1

?INOEOOO INEOIEIA?? ?i. A.N. EINOTHEA

AII OE?A?IE

OAOIIE? Eany Iaae?aia

OAeE 159.9:37.015.3

?ICAEOIE A?AeIIA?AeAEUeIINO?

O Ae?OAE I?AeE?OEIAIAI ? NOA?OIAI OE?EUeIIAI A?EO

19.00.07 — iaaeaaia?/ia oa a?eiaa ineoieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ineoieia?? ?i.A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: — aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ai?eoaanueeee Ie?ineaa Eineiiae/,

?inoeooo ineoieia?? ?i. A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie, eaai?aoi??y ineoieia??
iniaenoino?, caa?aeoaa/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Naie/aiei Aaeaioeia Aiaoie??aia,

?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie,
eaai?aoi??y iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

— eaiaeeaeao ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aeieeinueea Ethaia Aanee?aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, eaoaae?a
ineoieia??, caa?aeoaa/

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — I?eea?iaonueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?i. A. Noaoaieea, eaoaae?a caaaeueii? ineoieia??, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “___”_______________ 1998 ?. i _____ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 01.48.01 a ?inoeooo?
ineoieia?? ?iai?. A.N. Einothea AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252033,
i.Ee?a-33, aoe. Iaiuee?anueea, 2.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ineoieia??
?iai? A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “_____”_________________ 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.?.Aeaen??aa

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeine?aeaeaiiy

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A oiiaao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ci?i o
noni?euenoa? (?ioi?iaoecaoe?y, aeaiie?aoecaoe?y, ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei) iaee?aua i?iyaeythoue naaa ae?eia?, i?aoeueiaeo?, i?ioan?eii
eiiiaoaioi? iniae, ui ai?thoue aaeaiooaaoenue aei oaeaeeii?ieeaeo
neooaoe?e, caeaoi? aei naiino?eiiai aeai?o noa? ae?yeueiino?, i?eeiyooy
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ??oaiue ? naii?aaoeyoe?? iiaaae?iee. Naia oe? yeino? ?
iaiao?aeii aeoiaoaaoe o i?ae?inoath/i? iniaenoino?. Oea aeiaaa? iiaeo
i?aeoiae?a aei aeoiaii? ?iaioe c oeiey?aie.

Nueiaiaei? iniaeeai c?inoa? cia/aiiy ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae iniaenoino?,
ye? ? niaoeeo?/ieie ?aaoeyoi?aie ?? iiaaae?iee a on?o noa?ao
noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Oiio i?iaeaia ii?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo, cie?aia
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, noa? iaei??th ?c aaaeeeaeo ye aeey
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, oae aeey nioe?aeueii? i?aeoeee.

Aea/aiith a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?enay/aia cia/ia e?euee?noue ye
oai?aoe/ieo, oae ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoiaeieia?/i?
i?iaeaie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aea/aee N.E.?oa?iooaei, AE.I?aaea,
O.Oaeaea?, E.Oaeeaia oa ?io?. O aaaaoueio i?aoeyo aeae?eai? neeaaeia?
(I.A.Eaae?anueeee, I.A.Naa/ei, A.O.Nao?i, O.I.Neaei?iaa), e?eoa???
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? (E.A.Aaoeueoaiiaa-Neaanueea), e??i oiai, iaea?aeaii
aaaeeea? aeai? i?i ?icaeoie a?aeiia?aeaeueino? o ??cieo aeaeao
ae?yeueiino? (I.O.Ae?eaon, E.?.Ei?ooiiaa, I.A.Eaae?anueeee,
E.Iocaeeaa?a, I.I.Ia/a?aa, A.E.Neiaiaenueeee, I.?.Niaoainueeee oa ?io?).
Ie?ai? aniaeoe a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aeine?aeaeoaaee oaeiae I.?.Aeaen??aa,
?.Ae.Aao, I.E.Ai?eoaanueeee, O.A.Ii?ice?ia, N.E.?oa?iooaei, AE.I?aaea,
O.Oaeaea?, E.Oaeeaia oa ?io?.

Iaeiae, ne?ae eiinoaooaaoe, ui aein? ia i?aaenoaaeaia oe?e?nia ea?oeia
?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o i?aee?oe?a oa noa?oieeaniee?a. O iayaieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeoeaio ?iaeoueny ia aiae?c? ?icaeoeo ie?aieo neeaaeiaeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ia?aaaaeii eiai?oeaii? /e iiaaae?ieiai?. Oiio
iio??aai eiiieaenii-nenoaiiee aiae?c i?iaeaie, ui ia?aeaa/a? aea/aiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aee?oe?a oa noa?oieeaniee?a ia ??ai? oe?e?niiai
noa’?eoa iiaaae?iee, yeo a?i ?aae?co? a eiie?aoieo
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oa ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiiaao. Oe?e?niee
i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeaie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iniaenoino? ia?aaeaa/a?
c’ynoaaiiy ?? i?aaeiaoa, ?inoaioe?? oa iniaeeainoae noa’?eoa iiaaae?iee.

E??i oiai, iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaia i?iaeaia ?icaeoeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai
thiaoeueeiai a?eo. I?aoeue, niaoe?aeueii i?enay/aieo aiae?co ?icaeoeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? a aeaiiio ia?ao?aeiiio ia??iae? a e?oa?aoo?? iaia?,
a a iayaieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny oeiiai i?aee?oeia?e oa
thiaoeuee?e a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Aeey c’ynoaaiiy iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia iaae? i?aee?oeiaiai ? ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo
ie acyee ca iniiao oyaeaiiy i?i ?? iniaeeaino? a noaa?euei? ia??iaee
aeeooy, ine?eueee o i?aea?eia? ia??iaee caa??aathoueny iniaeeaino?
oa?aeoa?i? aeey iiia?aaeiueiai aoaio, ? iaeii/anii, aeieeathoue iia?,
oa?aeoa?i? aeey ianooiiiai. Aeey ie?aiiai o/iy o?eaae?noue ia?ao?aeiiai
ia??iaeo a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo
?iaeea?aeoaeueia, aea caaaeii eiai ieaeiy iaaea noaiiaeoue i?eaeecii 14
?ie?a, a aa?oiy — 16, ui a?aeiia?aea? V???-O eeanai no/anii? oeiee.

?acoeueoaoe ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui naia o
i?aee?oeiaiio oa ?aiiueiio thiaoeueeiio a?oe? a?aeaoaathoueny aaaeeea?
c?ooaiiy a ii?aeueiiio ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?. Oeueiio ni?eythoue
nioe?aeueia neooaoe?y ?icaeoeo i?aee?oea, i?aeaeuaiiy aeiia aei iueiai,
ci?ia niaoeeo?ee ? oneeaaeiaiiy iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?. Ia iniia?
oeueiai aeieea? i?aaiaiiy aei naii-noaa?aeaeaiiy naiino?eiino?, iio?aaa
o naiii?ciaii?.

