3

3

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO E?AA?IAOEEE ?IAI? A.I.AEOOEIAA

AeAIENAIEI ?AAAI?E EAII?AeIAE*

OAeE 681.326.3

?ICAEOIE OAI??? ? ?IC?IAEA IAOIAeIEIA??

EIA?*IIAI NEIOACO IA?N IA INIIA?

AAAAOI??AIAAEO AAOIIAOIEO IIAeAEAE

05.13.05 — aeaiaioe oa i?eno?i?

ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee oa nenoai ea?oaaiiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?inoeooo? e?aa?iaoeee ?iai? A.I.Aeooeiaa IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaeaa?i Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/,

?inoeooo e?aa?iaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI ?anioae?ee A?ea?onue

Cae?aanueeee A?eaae?e Aeieo?iae/,

?inoeooo oaoi?/ii? e?aa?iaoeee

IAI ?anioae?ee A?ea?onue,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

?aa?iiae/ C?iia?e Eueaiae/,

?inoeooo e?aa?iaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aa?eaeia Ieaenaiae? Ieaenaiae?iae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeaeo?iiieo ia/enethaaeueieo iaoei Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie

«Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo»,

eaoaae?a ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 15 » ea?oiy 1999 a. i 14-00 /an. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Ae 26.194.03 i?e ?inoeooo? e?aa?iaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
252022, Ee?a, i?iniaeo Aeaaeai?ea Aeooeiaa, 40.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio a?oea?
?inoeoooo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ac?neaiee » 10 » aa?aciy 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ?iiaiia A.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ca inoaii? ?iee i?iaeaia eia?/iiai neioaco noa?
iaei??th c iniiaieo na?aae i?iaeai i?iaeooaaiiy a on?o i?ia?aeieo
iaoeiaeo oeaio?ao oa o??iao-ae?iaieeao iaaeaaeeeeo ?ioaa?aeueieo noai
(IA?N). Ianya o?iainoaaiiy ia ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, IAe? ?
IAeAeE? eeoa o NOA ia oeth i?iaeaio ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a ca?eueoeany a 10
?ac?a, aaea?/? ia?aaeueaoe ianya eioo?a, ui aeae?eythoueny ia
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie oanooaaiiy.

Aeinyaoe iaiao?aeii? aacaeaoaeoiino? i?iaeoieo ??oaiue IA?N ca
iaiao?aeieo iieaciee?a oaeaeeiae?? oa ianya?a onoaoeoaaiiy
o?aaeeoe?eieie aa?enoe/ieie iaoiaeaie ca aeiiiiiaith cania?a aiae?co
IA?N noa? oei aaae/a, /ei aeua neeaaei?noue ? aei??i?noue caaea/,
iaa?oue ca ?oiueiai iaooeeueiiai aaeineiiaeaiiy. Neooaoe?y
caaino?th?oueny oei, ui iiaeieaiiy caniaaie oaoiieia?? ii?iao 100 Iaoe
ni?e/eiy? ia?inoath/a iia??oaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino? neio?iiii?
noaiioaoi?ee. Iiaaii ae??oothoue i?iaeaio ye niaoe?aeuei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
oa ocaiaeaeoth/? i?e?inoaie o??i NOA (Intel, DEC), oae ? iaaeinoaoi?
?acoeueoaoe a aaeoc? aneio?iiii? noaiioaoi?ee, aeine?aeaeaiiy yei?
aeoea?cothoueny a ssiii??.

Oai??y oa iaoiaee eia?/iiai neioaco oeeo?iaeo i?eeaae?a ?icaeaaeany ye
i?ia?anoth/a oi?iae?caoe?y ?iaeaia?ii? aa?enoeee. Aenia?eiaioaeuei?
caniae eia?/iiai neioaco, ui ?ic?iaeythoueny oa ia’yaeai? ca inoaii?
?iee, i?ecia/ai? aeey aeinyaiaiiy aa?aioiaaii a??ia?aeieo ??oaiue
oeueiai aoaio ? caaaeyee oeueiio aeey ciaioaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia caniae
aiae?co, oa?aeoa?enoeee yeeo aeinyaathoue aaea nai?o iaae.

Aaeeeee aeeaae o ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie eia?/iiai neioaco a iniiaiiio a
aaeoc? aano?aeoii? oa i?eeeaaeii? oai??? aaoiiao?a aianee i?aaenoaaieee
oe?e A.I.Aeooeiaa, I.I.Aaa?eeiaa, A.Ae.Cae?aanueeiai, ?.I.Aaa?eiaa,
C.E.?aa?iiae/a, N.I.Iaei?iaa, A.A.Eaca??aa, TH.A.Eai?oiiiai?, Oaoiaia,
Eieaeoaea, Oa?oiai?na, Aeaea?a/a, Aiaa?a oa ?i. Aei oeueiai eiea ?ia?o
ne?ae a?aeianoe ? ?acoeueoaoe ii aeene?aoiiio aiae?co I.A. Eoiaiiaa,
TH.?. AEo?aaeueiaa, N.A. ssaeiinueeiai.

A?oiooth/enue ia oeeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoaoao, i?aeoe/io
ni?yiiaai?noue o iaaeao a?iioaoe/ieo aai ie?aieo ?aaeueieo eia?/ieo
iaiaaeaiue ae?noaee ianooii? oeeeee i?eeeaaeieo i?aoeue: neioac
iia?aoe?eieo aaoiiao?a (N.I.Iaei?ia, A.?.Iia?eia, C.E.?aa?iiae/,
A.A.Een?eia, I.N.I?e?o?i, A.Ae.Ei?ooiia, A.I.Ei?y/ei); neioac
i?e?ii?ia?aiieo aaoiiao?a a aacenao I?N, ICI oa IEI (N.?.Aa?aiia,
I.A.Iaeaa?i, I.E.Aaiaeiai, I.I.Aa?eaeia, A.A.Neey?ia, N.I.A/aniaa);
neioac iine?aeiai?nieo noai ia I?N oa N?N (A.Ae.Cae?aanueeee,
A.A.Eaca??a, TH.A.Eai?oiiiaa, I.?.I?eeue, A.O.I?uaiei); i?i?i?caoe?y
noai?a aaoiiaoa (?.A.Iioin?i, O.?.Aiaeii, E.?.A?iia); ie?ai? caaea/?
eia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy a na?aaeiaeu? iaiaaeaiue iao?e/ieo A?N (A.A.
I?uaiei); ie?ai? caniae ? aeai?eoie i?iaeooaaiiy no?oeoo? AII
(N.A.Iaei?ia, C.E.?aa?iiae/, A.?.Iia?eia, A.A.Aaaayi, I.A.Iaeaa?i) oa
?i.

Oe? ?iaioe ye iioaioe?aeuei? neeaaeia? ia ia’?aeiai? yeeiinue
iniiaiiieiaeiei no?eaeiai, iai?eeeaae, aaaaoi??aiaaith iiaeaeeth IA?N,
eiioo?e iaei??? c yeeo iai?/ai? a iiiia?ao?? Iae??na. Iaeiei c ?iia??ieo
iane?aee?a oeueiai ? iaaeinoaoi?e (iaoaiaoe/iee) aca?iica’ycie iiaeaeae
? aeaieo caaea/ nenoaiiiai ? eia?/iiai aoai?a. Oiio ao?aei? aeai? caaea/
eia?/iiai aoaio, ye i?aaeei, aecia/athoueny aa?enoe/ii, ui caaaeaee
ca?eueoo? ?iia??i?noue iiieeee. Oaeiae iaaeinoaoi? iiaeae? ? iaoiaee, ui
ia’?aeiothoue oe?e? eia?/iiai ? oiiieia?/iiai aoai?a. Oiio iioeiaeueia
ca e?eoa??yie eia?ee noaia iiaea ia?aoai?eoeny a iaaeoi caeoeiao
aiane?aeie i?iaeooaaiiy oiiieia?? aai acaaae? “ia aeio?anoaaoeny” aei
e?ioey.

Iaa?oue nai? “iaeaaaaoo?” ?iaioe, noeoii?noue yeeo eeoa oiiaii iiaeia
iacaaoe iaoiaeieia??th eia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy aeene?aoieo i?eeaae?a (aea
ia IA?N), i?noyoue a nia? aai iaoiaee neioaco aneio?iiieo noai, aai
iaoiaee neioaco i?e?ii?ia?aiieo(ia iniia? neio?iiieo) aaoiiao?a. AEiaeia
c ieo ia i?noeoue a nia? iaeaeaa i?aeoiaee a iaaeao on?o eia?/ieo
iaiaaeaiue, aiaeii/an ye c?inoath/a neeaaei?noue aaaaoi??aiaaiai
oi?aae?iiy aeiaaa? aai iaa?oioiaaiiai aeai?o iaeiiai c ieo, aai
noi?uaiiy iaio a iaei?e IA?N.

Nueiaiaei? a?eueo?noue iia iieno niaoeeo?eaoe?e IA?N ?ic?iaeai? iaeieie
aaoi?aie, a iaoiaeeee i?iaeooaaiiy — ?ioeie. Oiio /anoi ?nio?
iaocaiaeaeai?noue iaoiaeee ? iia, a?eueo?noue c yeeo i?noeoue a nia?
caniae iien?a ia a?eueoa, i?ae aeey iaeiiai ??aiy i?iaeoieo ??oaiue. Oea
ii?iaeaeo? o?oaeiiu? a ia?ai?aeaioiaoe? ? “noeeiaoe?” aeaieo iaa?oue ia
eia?/iiio aoai?. Iayai? aeiyoee — iiooaei? iiae CONLAN ? VHDL, aei
oi/ieo iien?a o?aineyoi??a yeeo iiee ui iaia? aeinooio, — eeoa
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeueiai. Ana iaaaaeaia yaey? niaith noeoii?noue ia
aecia/aieo nueiaiaei? ciaiue, a?aenooi?noue yeeo ia aeicaiey? aein?
no/anii noi?ioethaaoe ? oei a?eueo ?ica’ycaoe i?iaeaio eia?/iiai
i?iaeooaaiiy IA?N.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue —
?icaeiooe i?eeeaaeio oai??th eia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy a iai?yieo
o?aooaaiiy an?o eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue IA?N ? noai?eoe ia oe?e iniia?
aoaeoeaio iaoiaeieia?th ? nenoaio ai?iaiaaieo iaoiae?a ? iaoiaeee
eia?/iiai neioaco IA?N aeey ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie io?eiaiiy eia?/ieo
noai, ui caaacia/othoue iiceoeaia ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ oiiieia??,
aa?aioiaaio a??ia?aei?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy, iaeneiaeueio oaeaeeiae?th
i?e i?i?iaeueieo aeo?aoao iaeaaeiaiiy.

Iniiai? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ui aecia/athoueny iinoaaeaiith
iaoith:

— ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy caaaeueii? oai???, no/anieo noee?a ? iaoiae?a
eia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae ???a?o?/iiai
eia?/iiai neioaco IA?N, io?eiaoe a??ia?aei?, aeecuee? aei iioeiaeueieo
noaiioaoi?/i? ??oaiiy a ?aieao eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue, ui caaeathoueny;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo aaaaoi??aiaaiai ???a?o?/iiai neioaco
iine?aeiai?nieo (aneio?iiieo) i?eno?i?a o iaaeao a?aeiieo nueiaiaei?
eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue IA?N ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a: AIE, IE?N, IEI oa ?i., ui
i?noeoue a nia? iaoaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie iioei?caoe?? ? aaeaioaoe?? aei
??ciiiai?oieo cia/aiue eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue ? ui aeicaieeoue iaea?aeoaaoe
noaie iaeneiaeueii aeinyaeii? oaeaeeiae?? c e?euee?noth “iaeaaeiaiiy”,
ui caaea?oueny, o iaaeao oeeo iaiaaeaiue;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ???a?o?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy nenoaie aaaaoi??aiaaiai
i?e?ii?ia?aiiiai ea?oaaiiy IA?N ? ia/enethaaeueieo nenoai a aacenao IEI
? ICI, ui aeicaieeoue iaea?aeoaaoe aeecuee? aei iioeiaeueieo noaie ?
ae??ooaaoe iioei?coth/? caaea/? iie?eooy;

— ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio iaoiae?a eia?/iiai neioaco ye neeaaeiao iaoiaeieia??
? iaoiaeee, ui aeeth/a? a naaa: iaoiaee i?ioeaiii/iiai eiaeoaaiiy
aneio?iiieo aaoiiao?a, caniiaai? ia “?ica’ycoaaii?” ia?aoiae?a, ?/aai
ye? ia?aaeaecia/athoue iioeiaeueio ?aae?caoe?th aaoiiaoa ia?aaeath c
eia?/ieo a?ae?ioa/ieo i?ei?oea?a IA?N; iaoiae ???a?o?/iiai neioaco
no?oeoo?iiai aaoiiaoa, ui aeicaieeoue io?eiaoe aac ia?aae?aiiy
iioeiaeuei? ca e?euee?noth i?ei?oea?a ?aaoey?i? noaie c iaeneiaeueiith
oaeaeeiae??th; iaoiae iie?eooy, ui aeicaieeoue io?eiaoe iioeiaeuei?
??oaiiy; iaoiae i?iaeooaaiiy nenoai aae?anaoe?? i?e?ii?ia?aiiiai
oi?aae?iiy; iaoiae ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? i?iaeoieo niaoeeo?eaoe?e, ye?
neioacothoueny; iaoiae iie?ioaiiy yeino? o?anoaaiiy IA?N ? aaaaoioa?iaeo
ae?oeiaaieo ieao;

— ?ic?iaeoe iiao aeey aaaaoi??aiaaiai iieno IA?N ? ia/enethaaeueieo
nenoai;

— aeey oi/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy eeth/iaeo “iaoai?ci?a” iaoiaeieia?? ?
iaoiaeee, ui ?? neeaaeathoue, iaoiae?a, aeai?eoi?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
?ic?iaeoe ianooii? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy: noi?ioethaaoe aaaaoi??aiaao
aaoiiaoio iiaeaeue IA?N ? iiaeaeue “e?n” (noeoii?noue aaaaoi??aiaaeo
iiaeaeae) ia/enethaaeueieo nenoai c ??cii??aeieo aai iaeiioeiiaeo IA?N;
ia?aaei? aaoiiaoi? iiaeae? o?aaiaio?a a?o?oaeoo?e ? no?oeoo?e IA?N —
ia?aaeo iaaaceieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a, ia?aae? naeaaioe?aeueieo ?
ia?aeaeueieo aaoiiao?a; aecia/eoe ? aeiaanoe iaiao?aei? ? aeinoaoi?
oiiae a?aenooiino? eia?/iiai ?eceeo a aeia?eueiiio aneio?iiiiio
aaoiiao?, a oaeiae aeinoaoi? oiiae, ca yeeo a i?ioean? aaaaoi??aiaaiai
neioaco aoeaaeo ooieoe?e caoaeaeaiiy ? aeoiae?a oi/ii
caaeiaieueiythoueny eia?/i? iaiaaeaiiy ia e?euee?noue aoiae?a i?ei?oea?a
oeio AND ? OR ? eiao?oe??io ?icaaeoaeaiiy aeoiaeo.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeeiiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeaa? ?acoeueoaoe,
io?eiai? A.I.Aeooeiaei, A.Ae.Cae?aanueeei, A.Ae.Oaoiaiii oa ?i. a
i?eeeaaei?e oai??? ne?i/aiieo aaoiiao?a oa ?oi?e ?icaeoie a i?aoeyo
N.?.Aa?aiiaa, TH.A.Eai?oiiiai?, I.A.Iaeaa?ia, A.O.I?uaiei noiniaii aei
a?aooaaiiy eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue IA?N, iiaoaeiae aaaaoi??aiaai? aaoiiaoii?
iiaeae?, iiaeae? “e?n”, ia?aaeieo iiaeaeae aaoiiao?a ? i?aai?caoe??
i?ioeano ???a?o?/iiai neioaco. Iaoiaeeee ???a?o?/iiai neioaco, iaoiaee ?
i?ioeaaeo?e eiaeoaaiiy noai?a ? iie?eoue aeei?enoiaothoue iaoiaee Eth,
O?an?, A.Ae.Cae?aanueeiai ? aeaaa?o ?icaeoo?a Oa?oiai?na – No??ica
noiniaii aei iiiaeeie ia?aoiae?a aneio?iiiiai aaoiiaoa. I?iaaaeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioothoueny oaeiae ia aeei?enoaii? aia?ao?a oai???
iiiaeei, a?ao?a, /enae ? aeaiaio?a aoeaai? aeaaa?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Noeoii?noue i?iaaaeaieo o ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiue ? ia ?o
iniia? ?ic?iaie yaey? niaith oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy, iaa?oiooaaiiy ?
?ica’ycaiiy cia/ii? i?eeeaaeii? i?iaeaie — ?ic?iaee iaoiaeieia??
???a?o?/iiai eia?/iiai neioaco iine?aeiai?nieo noai IA?N, ui
caaeiaieueiythoue on?i eia?/iei iaiaaeaiiyi ye oi?iae?ciaaii? no?aoaa??
? oaeoeee i?eeiyooy i?iaeoieo ??oaiue, ? iiaiai ?? “iaiiaiaiiy”
i?eioeeiaie nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo oa ???a?o?/iino?, iaoiaeeeaie neioaco
aneio?iiieo ? i?e?ii?ia?aiieo aaoiiao?a, iaoiaeaie ? aeai?eoiaie neioaco
oeeo aaoiiao?a c o?aooaaiiyi iaiaaeaiue, ui aeicaieyoue io?eiaoe
aaeaeaaoi? ao?aeiei aeaiei i?iaeoi? ??oaiiy, aeecuee? aei iioeiaeueieo,
ui caaacia/othoue iaeneiaeueio oaeaeeiae?th.

