EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

CAOeIEE TH??e Aioiiiae/

OAeE 802.0 – 3. ”OO

?ICAEOIE NEIAIEEIAIAI NEEAAeO

AIAE?ENUeEI? IIAE

A 80o?-90o? ?IEE OO NOIE?OOss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae.

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oai??? oa i?aeoeee ia?aeeaaeo Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: EAANAEAAE* Aeieo?i ?aaiiae/

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aiae?enueei?
o?eieia?? AEeoiie?nueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

IIETHAEEI Ieoaeei Ieoaeeiae/

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aiae?enueei?
o?eieia?? Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

OAA*EI Na?oeaia Ieaen??aia

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ia?aeeaaeo
Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oioaa?neoao, eaoaae?a

eaeneeieia?? oa noee?noeee aiae?enueei? iiae

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “14” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i “10” aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.11a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252003, i. Ee?a, aoeueaa? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 14,
Aoiai?oa?iee ei?ion, aeoiaee cae).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

(i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58, e. 10).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “10” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee
ae.o.i. A.Ae. A?eiaa

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaniethoiee i?ia?an iiae,
iaaieioothoue iaoeiaoe?, ianaiia?aae ae?aaea?oueny a ?icaeoeo
neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo, naia oiio e?iaa?noe/i? oa nioe?ie?iaa?noe/i?
ieoaiiy, iia`ycai? c ?icaeoeii, caaaa/aiiyi neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo,
caaaeaee aoee a oeaio?? oaaae iiaiciaaoe?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo ieoaiue
aea? ciiao c?icoi?oe oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo iiae acaaae?, caaeyiooe a ??
iaeaooi?, aena?oeeoe i?iaeaio «iiaa oa ?? na?aaeiaeua», yea ia?
aaaeeea?noue ia o?eueee aeey nioe?aeueii?, aea e aeey «aioo??oiuei?”
e?iaa?noeee. ?icaeoie neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo ye?ac ? a?aeaeaa? i?ioean
i?enoinoaaiiy iiaii? nenoaie aei iiaeo iio?aa eiioi?eaoe?? o ca`yceo c
oneeaaeiaiiyi na?aaeiaeua.

E?iaoeue OO-ai noie?ooy a?aecia/a?oueny aeiaaeueieie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie ci?iaie, ethaenoai anooieei a iiaee aoai
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, yeee ?iaio?oueny ?ioi?iaoe?eiith
?aaiethoe??th. Ia aeiaaeeiai, ui naia a oeae ia??iae cia/ii c?inee ?
oaiie caaaa/aiiy neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo: a 90-o? ?iee, ca ioe?ieaie
aeine?aeiee?a, aiae?enueea iiaa ui??/ii iiiiaith?oueny 15000-20000 iiaeo
iaeeieoeue, oiae? ye ia ii/aoeo XX-ai noie?ooy i?e??no noaiiaea anueiai
1000 iaeeieoeue ia ??e. O oie aea /an a 90-o? ?iee i?iaeaiai ?icaeoeo
neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo i?eae?eyeinue cia/ii iaioa oaaae, i?ae o 70o?-80o?
?iee, iacaaaeath/e ia i/aaeaei?noue a?eueoeo ianooaa?a e?euee?nieo oa
ye?nieo ci?i, ni?e/eiaieo ao?oeeaei ?icaeoeii aeiiii?ee, iaoee, oaoi?ee,
oneeaaeiaiiyi oi?i noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeai?o i?iaeaie aecia/a?oueny iaiao?aei?noth ? a oie aea
/an a?aenooi?noth eiiieaeniiai aiae?co i?ioean?a oa yaeu, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a neiaieeiaiio neeaae? aiae?enueei? iiae iai?ee?ioe? OO
noie?ooy. Cie?aia, aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?i a oeyoao,
niiniaao oa caniaao caaaa/aiiy neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo, i?ioean?a
oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo aea?eaaoe?eieo aeaiaio?a, ye? aeoeaii a?aeaoaathoueny
naia a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy; iica oaaaith a/aieo caeaa?eueo cinoathoueny
ieoaiiy, ye? iia’ycai? c aioo??oiueiiiaiith iia?euei?noth oa i?a?aoe??th
eaeneee, a naia oey iia?euei?noue oa i?a?aoe?y noa?, ia iaoo aeoieo,
aaaeeeaei, iaa?oue ae??oaeueiei oaeoi?ii ?icaeoeo neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo
no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae; iiaeaeueoa oneeaaeiaiiy iicaiiaiiai
na?aaeiaeua iio?aao? nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co ?iiiaaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, aeyaeaiiy eiie?aoieo nioe?aeueieo /eiiee?a, ye? iaea?eueo
aieeaathoue ia oe? i?ioeane, ?ice?eooy ?ie? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?aaiethoe?? a
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo ci?iao.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? aecia/aiiy oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo eaeneei-naiaioe/ii?
nenoaie aiae?enueei? iiae a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy, ci?i o oeyoao oa
niiniaao caaaa/aiiy neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo ia aac? aiae?co neiaioai?/eo,
naiaioe/ieo oa o?acioai?/eo i?ioean?a, ?ioiiiaieo oa aioo??oiueiiiaieo
caiice/aiue ia oii? noni?eueieo i?ioean?a oa yaeu.