O thiaoeueeiio a?oe? oe? yeino? iaae?athoue aeaaeae? a?eueoi? aaae.
Ia’?eoeai? nioe?aeuei? oiiae niiioeathoue iieiaeo ethaeeio ?iaeoe aea??
naiai iiaeaeueoiai oeyoo, aiia iio?aiey? a neooaoe?th ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
oa nioe?aeueii? iaiao?aeiino? a?aoe ia naaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue. Oea
ia?aaeeaa?oueny ? inieneth?oueny a?eueo?noth, aea ia an?ia iaeiaeiai.

Cioneoe oeiey?a aooe a?aeiia?aeaeueiei iaiiaeeeai, ine?eueee ii?aeuei?
ii?ie noni?euenoaa aeeth/athoueny a naii?aaoeyoe?th iiaaae?iee o?eueee
oiae?, eiee aiie noathoue aioo??oi?i caeiiii, noa’?eoeaii cia/ouei
iaaeaaiiyi iniaenoino?. Oea iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiia aeeth/aiino?
?iaeea?aea a oeae i?ioean ye aeoeaiiai noa’?eoa.

Aeooaeuei?noue, iaaeinoaoi? aea/aiiy oa iaiao?aei?noue oe?e?niiai
aiae?co i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? coiiaeee aea?? oaie —
“?icaeoie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o ae?oae i?aee?oeiaiai oa noa?oiai
oe?eueiiai a?eo”. Caoaaaeeii, ui oa?i?i “noa?oee oe?eueiee a?e” o
oi?ioethaaii? oaie aaeeoi cia/iith i??ith oiiaii — aeey c?o/iino? o
ei?enooaaii?: oea aea? ciiao ia??iaee/ii aaeeaaoe o oaeno? aeena?oaoe??
iiiyooy “noa?oieeanieee” — cai?noue a?ii?caeeiai, oi/a o ineoieia?/iiio
nain? a?eueo ei?aeoiiai iiiyooy “o/i? ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo”. Oaia
aoiaeeoue aei ieaio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo ineoieia?? ?i.
A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie. ?a?no?aoe?eiee ? 0196u006959.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – ?icaeoie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iniaenoino?.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — ineoieia?/i? oiiae oa caeiiii??iino?
noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o i?aee?oe?a ?
noa?oieeaniee?a oa ia aoai? ia?aoiaeo a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai
thiaoeueeiai a?eo.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o c’ynoaaii? iniaeeainoae ineoieia?/ii?
no?oeoo?e a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oeiey??a o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae a?ae
i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo, a oaeiae
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ? cania?a aoaeoeaiiai aieeao ia i?ioean
?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o i?aee?oe?a ? noa?oieeaniee?a.

Iniiai? a?iioace aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. I?e ia?aoiae? a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo
a?aeaoaathoueny ye?ni? c?ooaiiy a iioeaaoe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueii?
iiaaae?iee, o ci?no? oa ianyc? i?aaeiaoa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ci?i? ??
?inoaioe??, ui coiiaeaii ia’?eoeaieie oa noa’?eoeaieie oiiaaie
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? ia aeaiiio aoai?.

2. Aoaeoeaia iaaeaaia?/ia ea?oaaiiy ?icaeoeii a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
iieyaa? o noeioethaaii? oa i?aai?caoe?? oiia i?iyao noa’?eoiino?
i?aee?oe?a oa noa?oieeaniee?a o ??cieo aeaeao ae?yeueiino?,
i?aee??ieaii? a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee oa iaeo?ae?caoe?? iaaaoeaii?
ae?? /eiiee?a aaca?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee.

Aeey ia?aa??ee aenoiooeo a?iioac aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeinyaiaiiy eiai
iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. Cae?enieoe oai?aoe/iee aiae?c i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o
i?aee?oeiaiio oa ?aiiueiio thiaoeueeiio a?oe?.

2. ?ice?eoe i?aaeiao, ?inoaioe?th, ineoieia?/i? neeaaeia?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aeae?eeoe ?? ??ai? oa oeie ?icaeoeo o ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo.

3. C’ynoaaoe iniiai? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae oa niiniae
aoaeoeaiiai aieeao ia ?icaeoie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o ae?oae
i?aee?oeiaiai ? ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo.

Caaaeueiith oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy
aenooiathoue iieiaeaiiy ineoieia?/ii? iaoee i?i iniaeno?noue ye
aeoeaiiai noa’?eoa ae?yeueiino? ? iiaaae?iee
(E.I.Aaoeueoaiiaa-Neaanueea, A.A.Aiaiue?a, N.E.?oa?iooaei, A.I.Oaoaiei,
O.I.Oeoa?aiei oa ?io?), i?i ineoieia?/i? iaoai?cie ii?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino? (E.?.Aiaeiae/, I.E.Ai?eoaanueeee, N.A.sseianii oa ?io?), i?i
nooi?noue, ineoieia?/i? iaoai?cie oa oiiae oi?ioaaiiy naiina?aeiiino?
iniaenoino? oa ?? noaaeaiiy aei naaa (?.N.Eii, A.A.Noie?i oa ?io?), i?i
iaoai?cie ?icaeoeo iioeaaoe?? ethaeeie (A.A.Ana?a, A.A.Aeaena?a,
A.E.A?ethian, I.I.Eaiioue?a, O.Oaeoaocai oa ?io?).

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue: oai?aoe/iee aiae?c
i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aiae?c ?aaeueieo neooaoe?e
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, niinoa?aaeaiiy, aan?aea, ?ioa?a’th, aieaooaaiiy,
iieooaaiiy, i?iaeoeai? iaoiaee. O i?ioean? e?euee?niiai aiae?co
iaea?aeaieo aeaieo canoiniaoaaeeny iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio,
ui aia?oa oe?e?nii aea/aii ?icaeoie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o i?aee?oeiaiio
oa ?aiiueiio thiaoeueeiio a?oe?. C’yniaaii ye?ni? ci?ie, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny o oi?ioaaii? oe??? yeino? ia iaae? a?eiaeo ia??iae?a.
Ae/eaiaii i?aaeiao a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, eiai “ciio iaeaeeae/iai
?icaeoeo”, ?inoaioe?th a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, i?aaenoaaeaii oe?e?nio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaoai?ci?a, /eiiee?a oa oiia i?eeiyooy o/iyie
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aecia/aii oeie oa ??ai? ?icaeoeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o i?aee?oe?a oa noa?oieeaniee?a.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o: ?icoe?aii? oa iiaeeaeaii?
ciaiue i?i ?icaeoie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o ae?oae i?aee?oeiaiai ?
?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo; aeyaeaii? caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo a ieo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?; c’ynoaaii? ?ie? “i?aea?eiaeo” (ia?ao?aeieo)
iiiaio?a o ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ye nenoaiii? noa’?eoii? yeino?;
aecia/aii? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ?icaeoeo i?aee?oe?a ?
noa?oieeaniee?a ye noa’?eo?a a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ?ice?eoo? nenoaie
aeoiaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o ae?oae i?aee?oeiaiai oa ?aiiueiai
thiaoeueeiai a?eo. Io?eiaii aeai?, ye? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
?ic?iaoe? eiie?aoieo i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey ?icaeoeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o oeiey??a oa noai?aii? iiaeo aeoiaieo oaoiieia?e
caaaeii.

Iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o i?aee?oe?a ?
noa?oieeaniee?a oa ia aoai? ia?aoiaeo a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai
thiaoeueeiai a?eo coiiaeai? caaaeueieie oaiaeaioe?yie a?eiaiai ?icaeoeo
oa eiie?aoieie oiiaaie iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy.

2. Nenoaia aeoiaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o i?aee?oe?a oa
noa?oieeaniee?a aoaea aoaeoeaiith, yeui iaaeaaia?/i? aieeae
ni?yiiaoaaoeiooueny ia ?icaeoie oeiey??a ye iiaiioe?iieo noa’?eo?a
a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee oeyoii caaacia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ciai?oi?o
oa aioo??oi?o oiia, a oaeiae ??ciia?/iiai noeioethaaiiy i?iyao ?o
noa’?eoiino? o ??cieo aeaeao ae?yeueiino?.

Iaae?ei?noue oa a??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaacia/oaaeanue oai?aoe/iei aiae?cii i?iaeaie, aeei?enoaiiyi
aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoiae?a, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue iao? oa caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ai?acaioaoeai?noth aea??ee, ii?aeiaiiyi e?euee?niiai oa
ye?niiai aiae?c?a io?eiaieo aii??e/ieo aeaieo, aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaii?
iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae a?ae
i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo, a oaeiae ineoieia?/iiio
iaa?oiooaaii? nenoaie aeoiaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia oeueiio aoai?. A
iioae?eiaaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa? iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo e?euee?noue aaoi?nueeeo
noi??iie noaiiaeoue 1,2 ae?. a?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? cae?enithaaeanue ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “Nenoaia oe?iiinoae ye ?aaoeyoi?
iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae??” (Ae?iaiae/, 1994?.), “Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?
i?iaeaie aoiai?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae??” (Ee?a-Ae?iaiae/,
1993?.), “I?iaeaia iniaenoino? a no/ani?e iaooe?: ?acoeueoaoe oa
ia?niaeoeae aeine?aeaeaiue” (Ee?a, 1998?.), “Oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe?? a
a?iiaaeyinueeiio noaiiaeaii? iniaenoino?” (Ee?a-Ae?iaiae/,1998 ?.), ia
o?ao?o Einothe?anueeeo /eoaiiyo “No/ania ineoieia?y a oe?ii?niiio
aei???” (Ee?a, 1994?.).

Ci?no ?iaioe iaiaeii?aciai iaaiai?thaaany ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
ineoieia?? Ae?iaiaeoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? ?.O?aiea, aeiiia?aeaany ia can?aeaii? eaai?aoi??? ineoieia??
iniaenoino? ?inoeoooo ineoieia?? ?i. A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe oe?e
i.Ae?iaiae/a oa Ae?iaiaeoeueeiai ?aeiio. Aiie iineoaeeee iniiaith aeey
?ic?iaee ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey a/eoae?a, a oaeiae
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aaoi?ii i?e i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?o c i?iaeai ?icaeoeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o oeiey??a aeey a/eoae?a oe?e.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii o
9-oe ?iaioao (iaoeia? noaoo?, iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee, oace) caaaeueiei
ianyaii 2,7 ae?.a?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (176 iaeiaioaaiue)
oa 6 aeiaeaoe?a. Oaeno ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii ia 156 noi??ieao, aeena?oaoe?y
i?noeoue 9 oaaeeoeue, 9 a?ao?e?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aeae?eaii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii eiai iaoo, noi?ioeueiaaii a?iioace oa
caaaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, aena?oeaii
iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe, iiaeaii
iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th
oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a o i?aeoeeo.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o
ae?oae i?aee?oeiaiai ? ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo” i?enay/aii ?icaeyaeo
??ciiiai?oieo i?aeoiae?a aei i?iaeaie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa ??
?icaeoeo.

Aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e iieaco?, ui ieoaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oeiey?a ae?noaee aena?oeaiiy o ?iaioao
E.I.Aaoeueoaiiai?-Neaanueei?, ?.Ae.Aaoa, I.O.Ae?eaon, E.Iocaeeaa?aa,
N.E.?oa?iooaeia, I.A.Naa/eia, A.O.Nao?ia oa ?ioeo.

Aeine?aeieee (A.A.Aiaiue?a, ?.N.Eii, N.E.?oa?iooaei, I.A.Ni??e?i)
aeacothoue ia aca?iica’ycie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ?c naiina?aeii?noth
iniaenoino?. Caaaeyee ?e iniaeno?noue ye noa’?eo na?aeiii i?eaeanith?
nia? ana, ui ?iaeoue, a?aeiineoue aei naaa an? aeeiiai? iath ni?aae ?
a/eiee ? na?aeiii i?eeia? ia naaa ca ieo a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ye ?o
aaoi? ? oai?aoeue (N.E.?oa?iooaei).

Iaa?oioiaaii iieiaeaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy eaoaai???
noa’?eoa aeey aea/aiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iniaenoino?
(E.I.Aaoeueoaiiaa-Neaanueea, A.A.A?ooeeinueeee, N.E.?oa?iooaei,
A.I.Oaoaiei oa ?io?).

Iioiaaiaoe/iee ?icaeyae i?iaeaie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iieaco?, ui aiia
ye ii?aeueia ye?noue iniaenoino? aeieea? ia iaaiiio aoai? ii?aeueiiai
?icaeoeo aeeoeie (E.?.Aiaeiae/, E.?.Aeaiaio?e, Ae.A.Aeueeii?i,
A.I.Iyneuaa, O.A.?ai?ia, A.A.Oi?ioiaa oa ?io?). Ii?aeuei? ii?ie
ona?aeiieththoueny iath, aeciathoueny /e ia aeciathoueny, ia?aoiaeyoue
/e ia ia?aoiaeyoue o aioo??oith niiioeaeueio neeo, ui noeioeth?
ae?yeuei?noue iaaii? ni?yiiaaiino?. Eiai?oeai? oyaeaiiy iniaenoino? i?i
ii?aeuei? ii?ie iiaaae?iee, ia?aoai?aiiy ?o o aioo??oi? ?aaoeyoi?e
iiaaae?iee ? ae?yeueiino? noaiiaeyoue nooi?noue i?ioeano ?icaeoeo oa
aeoiaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

O i?ioean? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?icaeoie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
a?aeaoaa?oueny o iai?yi? a?ae ia’?eoeaii? aei noa’?eoeaii? (AE.I?aaea).
Ca oeae /an aiia i?iyaey?oueny o oaeeo oi?iao: a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ye
ciai? caaeaia iaiao?aei?noue (?aii? aoaie ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?),
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ye ona?aeiieaia iaiao?aei?noue (i?aee?oeiaee a?e),
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue-iio?aaa (?aiiy thi?noue) (N.?.Aeieo???aa).
A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue-iio?aaa a?oioo?oueny ia aioo??oi?e ia?aeiiaiino?
iniaenoino? aeeiioaaoe aei?o/aiiy, aeio?eioaaoenue aeiia. Aea?? e?i??
iiaaae?iee iia’ycaiee c na?aeiiei i?eeiyooyi ii?aeueieo aeiia, c
ona?aeiieaiiyi naaa noa’?eoii a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee, c
aeia?ia?eueiei iieeaaeaiiyi ia naaa iaia’yce?a. Naia a oeueiio aeiaaeeo
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue iaae?a? iniaeno?niiai naino, yeee ci?ia? i?ioe??//y
i?ae iio?aaaie, aaaeaiiyie iniaenoino? ? oeie aeiiaaie, ye? noaaeoue aei
ia? ae?eni?noue.