Aei iniiaieo iiaeo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ui neeaaeathoue ci?no
noi?ioeueiaaii? i?iaeaie ? i?aaenoaaeythoueny aei caoenoo,
a?aeiinyoueny oae?:

— iiaee i?aeo?ae aei eia?/iiai neioaco oa iiaoaeiae IA?N ?
ia/enethaaeueieo nenoai c ??cii??aeieo IA?N, caniiaaiee ia
cai?iiiiiaaieo aaaaoi??aiaa?e aaoiiaoi?e iiaeae? oa noeoiiino? oaeeo
iiaeaeae — “e?n”, yeee aeicaieeoue noai?thaaoe iia? iaoiaee ? aeai?eoie
neioaco;

— aoaeoeaia i?eeeaaeia oai??y aneio?iiieo aaoiiao?a ? ia ?? iniia?
iaoiaeeea ???a?o?/iiai neioaco aneio?iiieo noai ye ia?aae c eia?/ieo
i?ei?oea?a ca oiia on?o a?aeiieo nueiaiaei? eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue IA?N:
IE?N, AIE, IEI oa ?i.;

— iaoiaeeea ???a?o?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy nenoai aaaaoi??aiaaiai
i?e?ii?ia?aiiiai oi?aae?iiy IA?N ? ia/enethaaeueieo na?aaeiaeu aeey
??ciiiai?oieo eia?/ieo aacen?a, ui i?noeoue o nia? i?aenenoaio iaoiae?a,
o oiio /ene? ?icaeoie iaoiaeo iie?eooy A.Ae.Cae?aanueeiai ? iaoiae
“oiaeiaee”, ui aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe i?iaeoi? ??oaiiy, ii??aiyi? c
e?aueie ?iaeaia?ieie;

— nenoaia iaoiae?a eia?/iiai neioaco, ui neeaaea?oueny c iaoiaeo
i?ioe?eceeiaiai eiaeoaaiiy a ei?aeiiao iaiaaeaiue, iaoiaeo no?oeoo?iiai
neioaco, iaoiaeo iie?eooy a caaea/ao eiaeoaaiiy i?e?ieiiaiae, iaoiaeo
iioeiaeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy nenoai aae?anaoe?? i?e?ieiiaiae, iaoiaeo
ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? i?iaeoieo niaoeeo?eaoe?e, ye? neioacothoueny, ?
iaoiaeo iie?ioaiiy yeino? o?anoaaiiy IA?N ? aaaaoioa?iaeo ae?oeiaaieo
ieao, ui iiaeeo?eo? oaeeueiaee aeai?eoi E?;

— aea? aa?n?? aeaiei- ? PL-iiae?aii? iia aeey aaaaoi??aiaaiai eia?/iiai
iieno IA?N ? nenoai, ui aeicaieythoue iaeiiiai?oii aeaoae?coaaoe aaaaoi
iiaieo eiino?oeoe?e a ieco?aeiiio i?ioean? eia?/iiai neioaco;

— iiaa, aoaeoeaia oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy eeth/iaeo “iaoai?ci?a”
iaoiaeieia??, ?? iaoiaeee, iaoiae?a, aeai?eoi?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
neeaaea?oueny c iiaeaeae (aaaaoi??aiaaa aea?aaiiiae?aia aaoiiaoia
iiaeaeue IA?N ? iiaeaeue “e?n” ye noeoii?noue aaaaoi??aiaaeo iiaeaeae —
iiaeaeue ia/enethaaeueieo nenoai c ??cii??aeieo IA?N, ia?aae? iaaaceiieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a, naeaaioe?aeueieo ? ia?aeaeueieo aaoiiao?a ye iiaeae?
o?aaiaio?a a?o?oaeoo?e ? no?oeoo?e IA?N), aecia/aieo ? aeiaaaeaieo
iaiao?aeieo ? aeinoaoi?o oiia a?aenooiino? eia?/iiai ?eceeo a
aeia?eueiiio aneio?iiiiio aaoiiao? (c i??i?eoaoii aei aiaeia?/ieo
?acoeueoao?a Aeae.O?an?), a oaeiae aeinoaoi?o oiia aeey nenoaie
aeaiaeieiaeo ?icaeoo?a ia iiiaeei? ia?aoiae?a, ca yeeo a nenoaiao
aoeaaeo ooieoe?e caoaeaeaiiy ? aeoiae?a oi/ii caaeiaieueiythoueny
eia?/i? iaiaaeaiiy ia e?euee?noue aoiae?a i?ei?oea?a oeio AND ? OR ?
eiao?oe??io ?icaaeoaeaiiy aeoiaeo.

Io?eiaia iaoiaeieia?y oa ?? neeaaeia? o?aaiaioa?ii aaaaoi?aciai
ia?aa??yeeny ia i?aeoeoe? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ??ciiiai?oieo ca iiooaei?noth ?
i?ecia/aiith niaoeia/enethaa/?a. Oea aeicaieeei ooi/ieoe iaeano?
canoinoaaiiy a?eueoino? ?ic?iaeaieo aeai?eoi?a, a oaeiae caanoe aei
i?i?ioio aai aeeeth/eoe a ieo cian?i ia?aa?? aa??aio?a, ye?
i?aaenoaaeythoue i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeaia a
aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iaoiaeieia?y ia?aaecia/aia aeey aeei?enoaiiy a
eia?/iiio i?iaeooaaii? ia/enethaaeueieo i?eeaae?a ? nenoai a
IA?N–?aae?caoe?? oa ?o aaaaoi??aiaaeo i?eno?i?a oi?aae?iiy, ui
c’?aeiothoue ye i?e?ii?ia?aii?, oae ? aneio?iii? iine?aeiai?ni? aeiee oa
?oi? eiiiiceoe??. ?iaioa aeeiioaaeany ia iniia? ia?ae?eo iaeaaaeeea?oeo
IAe? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iniiaieie I?ia?aiaie ?aaei?ia, AeEIO N?N?,
AeEIO Oe?a?ie, cie?aia «?aie?a», «E?iia» oa ?i., ca a?aeiia?aeiith
ainiaeiaia??iith oaiaoeeith a iaeano? ?icaeoeo iaoiae?a oa
?ino?oiaioaeueieo cania?a ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee oa aaoiiaoecaoe??
1976-1993 ??., ui aeicaieeei aeiaanoe iniiai? aeai?eoie ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui neeaaeathoue iaoiaeieia?th, iaoiaeeee, iaoiaee, aei
noaae??, ia ye?e aiie aeei?enoiaothoueny ye oi?iaeueiee ?ino?oiaio
?iaeaia?aie-?ic?iaieeaie. Aeei?enoaiiy ?o ia i?aeoeoe? aeicaiey? cia/ii
(a?eueoa i?ae aaea?/?) nei?ioeoe oa?i?ie ?ic?iaie ? i?aeoe/ii oieeiooe
iiieeie i?e ii??aiyieo aeo?aoao iaeaaeiaiiy c aa?enoe/ieie ?ic?iaeaie
aenieiai eeano. Oae? ?ic?iaee i?ino?o? o iaeaaiaeaeai? ? ia aeiaaathoue
iaeaooaaiiy.

Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaeeee, iaoiaee, aeai?eoie ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, “ui
iaiiaiththoue” iaoiaeieia?th, aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o aaaaoueio ?ic?iaeao,
o oiio /ene?:

— niaoei?ioeani?e a?aie/ii? oaeaeeiae??, na?aaeiuei? iiooaeiino? aeey
ai?oiaeo ? noaoe?iia?ieo niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ia/enethaaeueieo nenoai
(ni?eueii c OeEA“Aeiac” ? ?EA “Aeiaon”);

— i?iaeo i?e?iAII “Aeaeo?ii?ea N5–21” (ni?eueii c EEOA EIAI “Na?oeaia”);

— IAeAeE? ii noai?aiith iaeaoieo c?ace?a i?i?-AII NIO ? IAII ?yaeo
“Iae?ii” (ni?eueii c AI ?i. N.I. Ei?ieueiaa);

— iaeaoiee c?acie nenoaie iaeaaiaeaeaiiy aeey II1810 (ni?eueii c IAI
“I?e?ii?ioeani?”);

— i?iaeo aaaaoi??aiaaiai i?eno?ith oi?aae?iiy a ?aieao IAe? noai?aiiy
?aaeoeoe?eii-iioieiai? IAII (ni?eueii c a?aeae?eii ? 255 ?inoeoooo
e?aa?iaoeee ?i. A.I.Aeooeiaa IAI Oe?a?ie ? IAI “Aeiiae”).

Aeniea aoaeoeai?noue ? a?aeiinia i?inoioa, a?aenooi?noue ia?aai?o a
iaoiaeeeao, iaoiaeao ? aeai?eoiao iaoiaeieia?? noaee i?aenoaaith aeey
?oiuei? ?aae?caoe?? a aaaaoueio aenia?eiaioaeueieo CAD-iaeaoao ?
CAD-nenoaiao e?a?i NIAe, o oiio /ene?:

— a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aa?n?yo nenoai “I?IAEO-AYNI” ? “I?IAEO AN”;

— a aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaeao? “OANNIA AN”;

— a CAD-nenoai? “AAOIIAO ”.

Io?eiai? a aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoaoe yaeythoue niaith noeoii?noue iiaeo
ciaiue, ui aeicaieyoue ae??ooaaoe iia? caaea/? ia eia?/iiio, a oaeiae ia
nenoaiiiio ? oiiieia?/ieo aoaiao i?iaeooaaiiy IA?N ? nenoai.

Oai?aoe/i? ? i?eeeaaei? ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ? i?iaeiaaeothoue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a ?yae? iaa/aeueieo
eo?n?a ca a?aeiia?aeieie niaoe?aeueiinoyie, ui /eoathoueny a ??cieo
aocao Ee?aa, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?ao, Iineae.

A?ae ?yaeo i?aei?e?inoa io?eiai? aeieoiaioe, ye? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaie, ui
neeaaeathoue ci?no aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Ae?aaiinoeea, iaae?ei?noue ? iaiaaeaeiaio
iani?aaiinoae” (Aoaeaiaoo, 1990), VII Neiiic?oi? “Canoinoaaiiy
i?e?ii?ioeani??a ? i?e?iAII (Aoaeaiaoo, 1992), ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea” (Oa?e?n?, 1974,
1976), 1-e ? 2-e Ananithcieo ia?aaeao “I?e?ii?ioeani?” (?eaa, 1975,
1977), VII Ananithci?e ia?aae? c i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy (I?inuee, 1977), I
Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? ii canoinoaaiith i?e?ii?ioeani??a (Aaiayi,
1977), VI Ananithciiio nai?ia?? ii ?ic?iaoe? ? ai?iaaaeaeaiith nenoai
eiio?ieth ? ae?aaiinooaaiiy ?AI (Iineaa, 1984), ?anioae?eainuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy NAI? — oeyo aaeineiiaeaiiy ?iaeaia?ii?
i?aoe? ? yeino? ?ic?iaie” (A?iieoey, 1987), ?anioae?eainuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie i?iaeooaaiiy caiiaeaieo oa iai?acaiiaeaieo IA?N”
(sseoa, 1989), iaaiai?thaaeeny ia aaaaoueio ?anioae?eainueeeo nai?ia?ao
Iaoeiai? ?aaee c i?iaeaie “E?aa?iaoeea” IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe?? ii ?iaio?. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 60
ae?oeiaaieo ?ia?o, o oiio /ene? 1 iiiia?ao?y, 3 aeia?aeieee, 3
aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa N?N? ia aeiaoiaee.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, aeiaeaoe?a ? i?noeoue noi??iie
iniiaiiai oaenoo — 319, ?enoie?a — 60, oaaeeoeue — 27, noi??iie
aeiaeaoe?a — 30. O aeena?oaoe?? oa aaoi?aoa?ao? an? icia/aiiy, oi?ioee,
oai?aie, oaa?aeaeaiiy, i?iiiceoe?? ioia?othoueny iaeiei, e??ciei ?yaeii
oeeo?.

Aei caoenoo aeiinyoueny:

1. Oai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ye ?icaeoie i?eeeaaeii? oai??? aaoiiao?a.

2. Iaoiaeieia?y eia?/iiai neioaco IA?N oa ?? neeaaeia?.

3. Iaoiaeeea ???a?o?/iiai neioaco aneio?iiieo aaoiiao?a oa noai IA?N.

4. Iaoiaeeea ???a?o?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy i?e?ii?ia?aiieo i?eno?i?a
oi?aae?iiy IA?N ia canaae? neio?iiieo aaoiiao?a.

5. Nenoaia iaoiae?a eia?/iiai neioaco noai IA?N.

6. ?ic?iaea iia aaaaoi??aiaaiai iieno i?iaeoieo eia?/ieo niaoeeo?eaoe?e
IA?N.

Aeaeea?aoe?y i?i iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a o ?iaioao, ui aeeiioaaeenue
o ni?aaaoi?noa?. An? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? caeiaoaa/ io?eiaa
naiino?eii: o iiiia?ao?? [1] — n. 1–32, 54–128, 208–260; a
[1,16,18,23,26] — oai??y oa iaoiaeieia?y eia?/iiai neioaco IA?N; a
[1,4–6,19] — iaoiaeeea ???a?o?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy nenoai aaaaoi??aiaaiai
i?e?ii?ia?aiiiai oi?aae?iiy IA?N; a [1,14,15,17] — aieiai? ?aea? oa
iaoaiaoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie iaoiae?a eia?/iiai neioaco; a [7,8,24]
— naiaioeea ? neioaenen iia aaaaoi??aiaaiai iieno IA?N; o [20] — n.
20–45, 192–306; o [22] — n. 86–106. ?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoiaeieia?/ieo, oaoi?/ieo oa i?ia?aiieo cania?a aeeiiaia iniaenoi
caeiaoaa/ai aai i?ae eiai ea??aieoeoaii ? ca eiai o/anoth
ni?a?ia?oieeaie ?inoeoooo e?aa?iaoeee ?i. A.I.Aeooeiaa IAI Oe?a?ie,
oao?aoeyie aaeocaaeo i?aei?e?inoa oa i?aai?caoe?e [9, 19–22 oa
aeieoiaioe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy].

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

sse?noue ia/enethaaeueii? nenoaie (i?eno?ith), yea ?aae?co?oueny o IA?N,
aaaaoi a /iio aecia/a?oueny oei, iane?eueee oi/ii a?aoiaothoueny ia an?o
aoaiao i?iaeooaaiiy aeey ia’?eo?a aeaiiai eeano aeiiae ? iaiaaeaiiy. *ei
aeua a ???a?o?? i?ioeano i?iaeooaaiiy aeiioneathoueny iiieeee aai
iaoi/iino?, oei neeaaei?oa ?o onoiooe aai neiiiainoaaoe caniaaie a?eueo
iecueeiai ??aiy ? oei iaioa eiia??i?noue io?eiaiiy a??ia?aeiiai ??oaiiy.

Oiio ii/aoeiaei e?ieii o ?ica’ycaii? i?iaeaie eia?/iiai neioaco aoei
i?iaaaeaia aiae?oe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy IA?N ye ia’?eoo i?iaeooaaiiy
(?icae?e I). A ca’yceo c oei, ui i?ioeane e??ciiai i?iaeooaaiiy IA?N ye
aeno?aeiee, oae ? ieco?aeiee ? ???a?o?/ieie, aaaaoi??aiaaeie, oi e
iniaeeaino? IA?N aeioe?eueii aiae?coaaoe a?aeiia?aeii oeei ??aiyi.
Iniiai? c ieo ii aeno?aei?e ???a?o?? oae?:

eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/i?:

— iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeai? e?enoaee, ui ?aae?cothoueny ii
EIII-oaoiieia??, ieiuath, ye i?aaeei, ia a?eueoa 1010 ii2. ?aei?aei?
e?enoaee iathoue ?ici??e: Celeron 300A/333 – 9.814.6 ii2, e?enoaee
eiiieaeoo Aia?eea — 12.712.7 ii2;

— e?enoaee oiaeiaothoueny a noaiaea?oi? ei?ione oaeeo oei?a: DIP-ei?ion,
ui ? aei 48 aeao?yaeiaeo aeaiae?a; PLCC-ei?ion, ui ia? a?ae 68 aei 84
aeaiae?a, ?icoaoiaaieo ii ia?eiao?o ei?iono; PGA-iao?e/iee ei?ion, ui
ia? a?ae 208 aei 591 aeaiae?a; ei?ione eiiieaeoo Aia?eea iathoue a?ae
256 aei 300 ooe?ueiaeo aeaiae?a c iao?e/iei ?icoaooaaiiyi.

