AeIIAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE

OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

IOEAEIA A?EOI? A?EOI?IAE*

OAeE 621.775.8

?ICAEOIE OAI??? AeAOI?IAOe?? AeENE?AOIEO O?E

? ?IC?IAEA OAOIIEIA?*IIAI I?IOeANO I?ANOAAIIss

NAEIOeAAEO AIEIEII

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.03.05 – I?ioeane oa iaoeie ia?iaee oeneii

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a E??iaia?aaenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaiaeuenueeee
Ieeiea Aaneeueiae/, E??iaia?aaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e “Ia?iaea iaoae?a oeneii oa eeaa?ia ae?iaieoeoai”

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Nieieia Eaa Ieeieaeiae/, Aeiiaanueea
aea?aeaaia iaoeiiaoae?aia aeaaeai?y, i?ioani? eaoaae?? «Iaoeie oa
oaoiieia?? IIO» (i. E?aiaoi?nuee);

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Eaoa?a Aaea??e Ieoaeeiae/,
Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
«Ia?iaea iaoae?a oeneii»

(i. Aeiiaoeuee).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?e «Iaoeie oa
oaoiieia?? IIO», I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Caii??aeaey).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 20 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 1200 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 11.052.01 o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (340000, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. A?oaia, 58).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (340000, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.
A?oaia, 58, ?? o/. ei?ion).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «16 » ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee Ae 11.052.01, ae.o.i., i?io.
____________________________N.I. Nao’yioe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ca?aeii aeaieo I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie
uiaeiaiai aei iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua c i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa
aeeeaea?oueny a?ey 22 oen. i3 caa?oaeiaieo noie?a. AEi?noe? aeieia?/i?
aeiiae, c iaeiiai aieo, ? neeaaei?noue o?eueo?aoe?? caa?oaeiaieo
?ic/ei?a, c ?ioiai i?eaaea aei oiai, ui ia i?aei?e?inoaao noaee
anoaiiaethaaoe aanaeie-a?aenoieieee oa ?ieino?-iaeiie/oaa/?, eio?? a
oe?eiio ia ?ica’ycothoue i?iaeaio: caaaeueia e?euee?noue iiaae?a, ye?
ui?ieo iaeiie/othoueny a i/enieo nii?oaeao Oe?a?ie, noaiiaeoue 77 oen.
oii i?e aieiaino? 98% (15 oen. oii o ia?a?aooieo ia nooo ?a/iaeio).
Iniaeeao neeaaei?noue noaiiaeoue i/euaiiy aa?aneaieo ?ic/ei?a.

O oaia??oi?e /an a yeino? o?eueo?oth/eo aeaiaio?a aeey i/euaiiy a?ae
noniaic?e oa iaoai?/ieo aeii?oie o eeneioii-eoaeieo na?aaeiaeuao
aeei?enoiaothoue ia?oei?a?i?eiao oeaieio, oeaieio c aonio?aeo,
iie?aoeeaiia? aeenee, eaa?oeiaee i?nie, o?eueo?oaaeuei? ea?ai?/i?
iao?iie, oiieioa?ia? ooi?iieanoia? o?eueo?oth/? iaoa??aee,
iaoaeiea?ai?eo.

Oeai? o?eueo?e oa ii?eno? iie?aoeeaiia? iaoa??aee oi/a e caaacia/othoue
aenieee ??aaiue o?eueo?aoe??, aea iathoue caaaeuei? iaaeie?ee –
iaiaeii??aeia a?aeiinia aaee/eia ii?, iecueea iaoai?/ia i?oei?noue oa
iaiiaeeea?noue ?aaaia?aoe??. A?eueo ia?aaaaeieie yaeythoueny
iaoaeiea?ai?/i? o?eueo?e. Iaeiae a neeo niaoeeo?ee ou?eueiaiiy
aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo (ii?ioeo), o?eueo?oth/? aeaiaioe c ii?eno?noth
iiiaae 40% io?eiaoe i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai (iecueea iaoai?/ia i?oei?noue).
Aei oiai ae oeei iaoa??aeai i?eoaiaii? ooieeia? ii?e.

A?eueo aoaeoeaieie ? iaoaeiaieieieno? o?eueo?e. Aeaiooa nenoaia
eai?ey??a, oaioe/i? ia?aieao?iiy oa iaoai?/ia c/aieaiiy aieieii,
??aiii??iee ii?? iane??ciiio iioieo oa iiaeeea?noue io?eiaiiy ii?enoino?
aei 95% ?, oei naiei, aeniei? ?iai/i? ieiu?, aecia/athoue ia?aaaao ?o
a?aeiinii ?ioeo o?eueo?oth/eo iaoa??ae?a.

Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie aeey o?eueo?aoe?? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu ?
naeioeaa? aieieioaao? o?eueo?e. Iaeiae /a?ac neeaaei?noue io?eiaiiy
naeioeaaeo aieieii iaoiaeii aaeaeoe?? c ?icieaao a?aeiiino? i?i
canoinoaaiiy oaeeo o?eueo??a i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?. A oe?eiio iiaeia
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui no?eioth/ei oaeoi?ii ?icoe?aiiy ia’?i?a oa iaeanoae
canoinoaaiiy naeioeaaeo iaoaeiaieieienoeo ii?enoeo ae?ia?a ? aeniea
aa?o?noue aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo – aieieia, ui ni?e/eiaii aenieith
aia?ai?ii?noth, aei?iaeia/ath aia?aoo?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy, iaaeineiiae?noth
oaoiieia?? oa iacaaeia?eueiith aeieia?/i?noth i?ioeano ?oiueiai
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Caaea/a ?ic?iaee oa aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaoaaiai e aoaeoeaiiai niiniao
io?eiaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii aeey ?iaioe a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao
iaoiaeii i?anoaaiiy eeoeo a?aioe, yeee iaia? aiaeia?a o na?oia?e
i?aeoeoe?, ? aeooaeueiith.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioo aeeiiaii ca?aeii Iinoaiiae
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a ? 429 a?ae 22.06.94 ?. “I?i ?aae?caoe?th i??i?eoaoieo
iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo iaoee ? oaoi?ee” (iai?yiie 6: “Iia? ?a/iaeie oa
iaoa??aee”, ?icae?e 1: “Noai?aiiy iiaeo iaoaeaaeo, eiiiiceoe?eieo,
ea?ai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a”), eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ieaio i?aeaoc?anueeeo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o “Iia? eiino?oeoe?ei? iaoa??aee oa
aenieiaoaeoeai? oaoiieia?? ?o ae?iaieoeoaa” (?icae?e “Iaea?aeaiiy iiaeo
ii?enoeo iaoa??ae?a c iaia?aae caaeaieie aeanoeainoyie”) oa
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe “Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa inai?iiy oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a io?eiaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii i?anoaaiiyi eeoeo a?aioe” (? Ae?
0196U010417; ?ia. ? 0296U000967) E??iaia?aaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy ?aieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ia
eiioaeo? oa a ia’?i? aeene?aoieo /anoie i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? ?o oa c
o?aooaaiiyi oaoiieia?/ii? niaaeei?iiino?, ?ic?iaea i?eioeeiiai iiaiai
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano oa iaeaaeiaiiy aeey io?eiaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii
iaoiaeii i?anoaaiiy eeoeo a?aioe ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai
naeioeaaeo aieieioaaoeo o?eueo?iaeaiaio?a aeey i/euaiiy aa?aneaieo
?ic/ei?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia.

– Ia iniia? aea/aiiy eiioaeoii? oai??? aca?iiae?? /anoie c aeei?enoaiiyi
noaoenoe/ieo oa ?iia??i?nieo oya nei?aeoiaaii iaoai?ci ? ?ic?iaeaii
o?ce/io iiaeaeue ou?eueiaiiy neio/iai na?aaeiaeua e iieacaii, ui
ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y, yea eiioeaio?o?oueny a oi/eao eiioaeoo ? a
ia’?i? /anoie, aeeeeea? i?ae ae??th ni?yiiaaiino? iiey iai?oaeaiue ia
caeeth/i?e noaae?? i?anoaaiiy iine?aeiaiee ? iaia?a?aiee aeo ia?aoiaeo
a?naneiao?e/ii? oi?ie /anoie a ia??aiia?nio.