Iaoa ?iaioe ia?aaeaa/a? iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue:

Aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo ie?aieo eaiie neiaioai?o ? neiaioai?/i?
nenoaie acaaae?; anoaiiaeaiiy aeaea?ae iiaeo neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a,
aena?oeaiiy oaoiieia?? ?o “aeaioiaeaiiy”, c`ynoaaiiy ?ie? e?iaa?noe/ieo
iaoai?ci?a, nioe?ie?iaa?noe/ieo /eiiee?a o i?ioeanao oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo
ao?en?a.

?icaeyaeaiiy aieiaieo iai?yie?a ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/ii?
iia?eueiino? eaeneee ? iia`ycaieo c iath naiaioe/ieo ci?i, iaoai?ci?a
naiaioe/ii? aea?eaaoe??, aiae?c iane?aee?a naiaioe/ieo c?ooaiue oa
iiaeeo?eaoe?e.

Aeae?eaiiy e?iaa?noe/ieo oa nioe?ie?iaa?noe/ieo iniaeeainoae iiai?
o?acaieia??, anoaiiaeaiiy oeyo?a o?acaieia?caoe?? neiainiieo/aiue,
aeaea?ae o?acaieia?/ieo iaieia?ci?a, ca`yce?a i?ae o?acioai?/eie,
neiaioai?/eie ? naiaioe/ieie ?iiiaaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?ioiiiaiiai aieeao ia neiaieeiaee neeaae aiae?enueei?
iiae, aeaea?ae caiice/aiue, ae?? e?iaa?noe/ieo oa aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieo
/eiiee?a ia i?ioeane caiice/aiiy oa ?ioaa?aoe?? ?ioiiiaieo iaeeieoeue,
anoaiiaeaiiy noa? eiioeaio?aoe?? caiice/aiue.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo a oiiaao aca?iiae??
iniiaieo iaoe?iiaeueieo aa??aio?a aiae?enueei? iiae: aena?oeaiiy i?iaeai
aa??aioieia??, iniaeeainoae aieeao aia?eeainueeiai aa??aioo ia
a?eoainueeee, niaoeeo?/ieo ?en i?aeaa??aioieo eiioaeo?a.

Aecia/aiiy aieeao ia e?oa?aoo?io aiae?enueeo iiao ?iciiaieo i?aenenoai,
aiae?c iniaeeainoae caiice/aiiy oa anei?eyoe?? a e?oa?aoo?i?e ii?i?
noee?noe/ii cieaeaii? eaeneee oa o?acaieia??, ?ice?eooy ?ie? eiie?aoieo
nioe?ieaeo?a a caaaa/aii? neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo.

Aena?oeaiiy i?iaeaie “iiaa ? nioe?aeueia na?aaeiaeua” oeyoii ?iciiae?eo
iaieia?ci?a ca nioe?iooieoe?iiaeueieie eeanaie oa anoaiiaeaiiy
ei?aeyoe?? i?ae noni?eueieie oa eaeneei-naiaioe/ieie ?iiiaaoe?eieie
i?ioeanaie oa yaeuaie, aecia/aiiy ?ie? eiie?aoieo nioe?aeueieo /eiiee?a;
aiae?c aieeao ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?aaiethoe?? ia eaeneei-naiaioe/io nenoaio
aiae?enueei? iiae.