Oiiieia?/i?: iaea?eueoa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaaoee IA?N c i?iaeoieie
ii?iaie 0.25 iei. A ?a?ii? aeinyaiooa oeeo?a 0.3 iei, a a NOA ? ssiii??
— 0.18 iei. I?i?iaeueia ieiua o?aicenoi?a eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 0.50.8
iei2. Cae/aei? 2-3 oa?e iaoae?caoe??. A Oe?a?i? ?ia?oie/? ii?ie — 3 iei,
a?aie/i? — 2 iei ? iaeei oa? iaoae?caoe??.

Noaiioaoi?/i?: ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue IA?N-?aae?caoe?e caeeoa?oueny ia
neio?iii?e noaiioaoi?oe?. A on?o o??iao-ae?iaieeao IA?N i?aeoe/ii
anoaiiaeeeny oae? cia/aiiy eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue: a a?ae?ioa/ieo eia?/ieo
i?ei?oeaao oeio AND, OR ? XOR e?euee?noue aoiae?a a?ae 2 aei 6, ?ieiee
aei 10, iaaaioaaeoaaeueia “ni?iiiaei?noue” — a?ae 3 aei 10, cao?eiea a
iaeiiio eaneaae? — a?ae 0.5 aei 1.0 in. Oeie o?eaa??a — D, SR, JK ? ?oi?
??ciiaeaee. Caa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y ?icoe?aiiy iiiaieeaoo?e iae?in?a o
a?ae?ioaeao. O?aaeeoe?ei? i?aaiaiiy aei aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueii?
oaeaeeiae?? i?e i?i?ioi? eia?/ieo aeaiaio?a ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy
e?eueeino? eaneaae?a ? i?i?i?caoe?? aeiaaeeie o?an, a oaeiae ca?eueoaiiy
aaee/ei neio?ii?coth/eo /anoio. Ia?ao?ae ia /anoioe iiiaae 100 Iaoe
noai?th? iia? i?iaeaie, a ca’yceo c /ei ca?eueoo?oueny ?ioa?an aei
oai??? ? i?aeoeee aneio?iiieo noai.

A?o?oaeoo?ii-no?oeoo?i?: ii?yae ?c o?eaath/ei aaeineiiaeaiiyi
a?o?oaeoo?e oii Iaeiaia a IA?N oeyoii ?? oneeaaeiaiiy (Pentium Pro,
Power PC 601,603 ? ?i.) aai ni?iuaiiy — RISC-a?o?oaeoo?a, o?aini’thoa?e,
oni?oii ?icaeaathoueny ia?aeaeuei? a?o?oaeoo?e (N-eoa ? ?? ??ciiaeaee,
data flow, nenoiee/i? oeio IWARP, noia?neaey?i? VLIW oa ?i.). O?eaa?
IA?N-?aae?caoe?y ia o?eueee yaea? IN, aea oaeiae ?ioa?i?aoaoi??a, nenoai
aaaaoi??aiaai? aioo??oiuei? iai’yo? oa ?ioeo a?o?oaeoo?ieo iiaeoeae ca
aeiiiiiaith aaaaoi??aiaaiai i?e?ii?ia?aiiiai oi?aae?iiy ? ia?aeaeueiiai
i?e?ii?ia?aioaaiiy aeey ?icia?aeaethaaiiy i?ae?aa?no?iaeo ia?aneeie.

Oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? IA?N i?iaiae?ciaai? ia o?eueee aeey ?oiueiai
a?aooaaiiy a caaea/ao eia?/iiai neioaco, aea aieiaiei /eiii aeey oiai,
uia i?e ?ica’ycaii? oeeo caaea/ ia iia??oeoe iieaciee?a, ui
caeeaaeathoueny i?e i?iaeooaaii? a?o?oaeoo?e ? no?oeoo?e ia’?eoa.

Ie??i oeueiai, aeey yeiiiaa oi/i?oiai oi?ioethaaiiy i?iaeaie aoei
iaiao?aeia aiae?oe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aoai?a, ??ai?a, iniiaieo caaea/ ?
noee?a e??ciiai i?iaeooaaiiy IA?N (i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?icae?eo I). Noeoiii
noi?ioeueiaaii n?i aoai?a, ui ?noi?e/ii neeaeeny a oai??? ? i?aeoeoe?
i?iaeooaaiiy, eiaeiee c yeeo neeaaea?oueny c iaeiiai aai aeae?eueeio
??ai?a.

Ooieoe?iiaeueiee. Iaoa — i?iaeooaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iieno,
oi?iaeueii a?aeiia?aeath/iai ia ieoaiiy, ui (a ia ye) iiaeiai
aeeiioaaoe ia’?eo a IA?N-?aae?caoe??. Ie?ai? ??ai? oeueiai aoaio ua ia
noi?ioaaeeny.

Nenoaiiee. Iaoa — ?ic?iaea a?o?oaeoo?e ia’?eoa. Ia oeueiio aoai?
?ic??ciythoue oae? ??ai?: nenoaiiee, iiaiee (ao?aeii? iiae ia’?eoa),
iia?aoe?eii? nenoaie, anaiaea?iee, nenoaie eiiaiae.

Eia?/iee. Iaoa — i?iaeooaaiiy no?oeoo?e aia?aoii? /anoeie ia’?eoa, yeee
?aae?co?oueny, i?e?ii?ia?ai ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo noai. Ooo ?ic??ciythoue
no?oeoo?iee, i?e?ii?ia?aiiee (i?ae?aa?no?iaeo ia?aneeie) ?
ooieoe?iiaeueii-noaiiee (eia?/ieo noai) ??ai?.

Noaiioaoi?/iee. Iaoa — i?iaeooaaiiy aeaeo?e/ii? i?eioeeiiai? noaie
(IN). O?aaeeoe?ei? ??ai?: ?ic?aooiie ia?aiao??a noaiioaoi?/ieo
aeaiaio?a, neioac aeaeo?e/ii? IN, iiaeaethaaiiy ? ei?aeoe?y IN.

Oiiieia?/iee. Iaoa — ?ic?iaea aaiiao??? ianie oioioaaeii?a anueiai
e?enoaeo IA?N (a IE?N — ?ic?iaea ?ici?uaiiy eia?/ii? noaie a na?aaeiaeu?
iae?i/a?oiie CLB ? IOB ? o?an i?aec’?aeiaiiy). ??ai?:
ane?cii-oiiieia?/iee, iao?e/iee, oioioaaeiiiee (a IE?N — eiiiiiiaee,
?ici?uaiiy, o?anoaaiiy ? ei?aeoe?? i?e i?ae?aooieo cao?eiie a o?anao). A
aeayeeo iaoiaeeeao ?nio? ??aaiue iaei/eiaeo ae?aa?ai.

Eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/iee. Iaoa — ?ic?iaea eiino?oeoi?nueei? ?
oaoiieia?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? ia eiino?othaaiiy ? aeaioiaeaiiy ie?aieo
aoce?a ? anueiai e?enoaeo IA?N. O?aaeeoe?ei? ??ai?: ?ic?iaea
eiino?oeoea?a, ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/ieo ia?o?oo?a, “ca??ea” anueiai
e?enoaeo a ei?ion?.

Aoai iaeaaiaeaeoaaeueieo ?ia?o. Iaoa — noai?aiiy ae??caeaoiiai iaeaoo
IA?N aai c?acea nenoaie ia IA?N.

Aeeiiaiee aiae?c cania?a oi?ioaaiiy yae?a ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iieno
ia/enethaaeueii? nenoaie ? oeyoe eiai ei?aeoiiai ?icoe?aiiy. Iai?/aiee
oeyo oi?iae?caoe?? ia?aoiaeo a?ae caaea/ ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aei caaea/
nenoaiiiai i?iaeooaaiiy: aea?? (?ic?iaea) ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o iia,
neeaae ?ioa?i?aoaoi??a, yae?a iia?aoe?eii? nenoaie ? nenoaie eiiaiae ye
“aa?oiueiai iiaa?oo” aaaaoi??aiaaiai oi?aae?iiy a IA?N c oi/ee ci?o ?o
iiaeeeai? i?e?ii?ia?aiii? ? aia?aoii? ?aae?caoe?? ? eia?/iiai neioaco.
Iieacaii, ui ?acoeueoaoe ?ica’ycoaaiiy oeeo caaea/, iniaeeai caeeth/i?,
o aecia/aii? oi/ii? a?o?oaeoo?e ? ao?aeieie aeey eia?/iiai aoaio ?
?noioii aieeaathoue ia aoaeoeai?noue ?ica’ycoaaiiy eiai caaea/. Cie?aia,
cacia/aii iaoaiaoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? o?oaeiiu? ia?aoiaeo a?ae ?i?oaoe?eieo
iiaeaeae nenoaiiiai aoaio aei aaoiiaoieo eia?/iiai /a?ac
iaocaiaeaeaiino? oeeo iiaeaeae.

Aiae?c caaea/ eia?/iiai aoaio ii??aiyii c ?ioeie aeaoae?ciaaiee aeey
aecia/aiiy ?nioth/eo “i?iaaeei” o i?ioean? oi?iae?caoe?? eia?/iiai
i?iaeooaaiiy, a?eueo oi/iiai oi?ioethaaiiy i?iaeaie ? caaea/, ui ??
neeaaeathoue. Iniiaiith o?aaeeoe?eiith caaea/ath no?oeoo?iiai ??aiy ?
?ic?iaea ? iioei?caoe?y no?oeoo?e IA?N c oaiaeaioe??th iaeneiaeueiiai
?icia?aeaethaaiiy ye ia?aae? oeiiaeo ? ianoaiaea?oieo aeie?a ia?iaee
aeaieo. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iaaeinoaoiuei a?aeiieo aaoiiaoieo
iiaeaeae ? ia?aae? aaoiiao?a, cai?iiiiiaaii? N.?. Aa?aiiaei, A.A.
E?aaae?eii, a oaeiae aaaeeea?noue i?aaeeueiiai aeai?o i?e?ii?ia?aiii?
?/aai iine?aeiai?nii? ?aae?caoe?? aaaaoi??aiaaiai oi?aae?iiy a IA?N.
Iniiaiith caaea/ath, ui ae??oo?oueny ia ??ai? i?ae?aa?no?iaeo ia?aneeie,
? aaaaoiaa??aioia iioei?coth/a ia?aoai?aiiy i?e?ii?ia?ai ye ei?aeoieo
aeai?eoi?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy IA?N-nenoaie a iaaeao eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue.
I?aee?aneth?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ni?eueiiai aeinyaiaiiy i?i?iaeueii?
aeiaaeeie ? ?aaoey?iino? i?e?ii?ia?aie c aeeeth/aiiyi eia?/iiai ?eceeo
(e?eoe/ieo aiiie) eiaeiiai no?eeiai noaio. O ieco?aei?e ???a?o??
ianooiiiai ??aiy — caaea/a iioei?coth/iai neioaco ooieoe?iiaeueii? noaie
(ia?aae? c eia?/ieo i?ei?oea?a) a iaaeao an?o eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue,
a?eueii? a?ae eia?/iiai ?eceeo ca an?ia a?aoiaioaie c aeinyaiaiiyi
aeecueei? aei i?i?ioio e?eueeino? i?ei?oea?a, aaee/ei cao?eiie a
eaioethaeeao eia?/ieo aeaiaio?a ? ?aaoey?iino?.

Noeneee aiae?c o?aaeeoe?eieo caaea/ i?iaeooaaiiy i?eioeeiiaeo noai,
oiiieia?? ? eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/ieo iaaaaeaii eeoa aeey oiai, uia
iieacaoe iaiao?aei?noue a?aooaaiiy ie?aieo iniaeeainoae ?oiueiai
?ica’ycaiiy ia eia?/iiio aoai?: iaiao?aeia ?aaoey?i?noue aeey ni?iuaiiy
aeaeo?e/ieo ?ic?aooie?a, a?aooaaiiy aaee/ei cao?eiie a o?anao
i?aec’?aeiaiue, oaieia?aeaea/a ? e?euee?noue aeaiae?a oa ?i.

O aeniiaeo aiae?co iniaeeainoae IA?N ? caaea/ e??ciiai i?iaeooaaiiy,
caniiaaieo ia ?aeaieia?? ???a?o?/iiai neioaco, iaaaaeaii ?nioth/?
aeueoa?iaoeae: iaeia c ieo — ?aeaieia?y neioaco eaiaeo ia?aaea/? aeaieo
IA?N, ye iniiaa i?iaeooaaiiy, ?ioa — a?oioo?oueny ia canoinoaaiiyo
oai??? neeaaeieo nenoai, cai?iiiiiaaieo a ?iaioao I.I.Aoneaiei,
Iana?iae/a, Oaeaoa?e oa ?i. O?aoy — o?aineyoi?i? caniae ia iniia? iien?a
IA?, iai?eeeaae iiaith VHDL, ? iaoiaeieia?y e?aii??ai? eiii?eyoe??,
cai?iiiiiaaia I?ae — Eiiaae. Ia iniia? oeueiai aiae?co c?iaeaiee
aeniiaie i?i iiaeeea?noue iaoaiaoe/ii? aaoiiaoii? iniiae anueiai
e??ciiai i?ioeano i?iaeooaaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaia i?iaeaia eia?/iiai
neioaco IA?N ? iniiai? caaea/?, ui ?? neeaaeathoue.

Ianooiiei iaeaaaeeea?oei e?ieii (ia iniia? aiae?co ia’?eoa
i?iaeooaaiiy), ui ? eeth/iaei o ?ica’ycaii? i?iaeaie, ? oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoi??aiaai? aaoiiaoii? iiaeae? IA?N (?icae?e II). Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
oe??? iaoe eiioeaiooaeueii ie?aneaia oiiaia iaieiiea oaei?
aea?aaiiiae?aii? iiaeae?. Aa?oeiith iiaeae? i?eeiyoee ?ioa?i?aooth/ee
aaoiiao IA, ui iiaea aooe io?eiaiee c ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iieno ia’?eoa, a
“eenoyi” iiaeae? iiaeooue aooe aeaiaioa?i? aaoiiaoe a aeaa’yoecia/iiio
no?oeoo?iiio aeoaa?o?, cai?iiiiiaai? Eiaeeeinueeei ? Caeaiaanueeith aeey
iieno o?aaiaio?a noai, aea?aaeaioieo o?aaiaioai oiiieia?? IA?N ca oiia
aeaoaeo?a. Aeeiiaia aiae?oe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiieo aaoiiaoieo
iiaeaeae ye iiaeeeaeo “eaiaeeaeao?a” o o?aaiaioe, ui i?noyoueny a
oiiai?e iaieiioe? aaaaoi??aiaai? iiaeae? IA?N. Aiae?c iieaco?, ui
?ioa?i?aooth/ee aaoiiao IA ? iaaaceiiee ia?aoai?thaa/ Mt, cai?iiiiiaai?
A?aeainueeith a?oiith o??ie IBM, a oaeiae aeene?aoiee ia?aoai?thaa/ DT ,
cai?iiiiiaaiee A.I. Aeooeiaei ? I.A. Eaoe/aanueeei, iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? ye o?aaiaioe aa?oeiii? /anoeie aaaaoi??aiaai? iiaeae? —
iiaeae? o?aaiaio?a a?o?oaeoo?e IA?N. Ia iniia? aiae?co naeaaioe?aeueiiai
? ia?aeaeueiiai aaoiiao?a, cai?iiiiiaaieo A.Ae.Cae?aanueeei, ?
iine?aeiaii? ? ia?aeaeueii? ia?aae aano?aeoieo aaoiiao?a, cai?iiiiiaaieo
N.?.Aa?aiiaei ? A.A.E?aaae?eii, c?iaeaiee aeniiaie i?i ?o i?eaeaoi?noue
o “eaiaeeaeaoe” ye iiaeaeae no?oeoo?ieo ??oaiue a cacia/ai?e oiiai?e
iaieiioe?. Iieacaia aiaeia?/ia i?eaeaoi?noue aeey oe??? iaoe aaoiiao?a
on?o ?ioeo a?aeiieo ??ciiaeae?a ye iiaeaeae i?e?ii?ia?ai,
ooieoe?iiaeueieo noai (iine?aeiai?nieo ? eiia?iaoe?eieo). Ie??i oeueiai,
ia iniia? i?aoeue I?ae, Eiiaae ? A.A.Eiaeeeinueeiai, I.I.Caeaiaanueei?
cacia/aia iiaeeea?noue iiaeaiiy o?aaiaio?a oiiieia??, a oiio /ene? ? c
aeaoaeoaie oeio ia?ea?a, caieeaiiy oa ?i., ? aea?aaeaioieo ?i o?aaiaio?a
aeaeo?e/ieo noai aeaiaioa?ieie aaoiiaoaie o aeaa’yoecia/iiio
no?oeoo?iiio aeoaa?o?.