– Oaiiiaiieia?/iei oeyoii io?eiaii ??aiyiiy, ui aecia/a? aeo?aeio
a?aeiinio u?euei?noue, i?e eio??e ou?eueiaiiy cae?enith?oueny ia?aaaaeii
ca ?aooiie i?ineecoaaiiy /anoie, ? ??aiyiiy, ui iieno? iaoai?ci
ou?eueiaiiy ca ?aooiie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? eiiaeiia?aoo /anoie.
A?aeei?aeoiaaii ?ioa?aae a?aeiinii? aonoeie n caoooaiiy no?oeoo?ii?
eiiiiiaioe aeaoi?iaoe?? (n I[0,63;0,69]), o?enaoe?? eiioaeo?a (n
I[0,86;0,94]) e ii/aoie aeoieo aieieii (n I[0,96;0,98]).

– Aiae?oe/iei oeyoii io?eiaii ??aiyiiy ou?eueiaiiy neio/iai iaoaeaaiai
na?aaeiaeua aei iiiaioo eiai aeoieo a ii?iaeieio ?iai/iai ioai?o
iao?eoe?, ui aeicaiey? e?euee?nii ioe?ieoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
no?oeoo?iith oa ieanoe/iith eiiiiiaioaie aeaoi?iaoe??.

– Aiae?oe/iei oeyoii aeaaaeaii ??aiyiiy iaiaeii??aeiino? aeaoi?iaoe??
a?aioe a i?ioean? ?oiueiai i?anoaaiiy, ui aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aaiiao??th
aieieii o ??cieo oa?ao i?ooea i?e caaeaieo ?aaeeiao i?anoaaiiy ?
?ici??ao a?aioe. Iieacaii, ui a oeaio?aeueieo ciiao aei?anoaaiiy
(rx < 0…0,4), aeiaaeeia aieieia ia ci?ith?oueny. A oie naiee /an, /ei aeeae/a ?icoaoiaaia aieieii aei iiaa?oi? aei?aniaee (rx > 0,4), oei
?ioaineai?oa a?aeaoaa?oueny eiai iiaeiaaeaiiy, ? /ei aeuee nooi?iue
aeaoi?iaoe??, oei a?eueo i?iyaey?oueny oeae aoaeo.

– Aeey ?ic?aooieo neeiaiai iaeaaeiaiiy e inianoee aiae?oe/ii io?eiaii
??aiyiiy i?anoaaiiy aieieii, yea a?aoiao? aia?aiaeo?aoe ye a i?ioean?
ou?eueiaiiy a?aioe, oae ? a ?oi?e ia’?ii?e ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aieieia.

– ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aea/aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio aca?iiae??
/anoie oeyoii inaaeaeoaaiiy ?o o caieiaiiio ia’?i? ??cii? oi?ie ?
iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio aeaoi?iaoe?? a?naneiao?e/ii? /anoee o
aeiaaia?nio oeyoii aiae?co aeaoi?iaoe?? cnoao.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue oa ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

?ic?iaeaii onoaiiaeo aeey a?a?aoe?eiiai eeooy a?aioe a?naneiao?e/ii?
oi?ie o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ?ici???a (ia ??ai? iaoaioii? /enoioe),
niaoe?ae?ciaaia iniauaiiy aeey i?anoaaiiy c a?aioe aieieii, oaoiieia?th
aeaioiaeaiiy o?eueo?oth/eo aeaiaio?a c naeioeaaeo aieieii. C
aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo iaeaaeiaiiy ? oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeai?
o?eueo?oth/? aieieieno? naeioeaa? o?eueo?iaeaiaioe, noaiaeia?
aei?iaoaaiiy eio?eo iieacaee, ui aiie a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai AINO
17108 — 86. Ca ?aooiie cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
o?eueo?iaeaiaio?a c naeioeaaeo aieieii aeey i/euaiiy aeaeo?ie?o?a ia CAO
“Aaoiooaii” (i. Ieaenaiae??y) io?eiaii aeiiii?/iee aoaeo 8750 a?eaaiue
(i?e aeei?enoaii? 60 i3 i/euaiiai aeaeo?ie?oo). ?ic?iaeaii oaoi?/ia
caaaeaiiy ia i?iaeooaaiiy aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaiai onoaoeoaaiiy aeey
iaia?a?aiiai i?ioeano io?eiaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii c eeoeo a?aioe.
I?iaiiciaaiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ?aae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe o
i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie i?e i/euaii? aa?aneaieo ?ic/ei?a – 3,2 iei.
a?eaaiue. Ie?ai? ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoai? o E??iaia?aaenueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? eo?no “Oai??y oa
i?ioeane ia?iaee iaoae?a oeneii”.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Ia iniia? iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e aaoi?ii aoei
aeeiiaii oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy oa cae?eniaii iinoaiiaeo caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iei aeeiiaii ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaio?a oa i?iaaaeaii ?o
ia onoaiiaeao, ye? aoee ?ic?iaeai? iniaenoi caeiaoaa/ai. A?i cai?iaaaeea
o i?aeoeeo naeioeaa? aieieieno? o?eueo?iaeaiaioe aeey o?eueo?aoe??
aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu ? ?ic?iaea oaoi?/ia caaaeaiiy ia i?iaeooaaiiy
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee aeey aacia?a?aiiai i?ioeano i?anoaaiiy
naeioeaaeo aieieii c eeoeo a?aioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeaii o aeiiia?aeyo ia
I?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “?ano?ni- e
yia?ainaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee a i?iiuoeaiiinoe”(Iaeana, 1996) oa
“I?ia?anneaiua oaoiieiaee ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia” (I?inuee, 1998),
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy (c a?oaeiy 1998 ?.
E??iaia?aaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao), 1995 – 1998 ??.

A oe?eiio ?iaioo iaaiai?aii e noaaeaii ia ia’?aeiaiiio iaoeiaiio
nai?ia?? iaoai?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo oeueiai iaa/aeueiiai
caeeaaeo o 1998 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a?n?i noaoae ? aea?
aeiiia?ae? (o oacao), io?eiaii aeaa iaoaioe.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e ? oanoe aeiaeaoe?a,
oaenoiaee iaoa??ae aeeeaaeaii ia 130 noi?., oaaeeoeue – 8, ?enoie?a –
59, e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae – 102 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aeeeaaeaii iaoo ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe oa oeyoe ?oiueiai aeeiiaiiy, iaoeiao
iiaecio, i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue ?iaioe, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeianaii
ia caoeno, ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ai?iaaoe?th oa ioae?eaoe?? iniiaieo
?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeaii iaeyae oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i/euaiiy
aa?aneaieo i?iieneiaeo ?ic/ei?a ? iieacaii, ui iaoaeiaieieiia? naeioeaa?
ii?eno? iaoa??aee yaeythoueny a?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie, i?ae canoiniaoaai?
c oe??th iaoith ?io? o?eueo?oth/? iaoa??aee. A oie naiee /an ?nioth/ee
niin?a io?eiaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii iaoiaeii aaeaeoe?? ?icieaao
neeaaeiee ca oaoi?/iei aeeiiaiiyi, aia?aii?noeee, aaaeeiea?iaaiee oa
aei?iaee, ui ??cei iaiaaeo? aaeoc? canoinoaaiiy oa ianyae ae?iaieoeoaa
naeioeaaeo aieieiiaeo o?eueo?iaeaiaio?a.

I?aaenoaaeaii aiae?c aieeao ciai?oi?o nee oa?oy ia ia??aiii??i?noue
iii?o aeaoi?ioaaiith eiiiaeoieo iaoae?a ? c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i
iiceoeaiee aieea ia??aiii??iino? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeey io?eiaiiy aieieii c
eeoeo a?aioe a i?ioean? i?anoaaiiy.