sse iieaco? aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e (I.A.Eaae?anueeee, I.A.Naa/ei, A.O.Nao?i,
O.I.Neaei?iaa oa ?io?), a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ye ?ioaa?aeueia ye?noue
iniaenoino? ia? neeaaeio no?oeoo?o, ui aeeth/a? eiai?oeai?,
aiioe?eii-iioeaaoe?ei? oa iiaaae?ieia? eiiiiiaioe. Aeine?aeieeaie
iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue oe?e?niiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Aaaeeea? iniiae aeey ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? caeeaaeathoueny o
i?aee?oeiaiio a?oe?. Aaeeea ?ieue o oeueiio i?ioean? iaeaaeeoue
i?aaiaiiyi i?aee?oea aei aei?ineino?, iio?aa? o naiinoaa?aeaeaii?,
iaieiae?iith iaae/eaie ioe?iii? ae?yeueiino?. Aea /a?ac iaaeinoaoi?e
aeeoo?aee aeina?ae, ianoi?iiaai?noue ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae, iano?ee?noue
iioeaaoe?? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue o oeae a?eiaee ia??iae iineoue
neooaoeaiee oa?aeoa?.

Aeey noaiiaeaiiy iiaiioe?iii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa ?icaeoeo ?? aeueo
??ai?a ni?eyoeeaei ? ?aii?e thiaoeueeee a?e, aeey yeiai oa?aeoa?ia
iio?aaa o naiiaecia/aii?, naii?aae?caoe??, iio?aaa i?ciaoe naaa ?
ioi/oth/ee na?o, caanoe a oe?e?nio nenoaio iiaeyaee, i?eioeeie,
onoaiiaee, c?icoi?oe, ioe?ieoe ioi/oth/ee na?o ? ae?iaeoe aeania
noaaeaiiy aei iueiai.

O ?iaio? aeyaeai? ia’?eoeai? oa noa’?eoeai? oiiae, ui caaacia/othoue
iioeiaeueia ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o ae?oae
i?aee?oeiaiai oa ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo. Aei ia?oeo a?aeiinyoueny:
?aaeueia aeeth/aiiy oeiey??a o neooaoe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, iayai?noue
iaaieo noni?eueieo aeiia, iaia’yce?a, aei?o/aiue, iaaeaiiy iiaeeeaino?
aeai?o i?aaeiaoa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ?icaeoie naii?aaoeyoe??
ae?yeueiino?. Na?aae ?ioeo aeyaeai? ianooii?: aeieeiaiiy iio?aae /eieoe
a?aeiia?aeaeueii, ona?aeiieaiiy iniaeno?niiai naino i?aaeiaoa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aaeaeaaoia ioe?iea naaa ye noa’?eoa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iniaenoino?
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe iaai? ocaaaeueiaiiy. ?ic?iaea i?iaeaie
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny:

1. O?enaoe??th aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ioa?an?a ia ?icaeoeo iaeiiai c
eiiiiiaio?a a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ?, a?aeiia?aeii, a?aenooi?noth
a?aeiiinoae i?i ?icaeoie oe?e?nii? no?oeoo?e a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
iniaenoino?.

2. Cina?aaeaeai?noth ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? aeine?aeaeaiue ia ie?aieo
ia??iaeao aeeooy. A?aenooi?noth aeaieo i?i a?eiao aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, cie?aia, ia aoai? ia?aoiaeo a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei
?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo.

3. Iacia/iith oaaaith aei ca’yceo i?ae ?icaeoeii a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
iniaenoino? oa iniaeeainoyie ?? i?aaeiaoa, ?inoaioe??, iniaeeainoyie
iioeaaoe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
i?aee?oe?a oa noa?oieeaniee?a” aena?oeaii ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie.
Cie?aia, a iueiio i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy eiai?oeaiiai,
aiioe?eii-iioeaaoe?eiiai, iiaaae?ieiaiai eiiiiiaio?a
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ?? i?aaeiaoa oa ?inoaioe??. C oe??th iaoith
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aan?aee, niinoa?aaeaiiy, aieaooaaiiy, ?ioa?a’th, a
oaeiae i?iaeoeai? iaoiaee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi aoei ioiieaii 296 i?aee?oe?a oa noa?oieeaniee?a: o/i?a
NO ? 14 i.Ae?iaiae/a oa Ieaeiueiaa?anueei? NO Ae?iaiaeoeueeiai ?aeiio.

Aea/aiiy eiai?oeaiiai eiiiiiaioo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aoei ni?yiiaaia ia
c’ynoaaiiy ?icoi?iiy i?aee?oeaie oa noa?oieeanieeaie nooiino?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oa e?oa?aoo?e c
i?iaeaie aeicaieea aeae?eeoe o?e ??ai? ?? ?icoi?iiy: aenieee, na?aaei?e,
iecueeee (o?aaiaioa?iee).

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii, ui c a?eii ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue
o/i?a, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny ia na?aaeiueiio ??ai? ?icoi?iiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Io?eiai? aeai? aiae?coaaeenue c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaia?aiao?e/iiai e?eoa??y 2 (en?-eaaae?ao). E?euee?niee aiae?c io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a iieaco? noaoenoe/io aeinoia??i?noue c?inoaiiy c a?eii ??aiy
?icoi?iiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? (2 =9,35, 2 >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 ). ?acii c oei, o?eueee aeey iacia/ii? /anoeie
oeiey??a oa?aeoa?iee aenieee ??aaiue ?icoi?iiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Oey
ianoaaeia aeiaaa? a?ae iaaeaaia?a canoinoaaiiy aoaeoeaieo
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo cania?a aeey ni?eyiiy ?icoi?iith nooiino?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee iioea?a a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee i?e ia?aoiae?
a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo cae?enithaaeinue c
aeiiiiiaith aeaio iaoiaeee: aa?aaeueii? oa iaaa?aaeueii? (iaoiaeeea
eieuei?iaeo anioe?aoe?e).

C aeiiiiiaith aa?aaeueii? iaoiaeeee ?ica’ycoaaeenue oae? caaaeaiiy:

1) i?inoaaeoaaeanue a?eiaa aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo eiaeii? a?oie iioea?a; 2)
aeyaeyeanue a?eiaa aeeiai?ea ana?aaeei? eiaeii? c ieo; 3) aeae?eyeenue
aeii?ioth/? iioeae aeey i?aee?oe?a oa noa?oieeaniee?a.

Io?eiaii oae? ?acoeueoaoe:

1. C a?eii iinooiiai c?inoa? cia/ou?noue noni?eueieo iioea?a, iioea?a
naii?aae?caoe??, naiii?ciaiiy oa ii?aeueiiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy. Naiai
iaeaeuiai ??aiy aiie aeinyaathoue o ?aii?e thiino?.

Iioeae aai?noe/iiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy, i?aaiaoe/i? oa ianiaoeeo?/i? ia
caciathoue cia/ieo ci?i c a?eii. Caaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y iieyaa? a
iacia/iiio cieaeaii? neee ?o ae?aaeaiino? o ?aiiueiio thiaoeueeiio
a?oe?.