Aeeiiaiee aiae?c na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui an? aeuacacia/ai? a?aeii?
aaoiiaoi? iiaeae? oa ?oi? eiiiiceoe?? (ia?aae?) iiaeooue aooe
???a?o?/ieie aca?iica’ycaieie “aeaiaioaie” aaaaoi??aiaai? iiaeae? IA?N.
?acii c oeei i?aee?aneaii, ui i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/
nenoaiiiai aoaio aei ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ eia?/iiai aoaio, iai?eeeaae a?ae
aaoiiaoa, ui ?ioa?i?aoo?, aei ia?aae aano?aeoieo aai no?oeoo?ieo
aaoiiao?a, iiaeeeaino? ia?a?aoiaaieo iiaeaeae iaaeinoaoi?. Aeey
caiiaiaiiy oe??? “i?iaaeeie” aoee noi?ioeueiaai? ianooii? iia? iiaeae?.
Oae, iiaeaeeth o?aaiaioa a?o?oaeoo?e IA?N, a?eueo aeaoae?ciaaiith i?ae
?ioa?i?aooth/ee aaoiiao, iiaea aooe ia?aaea wmetafile8?
??*???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u`y?????? wmetafile8?
??Ae??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy@??w?? ???&?
?MathType??aea wmetafile8? ??U????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyya??F?? ???&? ?MathType??wmetafile8?
????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy@???? ???&?
?MathType??p????u’yY?????t — aeo?aeiee aeoaa?o ia?aae?;

wmetafile8? ??u????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????u—ya?????wmetafile8? ??o????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyyA???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u—ya?????wmetafile8? ??L???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
aA???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy???—?? ???&?
?MathType?? ????uiuea?????Aeey aeia?eueii? ia?aae? wmetafile8?
??*???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u`y??????Iiaeaeueoa ieco?aeia aeaoae?caoe?y ia?aae?
wmetafile8? ??*????????????
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`A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u`y??????Ia?aaea wmetafile8? ??*????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy`???? ???&?
?MathType??p????u`y?????? wmetafile8? ??Ue???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy@??7?? ???&?
?MathType??p????u’ya?????aea  wmetafile8? ??O????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy@???? ???&? ?MathType??`????u
y?????? wmetafile8? ??aea wmetafile8?
??/???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy`??7?? ???&?
?MathType??p????u`y??????wmetafile8? ??O????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyya???? ???&? ?MathType??`????u
y??????wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyy ??±?? ???&?
?MathType???????u?th??????wmetafile8? ??ae???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy@??7?? ???&?
?MathType??p????u’ya?????wmetafile8? ??I???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? a
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyya??—?? ???&?
?MathType?? ????uiuea?????Aeey ia?aae? wmetafile8?
??*???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u`y??????Aiaeia?/ii aecia/aia ia?aaea wmetafile8?
??*???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u`y?????? wmetafile8?
??Ue??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy`??7?? ???&?
?MathType??p????u’ya?????aea wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyya???? ???&?
?MathType??p????u’ya?????Aeuacaaaeoaaia ia?aaea iia?aoe?eieo
aaoiiao?a, “yea aca?iiae??” c ia?aaeath oi?aaeyth/eo, iiaea aooe
aecia/aia ye niaoe?ae?ciaaiee aa??aio ia?aae?, cai?iiiiiaaiee
N.?.Aa?aiiaei ? A.A.E?aaae?eii. Niaoe?ae?caoe?y ?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui
eiaeiee EA ia?aae? — oea iia?aoe?eiee aaoiiao, cai?iiiiiaaiee,
iai?eeeaae, I.Ae.Ei?ooiiaei, A.I.Ei?y/ei, A.N. I?e?o?iei oa ?i.

Iiaeaeueoa ieco?aeia aeaoae?caoe?y iiaea aooe aeeiiaia o?aaeeoe?eii: a
iaio ia?aaeao oi?aaeyth/eo ? iia?aoe?eieo aaoiiao?a aeae?eythoueny
aca?iiiia’ycai? ia?e (eiiiiceoe??) oi?aaeyth/iai (OA) ? iia?aoe?eiiai
(IA) aaoiiao?a. Aeey aeaoae?caoe??, a naith /a?ao, oe??? a?aeiii?
eiiiiceoe?? OA — IA, cai?iiiiiaaii? A.I.Aeooeiaei, aeei?enoiaothoueny
??ciiiai?oi? iiaeae? i?e?ii?ia?ai, nenoaie aoeaaeo ooieoe?e ? iiaeae?
noai ye ia?aae c eia?/ieo aeaiaio?a (a oa?i?iieia?? IA?N — ia?aae c
eia?/ieo i?ei?oea?a oa iae?in?a). O oeeo iiaeaeyo, a?eueo?noue c yeeo
a?aeii? (cai?iiiiiaai? O.B.Iaeaa?iei, A.O.I?uaiei, A.A.I?uaiei,
A.A.Neey?iaei, I.I.Aa?eaeiaei oa ?i.) niaoeeo?ea IA?N iiaeiia
a?aoiaoaaoeny oeyoii a?aeiia?aeieo ia?aoai?aiue iiaeaeae c o?aooaaiiyi
on?o eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue IA?N. Cie?aia, caaea/a aeeeth/aiiy eia?/iiai
?eceeo niaoeeo?/ii ??ciiiai?oia a iiaeaeyo neio?iiii? ? aneio?iiii?
noaiioaoi?ee IA?N. Ie??i oeueiai, a iiaeaeyo eia?/iiai aoaio aaaeaii
iaeneiaeueia a?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae caaea/ oiiieia??, cie?aia
iaenei?caoe?? ?aaoey?iino? noaie, i?i?i?caoe?? aeiaaeeie i?aec’?aeiaiue
oa ?i. Aeae? iieacaii, ui ieco?aeiee ia?ao?ae a?ae aaoiiaoieo iiaeaeae
eia?/iiai aoaio aei iiaeaeae oiiieia?? oaae iiaea aooe “aaoiiaoiei”,
iai?eeeaae, c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaiaioa?ieo aaoiiao?a o aeaa’yoecia/iiio
no?oeoo?iiio aeoaa?o?, cai?iiiiiaaieo A.A.Eiaeeeinueeei ?
I.I.Caeaiaanueeith ye iiaeaeae aeaeo?e/ieo noai, aea?aaeaioieo
o?aaiaioai oiiieia?? a oiiaao aeaoaeo?a. ?ioei i?aeoiaeii oaeiai
ia?aoiaeo iiaea aooe ia?ao?ae a?ae eia?/ieo iiaeaeae aei iiaeae?
layout-ia, cai?iiiiiaaiee I?ae oa Eiiaae.

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeai? a?aeii? ? ?ic?iaeai? iia? (ia?aae? aaoiiao?a)
aaoiiaoi? iiaeae? ye iiaeeea? “eaiaeeaeaoe” a oiiaio iaieiieo
cai?iiiiiaaii? aaaaoi??aiaai? aaoiiaoii? iiaeae? IA?N. I/aaeaeii, ui
aeey ??cieo ii noo? IA?N-?aae?caoe?e oaeeo ??ciiiai?oieo iiaeaeae iiaea
aooe aecia/aia aeineoue aaeeea iiiaeeia. E??i oiai, oe? iiaeae? iiaeooue
aooe ??cieie ca “aenioith”. Iai?eeeaae, o?aaiaio soft-?aae?caoe?? iiaea
caaeaaaoeny aaaaoi??aiaaith iiaeaeeth, o yei? aa?oeia — ooieoe?iiaeueia
iiaeaeue aai aaoiiao, ui ?ioa?i?aoo?, a iniiaa — ia?aaea aeene?aoieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a aai aano?aeoieo aaoiiao?a. A oie aea /an, iai?eeeaae
IE?N (eia?/ia ?ioaa?aeueia noaia, yea i?ia?aio?oueny) – ?aae?caoe?y
iiaea caaeaaaoeny iiaeaeeth, o yei? aa?oeia — ooieoe?iiaeueia iiaeaeue
aai ia?aaea aaoiiao?a, a iniiaa — ia?aaea c a?ae?ioa/ieo eia?/ieo
i?ei?oea?a ? iae?in?a.

Caeeth/ia aeoiea aeaiiai ?icae?eo — ?aeay iiaeae? “e?n” ye noeoiiino?
??ciiiai?oieo ca “aenioith” (??ciiiai?oi? aa?oeie ? iniiae)
aea?aaiiiae?aieo iiaeaeae — aaaaoi??aiaai? aaaaoieiiiiiaioii? aaoiiaoii?
iiaeae? ia/enethaaeueii? nenoaie aeia?eueii? neeaaeiino?, ui
?aae?co?oueny aeae?eueeiia IA?N c ??ciith a?o?oaeoo?ith. Iiceoeaia
iniaeea?noue iiaeae? “e?n” — iiaia noi?ni?noue iaeii?iaiieo ii??aiaaeo
iiaeaeueieo niaoeeo?eaoe?e on?o ?? eiiiiiaio.

Ianooiiei aaaeeeaei e?ieii o ?ica’ycaii? iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie ?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee ? aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaii? aaaaoi??aiaai?
iiaeae? a no?oeoo?ao aeaieo, aieiaiei /eiii, a caniaao aaaaoi??aiaaiai
iieno IA?N oa ?? o?aaiaio?a (?icae?e III). Aeey oe??? iaoe aeeiiaiee
aiae?c iia iiaaae?ieiaiai iieno: aoeaaeo ae?ac?a (iiae nenoai PALASM,
MAX+PLUS, iiaa ADF oa ?i.), ??aiy i?ae?aa?no?iaeo ia?aneeie (DDL, FDL,
ISPS, HSL, CDL, SDL, HHDL); iia i?ioeaaeo?iiai oeio (AEAI?EOI, FLAMEL,
MIMOLA, ASMILE oa ?i.), o oiio /ene?, iia i?ia?aioaaiiy ALGOL, C,
PASCAL; iia aaaaoi??aiaaiai iieno (CONLAN, PINLAN, VHDL). Aiae?c
i?iaaaeaiee c oi/ee ci?o aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaieo iiaieo eiino?oeoe?e aeey
aaaaoi??aiaaiai iiaeaiiy aeaieo ? ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ eia?/iiai
neioaco. Aiae?c iia iieacaa ianooiia. Ii-ia?oa, ye i?aaeei, oea
aaniethoia ianoiae?noue aoaeue-yeeo aeaio iia, ?ic?iaeaieo ??cieie
aaoi?aie (iai?eeeaae, iiae nenoai MAX+PLUS ? DASH LCA aeey iaei???
iaoe). Ii-ae?oaa, oea a?aenooi?noue a a?eueoino? iia cania?a
“i?aeo?eiee” ???a?o?/iiai i?eioeeio i?iaeooaaiiy. Ii-o?ao?, oea ??ci?
oi?iaoe aeaieo ?, ui ua a??oa, a?aei?ii?noue a oi?aae?ii? aeaieie, a
oaeiae, ye i?aaeei, a?aenooi?noue a ao?eaooao iiae cania?a aeey
i?aai?caoe?? aace aeaieo.

Oiio, aeey aoaeoeaiiai ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ eia?/iiai aoaio (ye, c?aooith,
e ?ioeo) iaiao?aeia ?ic?iaea iiaieo cania?a, iaeneiaeueii a?eueieo a?ae
oeeo iaaeie?e?a. Ia?oei ?acoeueoaoii o oeueiio iai?yieo c’yaeeany
?ic?iaea cania?a iieno A?N oa ?oi?o o?aaiaio?a ye aeaiaio?a i?iaeoiaaieo
nenoai. Cai?iiiiiaaia aea?aaiiiae?aia no?oeoo?a iien?a eiiieaeo?a
(na??e) A?N iieeeeaia caaacia/eoe oaeaeeee iiooe o aac? aeaieo iiene A?N
c caaeaieie ooieoe?yie, aeaeaaaiiy iiaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? ia aeiiao, iiaeeea?noue io?eiaiiy iniiaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee A?N aeey eia?/iiai (o oiio /ene? /aniaiai)
i?iaeooaaiiy/iiaeaethaaiiy.

Caaaeueia no?oeoo?a iieno aeaiaioa: :: IIENAIEA ; EIIAOe O;
EIIAOe A?; E?IAOeUe II #. Iiaiii?ea noaiaea?oieo ?
niaoeooieoe?e caiice/aia c iiae PINLAN.

Nienie aeaiaio?a aeeth/a? a naaa iiiaeeie eia?/ieo i?ei?oea?a oa
iae?in?a, ui aeey aaaaoueio aeae?a A?N, iai?eeeaae, IAA?N ? IE?N noaee
noaiaea?oieie (AND, OR, XOR oa ?o ?iaa?n??), a oaeiae iiaiii?eo
aioo??oi?o ?aa?no??a ? ciai?oi?o oei i?e?ii?ioeani?ieo oa neaeniaeo A?N.
Iiaiii?ea iieno oei iaaaaeaia a ocaaaeueiaiiio aeaeyae? c ?aeeiith
nenoaiith iicia/ie, ca yei? ?ic??ciythoueny ao?aei?, aeo?aei?, ea?oth/?
oeie, oeie aeaieo ? oiia. A iien? oei ia’?eoaie, ui aae?anothoueny,
iiaeooue aooe ye noaiaea?oi? (iai?eeeaae, iae?ine, ui ?ic??ciythoueny
?iaiaie ? ooieoe?yie), oae ? aioo??oi? ?aa?no?e, ui ?ic??ciythoueny
?iaiaie aoaeue-yeiai oeio: aeoioeyoi?e, ca??ea ?aa?no??a caaaeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy (?II), niaoe?aa?no?e aae?ane, ianee, ?icoe?aiiy, noaie,
/enea c?ooaiue oa ?i.

Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue i?aai?caoe?? aace aeaieo, no?oeoo?a yei? ?noioii
a?aoiao? iniaeeaino? eiino?oeoe?e iiae. O oae?e AAe iiaeeeaee oaeaeeee
iiooe ye iiaii?, oae ? /anoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeaiaioa (o?aaiaioa) A?N.

Aaaeeeaei ?acoeueoaoii oeueiai ?icae?eo ? ?ic?iaea iniia iiae
aaaaoi??aiaaiai ieco?aeiiai iieno nenoai ia A?N ye noeoiiino? eiiiiiaio,
aca?iiae?th/eo ca iaaiith nenoaiith aeai?eoi?a ? ca’yce?a i?ae ieie ia
an?o ??aiyo aeaoae?caoe??. Eiaeia eiiiiiaioa — oea “/i?ia oooeyaea” c
iaai?aie ao?aeieo ? aeo?aeieo ia?aiao??a c iaaiith a?aeiia?aei?noth i?ae
ieie. I?e oeueiio ia?aoai?aiiy ia?aiao??a ana?aaeei? eiiiiiaioe ia
aa?ooueny aei oaaae ia eiaeiiio ??ai? aano?aaoaaiiy. Ia aa?oi?o ??aiyo
oea iiaea aooe a?o?oaeoo?ia eiiiiiaioa, ui ?aae?co?oueny ie?aiith A?N, a
ia ieaeiueiio — eia?/iee i?ei?oea aai iaa?oue aaioeeue. Iai/i?noue,
iaenei?caoe?y ni?eueiino? iieniaeo cania?a, ???a?o?/i?noue ? aiane?aeie
oeueiai iiaeeea?noue aaoiiiiiiai i?iaeooaaiiy eiiiiiaio oa i?inoioa
aianaiiy ci?i a iiene ?, aieiaia, a?aooaaiiy iaea?eueo iiaii?
niaoeeo?eaoe?? A?N i?e iien? no?oeoo? ? aeai?eoi?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ia’?eoa ia an?o ??aiyo — iniiai? aeiiae aei aenia?eiaioaeueii? aa?n??
iiae. Oe? aeiiae a?aeia?aaeai? a eaeneoe?, naiaioeoe? oa neioaenen?
iiae. O iueiio ye iniiaia eiino?oeoeaia iaeeieoey aeei?enoaia iiiyooy
YEAIAIO, a?aeiia?aeia aeuacacia/aiiio iiiyooth “eiiiiiaioa”. Ca
ooieoe?iiaeueiei i?eciaeii aeaiaioe iiae?eythoueny ia /ioe?e oeie:
?ioi?iaoe?eiee, caiai’yoiaoth/ee, ia/enethaaeueiee ? oi?aaeyth/ee.
Iiiyooy EIOI?IAOeEIIIUE YEAIAIO aaaaeaia aeey ???a?o?/iiai iieno
no?oeoo? aeaieo ? ?o neeaaeiaeo (iai?eeeaae, ci?iieo ? eiinoaio), a
CAIIIEIATHUEE — aeey iieno no?oeoo? ? aeaiaio?a iai’yo?. Nain iiiyoue
AU*ENEEOAEUeIUE ? OI?AAEssTHUEE aeaiaioe — ocae/a?i?. Ao?aeieie ?
aeo?aeieie ia?aiao?aie iiaeooue aooe oeeo?ia? aeai? aeia?eueii?
no?oeoo?e.

sseui ye aeaiaio aeei?enoiao?oueny na??eia (ia oa, ui ?ic?iaey?oueny)
A?N c a?aeiiei iaai?ii ooieoe?e, oi c on?o oi?iaeueieo ia?aiao??a ia
aeaiiio ??ai? iieno iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny /anoeia c ieo aai
cai?ithaaoeny oaeoe/ieie ia?aiao?aie. Aaaaeaiee iien i?aei?ia?ai ye
iine?aeiaiinoae iia?aoe?e o?eueee iaae ci?iieie aeaiiai ??aiy iieno.
IIAeI?IA?AIIA ia iiaea iaoe aioo??oi?o ci?iieo aai eiinoaio. Oeei
iiiyooy i?aei?ia?aie a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae i?eeiyoiai a PL/1.
I?aei?ia?aia aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aeae?eaiiy ae?eyiie, ui
iiaoi?ththoueny a aeai?eoi? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? iieno?oueny ye aeaiaio,
aea aac cacia/aiiy oeio. Eaene/iee ? naiaioe/iee iaoai?cie aeeiai?/iiai
iieno nenoaie o A?N-?aae?caoe?? a iniiaiiio caiice/ai? o Ae?eeno?e —
Aeaea ye iine?aeiaiino? neio?iiieo ? aneio?iiieo iiae?e. Aeey
neio?ii?caoe?? iine?aeiaieo i?ioean?a aaaaeai? niaoe?aeuei? oeie
ea?oth/eo ci?iieo — NAIAOI? ? AOOA?, ci?no yeeo aiaeia?/iee i?eeiyoiio o
Ae?eeno?e.