Ia`?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaoaaee iiiaae 9000 iiaeo ne?a,
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo aa??aio?a oa neiainiieo/aiue, ye? aeieeee a
aiae?enuee?e iia? a 80o?-90o? ?iee OO-ai noie?ooy. Aeaea?aeaie
iaieia?ci?a aoee neiaieee oa aeia?aeieee iiai? eaeneee, ia??iaee/i?
aeaeaiiy aiaeiiiaieo e?a?i. Ia iaoa??ae? ?iiiaaoe?e, a?ae?a?aieo ?c
neiaiee?a, aacao oa aeo?iae?a, aaoi?ii oe??? ?iaioe aoei oeeaaeaii
aiaei-oe?a?inueeee neiaiee iiai? eaeneee oa o?acaieia?? (iiiaae 5000
iaeeieoeue), yeee oa?eoia aei eieae “Iaieia?cie aiae?enueei? iiae”,
aeaeaii? a 1997 ?ioe?. Ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy Aaeeeia?eoai?? oa NOA aoee
oaeiae aieiaieie aeaea?aeaie ?ethno?aoeaiiai iaoa??aeo: c ieo aoei
aea?aii iaeaea 12000 i?eeeaae?a-eiioaeno?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiai? eaeneee
oa o?acaieia??. Naia oe? eiioaenoe aeaee aaoi?o ciiao i?inoaaeeoe
“aeieth” oa aaiethoe?th iaieia?ci?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aecia/a?oueny iinoaaeaiith iaoith ? iieyaa? a oiio, ui
a ?iaio? ?ice?eaathoueny oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo eaeneei-naiaioe/ii?
nenoaie aiae?enueei? iiae a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy, ci?ie a oeyoao,
niiniaao oa caniaao iiiiaiaiiy neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo. Aia?oa aoei
cae?eniaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a c o?aooaaiiyi oe?ieiai
ae?aiaciio aa??thaaiiy aiae?enueei? iiae, aca?iiae??
iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueieo, ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/ieo aa??aio?a oa
i?aenenoai, ia oii? aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo ci?i, iiaiai aoaio
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ethaenoaa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? oa oeiieia?caoe?? iiaeo
cania?a eaene/ii? aea?eaaoe??, a ?ice?eoo? aeaea?ae, oeyo?a,
e?iaa?noe/iiai iaoai?cio ?o oi?ioaaiiy, naiaioe/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e, ye?
noi?iaiaeaeothoue ao?enae?caoe?th eaenai oa ?o o?aaiaio?a, o aecia/aii?
?ie? aioo??oiueiiiaieo caiice/aiue a caaaa/aii? neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo,
cie?aia, iane?aee?a i?aeaa??aioieo eiioaeo?a oa aca?iiae?? “noaiaea?oo”
c ?iciiaieie i?aenenoaiaie, o aeyaeaii? aieeao ia ?iiiaaoe?ei?
eaeneei-naiaioe/i? ci?ie inoaii?o aeanyoee?oue eiie?aoieo nioe?aeueieo
/eiiee?a, a aiae?c? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo eaeneee a oiiaao ?ioi?iaoe?eii?
?aaiethoe??.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aoei c?iaeaii iaaiee
aianie a ie?ai? ?icae?ee caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa oa aiae?noeee. Oea
iniaeeai noino?oueny nioe?aeueii? e?iaa?noeee, yea aeiiiaieeany
aeine?aeaeaiiyi iniaeeainoae aca?iiae?? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae c
nioe?aeueieie ae?aeaeoaie, aiae?cii eiie?aoii? nioe?aeueii?
aeaoa?i?iiaaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a oa yaeu a inoaii?
aeanyoee?ooy, aecia/aiiyi aieeao ia oe? i?ioeane iaaieo /eiiee?a,
aeyaeaiiyi ye?nieo ci?i a eaeneei-naiaioe/i?e nenoai?, ni?e/eiaieo
?ioi?iaoe?eiith ?aaiethoe??th. Oai??y iiaieo eiioaeo?a aeiiiaith?oueny
iieiaeaiiyie i?i niaoeeo?/i? ?ene i?aeaa??aioieo eiioaeo?a;
aa??aioieia?y — iiaei i?aeoiaeii aei aecia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
aa??aio?a, aei iaoiae?a ?o aea/aiiy; oai??y neiaioai?o aiae?enueei? iiae
— aiae?cii aeaea?ae, oeyo?a, e?iaa?noe/iiai iaoai?cio aeieeiaiiy oa
oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a oa iiaeaeae; naian?ieia?y —
iniaeeainoyie iaoai?cio naiaioe/ieo ci?i o ca`yceo c
ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/iith i?a?aoe??th iiaieo iaeeieoeue.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a eiai canoinoaaii? a eo?nao
eaeneeieia??, noee?noeee, eaeneeia?ao??, ia?aeeaaeo, a niaoeeo?nao ?c
nioe?aeueii? e?iaa?noeee, iaieia??, aa??aioieia??, ia i?aeoe/ieo
caiyooyo c aiae?enueei? iiae, a oeeaaeaii? neiaiee?a, i?ae?o/iee?a oa
iin?aiee?a. Ca iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai aaoi? iioae?eoaaa aeaa
neiaieee iaieia?ci?a, aeaa iaa/aeueieo iin?aieee, /ioe?e iaoiaee/ieo
iin?aieee, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia`?eoo cae?enith?oueny c
o?aooaaiiyi nenoaiiiai, eiiieaeniiai oa?aeoa?o iiae, ?? neiaieeiaiai
neeaaeo oeyoii ii?aeiaiiy iiiian?ieia?/iiai oa naian?ieia?/iiai
i?aeoiae?a aei i?iaeai iii?iaoe??, iaoiae?a e?iaa?noe/iiai oa
nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co. A ?iaio? oe?iei canoiniaothoueny oae?
aeaee aiae?co, ye eiioaenooaeueiee, ii??aiyeueiee, eiiiiiaioiee, aiae?c
ca aaciina?aaei?ie neeaaeieeaie, ??ciiaeaee ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co,
aeaiaioe aoeiieia?/iiai aiae?co, e?euee?ni? i?ae?aooiee.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