Ui noino?oueny iioea?a ni?eeoaaiiy oa aeoiaaiiy ?ioeo, oi caaaeii ?o
aeeiai?ea oaea: o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai
thiaoeueeiai a?eo ?o cia/ou?noue cieaeo?oueny, a ia ia??iae cae?i/aiiy
oeiee aiie ciiao noathoue aaaeeeaeie aeey o/i?a.

2. I?e ia?aoiae? a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo
a?aeaoaathoueny ye?ni? c?ooaiiy a iioeaaoe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueii?
iiaaae?iee. Iniaeeai yne?aai oea ae?aaeaii a iioeaao naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy,
naiii?ciaiiy, naii?aae?caoe?? oa noni?eueieo iioeaao. Oae, o a?oi?
iioea?a ii?aeueiiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy (?en 1) o i?aee?oe?a
ia?aaaaeathoue iioeae “Ia oi/o neiii?iiaooaaoe naaa a i/ao ioi/oth/eo”,
“Oi/o iieacaoe naaa c e?auiai aieo”. C a?eii iio?aaa o naiinoaa?aeaeaii?
cacia? ci?i. Noa?oieeaniee, ia a?aei?io a?ae i?aee?oea, i?aaia
ooaa?aeeoenue o aeanieo i/ao a?eueoith i??ith, i?ae a i/ao ioi/oth/eo
(“Oi/o ii?aaaeaoe aeia??o ?ioeo”, “Oi/o caaithaaoe nia? aaoi?eoao”).

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???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E?? 
»»»)))UUUMMMBBB999y|?yPPOe?“IiyiOeAEccOe©?en. 1.
Aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo iioea?a ii?aeueiiai ?en. 2. Aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo
iioea?a naiii?c-

naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy ( ): iaiiy ( ):

1.1. “Ia oi/o neiii?iiaooaaoe naaa a i/ao ioi- 2.1. “Iath iiaeeea?noue
ii??aiyoe naaa c ?i-
/oth/eo” ( ) oeie”
( );

1.2. “Oi/o caaithaaoe nia? aaoi?eoao” ( ) 2.2. “Iath
iiaeeea?noue i?ciaoe nai? ai?iiy

1.3. “Oi/o iieacaoe naaa c e?auiai aieo” ( ) oa
iaae/ee” ( );

1.4. “Oi/o ii?aaaeaoe aeia??o ?ioeo” ( ) 2.3. “Iath
iiaeeea?noue ia?aa??eoe naith ne- eo aie?”
( );

2.4. “Iath iiaeeea?noue ia?aa??eoe na?e

oa?aeoa?” ( ).

I?e ia?aoiae? a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo
a?aeaoaathoueny nooo?a? ci?ie a iioeaao naiii?ciaiiy (?en 2).
I?inoaaeo?oueny oea a iineeaii? iniaeno?niiai aniaeoo naiini?eeiyooy
(ci?ia iioeao “Ii??aiyiiy naaa c ?ioeie” ia “I?ciaiiy naaa …”), a oaeiae
o ia?a?inoaii? a?ae /anoeiaeo naiiioe?iie (“I?ciaoe naith neeo aie?”)
aei caaaeueieo (“Ia?aa??eoe na?e oa?aeoa?”).

Ui noino?oueny aeeiai?ee iioea?a naii?aae?caoe??, oi ooo
niinoa??aathoueny oae? ci?ie: o i?aee?oe?a ia?aaaaea? iioea “Iaea?aeoth
caaeiaieaiiy a?ae iiaeieaiiy ia?aoeiae”. Noa?oieeanieee, ia a?aei?io
a?ae ieo, aeeiioth/e aei?o/aiiy, i?aaiooue ?aae?coaaoenue o e?ioeaaeo
?acoeueoaoao nai?? iniaenoi? o/ano? o ni?aaao ae?oc?a, eeano, oeiee. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui c a?eii c?inoa? inieneai?noue iane?aee?a aeanii?
iiaaae?iee ? ae?yeueiino?.

Ia aoai? ia?aoiaeo a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo
a?aeaoaathoueny ye?ni? c?ooaiiy ? a noni?eueieo iioeaao. Aiie noathoue
a?eueo eiie?aoeciaai? noiniaii ia’?eo?a ioe?iee (ci?ia iioeao “O iaia ?
ii/oooy iaia’yceo” ia “Ia oi/o i?aeaiaeeoe ?ioeo”), /ano?oa
aeeth/a?oueny aioo??oiy ?inoaioe?y a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? — aeania noie?iiy
(“Oae i?aeeaco? nia?noue”).

Caaaeii, ?icaeoie iioea?a a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee eaea a iai?yi?
a?ae aeooaeueiino? ciai?oi?o niiioeaiue aei iiyae aeanieo aioo??oi?o
niiioeaiue.

3. O no?oeoo?? iioeaaoe?? i?aee?oe?a aeii?iothoue iioeae ni?eeoaaiiy,
noni?euei? oa ii?aeueiiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy, o noa?oieeaniee?a —
noni?euei? iioeae, naii?aae?caoe?? oa naiii?ciaiiy. Iaeiaio cia/oueie a
iaio a?eiaeo a?oiao ? i?aaiaoe/i? iioeae, ianiaoeeo?/i? oa aai?noe/iiai
naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy.

Aeey ia?aa??ee iaae?eiino? ?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaieo c aeiiiiiaith
aa?aaeueii? iaoiaeeee, aoei aeei?enoaii iaaa?aaeueio iaoiaeeeo. Caaaeyee
oeueiio iaiaaaeenue iaeo?ae?coaaoe aieea no?aoaa?e naiii?acaioaoe?? i?ae
/an aeyaeaiiy iioea?a a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee, onoiooe
ineoieia?/iee caoeno, ui ia aeiionea? iaai? iioeae aei na?aeiiino?.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aa?aaeueii? oa iaaa?aaeueii? iaoiaeee
iieaco?, ui on? a?oie iioea?a, e??i noni?eueieo, ca iaaa?aaeueiith
iaoiaeeeith ae?aaeai? neeuei?oa i?ae ca aa?aaeueiith ye o i?aee?oe?a (a
na?aaeiueiio ia 0,4 aaea) oae ? o noa?oieeaniee?a) a na?aaeiueiio ia 0,6
a.). O ae?aaiinoeoe? iaiia iaoiaeeeaie iaea?eueoa ??cieoey a
?acoeueoaoao aeey iioea?a a?oie aai?noe/iiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy (1,1 a.),
i?aaiaoe/ieo (0,9 a.) o i?aee?oe?a oa i?aaiaoe/ieo (1,1 a.), aeoiaaiiy
?ioeo (0,9 a.) oa aai?noe/iiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy (0,9 a.) o
noa?oieeaniee?a (Oaae.1). Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui na?aae ?aaeueii
ae?th/eo iioea?a a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee iioeae aai?noe/iiai
naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy, i?aaiaoe/i?, ye o i?aee?oe?a, oae ? o noa?oieeaniee?a
ia iiaeia aaeaeaaoii aeyaeoe c aeiiiiiaith aa?aaeueii? iaoiaeeee. E??i
oiai, iaaa?aaeueia iaoiaeeea iieacaea aeaui iaioo ae?aaeai?noue
noni?eueieo iioea?a (-0,1) o noa?oieeaniee?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
na?aeiia iaiaaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a caaeueoe ?o cia/ou?noue o aa?aaeuei?e
iaoiaeeoe?.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Ii??aiyeueia oaaeeoey ae?aaeaiino? iioea?a ca iaiia iaoiaeeeaie

(8-ie aaeueia oeaea)

A?oie iioea?aI?aee?oeeNoa?oieeanieeeiaaa?-aaeue- iaaa?- aaeue- ia??c-
ieoeyIaaa?-aaeue- iaaa?- aaeue-ia??c- ieoeyNoni?euei?