Naiaioeea iiae oa?aeoa?ii ae?aaeaia caniaaie iieno aeai?eoi?a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaiaio?a ? i?aei?ia?ai. I?e aecia/aii? iine?aeiaiino?
ci?ie noai?a nenoaie (iiae?e) aeei?enoiao?oueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i
a?aeiia?aei?noue ao?aeieo ? aeo?aeieo ia?aiao??a, a oaeiae aeai?eoie
ia?aoai?aiiy ia?aiao??a ? ia?iaee ea?oth/i? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aeey caieno
oeeo aeai?eoi?a aeei?enoiaothoueny iia?aoi?e iiae PL/1, a oaeiae
niaoe?aeuei?, aaaaeai? Ae?eeno?ith aeey iieno neio?ii?caoe?? “?iaioe”
aeaiaio?a. Oe? ae caniae aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey i?aei?ia?ai. Aea ia
a?aei?io a?ae cania?a iiae PL/1 ooo aaaaeaia iiiyooy iienaii?
iia?aoe??, ui i?eoaiaiia o?eueee aeai?e A?N ? yeo aac oeueiai iiiyooy
iaiao?aeii a?ii?caeei ae?aaeaoe o?aaeeoe?eieie caniaaie: ::=. ().
Aeey ciaioaiiy aeiaaeeie iieno i?e aaaaoi?aciaiio aeei?enoaii? iaeiiai
aeaiaioa aaiaeeoueny ?iaeaenaoe?y aeaiaioa oa eiai ia?aiao??a.

Iiaiee neioaenen aenia?eiaioaeueii? aa?n?? iiae i?noeoue o nia? an?
iaiao?aei? eiino?oeoe?? oa caniae aeey aaaaoi??aiaaiai ieco?aeiiai iieno
aeia?eueii? ia/enethaaeueii? nenoaie c A?N-?aae?caoe??th. Iniiai?
iiiyooy ? eiino?oeoe?? ianooii?: , AEIE,
, , NIENIE, AeA?AAI,
NAOUe, , IIAeI?IA?AIIA, ,
.

::=
. Iiiyooy EIIOEAO?AOeEss aaaaeaia aeey
aecia/aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ca’yce?a i?ae aeaiaioaie ? i?aei?ia?aiaie. Oea
ia?ae?e aeaiaio?a ?c cacia/aiiyi oaeoe/ieo ia?aiao??a. I?e iien?
eiio?ao?aoe?? aeaiaioe iiaeooue ia’?aeioaaoeny a no?oeoo?e, a aiie
iienothoueny aiaeia?/ii i?eeiyoiio a PL/1 iieno no?oeoo?, aea cai?noue
?iai ci?iieo i?aenoaaeythoueny ?iaia aeaiaio?a ?c nieneaie oaeoe/ieo
ia?aiao??a. Ie??i o?aaeeoe?eieo no?oeoo?, a?aeiia?aeieo no?oeoo?ai
aeaieo, aaaaeai? iiiyooy EIIAAEA?, NOAE, IAAACEI, a nain eiino?oeoe??
iiyniaiee a aacaoe? eaeneee.

Caeeth/iei aeieii ?acoeueoao?a ?icae?eo III ? ?ic?iaea
aenia?eiaioaeueii? aa?n?? neioaeneno iiae aaaaoi??aiaaiai aeai?eoi?/iiai
iieno eia?/ieo niaoeeo?eaoe?e IA?N. Oey ?ic?iaea aeeiiaia ia iniia?
aaciai? iiae AEAI?EOI ye a?aeiii?, aei?iaoaaii? ? aeinooiii?. C
eiino?oeoe?e oe??? iiae aea?aia i?aeiiiaeeia cania?a, ?noioii
iaiao?aeieo aeey iieno i?iaeoieo niaoeeo?eaoe?e eia?/iiai aoaio, aeey
yeeo i?eionea?oueny aia?aoia ?aae?caoe?y. O ca’yceo c oeei a oeth
i?aeiiiaeeio ia aeeth/ai? ?io? caniae iiae, i?ecia/ai? aieiaiei /eiii
aeey iieno i?ia?aiieo i?aenenoai i?iaeoiaaiiai ia’?eoa. Aeeiiaia
?icoe?aiiy oe??? i?aeiiiaeeie ca ?aooiie aeiaeaiiy cania?a iieno
ooieoe?e, a iniaeeaino? aoeaaeo, a oaeiae aea?aaa iiiyooy
. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iiae PINLAN nthaee na?aeiii ia
aeiaeai? caniae iieno ooieoe?iiaeueieo ? aeaeo?e/ieo noai IA?N, ui
aecia/ai? iei? ye noaiaea?oi? (iai?eeeaae, a noaiieo ?aaeaeoi?ao Future
Net, P CAD ? aaaaoueio ?ioeo), ? iiaeooue aooe aeeth/ai? a iiao ie?aiei
aeieii i?e iaiao?aeiino?. Iniiai? iiiyooy ? eiino?oeoe?? a neioaenen?
iiae oae?: AEAI?EOI, IIENAIEA, , , , , , . ?noioii iioe?ai? iiiyooy ? . Iaaaaeaiee iiaiee neioaenen iiae, iacaaii?
IEE?IAEAI?EOI.

Oeaio?aeueiei aeieii ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? ? ?ic?iaea iniia oai???,
iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoai?ci?a, aeai?eoi?a, cania?a ? iaoiaeee, “iaiiaith/eo”
oiiaio iaieiieo iaoiaeieia?? eia?/iiai neioaco (?icae?ee IV ? V).

Iei? aneio?iii? aaoiiaoi? iiaeae? ? noaiioaoi?ea io?eiaee “iiaa
aeeoaiiy” o na?aaeiaeu? IA?N. O aeua?icaeyioo?e aaaaoi??aiaa?e iiaeae?
aeae?ey?oueny ?? o?aaiaio — ieco?aeia a?eea c aea?aaa iiaeaeae:
aneio?iiia ia?aaea aaoiiao?a aneio?iiiee aaoiiao aneio?iiia noaia — ye
iiaeaeue iine?aeiai?niiai i?eno?ith a IA?N-?aae?caoe??. Oiae? caaea/a
io?eiaiiy ei?aeoii? aneio?iiii? noaie caiaeeoueny aei caaea/?
???a?o?/iiai neioaco aneio?iiiiai aaoiiaoo, ui caaea?oueny a?aeiiith
o?noeith A<, X, Y, (a, x), (a, x), a0>. Ei?aeoi?noue aneio?iiii? noaie,
ia/ooeeai? aei aaee/ei cao?eiie o eaioethaeeao eia?/ieo aeaiaio?a ii
Aeoaeueaa?aa?o, aeinyaa?oueny aeeeth/aiiyi yaeua eia?/iiai ?eceeo.

Aeey aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeieo iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoai?ci?a ? noai?aiiy
iaoiaeeee ???a?o?/iiai neioaco ei?aeoieo aneio?iiieo noai noi?iiaai?
oae? iiiyooy ? aecia/aiiy: aeia?eueiee ia?ao?ae aaoiiaoa, oiiae
Uij ia?aoiaeo , aneio?iiiiai (ii I?ea?o) aaoiiaoa, ao?aei?
wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyy???†?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????Icia/aiiy 1. Eia?/iee ?ecee no?eeiai noaio
aj iacaaii iae?eoe/iei, yeui aeey aoaeue-yeeo aeaio noai?a ak , al
(ai , aj ) ? aoaeue-yeiai neaiaeo x Uij (ak , x) = (al , x). O
i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo — ?ecee e?eoe/iee.

Iaoae Uij ? Ukl — oiiae ia?aoiae?a ? a?aeiia?aeii.

Icia/aiiy 2. Iacaaii ca’ycaieie ia?aoiaee ? /anoeiaiai
aneio?iiiiai aaoiiaoa uiaei oiiae U oiae? ? o?eueee oiae?, eiee ai aj
ak al , ( Uij Ukl ) U 0, ? ia ca’ycaieie a i?ioeaiiio aeiaaeeo.

Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai a aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaaeaii iaiao?aei?noue ?
aeinoaoi?noue ianooiii? oai?aie.

Oai?aia 1. Eiaeoaaiiy noai?a aneio?iiiiai aaoiiaoa aoaea i?ioe?eceeiaei,
eiee aoaeue-yeei noaiai, ui ooai?ththoue ia?o (, )
ca’ycaieo ia?aoiae?a, c?noaaeai? iaai?e wmetafile8? ??7???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyya???? ???&? ?MathType??p????u
y??????O aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui a?ae aeaeyaeo ooieoe?e caoaeaeaiiy
aeaiaio?a iai’yo? no?oeoo?iiai aaoiiaoa ? eiai no?oeoo?ii? ooieoe??
aeoiaeo ?noioii caeaaeeoue ?o aeiiii?/ia ?aae?caoe?y eia?/ieie
i?ei?oeaaie c a?ae?ioaee aea?aiiai oeio IA?N. O naith /a?ao, aeaeyae
oeeo ooieoe?e aecia/a?oueny aea?aiei aa??aioii (i?ioe?eceeiaiai)
eiaeoaaiiy. O ?aoa?o?i?e ?iaio? iieacaii, yeei /eiii iaea?aeaiee aa??aio
eiaeoaaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? e?euee?noue e?oa? o oa?i? oa e?euee?noue oa?i?a o
aeec’thieoeai?e ii?iaeuei?e oi?i? aeuacacia/aieo ooieoe?e. Aeaiaioii
iai’yo? no?oeoo?iiai aaoiiaoa aea?aiee o?eaa? SRk c ?icae?eueieie
aoiaeaie sk — iaeeie/iei ? rk — ioeueiaei ye iaea?eueo aeiiii?/iee
na?aae i?ei?oea?a a?ae?ioae IA?N.

Ooieoe?y sk iiaeaia aeec’thieoeaiith ii?iaeueiith oi?iith (ae.i.o.) o
aeaeyae?:

wmetafile8? ??n???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/2yyy???y?? ???&?
?MathType??0???u”thaea Uij — oiiaa ia?aoiaeo , Tij — oa?i,
ui caaea? iiiaeeio wmetafile8? ??7???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u¦yY?????Ia?aoiaeo < ai , aj > aaoiiaoa, ooieoe??
caoaeaeaiiy sk (aai rk) noaaeoueny o a?aeiia?aei?noue aeiaooie Tij
aioo??oi?o ci?iieo, aai eiaeiiio ia?aoiaeo < ai , aj > a ae.i.o.
ooieoe?? caoaeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aea? aeec’thieoeaiee /eai

Dij = Uij Tij . (5)

Ooieoe?y caoaeaeaiiy ioeueiaiai aoiaeo aeaiaioa iai’yo? SRk

wmetafile8? ??u???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyy???;?? ???&?
?MathType??????u”thaea wmetafile8? ??O????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy???AE?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u
y??????Iicia/eii t aeiaaeeio oa?io Tij , uijmax — iaeneiaeueia /enei
e?oa? a aoaeue-yeiio oa?i? ae.i.o. Uij =wmetafile8? ??y????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyya??6?? ???&? ?MathType??°????u
y??????O no/ani?e i?iaeai? eia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy noaiioaoi?ee IA?N
iaeia c eeth/iaeo ieoaiue — yeiai aeaeyaeo iiaeiia aooe ae.i.o. ooieoe?e
caoaeaeaiiy ? aeoiae?a, uia oey ae.i.o. iaeneiaeueii a?aoiaoaaea an?
eia?/i? iaiaaeaiiy a?eueoino? ?nioth/eo IA?N. ?ioeie neiaaie, yea
e?euee?noue e?oa? a eii’thieoe?? ? yeo e?euee?noue naieo eii’thieoe?e
aeiionoeii aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?ei?oeaaie aeaii? a?ae?ioaee IA?N.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii aeinooiieo a?ae?ioae i?ei?oea?a o??i Xillinx,
ALTERA, Motorola, Cypres, Intel oa ?ioeo ?nioth/eo ? oeo, ui
?ic?iaeythoueny iei? iao?e/ieo IA?N ? IE?N iieacaee, ui eia?/i?
iaiaaeaiiy a?ae?ioa/ieo i?ei?oea?a oae?: mia — /enei ao?aeieo eaiae?a
i?ei?oea?a oeio AND, ui cae/aeii ia ia?aaeuo? cia/aiue mia = 2  4; lia —
/enei ao?aeieo eaiae?a i?ei?oea?a oeio OR (lia = 24, 6); n?aca —
eiao?oe??io ?icaaeoaeaiiy (aeiionoeia iaaaioaaeaiiy) aeo?aeiiai eaiaeo
aoaeue-yeiai eia?/iiai i?ei?oeaa (cae/aeii n?aca = 3  5 aai 7  10, a
aeey iiooaeieo n?aca = 15 aai 20 aai 30). Eiaeiee i?ei?oea aai eia?/ia
iae?i/a?oiea IE?N oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ua iaiaaeaiiyi — oea /an, ia
aaee/eio yeiai neaiae cao?eio?oueny, ui caaea?oueny cae/aeii a?aie/ieie
cia/aiiyie (min    max). sseui i?e ?aae?caoe?? ae?ac?a sk, rk, yi
a?ae?ioa/ieie i?ei?oeaaie aeyaey?oueny, ui mia < tij + uij , lia < wmetafile8? ??ue???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy???F?? ???&? ?MathType??Icia/aiiy 3. Iacaaii aioo??oith ci?iio, yea i?eeia? iaeia ? oa ae cia/aiiy a iaai?ao wmetafile8? ??/???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy`???? ???&? ?MathType??p????u y??????A aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny iaiao?aei?noue ? aeinoaoi?noue ianooiii? oai?aie: Oai?aia 2. Aeey aeeiiaiiy oiiae oai?aie (1) iaiao?aeii ? aeinoaoiuei, uia a iaai?ao wmetafile8? ??/???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy`???? ???&? ?MathType??p????u y??????Icia/aiiy 4. I?ioeaaeo?ith ?ica’ycoaaiiy ia?e ia?aoiae?a (, < ak , al >), ca’ycaii? (icia/aiiy 2) noiniaii oiiae U, iacaaii
aaaaeaiiy ci?iii?, ui ?ica’yco?, a iaai?e wmetafile8?
??/???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy`???? ???&?
?MathType??p????u y??????Oey i?ioeaaeo?a iieeaaeaia a iniiao
aeai?eoio ? iaoiaeo, ui noi?ioeueiaai? a ?aoa?o?i?e ?iaio?, a oaeiae
aeey ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ci?iieo a ?acoeueooth/?e oaaeeoe? eiaeoaaiiy.
Iaoiae aeicaiey? io?eiaoe caaeia?euei? ?acoeueoaoe, yeui /enei
aioo??oi?o ci?iieo, io?eiaieo aiane?aeie eiai “?iaioe” oae?, ui mia s –
1 + u, aea u — /enei ao?aeieo eaiae?a aaoiiaoa. sseui oey ia??ai?noue ia
caaeiaieueiy?oueny, oi aeioe?eueii ciaoiaeaeaiiy eiaeoaaiiy ?c yaii
caeoeiaei /eneii aioo??oi?o ci?iieo, ui aecia/a? oaea ni?iuaiiy nenoaie
ooieoe?e caoaeaeaiiy ? aeoiae?a (o.c.a.), eiee aeaia ia??ai?noue
caaeiaieueiy?oueny, ye ? a?aoiaothoueny an? aeuacacia/ai? iaiaaeaiiy.
A?aeii? iaoiaee A.A.Eaca??aa – I.?.I?eeue, A.A.ssieianueei?,
A.A.Neey?iaa, Eth, O?an?, Oa?oiai?na ia i?eaeaoi? aeey oe??? iaoe.

