones is emphasized.

In the Second Chapter within the framework of the discrete layers’
description the basic cases of mathematical models are systematized and
the correspondent energy functionals are given when the interlayer
damages are being taken into consideration. The nonideal interaction
assumes the jumps of the value of displacements with continuity of
stresses on interphase surfaces. The summarized principle of potential
energy by Lagrange’s multiples method for the kinematic contact
conditions is generalized. The calculatory schemes based on the
m,n-approximation method for all elasticity equations of an anisotropic
layer by series on Legendre polynoms are constructed. In this case the
displacements on interface surfaces depend on the displacement of middle
surface as well as the contact stresses. As a result the functional have
the second degree of contact stresses. Such approach is more preferable
than the models within the framework of the classic hypothesises like
the Tymoshenko’s shear theory. The mixed finite element method in the
form of generalized displacements of layers and contact stresses is
proposed.

The Third Chapter contains the theoretical results as to the development
of the solution method. The peculiarities of the statement of the
variational problem have been investigated. The saddle point theorem and
the existence of the unique solution are proved. For symmetric but not
positively-determined system of linear algebraic equations with block
structure the asymmetric scheme of factorization is constructed and on
its base the special iterative algorithm for calculation of the contact
stresses and jumps in the damage zones is proposed. The general
object-oriented approach concerning the program’s realization is
developed.

The Fourth Chapter is devoted to numerical investigation of interphase
contact. In the item 4.1 cylindrical bending of two- and three-layered
plates within the framework 1,0- or 1,2-approximations is studied. The
contact stresses within the problem of the three-point bending of
two-layered plates with the symmetric section and zone of arranging in
layers as well as in nonlinear problem for three-layered plates with
zones of plastic sliding on edges are obtained. The dependence of the
interlayered contact stresses on functional addendums and the
possibility to improve the calculatory schemes are studied. The results
are compared with data derived from the elasticity model calculation by
finite element method.

In the item 4.2 the numerical solutions for bending of the square
in-plane plate and shell by external pressure and under different cases
of hinge support for all layers or only single layer are studied. In the
last case the edge effect and zones of the positive normal contact
stresses in corner points (estrangement) are noticed. The three-layered
plates with the transversal isotropic filler and the outside base thin
layers are studied. In case the thinner layer is depressed then the
level of normal contact stresses on edges is substantially lower.

Analogous bending problems are investigated for the cylindrical shells
as well. By force of the non-symmetrical character of the problems, the
full theory was used; the dependence of radius on its ordered number in
the structure was taken into consideration. For the large radius the
results are close to the flat case (plate) which was used for testing of
the program. The general character of the stress distributions
corresponds to the plate; the band of the normal contact stresses of
estrangement appears in the middle of the shell, but the positive peaks
of the normal contact stresses in the corner points are absent.

The appendix contains the calculatory schemes for general case of the
layered structures within models 3D-elasticity theory or
m,n-approximation for thin-walled shells correspondent to the curved
orthogonal coordinate system.

In conclusion it is summed up that in the dissertation the theoretical
generalization of the scientific task of the strain-stress state
determination on layered plates and shells is given. A new powerful
numerical solution method adapted to the complex geometry, loading and
boundary conditions, mechanical properties of discrete layers, shear and
compression deformations as well as to the damage zones on the
interphases is developed. The results show the preferences of using such
approach under the design and evaluation of layered structures’ contact
strength.

Key words: variational problem, composite materials, contact stresses,
finite element method, object-oriented approach, damages, layered plates
and shells.

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