Ii?aeueiiai naiinoaa?aeae.

I?aaiaoe/i?

Naii?aae?caoe??

Ianiaoeeo?/i?

Naiii?ciaiiy

Aai?noe/iiai naiinoaa?aeae.

Ni?eeoaaiiy

Aeoiaaiiy ?ioeo5,7

5,7

5,7

5,6

4,9

5,3

5,4

6,3

5,35,6

5,4

4,8

5,3

4,8

5,0

4,3

5,9

5,00,1

0,3

0,9

0,3

0,1

0,3

1,1

0,4

0,36,0

5,9

5,4

6,1

4,4

6,0

4,6

5,4

5,56,1

5,1

4,3

5,6

4,2

5,4

3,7

5,0

5,1-0,1

0,8

1,1

0,5

0,2

0,6

0,9

0,4

0,9

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaeiaoa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aee?oe?a oa
noa?oieeaniee?a a?aeaoaaeinue o o?ueio iai?yiao: 1) aeae?eyeanue
aeii?ioth/a noa?a i?iyao i?aaeiaoa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o i?aee?oe?a oa
noa?oieeaniee?a; 2) i?inoaaeoaaeanue a?eiaa aeeiai?ea iaia’yce?a,
caaaeaiue, aei?o/aiue, ui aoiaeyoue o eiaeio c oeeo noa?; 3) aeyaeyeenue
iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? oeiey??a o ?aae?caoe?? i?aaeiaoa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa aecia/aeanue eiai “ciia iaeaeeae/iai ?icaeoeo”.

Io?eiaii oae? ?acoeueoaoe:

1. Iaia’ycee, caaaeaiiy, aei?o/aiiy i?aee?oe?a oa noa?oieeaniee?a
iia’ycai? c? an?ia noa?aie aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?: “ss — ?io?”,
aeeoo?aeyaeaiiy oa naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy “ss”, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?ioeo
ethaeae, a?oie oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy oa naii?icaeoie “ss”. Aea
?o ae?aaeai?noue ia eiaeiiio c oeeo aoai?a aeeooy iaiaeiaeiaa.
Aeii?ioth/ith o i?aee?oe?a aeyaeeanue noa?a aeeoo?aeyaeaiiy oa
naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy “ss”, o noa?oieeaniee?a — noa?a “ss — ?io?”. O
iiiaeeiieeo aeiaaeeao ia?aae i?aee?oeaie oa noa?oieeanieeaie noiyoue
iaia’ycee, iia’ycai? c? noa?ith ooieoe?iioaaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy oa
naii?icaeoeo “ss”.

2. C a?eii a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia no?oeoo?e i?aaeiaoa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ?icoe?aiiy oa oneeaaeiaiiy iaia’yce?a, aei?o/aiue,
caaaeaiue, ye? iaeii/anii /e iine?aeiaii ?aae?co? iniaeno?noue.

3. Iiaeeeaino? i?aee?oe?a oa noa?oieeaniee?a ia?aaaaeii iia’ycai? c?
noa?ith aeeoo?aeyaeaiiy oa naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy “ss” ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy,
noaiiaeaiiy oa naii?icaeoeo “ss”. Ii??aiyiiy ?aaeueieo iaia’yce?a
oeiey??a oa ?o iiaeeeainoae iieaco?, ui iecea iiceoeaieo iioaioe?e o
noa?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy oa naii?icaeoeo “ss” ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue niiniao ?o aeeooy. Oea aeyaey?oueny o i?ioe??//? i?ae
iioaioe?eieie iiaeeeainoyie i?aee?oe?a oa noa?oieeaniee?a ? ?o iayaieie
iaia’yceaie. Aeyaeaia iaie iioaioe?eia noa?a uiaei i?aaeiaoa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aeaco? ia iai?yiie eiai ?icaeoeo, “ciio iaeaeeae/iai
?icaeoeo”. Oaeei /eiii, ?icaeoie i?aaeiaoa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ae?oae
i?aee?oeiaiai ? ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo iiaeiai eoe o iai?yi?
?icoe?aiiy noa?e ooieoe?iioaaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy oa naii?icaeoeo “ss”.

I?e ia?aoiae? a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo
a?aeaoaa?oueny iinooiiaa ?ioa??i?ecaoe?y ?inoaioe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.
A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue “aeey ?ioeo” ia?aoai?th?oueny o
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue “aeey naaa”, noa? aioo??oiueith ye?noth
iniaenoino?. E?euee?niee aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieaco?
noaoenoe/io aeinoia??i?noue ia?aoiaeo c a?eii a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ?c
ciai?oiueiai ieaio ia aioo??oi?e (2 = 12,11, 2 >
picscalex109010009000003b70000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02600240021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffb7ffffff00020000170200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000600017000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e2043797200cc83040000002d01000008000000320af4004d0101000000
320008000000320a00022f0102000000303110000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100
00020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a
a00146000100000063000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02
1000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d0100000400
0000f0010100030000000000 ).

O noaiiaeaii? naiiaiae?co a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o/i?a i?aee?oeiaiai oa
?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo aeyaeaii oae? oaiaeaioe??:

· c a?eii c?inoa? caeaoi?noue aei naiiaiae?co a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?;

· a?aeaoaathoueny ye?ni? ci?ie o eiai ci?no?: oi?io?oueny oe?e?nia
noaaeaiiy aei naaa ye noa’?eoa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?;

· c a?eii ci?iththoueny e?eoa??? naiiioe?iee a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?: aiie
ia?aoiaeyoue ?c ciai?oi?o ia aioo??oi?. Oi?io?oueny aeania noaaeaiiy aei
nai?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, yea aeineoue aaoiiiiia a?ae noaaeaiue oa
ioe?iie ioi/oth/eo, a?ae neooaoeaieo aieea?a.

Aeyaeaia ? iaaaoeaia oaiaeaioe?y: c a?eii c?inoa? e?euee?noue oeiey??a,
ye? i?e aecia/aii? nai?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i???ioothoueny o?eueee ia
aeanio aeoieo i?i naaa, iaaei??ii cina?aaeaeai? ia nia?, ui ? i?iyaii
aaioeaio?ecio.