Cia/iee aianie o ?icaeoie oai??? ? oaoiieia?? eiiiaeooaaiiy neio/iai
iaoaeaaiai na?aaeiaeua c?iaeaii a/aieie: I.TH. Aaeueoeiei, A.I.
AEaeaiiae/ai, A.ss. Aoiii, I.N. Eiaaeue/aieii, I.A. Ooa?iii, A.A.
Ia?aeueiaiii, I.A. ?iiaiii, A.A. Nei?ioiaeii, E.I. Nieieiaei, A.E.
Eieiiai?iaei, ss.TH. Aaeaaeueceia?ii , A.C. Nioneaitheii, A.I. Eaioaaei
oa ?ioeie. A oe?eiio ia ??ai? aeaoi?iaoe?? no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a aiie
ocaaaeueieee iaoai?ci ou?eueiaiiy aeene?aoiiai noaiiaeua. A oie naiee
/an nenoaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia aea/aiiy oiia i?anoaaiiy
iaoaeaaeo aieieii, ?aieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae a ina?aaeeo aeaoi?iaoe?? oa
?oiueiai aieeao ia ea?iaai?noue i?ioeano i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe noi?ioeueiaai?
oae? caaea/?:

a) c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao i?aoi?iaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo i?aeaioiaee a?aioe ye
oaeoi?a ca?iaeaeaiiy niaaeei?iiino? aeanoeainoae aea/eoe aeaoi?iaoe?ei?
oiiae i?anoaaiiy a?aioe a ?icae?eai? aieieia, aeey /iai:

– ia ??ai? iaoaioii? /enoioe ?ic?iaeoe onoaiiaeo aeey a?a?aoe?eiiai
aeenia?aoaaiiy ?icieaao oa iioei?coaaoe ?aaeeie eeooy a?aioe;

– ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? c canoinoaaiiyi eiioaeoii? oai???
aca?iiae?? /anoie ?ic?iaeoe iniiae iaoai?ee io?eiaiiy iaoaeaaeo aieieii
c aeei?enoaiiyi noaoenoe/ieo oa ?iia??i?nieo oya;

– ia ??ai? no/anieo aeiia aeeiiaoe aiae?c yaeu, ye? i?io?eathoue ia
eiioaeoi?e iiaa?oi? oa a ia’?i? a?aioe, ye? aeaoi?iothoue;

– ia iniia? oaiiiaiieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy io?eiaoe ??aiyiiy
ou?eueiaiiy neio/iai na?aaeiaeua c o?aooaaiiyi no?oeoo?ii? oa ieanoe/ii?
eiiiiiaio aeaoi?iaoe??;

– aiae?oe/iei oeyoii io?eiaoe ??aiyiiy ia’?iii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e
i?anoaaii? aieieii;

– aiae?oe/iei oeyoii io?eiaoe ??aiyiiy iaiaeii??aeiino? aeaoi?iaoe??
a?aioe o i?ioean? ?oiueiai i?anoaaiiy, ui aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aaiiao??th
aieieii ca ia?aoeiii aei?aniaee;

– ?ic?iaeoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ? aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie
io?eiaiiy aieieii caaeaieo oeii?ici???a;

– aenia?eiaioaeueii aeyaeoe aieea iniiaieo aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?
?ici??iiai niaeo?a a?aioe ia onoaeai?noue i?ioeano io?eiaiiy aieieii;

a) ia iniia? nenoaiaoeciaaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeoe aieea
a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo ? ?aaeei?a i?anoaaiiy ia aia?aineeia?
ia?aiao?e i?ioeano c iaoith ?ic?aooieo iaeaaeiaiiy oa aeai?o
onoaoeoaaiiy;

a) nie?ath/enue ia iioei?ciaai? ?aaeeie io?eiaiiy aieieii, i?iaanoe
i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nuee? ?iaioe oa cai?iaaaeeoe o ae?iaieoeoai
naeioeaa? ii?eno? o?eueo?iaeaiaioe aeey ?iaioe a aa?aneaieo
na?aaeiaeuao.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii iaoiaeeee e onoaiiaee aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioean?a aeenia?aoaaiiy ?icieaa?a oa i?anoaaiiy aieieii c eeoeo a?aioe.

A yeino? iaoa??aeo aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoaii aoi?eiiee naeiaoeue
ia?ee NNo2 AINO 1292 – 81. Eeooy a?aioe cae?enithaaeiny ia a?a?aoe?eiiio
onoaoeoaaii? (Iaoaio ?17942).

Iieacaii, ui /anoee ??aiia?nii? /e aeecueei? aei ia? oi?ie
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieeie cia/aiiyie ia’?iii? iane, aenieith
oaeo/?noth, ui aeoaea aaaeeeai aeey caaacia/aiiy no?eeiai oi?ioaaiiy
ina?aaeeo aeaoi?iaoe?? oa, oei naiei, noaa?eueiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?ici??iiai
niaeo?a a?aioe.

Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue
?iciiae?eo a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo. Ca iieaciee oi?iiooai?aiiy acyoi
a?aeiioaiiy e?aei?o ?ici???a /anoie – eiao?oe??io oi?iiooai?aiiy Eo =
a/a. sse aecia/ath/e ia?aiao?e oi?iiooai?aiiy a?aioe a?aee: eiao?oe??io
aeeiai?/ii? a’yceino? ioieiaeaeoth/i? ??aeeie h (aiaeo oa aiaeiee ?ic/ei
o ??cieo i?iii?oe?yo c h a?ae 101·10–5 aei 42700·10–5 Ia·n i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 35°N); aiie?ooaeo eieeaaiue aeenia?aaoi?a A (a?ae 0 aei 6
ii); /anoioo eieeaaiue aeenia?aaoi?a n1 (a?ae 0 aei 4 Aoe); ae?aiao?
ioai?o eaiae?a aeenia?aaoi?a d (a?ae 1 aei 3 ii). Iieacaii, ui
iaea?eueoee aieea ia eiao?oe??io oi?iiooai?aiiy Eo cae?enith?
eiao?oe??io aeeiai?/ii? a’yceino? h, a iio?i – aiie?ooaee A. A
?acoeueoao? iioei?caoe?? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? io?eiaii iioeiaeueiee
?aaeei eeooy a?aioe: h = 0,424 Ia·n, A = 3,7 ii, n1 = 2,35 Aoe, d = 3 ii
c iaeneiaeueiei Eo = 0,65.

?iciiae?e a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo iieaco?, ui i?e aeenia?aoaaii?
?icieaao e??cue eaiaee aeenia?aaoi?a ae?aiao?ii 3 ii, aeo?ae aiaeiiai
a?aioe o?aeoe?e io (+2) – (–3) ii aei (+ 5) – (–6) ii, neeaaea? io 82
aei 87 %.

I?anoaaiiy aieieii c a?aioe cae?enithaaee ia onoaiiaoe?, ciiioiaai?e ia
i?an? IA – 452 coneeeyi 0,6 II, noaio yei? iieacaii ia ?enoieo 1.
Aeaoi?iaoe?ei? ?aaeeie aeine?aeaeaiiy: eiao?oe??io aeoyaeee m – a?ae 21
aei 81, ?iai/ee eoo iao?eoe? jc – a?ae 45 aei 75°.

?enoiie 1 – Noaia onoaiiaee aeey io?eiaiiy aieieii

Iaoiaeeee niaoe?aeueieo aeaoi?iaoe?eieo oa iaoaeia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue caianai? aei a?aeiia?aeieo i?ae?icae?e?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aiae?oe/ii anoaiiaeaii e aenia?eiaioaeueii
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui io?eiaiiy aeiaaia?nieo ieoie (aieieii) c ??aiia?nieo
/anoie (a?aioe) o i?ioean? i?anoaaiiy noaiiaeoue niaith aeo iaia?a?aieo
? iine?aeiaieo ci?i o ianeii?e ian? /anoie. Ia ia?o?e noaae??
ou?eueiaiiy i?aaaeth? no?oeoo?ia eiiiiiaioa aeaoi?iaoe??, eiee eaea
i?ineecaiiy /anoie ?c oei, uia caeiyoe no?eea iieiaeaiiy o caaaeuei?e
ianeii?e ian?. Ae?oaa noaae?y ou?eueiaiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny caaanaiiyi
no?oeoo?ii? eiiiiiaioe oa ?icaeoeii eiioaeoii? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??
ia iiaa?oi? /anoie. Iaeaea? oe? noaae?? aaea a?aeii? ?
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue oa?aeoa? ou?eueiaiiy ii?ioe?a. ?, ia?aoo?, ia
caaa?ooth/?e o?ao?e noaae?? ou?eueiaiiy eiioaeoia aeaoi?iaoe?y
ia?aoiaeeoue a ia’?iio ieanoe/io, yea ae?aaea?oueny iiaeiaaeaiiyi
??aiia?nieo /anoie o iai?yieo aeiaeaoeiaeo cnoaieo aeaoi?iaoe?e. Oe?
noaae?? oiiai? ? a oe?eiio oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?ioean i?anoaaiiy aieieii.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? /anoie ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
noaoenoe/ieo ? eiia??iinieo oya ?ic?iaeaii o?ce/io iiaeaeue ou?eueiaiiy
neio/iai na?aaeiaeua ? iieacaii, ui eiioeaio?iaaia a oi/eao eiioaeoo ? a
ia’?i? /anoie ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y aeeeeea? i?ae ae??th iai?aaeaiino?
iiey iai?oa iine?aeiaiee ? iaia?a?aiee aeo ia?aoiaeo a?naneiao?e/ii?
oi?ie /anoie o ia??aiia?nio. Aiae?oe/ii ciaeaeaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii caeaaei?noue a?aeiinii? u?eueiino? n a?ae a?aeiinii?
eiioaeoii? ieiueie f ia noaae?? ou?eueiaiiy:

(1)

aea n0 – aeo?aeia a?aeiinia u?euei?noue.