?aae?caoe?y iioaioe?aeo nenoaie aiae?enueei? iiae cae?enith?oueny,
aieiaiei /eiii, oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy iii?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a, ye?
aaia?othoueny iaoai?ciii ?? aa??thaaiiy, aca?iiae??th iaoe?iiaeueieo
aa??aio?a, ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/ieo, nioe?aeueieo i?aenenoai.
?icaeoie eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie ana a?eueoa aeaoa?i?io?oueny ia
?ioiiiaiei aieeaii, a “aioo??oiueiiiaieie caiice/aiiyie”, ye?
aeieeathoue aiane?aeie ?ioa?aa??aioii? i?a?aoe?? oa ?io?aaa??aioii?
iia?eueiino? eaene/iiai iaoa??aeo.

I?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a oeyoii ao?enae?caoe??
eaenai oa ii?oai?caoe?? ?o o?aaiaio?a noathoue iiaeeeaeie caaaeyee
“aeeoociino?” iaeeieoeue eaene/iiai oa ii?oaiiiai ??ai?a, nenoaiii?
i?aai?caoe?? neiaioai?o, aca?iicaeaaeiino? i?ae eiai ??cieie niiniaaie,
aeeiai?/iino? neeaaeiaeo i?aenenoai iiae. Oe? i?ioeane noai?ththoue
yaeua “ooieoe?iiaeueii? iiii?i??” (i?ae??aiaai? ei?aeyoe??) iiaieo
iaeeieoeue, iiaeeeaino? aeeiiaiiy ieie ia?aeaeueieo ?ieae eaenai ?
ao?en?a.

?icaeoie neiaioai?aiiy i?inoaaeo?oueny a iai?yi? ?icoe?aiiy ae?aiaciio
?aae?caoe?? eiai iiaeeeainoae ca ?aooiie ?icoe?aiiy ?aiie
“ii?iaoeaiino?”, “noaiaea?oiino?”, a?eueoi? naiaiaee. C?inoa? ?ieue
eiiieaenieo niinia?a ii?iaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e ye na?ae/aiiy oneeaaeiaiiy
eiai?oeaieo oa iiiian?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a. Neiaineeaaeaiiy
ia?aoai?th?oueny ia o?eueee ia aieiaiee niin?a neiaioai?aiiy, aea e ia
iniiaia aeaea?aei iiaeo aea?eaaoe?eieo aeaiaio?a.