Iaaaaeaia iine?aeiai?noue aeeiai?ee naiiaiae?co a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
a?aeia?aaea? ci?io eiai i?aaeiaoa, oaeoe/ii eiaeiee ianooiiee aoai eiai
?icaeoeo aeeth/a? ia a?eueo aenieiio ??ai? iiia?aaei?e, e??i oiai,
iiyaey?oueny uinue iiaa. Noaiiaeaiiy oeueiai ??aiy eaea a iai?yi?
ia?ai?uaiiy oyaeaiiy i?i naith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue cciai? a na?aaeeio,
a eiai ?icoe?aii? oa oi?ioaaii? oe?e?niiai noaaeaiiy aei naaa ye
noa’?eoa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

O ?iaio? aea?oueny oaiiiaiieia?y i?iya?a noa’?eoiino? i?aee?oe?a oa
noa?oieeaniee?a o a?aeiia?aeaeuei?e iiaaae?ioe?.

Aeyaeai? oa?aeoa?i? aeey i?aee?oe?a oa noa?oieeaniee?a oeie
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?: aioo??oiy, ciai?oiy (aeeiiaanueea), neooaoeaia,
i?aaiaoe/ia, aaca?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue. Aiie aecia/athoueny niaoeeo?eith
i?aaeiaoa, iniaeea?noth ?inoaioe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ?icaeiai?noth
noa’?eoa a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee, iniaeeainoyie ?aaeueii?
iiaaae?iee oa oa?aeoa?ii oeiiaeo neooaoe?e a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aii ??ai? ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? e
a?aeiia?aeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ?o.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae ?icaeoeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o i?aee?oeiaiio oa ?aiiueiio thiaoeueeiio a?oe?”
aiae?cothoueny oiiae ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oeiey??a o ??cieo
aeaeao ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae aeathoueny ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o ?icaeoeo ye noa’?eo?a a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. E??i
oiai, ?icaeyaea?oueny aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aee?oe?a
oa noa?oieeaniee?a a oiiaao oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aeoiaiiai aieeao.

Ine?eueee a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue iniaenoino? aecia/a?oueny aeineiiae?noth
? oe?e?ni?noth ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?? no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a, oi i?aeaeueoe
?? ??aaiue iiaeia oeyoii ?o ?icaeoeo. Caniaaie ?icaeoeo eiai?oeaiiai
eiiiiiaioa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ? ?iaioa iaaeaaiaa uiaei ?icoe?aiiy ?
iiaeeaeaiiy ciaiue oeiey??a i?i ii?ie ? i?aaeea a?aeiia?aeaeueii?
iiaaae?iee, ?icaeoie ?aoeaen??, oi?ioaaiiy oi?iiy i?iaiicoaaoe,
aiae?coaaoe ? ioe?ithaaoe aeanio iiaaae?ieo oa iiaaae?ieo ioi/oth/eo.
Aeey ?icaeoeo aiioe?eii-iioeaaoe?eiiai eiiiiiaioo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
iaiao?aeii ?icaeaaoe oi?iiy ? iio?aae oeiey??a a?ae/oaaoe ia?aaeeaaiiy
?ioeo ethaeae, aiiao?eii ni?aia?aaeeaaoe ?i, oi?ioaaoe iiceoeaia
noaaeaiiy aei ii?aeueieo ii?i ? aaaeaiiy /eieoe o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
ieie.

Aaaeeeaei iiiaioii ? ?icaeoie iiaaae?ieiaiai eiiiiiaioo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Aeoiaiee aieea ia?aaeaa/a? noai?aiiy ia’?eoeaieo
aeeoo?aeo oiia, ye? a iaea?eueo?e i??? iiaee a ni?eyoe ia?aaeeaaiith
?iaeea?aeii i?e/aoiino? aei ioi/oth/iai. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeia
aeeth/aiiy oeiey??a o i?aeoe/i? ii?aeuei? neooaoe??, ui aeiaaathoue
i?iyao a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Oea caaaa/o? aeina?ae ?o aeanii? iiaaae?iee,
ni?ey? ae?iaeaiith cae/ie a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee. E??i oiai,
iaiao?aeia iaaeaiiy oeiey?ai iiaeeeainoae aeey ?aae?caoe??
naiino?eiino?, ?i?oe?aoeae, oai?/ino?; niiioeaiiy oeiey??a aei coneeue,
ni?yiiaaieo ia naii?aae?caoe?th aeanieo iiaeeeainoae, aei naii?icaeoeo
ye noa’?eo?a a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Iaeii/anii neeaaeiaith /anoeiith i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
oeiey?a ? ?icaeoie ?? i?aaeiaoa oa ?ioa??i?ecaoe?y ?inoaioe??.

Aaaeeeaith oiiaith ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o i?aee?oe?a oa
noa?oieeaniee?a ? oaeineiiaeaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino?, caaeiaieaiiy a i?e
iniiaieo iio?aa a?eo o naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy, naii?aae?caoe??,
naiiaecia/aii?. Oe?e?nia no?oeoo?ia ae?aaeaiiy iaoai?cio ?icaeoeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o ??cieo aeaeao ae?yeueiino? iieyaa? o aca?iica’yceo
aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie aeoiaiiai aieeao oeiee oa naiii?aai?caoe??,
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, naii?icaeoeo iniaenoino? oeiey?a.

Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
aieiai? a?iioace oa iieiaeaiiy, aeianai? ia caoeno.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue ciiao c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee.

Oe?e?niee i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aee?oe?a
oa noa?oieeaniee?a aeiaaa? c’ynoaaiiy ?? i?aaeiaoa, ?inoaioe?? oa
iniaeeainoae eiai?oeaiiai, aiioe?eii-iioeaaoe?eiiai oa iiaaae?ieiaiai
eiiiiiaio?a.

I?e ia?aoiae? a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo
a?aeaoaathoueny ye?ni? c?ooaiiy a iioeaaoe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueii?
iiaaae?iee. ?icaeoie iioea?a eaea a iai?yi? a?ae aeooaeueiino? ciai?oi?o
niiioeaiue aei iiyae aeanieo aioo??oi?o niiioeaiue.

C a?eii a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia no?oeoo?e i?aaeiaoa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?,
cie?aia, ?icoe?aiiy oa oneeaaeiaiiy iaia’yce?a, caaaeaiue, aei?o/aiue,
ye? ?aae?co? iniaeno?noue. Iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? i?aee?oe?a oa
noa?oieeaniee?a uiaei ?aae?caoe?? i?aaeiaoa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
iia’ycai? c? noa?ith ooieoe?iioaaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy oa naii?icaeoeo “ss”.

I?e ia?aoiae? a?ae i?aee?oeiaiai aei ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo
a?aeaoaa?oueny iinooiiaa ?ioa??i?ecaoe?y ?inoaioe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.
A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue “aeey ?ioeo” ia?aoai?th?oueny o
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue “aeey naaa”, noa? aioo??oiueith ye?noth
iniaenoino?.

?icaeoie naiiaiae?co a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? eaea a iai?yi? ia?aianaiiy
oyaeaiiy i?i naith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue cciai? a na?aaeeio, a eiai
?icoe?aii? oa oi?ioaaii? oe?e?niiai noaaeaiiy aei naaa ye noa’?eoa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Oa?aeoa?ieie aeey i?aee?oe?a ? noa?oieeaniee?a oeiaie
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ?: aioo??oiy a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, ciai?oiy
(aeeiiaanueea) a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, neooaoeaia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue,
i?aaiaoe/ia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, aaca?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue.