Aeey iiaoaeiae iaoiaeo i?ioe?eceeiaiai eiaeoaaiiy, ui aecia/a? a nenoai?
o.c.a. io?eiaiiy ai??i?ii caaeaieo cia/aiue mia , lia , n?aca , aaoi?
cai?iiiioaaa i?aeo?ae ? ia iniia? eiai iaoiaee, ye? ?noioii
aeei?enoiaothoue iiiyooy ?icaeooy ia iiiaeei? P ia?aoiae?a aaoiiaoa ia
a?aei?io a?ae i?aeoiae?a aeuacacia/aieo aaoi??a, ui aeei?enoaee ?icaeooy
ia iiiaeei? noai?a aaoiiaoa. A?aeiii, ui eiaeiiio aa??aioo eiaeoaaiiy
noai?a aaoiiaoa iiaea aooe iaeiicia/ii c?noaaeaia nenoaia aeaiaeieiaeo
?icaeoo?a ia iiiaeei? noai?a oeueiai aaoiiaoa. Aoaeue-yea ?icaeooy ia
iiiaeei? ia?aoiae?a iiaea i?e?iaeii ?icaeyaeaoeny ye ?icaeooy ia
iiiaeei? noai?a, yeui iiiaeeia P aeiiiaiaia ia?aoiaeaie (ai, ai), …,
(al, al) i aeey aoaeue-yeeo aeaio ia?aoiae?a oa
iiaeiii ?nioaaoe, i?eiaeii?, iaeia /anoeiaa ?icaeooy, oaea, ui oe?
ia?aoiaee iaeaaeaoue ??ciei aeieai icia/aiiai ?icaeooy. Aeey oiai, uia
iiaoaeoaaoe nenoaio S /anoeiaeo ?icaeoo?a ia iiiaeei? P ia?aoiae?a
aneio?iiiiai aaoiiaoa, ui caaeiaieueiythoue aeuacaaaeaiei oiiaai,
aecia/a?oueny iia?aoe?y ?iceeaaeo iiiaeeie P ia?aoiae?a ca iiiaeeiith
i?oiaiiaeueieo oiia, ui iieyaa? a iiaoaeia? k i?aeiiiaeeiwmetafile8?
??Z??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyyA???? ???&?
?MathType??p????u`y?????? wmetafile8? ??2???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a@???&??yyyy?????Ayyyyyy???Ca?aene ae.i.o. ooieoe?e caoaeaeaiiy
eiaeiiio ia?aoiaeo < aj, aj >, oiia? Ui , ooieoe?? caoaeaeaiiy sk (aai
rk) noaaeoueny o a?aeiia?aei?noue oa?i Dij aioo??oi?o ci?iieo.
Aioo??oi?e ci?ii?e dk a?aeiia?aea? aeaiaeieiaa ?icaeooy  = C; D,
i?e/iio aeie C cacia/aiee “0” (“1)”, a aeie D — “1” (“0)”. Iicia/eii R
(Ui , ai , aj ) iiiaeeio ia?aoiae?a, ca’ycaieo (5) c ai , aj uiaei
Ui . A nenoai? wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
AA???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyy???†?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????Oaa?aeaeaiiy 1. Oa?i Uij neeaaea?oueny c
e?oa? d1,…, dt , yeui wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
AA???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyy???†?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????Oai?aia 3. ?nio? i?ioe?eceeiaa eiaeoaaiiy
noai?a aeia?eueiiai aneio?iiiiai aaoiiaoa, oaea, ui aoaeue-yeee oa?i Tij
ae.i.o. o.c.a. neeaaea?oueny c iaei??? aioo??oiuei? ci?iii?. Ia?aoo?,
iiaeia aeiaanoe, ui

Oaa?aeaeaiiy 2 . f oa?i?a Dij a?aeiia?aea? iiiaeei? G, ui iaeaaeeoue P
ia?aoiae?a a ae.i.o. o.c.a. sk aai rk , yeui a nenoai? wmetafile8?
?????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? AA???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyy???†?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????Noi?ioeueiaai? oaa?aeaeaiiy aeey ??cieo
cia/aiue f.

Ia i?aenoaa? oeeo ?acoeueoao?a noi?ioeueiaaiee iaoiae i?ioe?eceeiaiai
eiaeoaaiiy noai?a ii?iaeueiiai aneio?iiiiai aaoiiaoa, yeee iaia?aae
aecia/a? a nenoaiao aoeaaeo ooieoe?e caoaeaeaiiy ? aeoiaee aaee/eie mia,
lia , ? aiane?aeie oeueiai — n?aca. Iaeiae aei??i?noue caaea/, ui
ae??oothoueny oeei caniaii ?ieiee caeeoa?oueny aaeeeith. Aeey ciaioaiiy
aei??iino? oeeo caaea/ aeioe?eueii aai aeei?enoaoe aaoi?nueeee can?a
aeaeiiiiceoe?? ii/aoeiaiai aaoiiaoa, aai o ao?aeiiio no?oeoo?iiio
aeoaa?o? wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy?????? ???&? ?MathType??
????u?th??????Aeaia iiaoaeiaa i?ii?aeii? niaoeeo?eaoe?? — nenoaie
wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
AA???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyy???†?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????wmetafile8? ??.???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy???> ?? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????+I ???+ae???utha?????Aeey
t = 2, 3 ae?ace aeey nenoai S aiaeia?/i?. An? aiie i?noyoue a nia?
ioe?ii/io ?ioi?iaoe?th.

Iaiaaeaiiy ia nenoaio wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
AA???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyy???†?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????Oaa?aeaeaiiy 3. Oa?ie Tij ? Tkl ooieoe?? sk
(/e rk) a?ae??ciythoueny cia/aiiyi o?eueee iaei??? ci?iii?, yeui
a?aeiia?aeia ?e ?icaeooy  = E; F, oaea, ui ai, aj  E ? ak, al F —
?aeeia.

Oaa?aeaeaiiy 4. Dij ? Dkl (Uij=Ukl) ae.i.o. sk (rk) neeaththoueny, yeui
na?aae ?icaeoo?a 1,…,p a nenoai? wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
AA???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyy???†?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????Aeuaiaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ? oai?aoe/iith
iniiaith iaoiaeo ? aeai?eoi?a eiaeoaaiiy noai?a aneio?iiieo oaeoo?ieo
aaoiiao?a c o?aooaaiiyi /enea aoiae?a a?ae?ioa/ieo i?ei?oea?a IA?N oeio
AND (NAND) (a aeena?oaoe?? — iaoiae 4.3) ? iaoiae aeai?eoi?a caeoeiaiai
eiaeoaaiiy, ui a?aoiaothoue /enei aoiae?a i?ei?oea?a oeio OR (NOR, XOR)
(o aeena?oaoe?? — iaoiae 4.4).

Oe? ?acoeueoaoe noaee oaeiae iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee ni?iuaiiai
(ii??aiyii c eaiii?/iei iaoiaeii A.I. Aeooeiaa) iaoiaeo ???a?o?/iiai
no?oeoo?iiai neioaco aneio?iiieo oaeoo?ieo aaoiiao?a, ui a?aoiao?
(i?aeoe/ii) an? iayai? iei? eia?/i? iaiaaeaiiy IA?N. Oeae iaoiae (o
aeena?oaoe?? — iaoiae 4.5) iieyaa? a oi?ioeueiiio aecia/aii? ae.i.o.
o.c.a., a?eueieo a?ae eia?/iiai ?eceeo ca an?ia a?aoiaioaie
aaciina?aaeiuei ii ao?aeiiio caaaeaiith (ei?aeoiiio aeai?eoio
ooieoe?iioaaiiy) aaoiiaoa ? io?eiai?e nenoai? wmetafile8?
?????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? AA???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyy???†?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????O aaaaoi??aiaaeo nenoaiao oi?aae?iiy
no/anieo IA?N ? ia/enethaaeueieo nenoai ?niothoue ? i?iaeiaaeothoue
?ic?iaeyoeny aeiee, aeey yeeo aeiiae aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueii?
oaeaeeiae?? ?noioii iineaaeai?, a ao?aei? aeai?eoie iaaeoi aaeee?
(iiiaae noa i?oie). Oaeeie ? aeiee i?e?ii?ia?aiiiai oi?aae?iiy, iniiaai?
ia iiaeae? neio?iiiiai (ii Oa?oiai?no, I?ea?o, Aiaa?o) aaoiiaoa.

Aeeiiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy (?icae?e V) no/aniiai noaio ieoaiiy ? aiae?co
oi?aaeyth/eo nenoai a IA?N-?aae?caoe?? a?ae iiioey?ieo iiaeaeae IAII
o??i Intel ? Motorola aei inoaii?o ?ic?iaie eiiaae??iee a?o?oaeoo? IA?N
Power 603 ? Pentium 100 iieacothoue, ui i?e aeinyaiaii? /anoio iiiaae
100 Iaoe, iacaaaeath/e ia oaiaeaioe?th ca?eueoaiiy /anoee aneio?iiieo
i?eeaae?a ? noai, /anoea i?e?ii?ia?aiieo i?eeaae?a (aeie?a) oi?aae?iiy
(IIO) caeeoa?oueny cia/iith. Oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo? IIO a?ae no?oeoo?e
O?eena — No??iaea?a aei no/anieo, iacaaaeath/e ia oni?oia ?ica’ycaiiy
aaaaoueio caaea/, aea? c ieo ye oeaio?aeuei? ia aoee ?ica’ycai?.
Ii-ia?oa, oea caaea/a eiaeoaaiiy iie?a cae/aeii a iaaeao aeaio
e?eoa???a: aoaeoeaii? aca?iiae?? ? i?inoioe ?aae?caoe?? a aea?aiiio
eia?/iiio aacen? c a?aeiia?aeieie iaiaaeaiiyie. Ii-ae?oaa, oea caaea/a
oi?ioaaiiy aae?anaoe?? i?e?ieiiaiae aai caaea/a i?iaeooaaiiy nenoai
aae?anaoe??. Aeey oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ica’ycaiiy ia?oi? caaea/?
noi?ioeueiaai? oae? iiiyooy: nenoaie W = = w1,…, wt i?e?ieiiaiae IIO;
nenoaie wmetafile8? ??P???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??u?? ???&?
?MathType??a????uAy??????Icia/aiiy 5. ?acoeueoaoii ianeoaaiiy IE wi (?
=1,…, t) aaeoi?ii eean?a noi?niino? wmetafile8? ??v???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??(?? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th?????? wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??:?? ???&?
?MathType??????uAy??????Aaaaeaii oaeiae iiiaeeio an?o i?aeiiiaeei IE
wi (i =1,…, t). Ia iniia? oeueiai noi?ioeueiaai? ianooii? aea? caaea/?
ianeoaaiiy:

ia?oa — ciaeoe i?i?iaeueiee iaa?? eean?a noi?niino? wmetafile8?
??–??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyya ??ae?? ???&?
?MathType??`????utha????? wmetafile8? ??ae?oaa — ciaeoe
i?i?iaeueiee iaa?? eean?a noi?niino? wmetafile8? ??¶???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @@
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy? ??ae?? ???&?
?MathType??`????utha????? wmetafile8? ??µ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??:?? ???&?
?MathType??????uAy??????O i?ioean? ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ a aeena?oaoe??
ia?oei i?ii?aeiei ?acoeueoaoii noi?ioeueiaaiee aeai?eoi, ui caiaeeoue
caaea/o iiaoaeiae i?i?iaeueiiai iaai?o eean?a noi?niino? aei /anoeiiiai
aeaeyaeo caaea/? oe?ei/enaeueiiai e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy — aei caaea/?
iie?eooy. Aeeiiaiee aiae?c aeciaieo iaoiae?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ iie?eooy
? aea?aiee iaoiae A.Ae. Cae?aanueeiai, ui aeei?enoiao? iiiyooy aea?aaa
iiooeo. Oeae iaoiae ni?iuaiee oeyoii ia?aoai?aiiy aeaieo ao?aeii?
caaea/?, aea iiiaeeio II oyaeaii a?aoii :

1. sseui aeayea aa?oeia i c’?aeiaia c iiiaeeiith I aa?oei, a aa?oeia j —
c iiiaeeiith J aa?oei, i?e/iio (i I) & (i I) & ((I  j) (J  i)), oi
aa?oeia j iiaea aooe onoiaia c a?aoa c ianooiiith ei?aeoe??th
?ica’ycaiiy oe??? caaea/?.

2. sseui a?ao ia ? ca’yciei, oi caaea/a iiaea aooe ?icaeoa ia
aeae?eueea iacaeaaeieo i?aecaaea/.

3. ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/? iiaea aooe ciaeaeaii na?aae iaeneiaeueieo eean?a
noi?niino? (ii Cae?aanueeiio). Caoaaaeaiiy 1, 2 aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
ni?iuaiiy a?aoa ao?aeii? caaea/?, caoaaaeaiiy 3 — aeey ni?iuaiiy nenoaie
ia??aiinoae aeey aeania caaea/? iie?eooy. Ia i?aenoaa? aeeeaaeaiiai
noi?ioeueiaaiee aeai?eoi ?ica’ycaiiy ao?aeii? caaea/?, a iiooe
i?i?iaeueiiai iie?eooy ae?iaey?oueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeie-noaiith
aeai?eoio, iaaaaeaiiai a ?aoa?o?i?e ?iaio? (a aeena?oaoe?? ?en. 5.5).

O ?aieao iaoiaeeee i?iaeooaaiiy i?e?ii?ia?aiieo IO ?ica’ycaia oaeiae
caaea/a i?iaeooaaiiy nenoaie aae?anaoe?? i?e?ieiiaiae (NAI), yea
oi?ioeth?oueny oae.

Iaoae caaeai? i?e?ii?ia?aia M, iiiaeeia ?? ao?aeieo iaai??a x = x1,…,
xt, aea?aiee noi??ieiaee can?a aae?anaoe?? ? iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe
iiiaeeio C = C1,…, Cl eean?a ao?aeieo iaai??a, ?ici?? noi??iee
i?e?ii?ia?aiii? iai’yo? (?ic?yaei?noue n1  iiey aae?ane IE),
i?i?i?coth/ee ianya oe??? iai’yo?

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyy???n?? ???&?
?MathType??a????uAy??????aea N1 — e?euee?noue noi??iie a
i?e?ii?ia?aii?e iai’yo?.

Iaoae iaeneiaeueia iiooaei?noue ao?aeiiai iaai?o xi na?aae aeaiaio?a
iiiaeeie X

wmetafile8? ??F???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ??
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyyA ??§?? ???&? ?MathType??Oiae?
ni?aaaaeeea? ianooii? iaiaaeaiiy:

wmetafile8? ??X???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy ??AE?? ???&?
?MathType??P????uoya????? wmetafile8? ??Y???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy«yyy??? ?? ???&? ?MathType??a?
???u?????????»????-?????Z???&???Z????&????u
y??????Ae?oaa caaea/a i?iaeooaaiiy NAI — aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo
?ici???a noi??iee.

Iaoae caaeaia i?e?ii?ia?aia M=w1,…, wN  ? aa?enoe/ii aea?aiee ?ici??
noi??iee wmetafile8? ?? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyyA??»?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u`y??????Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo “oiaeiaee” aeey
?ica’ycaiiy aeaii? caaea/? aeiaaa? aecia/aiiy iaeneiaeueieo eean?a
noi?niino? ia iiiaeei? aa?oei a?aoa G (M). Aecia/a?oueny aa?oiy iaaea
aeey oeeo eean?a oeyoii ?ic??coaaiiy a?aoa G (M) c o?aooaaiiyi
iiaeaeueoi? aeanoeaino? ?icaeooy (aeaeiiiiceoe??) i?e?ii?ia?aie. sseui
i?e?ieiiaiaea wi (i = 1,…, N), aea N — /enei i?oie o i?e?ii?ia?ai? M,
iaeaaeeoue o?aaiaioo Mj ( j = 1,…, k) a?ae M, oi oeueiio ae o?aaiaioo
iaeaaeaoue on? i?e?ieiiaiaee — ?? i?eeiaeueieee wmetafile8?
??’??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyya??7?? ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th??????An? ia?a?aoiaai? aeua oai?aoe/i?
?acoeueoaoe, aeai?eoie ? iaoiaee neeaaeathoue iaoiaeeeo eia?/iiai
i?iaeooaaiiy i?e?ii?ia?aiieo i?eno?i?a oi?aae?iiy a eia?/ieo aacenao ICI
aai IEI.