Io?eiaii ??aiyiiy ca?eueoaiiy a?aeiinii? u?eueiino? ca ?aooiie
no?oeoo?ii? eiiiiiaioe: Dnno = n – n0 – 0,5 · n · (n2 – n20) ?
ieanoe/ii? eiiiiiaioe aeaoi?iaoe??: Dnie = 0,5·n · (n2 – n20).

Aeey aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee aiae?oe/ieo aeniiae?a
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a?aioee o?aeoe?e (+2) – (–3) ii, (+3) – (–4) ii, (+4)
– (–5) ii ? (+5) – (–6) ii, ui a?aeiia?aea? iio?aei?e a?aeiinii?
u?eueiino? n a?ae 0,52 aei 0,55.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo iieacaee, ui ii/aoie ae?oai? noaae?? ianoa?
aeey oeeo o?aeoe?e i?e n = 0,63; 0,65; 0,68; 0,69 a?aeiia?aeii. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeeei aiae?oe/i? aeniiaee i?i oa, ui ?icaeoie eiioaeoieo
ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e cia/aiiyo n a ?ioa?aae? a?ae
0,60 aei 0,69. Aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui noaae?y ia?aaaaeii
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? /anoie caeaaeeoue a?ae o?aeoe?eiiai neeaaeo
a?aioe ? noaiiaeoue n = 0,86; 0,90; 0,91; 0,94 a?aeiia?aeii. Ciaeaeaiee
aenia?eiaioaeueii ?ioa?aae n (a?ae 0,86 aei 0,94) aeaui a?ae??ciy?oueny
a?ae oai?aoe/iiai (a?ae 0,80 aei 0,92), ine?eueee ia i?aeoeoe? Eo
aei??aith? 0,65 cai?noue iaeeieoe?, yea i?eeiyoa a oai?aoe/ieo
?ic?aooieao. Ii/aoie aeo?eaiiy a?aioe c ?iai/iai ioai?o iao?eoe?
iacia/ii caeaaeeoue a?ae ?oiueiai o?aeoe?eiiai neeaaeo ? a?aeaoaa?oueny
i?e Eo a?ae 0,96 aei 0,98.

Ia iniia? ?icaeyaeo i?ioeano io?eiaiiy aieieii ye aaiethoe?? ia?aoiaeo
ianeiii? iane a?aioe o u?eueiee eiiaeiia?ao /anoie (n = 0,96…0,98)
iieacaii, ui a iiaeaeueoiio eiioaeoia ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y
ia?aoiaeeoue o aeeaeio e ioiieth? aanue ia’?i. Ia??aiii??ia noaia iai?oa
ia’?iiiai noeneo aeeeeea? ?ioaineai? cnoai? aeaoi?iaoe??, i???ioiaai? a
iai?yieo i?eeeaaeaiiy aeoeaii? neee (ciai?oi? iaaaioaaeaiiy). A i??o
iaaeeaeaiiy /anoie aei ina?aaeea ieanoe/ii? ciie i?anoaaiiy noaia
anaa?/iiai ia??aiii??iiai noeneo ia?a?iaeaeo?oueny o noaio aeaia?/iiai
(iiia?a/iiai) noeneo /anoie ? iicaeiaaeiueiai ?oiueiai ?icoyao (?enoiie
2). C o?aooaaiiyi ia??aiii??iino? aeaoi?iaoe?? ??aiyiiy aeey aecia/aiiy
nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? cnoao L ii e?eueoeaaiio ia?aoeio aei?aniaee rx i a
caeaaeiino? a?ae eiao?oe??ioa aeoyaeee m ia? aeaeyae:

(2)

aea y1 = 1 – 0,75rx2.

Aa?o/e, ui eiao?oe??io iiiaeaiiy iiaa?oi?, ? c o?aooaaiiyi a?aeoeeo
a?aioe a?ae noa?e/iino? (Eo), ia?ii

(3)

aea x – eiao?oe??io, ui a?aoiao? aieea i?ae/anoeiaiai oa?oy ia
ia??aiii??i?noue aeaoi?iaoe??.

?enoiie 2 – Aei ?ic?aooieo eiiiiiaioe aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e i?anoaaii? a?aioe
(??? – noaae?y io?eiaiiy aieieia)

Oiae? na?aaei?e i?eaaaeaiee ae?aiao? iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio aieieia

(4)

??aiyiiy (2) ? (4) aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe aeiaaeeio aieieii oa
iiia?a/iee ia?aoei ?o a ia’?i? aei?aniaee a ??cieo eiai ae?eyieao i?e
caaeaiiio ae?aiao?? a?aioe ? a iaaieo aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ?aaeeiao.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy
?aaeei?a io?eiaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii ? aea/aiiy aia?aineeiaeo oiia
i?ioeano.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? aeeiiaii iioei?caoe?th ?aaeei?a i?anoaaiiy aieieii ca
aeiiiiiaith iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeano. O ?ie? oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue
i?ioean, ia iniia? ai??i?ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aoei a?ae?a?aii: eiao?oe??io
aeoyaeee m; eoo caoiaeo iao?eoe? jc , a?aae.; na?aaei?e ae?aiao? a?aioe
da?, ii. Ia?aiao?e ci?ithaaeenue o oaeeo i?ii?aeeao: m – a?ae 21 aei 81;
jc – a?ae 45 aei 75°; da? – 3,5 aei 5,5 ii.

Aiae?c iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? iieacaa, ui iaea?eueoee aieea ia aeiaaeeio
aieieii l cae?enith? eiao?oe??io aeoyaeee m. Aieea aeaio ?ioeo
ia?aiao??a iacia/iee.

I?e ?icaeyae? aieeao ae?aiao?a a?aioe da?, a?aecia/aii, ui c ?oi?i
ca?eueoaiiyi c?inoaiiy aeiaaeeie aieieii iacia/ia. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo
ciaioo?oueny eiao?oe??io iiiiaeaiiy iiaa?oi? Eii (Eii = l/da?) ca
?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy ieiu? iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio aieieia.

I?e iioei?caoe?? oe?eueiai? ooieoe??, yeith ? aeiaaeeia aieieii l, aoa
io?eiaiee iioeiaeueiee ?aaeei ia?iaee: m = 81; jc = 60,75°; da? = 4,55
ii, i?e yeeo l = 199,9 ii. Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea i?aeoaa?aeeea
iioeiaeuei? oiiae i?anoaaiiy – na?aaeiy aeiaaeeia aieieii ocaeiaae
ia?aoeio aei?aniaee noaiiaeea l = 228.9 ii (iioeaea ia ia?aaeuo? 15%).

oi

(5)

Aeey aeyaeaiiy caeaaeiino? ci?ie eiao?oe??ioa Eii ? a?aeiia?aeii
aeiaaeeie aieieia l = Eii·da? a?ae aeaoi?iaoe?eieo oiia, a oaeiae aeey
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iaa?oioiaaiino? acyoeo ia?aiao??a i?e neeaaeaii?
??aiyiiy ia’?iii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?anoaaiiy a?aioe io?eiai? aei?aniaee c
??cieie nooiaiyie aeaoi?iaoe?? (m – 21; 51; 81) ?icae?aee oa
nenoaiaoecoaaee ca aeiaaeeiith aieieii. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy (?enoiie 3) iieacaee, ui a i??o ca?eueoaiiy a?aeiiniiai
?aae?ona e?eueoeaaiai ia?aoeio oa?o i?ooea rx eiao?oe??io iiiiaeaiiy
iiaa?oi? aieieii Eii c?inoa?. Aei oiai ae ?c c?inoaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa
aeoyaeee m, eiao?oe??io Eii ii anueiio ia?aoeio i?ooea ca?eueoo?oueny,
i?e/iio c? ca?eueoaiiyi rx cia/aiiy Eii c?inoa? a?eueo ?ioaineaii, i?ae
i?e iaioeo nooiaiyo aeaoi?iaoe??. Ii??aiyiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
oa oai?aoe/ieo, io?eiaieo c ??aiyiiy (5), na?ae/aoue i?i ?oith
aeinoaoiuei aaeeeo ca?aei?noue (iioeaea ia ia?aaeuoaaea 12%). Oi ae
??aiyiiy (5) aeicaiey? ea?oaaoe i?ioeanii io?eiaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii
caaeaieo ?ici???a.