Aaaeeeaeie iai?yiaie ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o ae?oae
i?aee?oeiaiai oa ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai a?eo ? ?icaeoie ?o ye noa’?eo?a
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ?icoe?aiiy ci?noo oa ianyao i?aaeiaoa,
?ioa??i?ecaoe?y ?inoaioe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Iiaiioe?iia iaaeaaia?/ia ea?oaaiiy ?icaeoeii a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o
i?aee?oe?a oa noa?oieeaniee?a iieyaa? a noeioethaaii? oa i?aai?caoe??
oiia i?iyao noa’?eoiino? oeiey??a o ??cieo aeaeao ae?yeueiino?,
i?aee??ieaii? a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee, iaeo?ae?caoe?? iaaaoeaii?
ae?? /eiiee?a aaca?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee.

Ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeaie iia’ycai? c iiaeeaeaiei
aea/aiiyi niaoeeo?ee ineoieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a, ui caaacia/othoue
i?eeiyooy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o i?aee?oeiaiio oa ?aiiueiio thiaoeueeiio
a?oe?, a oaeiae o aeyaeaii? oiia, ca yeeo eiaeai c oeeo iaoai?ci?a
ni?eya ae ?icaeoeo iiaiioe?iii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Iniaeeaino? i?aaeiaoa oa ?inoaioe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aee?oe?a ?
noa?oieeaniee?a // Iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe. Iaoeia?
caienee. Aei.1. -Ae?iaiae/, 1998. -N.76-84.

2. A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oeiey?a ye iniiaa noaiiaeaiiy eiai
a?iiaaeyinueei? c??eino? // Oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe?? a a?iiaaeyinueeiio
noaiiaeaii? iniaenoino?. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee ca??iee. -Ee?a-Ae?iaiae/,
1998. -N.97-100.

3. sse iaa/eoe o/i?a-i?aee?oe?a a/eoeny// Iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee aeey
a/eoae?a ? oe?eueieo ineoieia?a. Ae?iaiae/, 1996. -46n. (O ni?aaaoi?noa?
c I.A.Naa/eiii).

4. Iioeae a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee noa?oieeaniee?a. Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeeeaaea/?a AeAeI? ?i.?.O?aiea. Ae?iaiae/, 1995.
-N.63-71.

5. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ee/iinoe e a? i?iyaeaiea a nenoaia iiaaaeaiey e
iauaiey. Na. iao/i. o?oaeia. O.4 “Ineoieiaey iaaeaaiae/aneiai iauaiey”.
Ee?iaia?aae, 1992. -N.43-48. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c I.A.Naa/eiii).

6. A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue a/eoaey ye oaeoi? aoaeoeaiino? eiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao // Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? i?iaeaie aoiai?caoe??
iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae??. -E. 1993. -N.96-97.

7. Iioeae a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee noa?oieeaniee?a// No/ania
ineoieia?y a oe?ii?niiio aei???. Iaoa??aee o?ao?o Einothe?anueeeo
/eoaiue. O.1. Ee?a.1994. -N.237-239.

8. A/eoaeth i?i iioeae a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee noa?oieeaniee?a ?
?o a?aooaaiiy o iaaeaaia?/i?e aca?iiae??// Nenoaia oe?iiinoae ye
?aaoeyoi? iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae??. -Ee?a-Ae?iaiae/. 1994. -N.101-102.

9. Iaoai?ci iane?aeoaaiiy o iaaeaaia?/i?e nenoai? ssia Aiina
Eiiainueeiai // Oai?/a niaaeueia ssia Aiina Eiiainueeiai ? no/ani?noue.
-Euea?a, 1992. -N.27-28.

Oaoiie? E.I. ?icaeoie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o ae?oae i?aee?oeiaiai ?
noa?oiai oe?eueiiai a?eo. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 19.00.07 — iaaeaaia?/ia oa a?eiaa ineoieia?y.
?inoeooo ineoieia?? ?i.A.I.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1998.

O ?iaio? i?aaenoaaeaia oe?e?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o ae?oae i?aee?oeiaiai ? ?aiiueiai thiaoeueeiai
a?eo. ?ice?eaathoueny caeiiii??iino? aeaiiai i?ioeano. I?aaenoaaeai?
?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo i?aaeiaoa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aecia/a?oueny eiai “ciia iaeaeeae/iai ?icaeoeo” a
i?aee?oeiaiio ? ?aiiueiio thiaoeueeiio a?oe?. Aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea
?inoaioe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa iniaeeainoae noa’?eoa iiaaae?iee.
Aeine?aeaeai? ineoieia?/i? oiiae oa caniae aoaeoeaiiai aieeao ia
?icaeoie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o i?aee?oe?a ? noa?oieeaniee?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, ?inoaioe?y a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?,
iioeaaoe?y, i?aaeiao a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, noa’?eoi?noue.

Oaoiie? E.I. ?acaeoea ioaaonoaaiiinoe o aeaoae iiae?inoeiaiai e noa?oaai
oeieueiiai aic?anoa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 19.00.07 — iaaeaaiae/aneay e aic?anoiay
ineoieiaey. Einoeooo ineoieiaee ei.A.N.Einothea AII Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, 1998.

A ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaia oeaeinoiay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey
ioaaonoaaiiinoe o aeaoae iiae?inoeiaiai e ?aiiaai thiioaneiai aic?anoa.
?ane?uaathony caeiiiia?iinoe aeaiiiai i?ioeanna. I?aaenoaaeaiu
?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiiai eco/aiey iniaaiiinoae ?acaeoey i?aaeiaoa
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ii?aaeaeyaony aai “ciia aeeaeaeoaai ?acaeoey” a
iiae?inoeiaii e ?aiiai thiioaneii aic?anoa. Aea?ony oa?aeoa?enoeea
einoaioeee ioaaonoaaiiinoe e iniaaiiinoae noauaeoa iiaaaeaiey.
Enneaaeiaaiu ineoieiae/aneea oneiaey e niiniau yooaeoeaiiai aeeyiey ia
?acaeoea ioaaonoaaiiinoe o iiae?inoeia e noa?oaeeannieeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ioaaonoaaiiinoue, einoaioeey ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
iioeaaoeey, i?aaeiao ioaaonoaaiiinoe, noaueaeoiinoue.

Tatomyr L.P. The development of the responsibility of teenagers and
senior pupils.- Manuscript. The dissertation for a candidate degree in
psychological science speciality 19.00.07- Pedagogical and
development psychology. H.S.Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of
Academy of Pedagogical

Sciences of Ukraine. Kyiv, 1998.

The thesis provides the integral characteristics of the problem of the
development of the responsibility of teenagers and senior pupils. The
regularities of the development of pupils’ responsibility are
described. The experimental studies results of the peculiarities of
the development of the responsibility are produced here. “The range of
the nearest development” of responsibility of teenagers and seniors
pupils has been determined. The characteristics of the responsibility
stage as well as peculiarities of a person’s behaviors are given in
the thesis. Psychological conditions and means of an effective influence
on the development of responsibility of teenagers and senior pupils
have been investigated.

Key words : responsibility, instance of responsibility, motivation,
subject of responsibility, subjection .

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