O oinoiio i?aenoieiaiio ?icae?e? caaa?oo?oueny aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii?
iaoe — iiaoaeiaa iaoiaeieia?? aaaaoi??aiaaiai eia?/iiai neioaco IA?N.
Iieacaia iiaoaeiaa aaaaoi??aiaai? aaoiiaoii? iiaeae? IA?N ye
iniiaiiieiaeiiai no?eaeiy iaoiaeieia?? (?icae?ee 6.1, 6.2), ?? aa?oi?o
/anoei — ia?aae? aeene?aoieo (iaaaceiieo) ia?aoai?thaa/?a, ui
aeaoae?co?oueny ia noeeo nenoaiiiai ? eia?/iiai aoai?a a ia?aaeo ia?aae
iia?aoe?eieo (cai?iiiiiaaieo), ia?aae naeaaioe?aeueieo, ia?aeaeueieo ?
cae/aeieo oi?aaeyth/eo aaoiiao?a. Ia?aeaeueii iiaeae? a i?ioean?
eia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy aeoeeo?oueny aaaaoi??aiaaa ???a?o?y aeai?eoi?/ieo
? no?oeoo?ieo iien?a aei ??aiy i?ae?aa?no?iaeo ia?aneeie aai
i?e?ii?ia?ai. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ? cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
aeai?o oiai /e ?ioiai iaoiaeo neioaco, yeee ?aea aiec a?ae ??aiy
i?e?ii?ia?ai. Aeae? iienaia (a aeena?oaoe?? — ?icae?e 6.3) eiie?aoia
aa?n?y iaoiaeieia?? ye eia?/ii? iaaeaoaeiae neioaco eia?/ieo noai a
na?aaeiaeu? iao?e/ieo IA?N c a?o?oaeoo?ith LCA oeio XC2000. Aecia/ai?
an? eia?/i? iaiaaeaiiy oeueiai na?aaeiaeua: eia?/iee ?ecee (i?e
aneio?iii?e ?aae?caoe??), /enei aoiae?a ? eiao?oe??io ?icaaeoaeaiiy, oei
aeaiaioa iai’yo?, cia/aiiy aaee/eie cao?eiie o ??cieo iae?i/a?oieao ?
iaiaaeaiiy ia e?euee?noue a?oiaeo o?an i?aec’?aeiaiue. Ia iniia? oeueiai
?ic?iaeai? no?aoaa?y aenia?oiiai aeai?o eiaeoaaiiy noai?a (c
aeei?enoaiiyi aaoi?nueeeo ?acoeueoao?a — aeaaa 4) ? aeania naia oaeoeea
eiaeoaaiiy a ?aieao iaiaaeaiue. O ?aieao iaoiaeieia?? aaeaioiaaiee aei
caaeaieo iaiaaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaiee ?ai?oa ni?iuaiee iaoiae no?oeoo?iiai
neioaco, ui aeicaieeoue io?eiaoe iioeiaeueio ?aae?caoe?th aioo??oi?o
ci?iieo ? nenoai aoeaaeo ooieoe?e caoaeaeaiiy ? aeoiae?a i?ei?oeaaie
a?ae?ioaee Future Net. Cai?iiiiiaaiee i?inoee (ii??aiyii ?c
aneiioioe/ieie) iaoiae ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? i?iaeoieo niaoeeo?eaoe?e,
ye? iaea?aeai? aiane?aeie neioaco, ui aeicaieeoue aecia/eoe /enei
wmetafile8? ???????????????
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A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyy???†?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??w???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?@
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy? ??&?? ???&? ?MathType??p?
???u?????????»????-?????Z?????&????Z?‚???&‚???Z
????&???Z?.???&.???u3/4ya?????aea wmetafile8?
??±???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya??e?? ???&?
?MathType??`?
???u?????????»????-?????X?H????oH????X?¶???o¶???u 
th??????Nooo?a?noue ioe?iee a?oioo?oueny ia noo? aaoi?nueeiai iaoiaeo
no?oeoo?iiai neioaco: eiaeiiio ia?aoiaeo aaoiiaoa a?aeiia?aea?
aeec’thieoeaiee /eai (eii’thieoe?y) Dij. Ca?aene

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?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy ??&?? ???&? ?MathType??p?
???u?????????»????-?????Z?^???&^???Z?o???&o???Z
?x???&x???Z?9 ???&9 ???u3/4ya?????aea wmetafile8?
??I???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ?@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy???&?? ???&?
?MathType??p?
???u?????????»????-?????Z?H????&H????Z?U???&U???u
y?????? wmetafile8? ??—???????????
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y?????? wmetafile8? ??‡???????????
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y?????? wmetafile8? ??1???????????
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@????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyyA??ae?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uoya?????Noia?iee ae?ac aeey an??? iine?aeiai?nii?
noaie, ui ?aae?co? aaoiiao A:

wmetafile8? ??`???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy®yyy???.?? ???&? ?MathType??a? ???u??
???????»????-?????R?>???>???R???????uAy???????ic?i
aeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii iioeiaeuei?e ?aae?caoe?? nenoaie aoeaaeo
ooieoe?e ? aeaiaio?a iai’yo? aaoiiaoa, aeei?enoai? i?e ?aae?caoe??
eia?/ieo noai i?ei?oeaaie c a?ae?ioaee Future Net CAD-iaeaoo XANT.
Oaeiae iieacaii, ui eia?/ia noaia, iaea?aeaia aiane?aeie aaoi?nueeiai
iaoiaeo neioaco ? ?aaoey?iith, ca aeiyoeii i?noeue “aaeoaeaiiy”, ? oiio
aeia?a eiiiiio?oueny, ?ici?uo?oueny ? o?ano?oueny (aeea. aeiaeaoie A
aeena?oaoe??) c i?i?iaeueiith aaee/eiith noi noia?ii? cao?eiee. sseui
noii?ioeaioia ?icaiaeea niieo/aiue ia aeinyaa?oueny, ui /ano?oa ia?
i?noea o aa?enoe/ii noai?thaai?e noai?, oi i?iiiio?oueny iaoiae
iie?ioaiiy yeino? o?anoaaiiy IA?N ? aaaaoioa?iaeo ae?oeiaaieo ieao.
Nooue iaoiaeo iieyaa? a noai?aii? i?ioeaaeo?e iiaoaeiae
“iaaeio?aniaaieo” o?an, ui a?aoiao? aeaoi?iaoe?th ?ai?oa i?iaaaeaieo, ?
yaey? niaith iiaeeo?eaoe?th oaeeueiaiai aeai?eoio E?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
aeai?eoio E? iaiao?aeii caa??aaoe a iai’yo? ianea, ui aecia/a? S noaie
an?o aeene?ao, a oaeiae caiai’yoaoe L–mun aeaea?aea o?iioo oaee?.
Aaciina?aaeiy aeaoi?iaoe?y (iacaaa?oaieo) o?an ae?iaey?oueny oeyoii ?o
ia?ai?iaaaeaiiy, ui caaacia/o? iioeiaeueio oi?io o?ane a nain?
i?i?i?caoe?? ?? aeiaaeeie (? a?aeiia?aeii i?i?i?caoe?? aaee/eie noi ) ?
/enea ia?aaei?a. O ?aieao iaoiaeieia?? cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae
iaeaaiaeaeaiiy iine?aeiai?nieo noai, ui ia aeiaaa? i?eoyaiaiiy
aeiaeaoeiaeo eia?/ieo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo cania?a, aea ca aeiiiiiaith
iayaieo a CAD-iaeao? XANT iiaeaethth/eo i?aenenoai SILOS, SIMUL ? FLEX,
aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe aa?aioiaaii a??ia?aei?, ae??caeaoi? eia?/i?
i?iaeoi? niaoeeo?eaoe??.

Caaa?oothoue ?icae?e iaa?oioiaai? aaoi?nuee? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
aeei?enoaiith iaoiaeieia?? a ?ioeo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo eia?/ieo
na?aaeiaeuao, iai?eeeaae, a na?aaeiaeu? IOEUeN (?ic?iaee ?OI ? IO —
Iineaa) ? a na?aaeiaeu? OrCAD SDT. Iieacaii, ye ia neeaaeii
“iano?ithaaoe” iniiai? iaoaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie iaoiaeieia?? aei eia?/ieo
iaiaaeaiue oeeo CAD-iaeao?a.

O aeiaeaoeo A iaaaaeaiee i?eeeaae aeei?enoaiiy aaoi?nueei? iaoiaeieia??
aeey /ioe?e??aiaaiai eia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy iiaeoey anioe?aoeaii?
?aa?no?iai? iai’yo? ?aaeoeoe?eii-iioieiai? IAII. Aeaiee i?eeeaae
aeeiiaii aaoi?ii naiino?eii, a aanue i?iaeo IAII — ni?eueii c a?aeae?eii
? 255 ?inoeoooo e?aa?iaoeee ?i. A.I.Aeooeiaa IAI Oe?a?ie ? IAI “Aeiiae”,
Iineaa.

Iieacaia aaaaoi??aiaaa ei?aeoia aeaoae?caoe?y a i?iaeo? a?ae 3 noai?a
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iieno /a?ac aeaa i?ii?aei? (aeaoae?caoe?y ?
ooi/iaiiy), aei 32 noai?a a caeeth/iiio aa??aio?. Iaaaaeai? a?aeiia?aei?
a?ao-noaie, i?ii?aei? i?iaeoi? niaoeeo?eaoe?? (oaaeeoey eiaeoaaiiy,
nenoaie aoeaaeo ooieoe?e caoaeaeaiiy ? aeoiae?a), ei?aeoia
“a?aeeaaiaeaeaia” ?aaoey?ia eia?/ia noaia ? oiiieia?/ia noaia iiaeoey a
e?enoae? XC 2018PC84-70, aea caae?yi? 66-eia?/ieo iae?i/a?oiie, ui
a?aeiia?aea? ioe?ieai (57-60). Aenia?eiaioaeuei? i?iaeoe oeueiai iiaeoey
neioaciaai? ?ioeie caniaaie aeiaaathoue a?eueoa 100 iae?i/a?oiie, oiaoi
iaa?oue ia i?noyoueny a oaeiio ianyc? ?, i?e?iaeii, ia o?anothoueny.

O aeiaeaoeo A noenei iienaiee aenia?eiaioaeueiee i?iaeo i?ia?aiii?
?aae?caoe?? o?aaiaioa iaoiaeieia??. E?iaa?noe/ia caaacia/aiiy a iueiio
i?noeoue caniae iieno i?e?ii?ia?ai, iia?aoe?eieo aaoiiao?a, i?ei?oea?a
oa iae?in?a a?ae?ioaee Future Net, oaaeeoeue eiaeoaaiiy ye ?icoe?aiiy
i?aeiiiaeei iia (aeea. ?icae?e II). I?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy (ui
?aae?coaaeiny /anoeiai) i?noeoue caniae neioaco IIA c iaiaaeaiiyie:
e?euee?noue noai?a 1000, e?euee?noue IE — 256, ?ic?yaei?noue IE 128,
e?euee?noue Uij 128.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee

Aieiaiee i?aenoieiaee ?acoeueoao aeaii? ?iaioe — ?ica’ycaiiy cia/ii?
i?eeeaaeii? i?iaeaie — noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii? i?eeeaaeii? oai???,
iaa?oioiaaii? iaoiaeieia?? ? eiiieaeno ai?iaiaaieo iaoiaeee ? iaoiae?a
???a?o?/iiai eia?/iiai neioaco iine?aeiai?nieo noai IA?N, ui
caaeiaieueiythoue on? eia?/i? iaiaaeaiiy [1,11,12].

Nooue iaoiaeieia?? iieyaa? a i’yoe ?? neeaaeiaeo cae?eniaieo ?ic?iaie:

I. Oai?aoe/iith aacith ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeieia?? eia?/iiai neioaco IA?N ?
oae? ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? ye ?icaeoie i?eeeaaeii? oai??? aaoiiao?a:

1.1. Iiaoaeiaai? aaaaoi??aiaaa aea?aaiiiae?aia aaoiiaoia iiaeaeue IA?N ?
iiaeaeue “e?n” (ye noeoii?noue aaaaoi??aiaauo iiaeaeae) ia/enethaaeueieo
nenoai c ??cii??aeieo IA?N aeey nenoaiiiai aiae?co ? neioaco a caaea/ao
eia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy IA?N aeniei? neeaaeiino? [1,12].

1.2. Cai?iiiiiaai? aaoiiaoi? iiaeae? aeayeeo o?aaiaio?a a?o?oaeoo?e ?
no?oeoo?e IA?N: ia?aaea iaaaceiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a, ia?aae?
naeaaioe?aeueieo oa ia?aeaeueieo aaoiiao?a, ui aeicaieythoue
oi?iae?coaaoe caaea/? nenoaiiiai aoaio ? cae?enieoe oi?iaeueiee ia?ao?ae
a?ae nenoaiieo iiaeaeae aei eia?/ieo [1,10].

1.3. Aia?oa noi?ioeueiaaia ? aeiaaaeaia noeoii?noue oai?ai oa
i?iiiceoe?e, ia canaae? yeeo aeeo/a?oueny eia?/iee ?ecee o aeia?eueieo
aneio?iiieo aaoiiaoao ? eia?/ieo noaiao, ye? caniiaai? ia iaoai?ci?
i?oiaiiaeueiiai eiaeoaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi “aeinoaoi?o” oiia o?eaaeino?
aeo?aeieo neaiae?a [1,2,16].

1.4. Cai?iiiiiaaii iia?aoe?? ?iceeaaeaiiy oa ?ic??co iiiaeeie ia?aoiae?a
aneio?iiiiai aaoiiaoa ii iiiaeei? i?oiaiiaeueieo oiia. Ia oeueiio aia?oa
noi?ioeueiaai? i?iiiceoe?? ? aeiaaaeaia ?o aeinoaoi?noue, ia yeeo a
i?ioean? ???a?o?/iiai neioaco aoeaaeo ooieoe?e caoaeaeaiiy ? aeoiae?a
oi/ii caaeiaieueiythoueny eia?/i? iaiaaeaiiy ia e?euee?noue aoiae?a
i?ei?oea?a oeio AND ? OR ? eiao?oe??io ?icaaeoaeaiiy aeoiaeo
[1,2,13,16,25].

II. Iaoiaeeea aaaaoi??aiaaiai ???a?o?/iiai neioaco aneio?iiieo
iine?aeiai?nieo i?eno?i?a o iaaeao a?aeiieo iei? eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue
IA?N ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a: AIE, IE?N, IEI oa ?i. [1,2,16].

Iaoiaeeea i?noeoue a nia? iaoaiaoe/i? “iaoai?cie” aaeaioaoe?? aei
??ciiiai?oieo cia/aiue eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue ? aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe
iine?aeiai?ni? noaie iaeneiaeueii aeinyaeii? oaeaeeiae??, ui
caaeathoueny e?euee?noth “iaeaaeiaiiy” ca oeeo iaiaaeaiue.

III. Iaoiaeeea ???a?o?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy nenoai aaaaoi??aiaaiai
i?e?ii?ia?aiiiai oi?aae?iiy IA?N ? ia/enethaaeueieo nenoai a aacenao IEI
? ICI [1,4-6,18,19].

Iaoiaeeea iiaoaeiaaia ia oiiaao io?eiaiiy aeec’thieoeaieo ii?iaeueieo
oi?i, aeecueeeo aei iaeei?iooeo, ? i?noeoue “iaoai?ci” aeec’thieoeaiiai
“aienoaaiiy” ia aoiaeao nenoaie aae?anaoe??. Oea aeicaiey? oi?iaeueii
iaea?aeoaaoe ??oaiiy, ii??aiyi? c e?aueie ?iaeaia?ieie.

IV. Nenoaia iaoiae?a eia?/iiai neioaco, ui ? neeaaeiaith iaoiaeieia??,
ooai?aia c oaeeo:

4.1. Iaoiae i?ioe?eceeiaiai eiaeoaaiiy noai?a aneio?iiieo aaoiiao?a aac
iaiaaeaiue [1]. I?inoioa a ?aae?caoe?? ? aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaeo ni?eyee
eiai aeeth/aiith aei aaaaoueio CAD-iaeao?a.

4.2. O?e iaoiaee i?ioe?eceeiaiai eiaeoaaiiy noai?a aaoiiaoo,
ia?aaeaecia/ath/? eiai iioeiaeueio ?aae?caoe?th ia?aaeath (noaiith) c
i?ei?oea?a oeio AND, OR ? aea?aiiai oeio o?eaa?a c caaeaieie
iaiaaeaiiyie [1,2,13,16].

4.3. Iaoiae ???a?o?/iiai neioaco no?oeoo?iiai aaoiiaoa, ui aeicaieeoue
io?eiaoe iioeiaeuei? ca e?euee?noth i?ei?oea?a ?aaoey?i? noaie c
iaeneiaeueiith oaeaeeiae??th. Ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aeiieo eaiii?/ieo
iaoiae?a neioaco ooo cieaeo?oueny aei??i?noue caaea/?, ui ae??oo?oueny
ca ?aooiie aeeeth/aiiy ?ano?ni?iieo i?ioeaaeo? ia?aai?o ? aeai?eoi?a
i?i?i?caoe?? aoeaaeo ooieoe?e [16].

4.4. Iaoiae iie?eooy a caaea/? eiaeoaaiiy i?e?ieiiaiae. A?i aeicaiey?
io?eiaoe ?ica’ycie, aeecueeee aei iioeiaeueiiai ye a oe?e caaea/?, oae ?
a ?ioeo, ye? iiaeooue aooe caaaeai? aei caaea/? iie?eooy [4].