Aeey ca?eueoaiiy Eii o oeaio?aeueieo oa?ao i?ooea anoaiiaethaaany
?icn?ea/ o oeaio?aeuei?e cii? ina?aaeeo aeaoi?iaoe??, ui i?ecaaei aei
ae??aithaaiiy cnoaieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ii ia?aoeio i?ooea (Iaoaio N°22770).

I?ae /an aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?aineeiaeo oiia
i?anoaaiiy a?aioe aeoiaeeee c iieiaeaiiy, ui io?eiaiiy aieieii – oea
iaia?a?aiee oa iine?aeiaiee aeo ou?eueiaiiy a?aioe, yeee ia?a?inoa? a
ieanoe/ia aeo?eaiiy aeaoi?iiaaieo /anoie /a?ac oi?iiooai?thth/ee
?ino?oiaio (?enoiie 4).

C oe??? i?e/eie ?icaeyiooi aia?aaoe/i? oiiae i?anoaaiiy o aeaa aoaie:

a) ia?oee (ianoaeee) ?aaeei i?anoaaiiy oa?aeoa?eco? ou?eueiaiiy a?aioe
aei iiiaioo aeoieo a ?iai/o ii?iaeieio iao?eoe?, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
caeaaei?noth, ia?aoai?aiith a P = f (I), aea I – o?ae i?an-ooaiiaey ia
noaae?? ou?eueiaiiy a?aioe c n0 aei n aeoieo:

(6)

aea Si – ieiua iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio iao?eoe?;

ts – ii?? ieanoe/iiio cnoao;

Hc – aenioa caneiee a?aioe c n0;

a) ae?oaee (onoaeaiee) ?aaeei aeoieo neiiiaeoiaaieo a?aioe c ooai?aiiyi
aieieii, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny caeaaei?noth

(7)

aea I – iioi/iee o?ae i?an-ooaiiaey ia a?aenoai? a?ae ii/aoeo aeoieo
eiiaeiia?aoo a?aioe (n = 0,96…0,98) aei cae?i/aiiy i?ioeano.

1) – m = 21(O); 2) – m = 51(D); 3) – m = 81(‡).

– – – aenia?eiaioaeuei?;

–––– ?ic?aooieia? aeai?

?enoiie 3 – Ci?ia eiao?oe??ioa iiiiaeaiiy iiaa?oi? Eii ii ia?aoeio
i?ooe?a, io?eiaieo ?c ??ciei nooiaiai aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e da? = 4,5 ii ? jc
= 60°

Ni?eueiee ?ica’ycie ??aiyiue (6) ? (7) aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aia?aiaeo?aoe
i?ioeano i?anoaaiiy aieieii, ui iaiao?aeii aeey ?ic?aooieo ?ino?oiaioa e
aeai?o iaeaaeiaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo aeiaaee, ui iaea?eueoee aieea ia coneeey
i?anoaaiiy /eieoue aaee/eia aeaoi?iaoe??; aieea eooa iao?eoe? iacia/iee.
Coneeey i?anoaaiiy i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici???a a?aioe o
aeaiiio ae?aiacii? aa??thaaiiy (a?ae 3,5 aei 5,5 ii). O /an ye o
i?ioean? ?oiueiai ou?eueiaiiy aia?aicao?aoe oei aeu?, /ei ae??ai?o?
a?aioee.

1 – ?ioa?aae a?aeiinii? u?eueiino? a?eueiiianeiaieo a?aioe;

2 – ?ioa?aae caaanaiiy no?oeoo?ii? eiiiiiaioe aeaoi?iaoe?? (cae?i/aiiy
ia?oi? noaae??);

3 – ?ioa?aae o?enaoe?? eiioaeo?a;

4 – ?ioa?aae iaeneiaeueii? a?aeiinii? u?eueiino? (cae?i/aiiy ae?oai?
noaae?? ? ii/aoie aeo?eaiiy aieieii)

?enoiie 4 – Noaia io?eiaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii i?e i?anoaaii? a?aioe

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? cae?eniaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii oaoi?/ia
caaaeaiiy ia i?iaeooaaiiy aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee aeey
aacia?a?aiiai i?ioeano i?anoaaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii c eeoeo a?aioe.

Acyoi oaeo oaoiieia?/io iine?aeiai?noue: i?eaiooaaiiy ? a?a?aoe?eia
aeenia?aoaaiiy ?icieaao, ieooy, nooea ? neoiaee ?icn?a a?aioe ca
o?aeoe?yie, i?anoaaiiy aieieii, caoa?aiiy.

O ?ie? oeooe aeei?enoaii aoi?eiiee naeiaoeue ia?ee NNo2. I?/ aeey
?icieaaee iaoaeo caaacia/o? oaiia?aoo?o ?icieaao a?ae 400 aei 420°N.
A?aioeyoi? iaiao?aeii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? aeeiio?oueny ia aac? onoaiiaee
aeey eeooy a?aioe, ?ic?iaeaii? a aeai?e ?iaio?.

I?ea?ae aeenia?aaoi?a: /anoioa eieeaaiue n1 a?ae 2 aei 2,5 Aoe;
aiie?ooaea eieeaaiue noaeaia A a?ae 3,5 aei 4 ii; aei?noeee oaea? a
e?ioe? eiaeiiai iai?aia??iaeo eieeaaiue. Aeei?enoiao?oueny
ioieiaeaeoth/a ??aeeia i?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy ia iniia? aiaeiiai
?icoeio ??aeeiai ieea c a’yce?noth a?ae 0,425 aei 0,435 Ia·n i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 35 °N. Ieooy a?aioe cae?enith?oueny o aea? noaae??: i?ae /an
oeaio?eooaoaaiiy oa i?ae /an e?ioeaaiai i?iieaaiiy ia eiiaae???. Nooea
a?aioe aeeiio?oueny o aa?aaaii?e ia/?, ui iaa?oa?oueny. O ?ie?
eeaneo?eaoi?a a?aioe aeei?enoaii a?ioio aeaioaea/iee c n?oeaie ?4 ? ?5
(AINO 3584 – 73). O ?ie? iaeaaeiaiiy aeey i?anoaaiiy – ai?eciioaeueiee
a?ae?aae?/iee i?an noaiaea?oiiai oeio.

Oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e i?anoaaiiy: eiao?oe??io aeoyaeee – a?ae 80 aei
85; eoo caoiaeo iao?eoe? – 60°; aenioa ?iai/iai iiynea iao?eoe? hi = 2,5
ii. Aeiionea?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe aaaaoieaiaeueio iao?eoeth. Neeia?
oiiae i?ioeano i?anoaaiiy oa ?ic?aooiie i?anoaaeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo
cae?eniththoueny ca?aeii ?c cai?iiiiiaaiith a ?iaio? iaoiaeeeith.

Aeey aei?iaoaaiue aoei aeaioiaeaii o?eueo?iaeaiaioe iaoiaeii
inaaeaeoaaiiy a ae?oea?ei?. I?e aei?iaoaaiiyo o?eueo?iaeaiaio?a
aecia/aee oa?aeoa?enoeee no?oeoo?ieo ia?aiao??a, a?ae?i- oa
iia?o?ii?iieeiino? e iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Aeey aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o
?iciiae?eo ii? oa ?oi?o ?ici???a ii?eno? c?acee i?ini/oaaeenue nieaaii
Aoaea, aeeiioaaee oa?ia? oe?oe, oioia?aooaaee oa ia/enethaaee
aeine?aeaeoaai? c??ce.

Niaoe?aeuei? aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ca?aeii c AINO 25277 – 82 ia
eaai?aoi?ieo o?eueo?oaaeueieo onoaiiaeao, noaiaeia? aei?iaoaaiiy – ca
AINO 2.601 – 65, aei??thaaiiy ia?aiao??a – ca AINO 17108 – 86. Ia
ia?oiio aoai? aeei?enoiaoaaee /eno? aeaeo?ie?oe aeey o?iioaaiiy ? aeey
i?eaethaaiiy i?e oaiia?aoo?? a?ae 40 aei 60 °N. A i?ioean? aei?iaoaaiue
aaiaeeee caa?oaeithaa/? iaaii? aeenia?n??.

Ia?aa??ea no?eeino? o?eueo?iaeaiaioa i?e iaeneiaeueiiio ia?aiaae? oeneo
(0,5 IIa) aecia/aeany ca AINO 26070 – 84.

?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue o?eueo?iaeaiaio?a ?c naeioeaaeo aieieii
ii?eno?noth a?ae 25 aei 70% oae?:

– eiao?oe??io i?iieeiino?, i3 10 – 12 – 10 – 9

– iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? ii?, iei aei 1000

– na?aaei?e ?ici?? ii?, iei 10 – 500

– ieoiia iiaa?oiy, i2/a 0,01 – 100

– ?iciiae?eaiiy eieaeueii? i?iieeiino?