Ci?ie oa iiaeeo?eaoe?? ci?noo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, ye? ni?e/eiththoue
aeieeiaiiy naiaioe/ieo iaieia?ci?a, iia`ycai? c ooieoe?iiaeueiith
iia?euei?noth eaeneee, c iino?eiei ?ooii a?ae ia?eoa??? aei yae?a (a?ae
iia aeey niaoe?aeueieo oe?eae aei caaaeueii? iiae), a?ae yae?a aei
ia?eoa??? (a?ae caaaeueii? iiae aei iia aeey niaoe?aeueieo oe?eae), c ?o
ia?ai?uaiiyie a iaaeao yae?a (i?ae ??cieie oa?aie caaaeueii? iiae) oa a
iaaeao ia?eoa??? (i?ae ??cieie oa?i?iinenoaiaie oa nioe?ieaeoaie).

Caaaa/aiiy neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny ia oii? iineeaiiy ae??
oaiaeaioe?? aei aeaiie?aoecaoe?? aiae?enueei? iiae, aei caeeaeaiiy
ienaiii? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae c onii-?iciiaiith a oiiaao c?inoaiiy
ianooaa?a caiice/aiue e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae c ?iciiaieo i?e?inenoai,
ca?eueoaiiy aieeao oeeo i?e?inenoai ia ?iiiaaoe?ei? eaeneei-naiaioe/i?
oa neiaioai?/? i?ioeane “noaiaea?oii?” iiae.

C?inoa? aieea ia ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane ia eaeneei-o?acaieia?/iiio ??ai?
oaeeo nioe?aeueieo /eiiee?a, ye aeiiii?/ia aaca, nioe?aeueiee noaoon,
aoiin, noaoue, a?e, oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe?? iin??a aiae?enueei? iiae; ia
o?eueee iie?oe/iee, aea e ?io? aeeneo?ne ana a?eueoa aeaoa?i?iothoueny
“iie?oe/iith ei?aeoi?noth”. ?ioi?iaoe?eia ?aaiethoe?y ni?e/eith?
oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo neiaioai?/eo iiaeaeae oa aeaiaio?a, coiiaeth? yaeua
“iie?iii?iaoe??” oa “aeeoa?aioe?thth/i? ?aiii?iaoe??”, ni?a?nioaaiiy
aio?iiiiao?e/ii? oa “e?aa?iao?e/ii?” iaoaoi?e, aeieeiaiiy iiaeo ?
ia?aaoaeiao ?nioth/eo eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo ia?aaeeai, ni?ey? noe?aiith
iaae? i?ae caaaeueiith iiaith oa iiaaie aeey niaoe?aeueieo oe?eae, i?ae
yae?ii iiaii? nenoaie oa eiai ia?eoa???th.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae? oai??? aiae?enueei? iiae, oai??? oa i?aeoeee
ia?aeeaaeo Caii??cueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, eaoaae?e aiae?enueei? o?eieia??
Noinueeiai aea?ae. iaae. ?inoeoooo. Iaoeia? aeiiia?ae? ca iaoa??aeaie
?iaioe aeaieiooaaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo (Ee?a, 1989; Aeue-Iani, NOA,
1992), ?anioae?eainueeeo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo (Noie, 1987, 1990, Caii??aeaey,
1996) eiioa?aioe?yo ? neiiic?oiao, ia i?aenoieiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (1980-1999 ??.).

C oaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 26 i?aoeue caaaeueiei ianyaii 64,6
ae?oe. a?e., o oiio /ene? iiiia?ao?th (18 ae?oe. a?e.), 2 neiaieee
iaieia?ci?a (21 ae?oe. a?e.), 2 iaa/aeueieo iin?aieee, 4
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iin?aieee.

No?oeoo?a ? ci?no ?iaioe. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, anoaiiaeth?oueny eiei
iaoeiaeo i?iaeai, aecia/athoueny iaoa oa eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
iaoiaeieia?/ii – eiioeaiooaeueia aaca, ia`?eo, iaoa??ae, aeaea?aea oa
iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno.