4.5. Iaoiae i?iaeooaaiiy nenoai aae?anaoe?? i?e?ii?ia?aiieo i?eno?i?a
oi?aae?iiy, ui iioeiaeueii ?aae?cothoueny a eia?/ieo aacenao IEI oa ICI
c aeiiii?/iei ?ici?uaiiyi i?e?ii?ia?ai (a iai’yo?) [5,6].

4.6. Iaoiae ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? neioaciaaieo i?iaeoieo niaoeeo?eaoe?e
[3]. Ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aeiieo a?ii?caeeeo iaoiae?a ioe?iee ?iaeaia?ieo
??oaiue ? aneiioioe/ieo ioe?iie neeaaeiino? aeaiee iaoiae aeicaiey? ca
aeai?eoiii ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeineoue oi/ii ioe?ieoe, c oi/i?noth aei
aoeaai? ci?iii?, neeaaei?noue nenoai aoeaaeo ooieoe?e caoaeaeaiiy oa
?oith ?aae?caoe?th a i?ei?oeaao ? iae?inao aea?aii? a?ae?ioaee IA?N [3].

4.7. Iaoiae iie?ioaiiy yeino? o?anoaaiiy IA?N oa aaaaoioa?iaeo
ae?oeiaaieo ieao. A?i aeicaiey? iie?aueoe aeaye? “iiai?” (aeecueei 100%)
o?anoaaiiy aai aeio?anoaaoe “iaiiai?”, ui iaiiaeeeai aeio?anoaaoe ?ioeie
iaoiaeaie oa caniaaie [14,15].

V. Aea? aa?n?? aeaiei — ? PL-iiae?aieo iia aeey aaaaoi??aiaaiai iieno
IA?N ? ia/enethaaeueieo nenoai. ?ic?iaeai? eaeneea, naiaioeea ? iiaiee
neioaenen eiaeii? iiae [7,8,24]. O iiaao ao?eaia ni?iaa ?aae?caoe??
?aea? “aano?aeoii? eiio?ao?aoe??”, ui aeicaieeoue iaeiaeiai
aeaoae?coaaoe aaaaoi ye? iiai? eiino?oeoe?? an?o ??ai?a o ieco?aeiiio
i?ioean? eia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?y eia?/iiai neioaco o?aaiaioa?ii ai?iaaaeaeaia a
aaoiiaoeciaai?e nenoai? i?iaeooaaiiy ia/enethaaeueieo iaoei ? nenoai
(I?IAEO), a nenoaiao OANNIA AN (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a) ? AAOIIAO (I?inuee), a
oaeiae a iaa/aeueieo i?ioeanao ?yaeo aoc?a.

Ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy iaoiaeieia?? ?ethno?o?oueny ??
??ciiiai?oi?noth canoinoaaiiy ? neeaaeiaeo o?aaiaio?a i?e eia?/iiio
aaaaoi??aiaaiio i?iaeooaaii? ?yaeo niaoei?ioeani??a ? niaoei?eno?i?a a
?inoeooo? e?aa?iaoeee ?i. A.I.Aeooeiaa IAI Oe?a?ie ii ainiaeiaia??i?e
oaiaoeoe? (c OeEA “Aeiac”, Iineaa; ?EA “Aeiaon”, ?ycaiue; EEOA EIYI
“Na?oeaia”, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a oa ?i.), a IAeAeE? ii noai?aiith iaeaoieo
c?ace?a i?i?-AII NIO ? IAII ?yaeo “Iae?ii” ia AI ?i. N.I.Ei?ieueiaa
(Ee?a), o IAI “I?e?ii?ioeani?”, a i?iaeo? ?aaeoeoe?eii-iioieiai? IIAII
(c IAI “Aeiiae”, Iineaa) oa ?i.

Iniiai? IIEIAEAIIss aeena?oaoe??

IIOAE?EIAAI? a oaeeo I?AOeyo:

1. Iee?ii?ioeanni?iua nenoaiu ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee: i?iaeoe?iaaiea e
ioeaaeea / A.A. Iaeaaei, A.E. Aeaienaiei, ?.E. Aaeeoeeee, A.E. Neaaeia.
— Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea. — 1993. — 352 n.

2. Aeaienaiei A.E. Ea?a?oe/aneee neioac aneio?iiiuo aaoiiaoia ia
i?ia?aiie?oaiuo eiae/aneeo eioaa?aeueiuo noaiao (IEEN) n o/aoii
ia?aie/aiee // ONeI. — 1997. — ? 1/3. — N. 72 – 77.

3. Aeaienaiei A.E. Iaoiae ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe i?iaeoiuo
niaoeeoeeaoeee, iieo/aaiuo a ?acoeueoaoa neioaca aneio?iiiuo aaoiiaoia
ia IEEN // Oai aea. — ? 4/5. — N. 41 – 43.

4. Aaeeoeeee ?.E., Aeaienaiei A.E., Iaeaaei A.A. Iaoiae iie?uoey a
caaea/a eiaee?iaaiey iee?ieiiaiae // Oai aea. — 1977. — ? 6. — N. 74-81.

5. Aeaienaiei A.E., Iaeaaei A.A., ?ieeoneee A.A. I?iaeoe?iaaiea nenoai
aae?anaoeee iee?ii?ia?aiiiuo ono?ienoa oi?aaeaiey // Oai aea. — 1983. —
? 4. — N. 33-36.

6. Aeaienaiei A.E., Iaeaaei A.A., Oeao?yi E.AE. E caaea/a
i?iaeoe?iaaiey nenoai aae?anaoeee iee?ii?ia?aiiiuo ono?ienoa oi?aaeaiey
e ?aciauaiey iee?ii?ia?aii a iaiyoe // Oai aea. — 1985. — ? 2. — N.
24-25.

7. Aeaienaiei A.E., Iaeaaei A.A., Iieiineay I.N. I?eioeeiu
i?aaiecaoeee aacu aeaiiuo e ycuea iienaiey yeaiaioia iee?ii?ioeanni?iuo
AEN // Oai aea. — 1985. — ? 3. — N. 29-32.

8. Aeaienaiei A.E., Iaeaaei A.A., Iieiineay I.N. Iino?iaiea ycuea
iienaiey au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai ia iee?ii?ioeanni?iuo AEN // Oai aea. —
1985. — ? 4. — N. 28-30.

9. Aeaienaiei A.E. I i?aeoe/aneii eniieueciaaiee iaoiaeieiaee
eiae/aneiai neioaca ono?ienoa e nenoai // Oai aea. — 1998. — ?2. — N.
94–95.

10. Aeaienaiei A.E. Naoue ia?aeeaeueiuo aaoiiaoia// Oai aea. — 1998. —
?3. — N.34–36.

11. Denisenko E.L., Slobodjanjuk T.F. Hierarchical Design of Custom
VLSIs for Control Computers // Intern. collection of research reports:
Diagnosis, reliability and alarm management. — Budapest, Computer and
Automation Institute, Hungarien Academy of Sciences. — 1990. — P.
181-197.

12. Aeaienaiei A.E. Iaoiaeieiaey i?iaeoe?iaaiey NAEN // I?iaeoe?iaaiea
e i?eiaiaiea n?aaenoa iee?ii?ioeanni?iie oaoieee. — Eeaa: Ei-o
eeaa?iaoeee ei. A.I.Aeooeiaa AI ONN?, 1986. — N. 28-31.

13. Aeaienaiei A.E. Aeinoaoi/iua oneiaey eiaee?iaaiey ninoiyiee
aaoiiaoa, ?aaeecoaiiai IEI ieieiaeueiie ieiuaaee // N?aaenoaa
iee?ii?ioeanni?iie oaoieee. — Eeaa: Ei-o eeaa?iaoeee ei. A.I. Aeooeiaa
AI ONN?, 1987. — N. 54-50.

14. Aeaienaiei A.E., Ianoiai A.ss. I?eioeeiu iino?iaiey iiaenenoaiu
i?iaeoe?iaaiey oiiieiaee a nenoaia ea?a?oe/aneiai neaiciiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey NAEN // I?iaeoe?iaaiea yeaiaioia e oceia YAI. — Eeaa:
Ei-o eeaa?iaoeee ei. A.I. Aeooeiaa AI Oe?aeiu, 1988. — C. 35-38.

15. Ianoiai A.ss., Aeaienaiei A.E. Aeai?eoiu oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa
o?anne?iaee iiiaineieiuo ia/aoiuo ieao e e?enoaeeia NAEN //
Iee?ii?ioeanni?iay oaoieea. — Eeaa: Ei-o eeaa?iaoeee ei. A.I. Aeooeiaa
AI Oe?aeiu, 1988. — N. 60-64.

16. Aeaienaiei A.E., Ai?aoiia N.E. Ea?a?oe/aneee neioac
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoiuo noai, ?aaeecoaiuo iao?e/iuie IEEN //
Iee?ii?ioeanni?iay oaoieea. — Eeaa: Ei-o eeaa?iaoeee ei. A.I.Aeooeiaa
AI Oe?aeiu, 1992. — N. 21-30.

17. Iaoiae ioeaaeee iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoiuo noai (neioace?iaaiiuo ii
aaoi?neie iaoiaeieiaee) n iiiiuueth iiaeaee?othuae iiaenenoaiu SILOS
iaeaoa XANT / N.E. Ai?aoiia, A.E. Aeaienaiei, A.E. Caeii/eianeee, A.E.
Neaaeia // Iee?ii?ioeanni?iua nenoaiu e ia?niiaeueiua YAI. — Eeaa: Ei-o
eeaa?iaoeee ei. A.I. Aeooeiaa AI Oe?aeiu, 1993. — N. 47-50.

18. Aeaienaiei A.E., Caeii/eianeee A.E. Iniiaiua yoaiu e i?eioeeiu
iino?iaiey au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai ia iniiaa iee?ii?ioeanni?iuo n?aaenoa
// Oaoi. n?aaenoaa ieie- e iee?iYAI. — Eeaa: Ei-o eeaa?iaoeee ei. A.I.
Aeooeiaa AI ONN?, 1979 . — N. 3-12.

19 . A. n. 943727 NNN?. Iee?ii?ia?aiiiia ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey
i?ioeanni?a / A.A.Iaeaaei, A.E.Aeaienaiei, A.O.Ae?yiae, A.O.Eo?aaaa,
A.A.I?yaeeeiaa, A.ss.Eociaoeia. — Iioae. 15.07.82, Athe. ? 26. — 7 n.

Iioae?eiaai? i?aoe?, ye? aeiaeaoeiai a?aeia?aaeathoue

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??:

20. Ni?aai/iee ii oeeo?iaie au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea (I?ioeanni?u e
iaiyoue) / A.I. Iaeeiianeee, A.E. Aeaienaiei, A.E.A?thoiae/ e ae?.—
Eeaa: Oyoieea, 1979.— 511 n.

21. Ni?aai/iee ii oeeo?iaie au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea (Yeaeo?iiiua
au/eneeoaeueiua iaoeiu e nenoaiu) / A.I. Iaeeiianeee, A.ss.
Aeaenaiae?ia, A.E. Aeaienaiei e ae?. — Eeaa: Oyoieea, 1980. — 319 n.

22. Ni?aai/iee ii oeeo?iaie au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea (I?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea) / A.I. Iaeeiianeee, A.A. Eeiaaa, A.E. Aeaienaiei e ae?.. —
Eeaa: Oyoieea, 1981. — 206 n.

23. Aeaienaiei A.E., Eaeaeey A.E. Eiaee?iaaiea ninoiyiee aaoiiaoia,
iienuaaaiuo eeiaeiuie iee?ii?ia?aiiaie, e eo ?aaeecaoeey a
au/eneeoaeueiie n?aaea // O?. ?anioae. iao/.-oaoi. eiio. ii au/ene.
oaoi. — Oaeeene: YEAA, 1974. — N. 185-188.

24. Aeaienaiei A.E., Iieiineay I.N. Ia eniieueciaaiee ycueia iienaiey
aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa aeey iiiaio?iaiaaiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey
ioeueoei?ioeanni?ia // Eiino?oe?iaaiea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie
yeaeo?iiii–au/eneeoaeueiie aiia?aoo?u. — ?ycaiue: Ecae–ai ??OE, 1984. —
N.26–29.

25. Aeaienaiei A.E. I ninaaeiai eiaee?iaaiee ninoiyiee aaoiiaoia
eiaeaie ieieiaeueiie aeeeiu, iienuaaaiuo eeiaeiie iee?ii?ia?aiiie //
I?iaeoe?iaaiea e i?eiaiaiea ieie-YAI. — Eeaa, 1977. — N. 16-19. —
(I?ai?. / Ei-o eeaa?iaoeee AI ONN?; 77-73).

26. Aeaienaiei A.E., Iaeaaei A.A.. THneoia N.E. I oi?iaeecaoeee
i?iaeoe?iaaiey iee?ii?ioeanni?ia n ianeieueeeie iia?aoeeiiiuie aeieaie.
— Eeaa, 1985. — 18 n. — (I?ai?. / Ei-o eeaa?iaoeee ei. A.I.Aeooeiaa AI
ONN?; 85-32).

Aeaienaiei ?.E. ?icaeoie oai??? ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeieia?? eia?/iiai
neioaco IA?N ia iniia? aaaaoi??aiaaeo aaoiiaoieo iiaeaeae. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.13.05 — aeaiaioe oa i?eno?i? ia/enethaaeueii?
oaoi?ee oa nenoai ea?oaaiiy. ?inoeooo e?aa?iaoeee ?i. A.I.Aeooeiaa IAI
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?aaenoaaeaia iaoiaeieia?y eia?/iiai neioaco
IA?N ye a?aee?eoa nenoaia aca?iiiia’ycaieo i?eioeei?a, iaoiaeee,
iaoiae?a, aeai?eoi?a, ui ea?othoueny iaoaiaoe/ieie «iaoai?ciaie» aai
aenia?oieie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie aaoi?a. Iaoiaeieia?y aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe
a ?aieao an?o eia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue (ia i?eeeaae? IE?N oeio LCA)
aa?aioiaaio a??ia?aeio eia?/io noaio, aaeaeaaoio ao?aeiei aeaiei, ui
caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueio oaeaeeiae?th (i?i?ioi eaneaae?a) i?e aeecueeeo
aei i?i?iaeueieo aeo?aoao eia?/ieo i?ei?oea?a ? ia?aaeaecia/ath/o
iiceoeaia ??oaiiy caaea/ oiiieia??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaaaoi??aiaaa aaoiiaoia iiaeaeue, aneio?iiiee ?
neio?iiiee aaoiiaoe, aneio?iiia noaia, eia?/ia noaia, ???a?o?/iee
neioac.

Aeaienaiei A.E. ?acaeoea oai?ee e ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeieiaee eiae/aneiai
neioaca NAEN ia iniiaa iiiaio?iaiaauo aaoiiaoiuo iiaeaeae. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.13.05 — yeaiaiou e ono?ienoaa au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee
e nenoai oi?aaeaiey. — Einoeooo eeaa?iaoeee ei. A.I.Aeooeiaa IAI
Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaia iaoiaeieiaey eiae/aneiai
neioaca NAEN eae ioe?uoay nenoaia acaeiinaycaiiuo i?eioeeiia, iaoiaeee,
iaoiaeia, aeai?eoiia, oi?aaeyaiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeie «iaoaieciaie» eee
yenia?oiuie ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie aaoi?a. Iaoiaeieiaey iicaieyao iieo/aoue a
?aieao anao eiae/aneeo ia?aie/aiee (ia i?eia?a IEEN oeia LCA)
aa?aioe?iaaiii aeinoiaa?ioth eiae/aneoth noaio, aaeaeaaoioth enoiaeiui
aeaiiui, iaania/eaathuoth iaeneiaeueiia auno?iaeaenoaea (ieieioi
eaneaaeia) i?e aeeceeo e ieieiaeueiui cao?aoao eiae/aneeo i?eieoeaia e
i?aaeii?aaeaeythuoth iieiaeeoaeueiia ?aoaiea caaea/ oiiieiaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiiaio?iaiaaay aaoiiaoiay iiaeaeue, aneio?iiiue e
neio?iiiue aaoiiaou, aneio?iiiay noaia, eiae/aneay noaia, ea?a?oe/aneee
neioac.

Denisenko E.L. Development of theory and methodology of VLSI logical
synthesis on the basis of multilevel automata models. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 05.13.05 — elements and
devices of computer facilities and control systems. — The Institute of
Cybernetics of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis deals with the methodology of VLSI logic design as an open
system of interrelated principles, methods and algorithms controlled by
mathematical “mechanisms” or author’s recommendations. This methodology
enables obtaining, within the framework of all logical constraints,
(using the example of an LCA-type PLIC) a guaranteed reliable logical
circuit adequate to initial data which provides the maximum speed with
the minimum expenditure of logical primitives and a predetermining
positive solution of topology problems.

Key words: multilevel automaton model, asynchronous and synchronous
automata, asynchronous circuit, logical scheme, hirerarchical synthesis.

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