(eiao?oe??io aa??aoe??) 0 – 0,5

– eai?ey?iee iioaioe?ae, i2/c2 10

– iaaea i?oeiino? i?e iiia?a/iiio caei?, IIa 20 – 50.

Aecia/aii, ui i?e ii?enoino? iiiaae 25% ooieeiai? oa cae?eoi? ii?enoino?
a ieo i?aeoe/ii iaia?. ?ici?? ii? aaeeeith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae
u?eueiino? o?eueo?iaeaiaio?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo caeaenoino? ii? b
oa aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea iieacaee, ui i?e ii?enoino? a?ae 0,25 aei
0,70 aaee/eia b a?ae 1 aei 1,5. ?aaaia?aoe?th o?eueo?iaeaiaio?a
i?iaiaeeee cai?ioiei i?iaeoaaiiyi iia?o?y c oeneii ia 0,5 IIa a?eueoei
a?ae oeneo o?eueo?aoe??. O?eaae?noue cai?ioii? i?iaeoaee ia ia?aaeuoaaea
2 – 3 naeoiaee, aeo?aoa iia?o?y – 30 – 50 i3/ea. ?ioa?aae i?ae
i?iaeoaaie neeaaeaa a?ae 5 aei 6 oaeeei.

?acoeueoaoe ?aaaia?aoe?? iieacaee, ui i?ney o?ueio-/ioe?ueio i?iaeoaie
i?iieei?noue o?eueo?iaeaiaioa iaaoaa? aeo?aeiiai cia/aiiy.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aei?iaoaaiue iiaeia ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui naeioeaa?
aieieioaao? o?eueo?iaeaiaioe iathoue ieceo ia?aaaa o ii??aiyii? c
iaoaeiea?ai?/ieie (ii?ioeiaeie) o?eueo?aie. Aiie a?eueo i?iieei?, no?ee?
aei ei?ic??, iathoue aenieo i?oaei?noue, aeiioneathoue eaaeo
?aaaia?aoe?th. Aenieee eiao?oe??io i?iieeiino? i?e i?i?iaeueieo ?ici??ao
ii? ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith oa?i?io neoaeae o?eueo??a, ciaioaiith ?oiuei?
aaaa?eoii? iane, aea? iiaeeea?noue io?eioaaoe ye?niee o?eueo?ao.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ? cae?eniaieie aei?iaoaaiiyie
aeaioiaeaii naeioeaa? o?eueo?iaeaiaioe aeey i/enoee a?aei?aoeueiaaieo
aeaeo?ie?o?a ? cai?iaaaeaeaii a CAO “Aaoiooaii” (i. Ieaenaiae??y).

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

1 ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeiiai iiaee, oaeee ui ia ia? aiaeia?a o na?oia?e
i?aeoeoe?, oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean io?eiaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii iaoiaeii
i?anoaaiiy eeoeo a?aioe aeey aeei?enoaiiy ?o a yeino? ii?enoeo
o?eueo?oth/eo aeaiaio?a.

2 A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ica’ycaii iaoeiao caaea/o
io?eiaiiy aieieii c i?ia?aioaaiiyi ?oi?o aeanoeainoae i?e eiiieaeniiio
iaeyae? noeoiiiai aieeao aeo?aeiiai noaio a?aioe oa ?aaeei?a i?anoaaiiy.
Cai?iiiiiaai? a ?iaio? iaoiaee e oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeeie i?aoi?iaoe?eiiai
ia??iaeo i?aeaioiaee a?aioe aeicaieeee cieceoe aa?’??io ae?th
“oniaaeeiaaieo” oiiia?ao?/ieo aeaoaeo?a ? io?eiaoe iaiao?aeiee aeey
iine?aeoth/iai oeeeeo i?anoaaiiy ?ici??iee niaeo? oa ?oith iioeiaeueio
oi?io.

2 Ia iniia? a?aeei?aeoiaaiiai iaoai?cio ia?aoiaeo neio/i? iane a
ou?eueiaiee noai c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae iine?aeoth/iai aeo?eaiiy
/anoie o ?iai/o ii?iaeieio iao?eoe? oai?aoe/ii e aenia?eiaioaeueii
iieacaii, ui i?e i?anoaaii? eeoeo a?aioe neeueii ?icaeiooa
?ioa?a?aioey?ia oa?oy e oa?aeoa? eiai ?iciiae?eo a ina?aaeeo
aeaoi?iaoe??, ?ioaineai? cnoai? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?icaeoie aoi?eiii?
?ioa?a?aioey?ii? no?oeoo?e – oaeoi?e, ui aecia/athoue i?aeaeuaio
ia??aiii??i?noue iii?o ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, aea aiaeii/an iiceoeaii
aieeaathoue ia aieieioaaoo aoaeiao aei?aniaee e oei naiei – ia
iiaeeea?noue io?eiaiiy a?aeie?aieaieo i?ae niaith aieieii.

4 ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeene?aoiiai na?aaeiaeua a eiai
aeeiai?oe?, iniiaai? ia aiae?c? eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? /anoie, i?eioeei?a
noaoenoe/ii? iaoai?ee oa ?aieia?/ieo i?iya?a ia eiioaeo? oa a ia’?i?
/anoie, ye? aeaoi?iothoueny, c iaeyaeo ia aaee/eio iii?o aeaoi?iaoe?? ye
ia ooieoe?th aonoeie na?aaeiaeua, aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe iniiai?
caeiiii??iino? i?anoaaiiy aieieii ? aeyaeoe aieiai? e?eoa??? (nooi?iue
aeaoi?iaoe??, aaiiao??y iao?eoe?, ?ici?? a?aioe), ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
no?eeee i?ioean io?eiaiiy ?o.

5 C o?aooaaiiyi ia??aiii??iino? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e i?anoaaii? aiae?oe/iei
oeyoii io?eiaii ??aiyiiy aeey aecia/aiiy nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? cnoao ii
e?eueoeaaiio ia?aoeio aei?aniaee, yea aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aeiaaeeio
aieieia oa eiai ia?aoei a ia’?i? aei?aniaee ia ??cieo eiai ae?eyieao i?e
caaeaiiio ae?aiao?? a?aioe ? o iaaieo aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ?aaeeiao.

6 ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue i?anoaaiiy a?aioe ? ia ?? iniia?
iioei?ciaaii ?aaeeie io?eiaiiy aieieii caaeaii? aeene?aoiino?.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui c i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? oa
ca?eueoaiiyi ?iai/iai eooa iao?eoe?, aeiaaeeia aieieii ca?eueoo?oueny.
Aieea ae?aiao?a a?aioe ia ci?io aeiaaeeie aieieii iaio cia/iee.
Iioeiaeueieie aeaoi?iaoe?eieie oiiaaie yaeythoueny: eiao?oe??io aeoyaeee
m = 81, eoo caoiaeo iao?eoe? jc = 60° i?e ae?aiao?? da? = 4,5 ii.

7 Aeoiaey/e c iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui io?eiaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii ?
iaia?a?aiei ? iine?aeiaiei aeoii ou?eueiaiiy a?aioe, yea ia?a?inoa? o
ieanoe/iee aeoie aeaoi?iiaaieo /anoie /a?ac oi?iiooai?thth/ee
?ino?oiaio, aiae?oe/iei oeyoii io?eiaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii ??aiyiiy i?anoaaiiy aieieii, yea aeicaiey? ?ic?aoiaoaaoe
aia?aiaeo?aoe oa iaa?oioiaaii aeae?aoe neeiaa onoaoeoaaiiy oa
i?iaeooaaoe iaeaaeiaiiy.

8 Aeeeaaeai? o ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iniiaieo
caeiiii??iinoae oai??? oa i?aeoeee aeno?oaeoaaiiy aieieii c eeoeo a?aioe
? aeieeaath/e c ieo iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo oaoiieia?/ieo oa aia?aineeiaeo
ia?aiao??a caoeuaii aeaiia iaoaioaie oa ai?iaiaai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
o?eueo?oth/eo aeaiaio?a c naeioeaaeo aieieii, noaiaeia? aei?iaoaaiiy
eio?eo iieacaee, ui aiie a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai AINO 17108 – 86.