O ?icae?e? “Oeyoe oa niiniae caaaa/aiiy neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo”
aeine?aeaeo?oueny aeeiai?ea eaene/ii?, naiaioe/ii? oa o?acaiii?
aea?eaaoe??, ?ioiiiaiee aieea. Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny i?ioeanai
oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo neiaioai?/eo ii?oai, aeaea?aeai, “oaoiieia??» ?o
aeaioiaeaiiy, e?iaa?noe/iei iaoai?ciai, ye? aa?ooue o/anoue o oeeo
i?ioeanao, anoaiiaeththoueny ca’ycee i?ae ??cieie niiniaaie neiaioai?o.
Naia a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy a aiae?enuee?e iia? ii/aee ooieoe?iioaaoe
aeanyoee iiaeo (ca oi?iith aai ci?noii) ao?en?a, cia/ia e?euee?noue
neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a ia?ai?noeeany a?ae ia?eoa??? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii?
nenoaie aei oeaio?o, inoaoi/ii noi?ioaaeany ua iaaia e?euee?noue
neiaioai?/eo ii?oai, ye? aeieeee a iiia?aaei?e ia??iae ?icaeoeo
aiae?enueei? iiae. Aiae?c iaieia?ci?a aiae?enueei? iiae na?ae/eoue, ui
aeniea neiaioai?/a aeoeai?noue ao?enaoe??, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? aoei
iiaoaeiaaii a?eueoa 30% eaene/ieo ?iiiaaoe?e 80o-90o ?ie?a,
aecia/a?oueny ia o?eueee o/anoth aeaaii ?nioth/eo neiaioai?/eo
aeaiaio?a, aea e i?ia?aeiith ?ieeth, yeo a?ae?a?athoue o i?ioeanao
ooai?aiiy ?iiiaaoe?e-aea?eaao?a iia? iiai? iaeeieoe?, ui aeeiiothoue
ooieoe?th neiaioai?/eo.

Ia?aeiiei iaoa??aeii aeey “ao?enae?caoe??” iiaeooue neoaoaaoe ye
iiaiicia/i? neiaa, oae ? ?o /anoeie (o?aaiaioe). O 80-90-o? ?iee
niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y iiaeaeueoiai c?inoaiiy ieoiii? aaae
neeaaeieo ne?a, ye? noaiiaeyoue iaea?eueoo a?oio eaene/ieo iaieia?ci?a
(34,3%). Oey oaiaeaioe?y, ye neooii cacia/athoue i?ia?aei? a?o/eciyi?
oao?aoe? a aaeoc? neiaioai?o, iineeth? iiaeeea?noue ia?a?iaeaeaiiy
iniia, ?o ia?aoiaeo aei ?ic?yaeo ao?eni?ae?a. Oae? eiiiiiaioe
ia?aoai?thaaeeny o aeniei/anoioi?, i?aeaeaaaeeny i?ioeano
ao?enae?caoe??, iaaoaaee naiaioe/ieo oa ?ioeo ?en neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a
aiane?aeie neiaioai?aiiy ca aiaeia??th, ca c?aceii eiie?aoii? eaene/ii?
iaeeieoe?, yea neoaeeoue ca iiaeaeue, oeyoii cai?ie a neia?-iiaeae?
iaaiiai eiiiiiaioo. Naia oaeei /eiii a aiae?enueeee iia? noi?ioaaeeny
aenieii?iaeoeoeai? ao?ene — abuse, -friendly, -line, -person,
-something, -speak, -ware, -watch.

O aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao c?aceii aeey aiaeia?/iiai neiaioai?o aenooia?
«inaaaeineeaaeia» neiai (ia neio?iiiiio c??c?). *anoeia oaeiai neiaa,
yea aeae?ey?oueny aiane?aeie noai?aiiy ca eiai c?aceii oe?ei? iecee
?iiiaaoe?e, aae?a? a naaa naiaioeeo an??? aeo?aeii? iiaeae?. Aeaiaio
-mail “oaioaae” aoei aeae?eaii c? neiaa blackmail, i?i ui na?ae/aoue
iaieia?cie greenmail, goldmail, breakmail, greymail (aiie icia/athoue
??ci? aeaee oaioaaeo). Noo?en — gate a cia/aii? “neaiaeae, iniaeeai
iie?oe/iee” aeiee aiane?aeie ooai?aiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? iaieia?ci?a ca
aiaeia??th c? neiaii Watergate, yea noaei neiaieii iie?oe/iiai neaiaeaeo
(donorgate, Irangate, filegate, travelgate).