9 Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
o?eueo?iaeaiaio?a c naeioeaaeo aieieii ia cai?io eiooiaieo ? iaeio?eaeeo
o?eueo?iaeaiaio?a c aonio?aeo aeey i/euaiiy aeaeo?ie?o?a o CAI
“Aaoiooaii” (i. Ieaenaiae??y) neeaa 8750 a?eaaiue (i?e i/euaii? oa
caioneo a oaoiieia?/iee iai?io 60 i3 caa?oaeiaiiai aeaeo?ie?oo ).

10 Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii oaoi?/ia caaaeaiiy ia
i?iaeooaaiiy aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee aeey iaia?a?aiiai i?ioeano
io?eiaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii c eeoeo a?aioe. I/?eoaaiee aeiiii?/iee
aoaeo a?ae ?aae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe o i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie i?e
i/euaii? aa?aneaieo ?ic/ei?a neeaaea? 3,2 iei. a?eaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?? AEEEAAeAII A ?IAIOAO:

1. Oaiaeuenueeee I.A., Ioeaeia A.A. Aiae?oe/ia aeaaaeaiiy ??aiyiue
ia??aiii??iino? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e i?anoaaii? aeene?aoieo o?e //?ic?iaea ?
oaoiieia?y ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoei. – E.: ?NAeI. –
1994. – N. 154 – 158. (Caeiaoaa/ aiae?oe/iei oeyoii aea?a ??aiyiiy
ia??aiii??iino? aeaoi?iaoe?? a?aioe a i?ioean? ?oiueiai i?anoaaiiy).

2. Oaiaeuenueeee I.A., Nayoeueeee A.A., Ioeaeia A.A. ?aieia?/i?
iniaeeaino? iiaa?oi? iiae?eo /anoie, ye? aeaoi?iothoueny //I?iaeaie
?ic?iaee, ae?iaieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
oaoi?ee. – E??iaia?aae: E?NI. – 1995. – N. 4 – 7. (Caeiaoaa/
aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeea aiae?oe/i? aeniiaee ? c?iaea iiooeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?icae?eo aieieii).

3. Oaiaeuenueeee I.A., Ioeaeia A.I., Ioeaeia A.A. Ia?niaeoeaiee i?ioean
io?eiaiiy iaoaeaaeo aieieii aeey eiiiiceoeieieo iaoa?iaeia //I?iaeaie
?ic?iaee, ae?iaieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoei? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeii
oaoiiee. – Ei?iaia?aae: EINI. – 1995. – N. 7 – 10. (Caeiaoaa/
ni?iaeooaaa ? aeaioiaea i?eno??e aeey io?eiaiiy aieieii, anoaiiaea
iniiai? caeiiii??iino?, ui iienothoue oeae i?ioean).

4. Oaiaeuenueeee I.A., Ioeaeia A.A., Nayoeueeee A.A. I?eno?ie aeey
aia?aoeieiiai eeooy a?aioe //I?aeaeuaiiy oaoi?/iiai ??aiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. – Ei?iaia?aae: EINI. – 1996. –
N. 128 – 133. (Caeiaoaa/ ni?iaeooaaa, aeaioiaea oa i?ia?a aei?iaoaaiiy
i?eno?ith aeey a?a?aoe?eiiai eeooy a?aioe).

5. Oaiaeuenueeee I.A., Nayoeueeee A.A., Ioeaeia A.A., Ioeaeia A.I.
?aieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ia iiaa?oi? aaeaac?eii noi?nieo iaoae?a i?e
i?oaei?e aeaoi?iaoe?? nenoaie //Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. – E??iaia?aae: E?NI. – 1998. – Aei. 2. – N. 134 – 140.
(Caeiaoaa/ ?ic?aooaaa iino?ei? ?ioaa?oaaiiy a ??aiyii? i?oaeiiai
ci?uaiiy nenoaie “iaoae aieieii – aoi?eiia no?oeoo?a”, a?aa o/anoue o
oi?ioethaaii? aeniiae?a).

6. Oaiaeuenueeee I.A., Nayoeueeee A.A., Ioeaeia A.A., Ioeaeia A.I. Oiiaa
ieanoe/ii? oa/?? iaoaeo aieieii i?e cnoaieo aeaoi?iaoe?yo
//Eiino?othaaiiy, ae?iaieoeoai oa aenieoaoaoe?y
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoei. – E??iaia?aae: E?NI. – 1998.– Aei. 26 –
28. (Caeiaoaa/ anoaiiaea a?aie/i? oiiae oa aecia/ea iino?ei?
?ioaa?oaaiiy i?e ??oaii? caaea/? ieanoe/ii? oa/?? iaoaeo aieieii a
iaieiioe? aoi?eiii? no?oeoo?e, a?aa o/anoue o oi?ioethaaii? aeniiae?a).

7. Oaiaeueneee I.A., Ioeaeia A.A., Nayoeeee A.A., Ioeaeia A.I.
Iioeiecaoeey ?aaeeiia eeouey a?aioe //Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. – E??iaia?aae: E?NI. – 1998.– Aei. 4. – N. 201 – 205.
(Caeiaoaa/ ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue eeooy a?aioe ? i?aeoaa?aeea ??
aenia?eiaioaeueii).

8. Oaiaeueneee I.A., Ioeaeia A.A., Nayoeeee A.A., Ioeaeia A.I.
Yia?aineeiaua oneiaey i?anniaaiey aieieii //Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. – E??iaia?aae: E?NI. – 1998.– Aei.4. – N. 206 – 210.
(Caeiaoaa/ ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aia?aineeiaeo oiia i?anoaaiiy
aieieii ? cae?eniea iaiao?aei? aeey oeueiai oai?aoe/i? ?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy).

9. Oaiaeueneee I.A., Nayoeeee A.A., Ioeaeia A.A. I?ia?anneaiue niinia
iieo/aiey iaoaeee/aneeo aieieii ec eeouo a?aioe //Iaoa?eaeu Iaaeaeoia?.
iao/i.-oaoi. eiioa?aioeee “?ano?ni- e yia?ainaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe”. – E.: Iauanoai “Ciaiea” Oe?aeiu.– 1996.– N. 29.
(Caeiaoaa/ cai?iiiioaaa oiiao ?iciiae?eo aieieii oa aeeiiaa
aenia?eiaioaeueia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aiae?oe/ieo aeniiae?a).

10. Iao. 17942 Oe?a?ia, IEA 6 A 22 9/08. I?eno?ie aeey io?eiaiiy
iaoaeaaeo a?aioe /I.A. Oaiaeuenueeee, A.I. Ioeaeia, A.A. Ioeaeia, A.A.
Nayoeueeee (Oe?a?ia) – ? 96104104; Cayae. 29.10.96; Iioae. 03.06.97.
I?iieneiaa aeani?noue (E.). – 1997. – ? 5. (Caeiaoaa/ cai?iiiioaaa,
ni?iaeooaaa, aeaioiaea ? aeeiiaa aei?iaoaaiiy iiaiai i?eno?ith aeey
a?a?aoe?eiiai eeooy a?aioe).

Iaoaio N°22770 Oe?aiie IIE 6 A22F 3/20. I?eno?ie aeey iaea?aeaiiy
iaoaeaaeo aieieii /I.A. Oaiaeuenueeee, A.I. Ioeaeia, A.A. Ioeaeia, A.A.
Nayoeueeee – N°96051780; Cayae. 06.05.96; Iioae. 30.10.98. I?iieneiaa
aeani?noue (E.). – 1998. – ? 4. – N. 2.57. (Caeiaoaa/ cai?iiiioaaa,
ni?iaeooaaa ? cae?eniea aei?iaoaaiiy i?eno?ith aeey io?eiaiiy iaoaeaaeo
aieieii iaoiaeii i?anoaaiiy eeoeo a?aioe).

AIIOAOe?ss

Ioeaeia A.A. ?icaeoie oai??? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeene?aoieo o?e ? ?ic?iaea
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano i?anoaaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
c? niaoe?aeueiino? 05.03.05 – I?ioeane oa iaoeie ia?iaee oeneii. –
Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ??oaiith caaea/? io?eiaiiy naeioeaaeo aieieii
i?anoaaiiyi eeoeo a?aioe c iaoith aeei?enoaiiy ?o aeey ae?iaieoeoaa
ii?enoeo o?eueo?oth/eo aeaiaio?a i?e i/enooe? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu.

??oaiiy iaoeiai? i?iaeaie io?eiaiiy aieieii c i?ia?aioaaiiyi yeinoae
e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo aeeiiaii i?e eiiieaeniiio ?icaeyae? noeoiiiai
aieeao aeo?aeiiai noaio eeoeo a?aioe ? ?aaeei?a i?anoaaiiy.