Oaea yaeua aeia?eueiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy iniaeeai /anoi ia? i?noea c
iaeeieoeyie a?aoeueeiai oa eaoeinueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Neiaa autocade,
camelcade, motorcade, tractorcade aoee noai?ai? ia aac? neiaa cavalcade,
aeoiaey/e c i?eiouaiiy, ui aeaiaio -cade icia/a? “i?ioean?y; iecea”, oi/
oaeoe/ii oeae aeaiaio ? ?icaeoeii ae??ne?aii? oeaen?? eaoeinueei? iiae;
ca c?aceii neiaa alcoholic o 80-90o? ?iee aeieeee /eneaii? iiaioai?aiiy
aeey iicia/aiiy ethaeeie, yea ia? aaeeeo i?eno?anoue aei /iai-iaaoaeue:
chocoholic, milkaholic, phonaholic, spendaholic. Aeaiaio –(a)holic,
ae/eaiaiee c? neiaa alcoholic, ia?aoai?eany, oaeei /eiii, o noo?en, oi/
aoeiieia?/ii ae?eniei noo?enii o oeueiio neia? ? aeaiaio — ?n.

I?ioeane ?icae?eaiiy iaeeieoeue ?ioiiiaiiai iioiaeaeaiiy ia
“inaaaeiii?oaie” ia??aeei ni?e/eiththoueny “ia?iaeiith aoeiieia??th”,
iai?aaeeueiith ?ioa?i?aoaoe??th no?oeoo?e oa naiaioeee “/oaeiai” neiaa
oeyoii eiai anioe?thaaiiy ?c aeanieie neiaaie aai iiiyooyie. Naia oae
aeiee neiaioai?/ee aeaiaio -burger ia aac? neiaa hamburger, iia`ycaiiai
c i?noii Aaiao?aii o I?ia//ei?. Iin?? aiae?enueei? iiae ni?eeiyee neiai
hamburger ye aea? /anoeie: “ham” (ia?o? aaiao?aa?e aoee c yeiae/eiith)
oa “burger”, i?e/iio ae?oaa /anoeia ii/aea anioe?thaaoeny c iiiyooyi
“iaeyieoey, aooa?a?iae” aiane?aeie ae?? iaoai?cio neiaioai?aiiy ca
aiaeia??th: chickenburger, fishburger, sausageburger, vegeburger.

Oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo ao?en?a ?ice?eaa? aca?iica`ycee i?ae ??cieie caniaaie
neiaioai?o, i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeoieo a/aieo i?i eiai eiiieaenii-nenoaiio
i?e?iaeo. Ca`ycie i?ae neiaineeaaeaiiyi oa ao?enaoe??th iieyaa?,
iai?eeeaae, o oiio, ui /eiaei iiaeo “iai?aao?en?a”, ye cacia/aeiny,
aeieea? ia aac? neeaaeieo ne?a. Oiiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy oe?ei? iecee
neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a aoee noai?ai? oaeeie caniaaie, ye oaeaneii?y oa
nei?i/aiiy. Neiai glitterati aoei “iiaoaeiaaii” c /anoei aeaio ne?a
(glitter+literati) ua a 50o? ?iee, a a 90o? ?iee noaei c?aceii aeey
na??? iiaeo ne?a, ye? icia/athoue ethaeae, a?aeiieo o iaai?e aaeoc?
(culturati, cyberati, digerati, glamorati, journarati), i, oaeei /eiii,
a aiae?enuee?e iia? ii/aa ooieoe?iioaaoe iiaee noo?en -erati «iniae,
a?aeii? a iaai?e noa??». I?eeeaaeaie ?ioeo i?iaeoeoeaieo neiaioai?/eo
aeaiaio?a, ui aeieeee aiane?aeie c?iuaiiy eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, ?
noo?ene — zine «aeo?iae, /aniien» (letterzine, E-zine, catazine,
skazine, thriftzine, Webzine), -tel (airtel, boatel, condotel), -nomics
(burgernomics, cobernomics, mediconomics), -plex (movieplex, megaplex,
multiplex, twelveplex), -tainment (docutainment, casinotainment,
edutainment, infotainment) oa ?io?. Oaeaneii?y noai?th? oiiae ? aeey
aeieeiaiiy iiaeo i?ao?enaeueieo oi?iaio?a, iai?eeeaae: docu-
(docuhistory, docufantasy, documusical, docuopera, docurecreation),
petro- (petrocurrency, petroeconomy, petropower, petrosheik).