?icaeyiooi iaoai?ci oi?iiooai?aiiy a?aioe o i?ioean? a?a?aoe?eiiai
aeenia?aoaaiiy ?icieaao. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeene?aoiiai
na?aaeiaeua a eiai aeeiai?oe?, iniiaai? ia aiaeec? eiioaeoii? aca?iiae??
/anoie, i?eioeei?a noaoenoe/ii? iaoai?ee oa ?aieia?/ieo i?iya?a.
Aiae?oe/iei oeyoii io?eiaii ??aiyiiy ia??aiii??iino? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e
i?anoaaii? a?aioe, yea aeicaieeei ea?oaaoe i?ioeanii io?eiaiiy aieieii
caaeaieo ?ici???a. Oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aenia?eiaioii.

?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th aeaioiaeaiiy o?eueo?oth/eo aeaiaio?a ?c
naeioeaaeo aieieii ? i?iaaaeaii aei?iaoaaiiy ?o i?e i/enooe?
caa?oaeiaieo aeaeo?ie?o?a. Iieacaii, ui aieieieno? o?eueo?e ca
oaoiieia?/ieie oa anieoaoe?eieie yeinoyie e?au? a?ae canoiniaoaaieo
ca?ac o?eueo??a c iaoaeiea?ai?ee oa aonio?aeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?aioea, aieieii, i?anoaaiiy, eiioaeoi? oiiae, o?eueo?,
aeaoi?ioaaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ioeaeia A.A. ?acaeoea oai?ee aeaoi?iaoeee aeene?aoiuo oae e ?ac?aaioea
oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna i?anniaaiey naeioeiauo aieieii. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.03.05 – I?ioeannu e iaoeiu ia?aaioee aeaaeaieai. –
Aeiiaoeeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Aeiiaoee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu iieo/aiey naeioeiauo aieieii
i?anniaaieai eeouo a?aioe n oeaeueth eo i?eiaiaiey aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
ii?enouo oeeueo?othueo yeaiaioia aeey i/enoee aa?anneaiuo n?aae.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?eaaaeai iaci? o?oaeia, inaauathueo nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeu
iieo/aiey ii?enouo aieieienouo iaoa?eaeia. Iieacaii, /oi naea?aeeaathuei
oaeoi?ii eo oe?ieiai i?eiaiaiey yaeyaony aei?iaiaecia aieieii aaeaeo
/?acia?iie o?oaeiaieinoe e yia?aiaieinoe eo i?iecaiaenoaa. A oi aea
a?aiy, o/eouaay iniaaiiinoe ia?aaiiia?iinoe aeaoi?iaoeee i?e
i?anniaaiee, aiciiaeii iieo/aiea naeioeiauo aieieii iin?aaenoaii
i?anniaaiey eeouo a?aioe. Yoi ioe?uaaao ia?niaeoeau nicaeaiey aeaoaauo e
noieeeo ii?enouo oeeueo?othueo iaoa?eaeia aeey ?aaiou a aa?anneaiuo
n?aaeao.

?aoaiea iao/iie i?iaeaiu iieo/aiey aieieii n i?ia?aiie?iaaieai naienoa
eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa auiieiaii i?e eiiieaeniii ?anniio?aiee niaieoiiiai
aicaeaenoaey enoiaeiiai ninoiyiey eeouo a?aioe e ?aaeeiia i?anniaaiey.

Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeeeenue n eniieueciaaieai
i?eaeiaeueiuo iaoiaeee e onoaiiaie aeey eeouey a?aioe e i?anniaaiey
aieieii.

Ia iniiaaiee yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaia iaoaiaoe/aneay
iiaeaeue ?ani?aaeaeaiey a?aioeiiao?e/aneiai ninoaaa a?aioe.

?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey aeene?aoiie n?aaeu a aa aeeiaieea,
iniiaaiiua ia aiaeeca eiioaeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey /anoeoe, i?eioeeiia
noaoenoe/aneie iaoaieee e ?aieiae/aneeo i?iyaeaiee.

Aiaeeoe/anee e yenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaii, /oi iaoaieci
oieioiaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie o?aonoaaeeeiue aeo iai?a?uaiuo e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo eciaiaiee a ianuiiie ianna /anoeoe (a?aioe). Eae
?acoeueoao enneaaeiaaiey eiioaeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey /anoeoe ?ac?aaioaia
oece/aneay iiaeaeue oieioiaiey nuio/ae n?aaeu, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie
caaeneiinoue ioiineoaeueiie ieioiinoe io ioiineoaeueiie eiioaeoiie
ieiuaaee ia noaaeee oieioiaiey. Aeaeueiaeoaa aa ?acaeoea iicaieeei
iieo/eoue o?aaiaiey eciaiaiey ioiineoaeueiie eiioaeoiie ieiuaaee ca n/ao
no?oeoo?iie e ieanoe/aneie eiiiiiaio aeaoi?iaoeee a i?ioeanna
oieioiaiey.

Aiaeeoe/aneei iooai iieo/aii o?aaiaiea ia?aaiiia?iinoe aeaoi?iaoeee i?e
i?anniaaiee a?aioe, iicaieeaoaa oi?aaeyoue i?ioeannii iieo/aiey aieieii
caaeaiiuo ?acia?ia. I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey yenia?eiaioaeueii
iiaeoaa?aeeee oai?aoe/aneea ecuneaiey e iin?aaenoaii iaoaiaoe/aneiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey iicaieeee ia yoie iniiaa iioeiece?iaaoue ?aaeeiu
iieo/aiey naeioeiaiai aieieia e ?ac?aaioaoue oaoie/aneia caaeaiea ia
i?iaeoe?iaaiea iiuoii-i?iiuoeaiiie onoaiiaee iai?a?uaiiai i?ioeanna
iieo/aiey naeioeiauo aieieii ec eeouo a?aioe.

Ia iniiaa nenoaiaoece?iaaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee onoaiiaeaii aeeyiea
a?aioeiiao?e/aneiai ninoaaa e ?aaeeiia i?anniaaiey ia yia?aineeiaua
ia?aiao?u i?ioeanna n oeaeueth ?an/aoa inianoee e auai?a iai?oaeiaaiey.
I?aaeeiaeaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue yia?aineeiauo oneiaee i?anniaaiey
naeioeiauo aieieii ec eeouo a?aioe.

I?iaaaeaiu eniuoaiey oeeueo?othueo yeaiaioia ec naeioeiauo aieieii aeey
i/enoee caa?yciaiiuo yeaeo?ieeoia. Iieacaii, /oi aieieienoua oeeueo?u ii
oaoiieiae/aneei e yenieoaoaoeeiiiui naienoaai i?aainoiaeyo oe?iei
eniieuecoaiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oeeueo?u ec iaoaeeiea?aieee e aonioeaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: a?aioea, aieieii, i?anniaaiea, eiioaeoiua oneiaey,
oeeueo?, aeaoi?ie?iaaiea.

SUMMARY

Pukalov V.V. The Development of the Discrete Bodies’ Deformation Theory
and the Elaboration of the Lead Fibres Pressing Technological Process. –
Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate of technical sciencies degree by speciality
05.03.05 – processes and machines of pressure treatment. – Donetsk State
Technical University, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the problem of obtaining leaden fibres by
pressing cast granules, with the purpose of fibres application for
producing porous filtrating units for aggressive medium cleaning.

The solution of scientific problem of fibres extrusion with programming
the final product qualities is made with the complex consideration of
the total influence of initial granules state end extrusion types.

The mechanism of granules forming during melted metal vibrational
dispersing is examined. The methods of examining the discrete medium in
its dynamics, based on analysis of particles contact interaction, on
principles of statistical mechanics and reological displays are
developed. The equation of deformation irregularity during the granules
pressing is obtained analytically; it enables to control the process of
obtaining the fibres of given size. The theoretical conclusions are
confirmed by the experiment.

The technology of producing the filtrating units from the leaden fibres
is developed and units testing is made by cleaning the polluted
electrolyte. It is shown, that fibrous filters surpass in technological
and exploitational characteristics metal and ceramic and busofide ones
widely used nowadays.

Key words: granule, fibre, pressing, contacting conditions, filter,
deforming.

Eiii’thoa?ia aa?noea ?.A. Eaiaiueeia

Caeaii aei iaai?o 31.03.99. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 2.04.99. Oi?iao 60o84
1/16. Iai?? aacaoiee. Iaae?oeiaaii ia ??cia?ao?. Oiia. ae?oe. a?e. 1.
Cai. ? 462/99. Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

© ?AE. EAeOO. i. E??iaia?aae, i?. I?aaaee, 70A, oae. 597-541, 559-245,
597-551.

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