Inaaaeiii?oaie ye aeaea?aea iiaeo aea?eaaoe?eieo aeaiaio?a iiaeooue,
oaeei /eiii, aooe iiae?eaieie ia aea? iniiai? a?oie: a) oae?, ui ?
?acoeueoaoii aeia?eueiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy ?nioth/eo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue,
aieiaiei /eiii aaoa?iaaiieo, o ca’yceo c iaaieie anioe?aoe?yie, ye?
aeieeathoue o iin??a aiae?enueei? iiae, aai ?acoeueoaoii o?aaiaioaoe??
eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue o ca’yceo c ?o o/anoth a iaaieo neiaioai?/eo
i?ioeanao: -aholic, -athon, -burger, -cade, docu-, -erati, -nomics,
-zine (a?eueoa /anoeia inaaaeiii?oai); a) iiii?i?/i? ?aaeueiei eaene/iei
iaeeieoeyi aai “ia?oaei” ao?enai: -gate, -lock, -mail, -nap. Naia oaea
iiii?i?/i?noue noai?th? iaai? ia?aaeoiiae, iioeaaoe?th aeey ?o
ia?aoai?aiiy a aea?eaaoe?ei? caniae.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a caaaeueii? iiae
i?iaeiaaeothoue aooe ?iciiai? ??ciiaeaee, iniaeeai neaia ? aea?aiie.
Caiice/aiiy oaeeo aeaiaio?a o e?oa?aoo?io iiao ia??aeei
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iaie a ?o naiaioeoe?. O 90-o? ?iee aaeeeo
iiioey?i?noue caeiaoee, iai?eeeaae, iiaioai?aiiy c neiii?i?/ieie
aeaiaioaie head, junkie aeey iicia/aiiy ethaeeie, yea ia? aaeeeo
i?eno?anoue aei /iai-iaaoaeue (o neaic? oe? aeaiaioe iathoue cia/aiiy
“ia?eiiai”): cyberhead, digithead, nethead, data-junkie, java-junkie,
sports-junkie. Caiice/aiee c? neaiao aeaiaio — savvy, aea a?i
ooieoe?iioaaa ye naiino?eia neiai, aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo /eneaiieo
iaieia?ci?a- ?iaiiee?a oa i?eeiaoiee?a, iaaeath/e ?i a?aeiia?aeieo
cia/aiue “ciaiiy, ai?iiy, iaae/ee a iaai?e aaeoc?, aeia?a ?icoi?iiy
/iai-iaaoaeue; oao?aaoeue, aenia?o a iaai?e aaeoc?, oaeee, ui aeia?a
cia?, ?icoi?? ui-iaaoaeue, ia? iaiao?aei? ciaiiy, ai?iiy a iaai?e
aaeoc?”: computer-savvy, market-savvy, media-savvy, tech-savvy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a
na?ae/eoue, ui “ao?enae?caoe?y” eaenai oa ii?oai?caoe?y ?o o?aaiaio?a
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaaieie ci?iaie a naiaioeoe? aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo.

O aeiaaeeao ao?enae?caoe?? eaenai niinoa??aa?oueny:

1) Caoaeaiiy, niaoe?ae?caoe?y cia/aiiy aeaiaioo, yeee aeeiio? ?ieue
neiaioai?/iai, o ii??aiyii? ?c cia/aiiyi a?aeiia?aeii? eaenaie-ei?aeyoa,
oe? i?ioeane i?eoaiaii? ye iai?aao?enai, ui aeieeee ia aac? eaenai
aa?iainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy (-babble, -line, -lout, -speak), oae ?
aeaiaioai, ui ioi?ieeeny ?c ne?a (ei?ai?a) a?aoeueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy (
bio-, eco-, cryo-, cyber-, info-, techno-, tele-).

2) Ia?aiin cia/aiiy. Oeae i?ioean oaeiae iiaea noi?iaiaeaeoaaoe
ao?enae?caoe?th ye aa?iainueeeo, oae ? ?ioiiiaieo eaenai (-city, giga-,
-head, jumbo-, -junkie, mega-, nano-, -ville).

O aeiaaeeao ii?oai?caoe?? o?aaiaio?a eaenai niinoa??aa?oueny:

1) Aani?aoaaiiy o?aaiaioii cia/aiiy eaenaie, /anoeiith yei? a?i ?
(compu-, docu-, -nomics, -preneur, -mail, -jack, -tainment, -tel, -log,
-zine).

2) Aani?aoaaiiy o?aaiaioii cia/aiiy aeo?aeii? eaenaie c iiaeaeueoei
?icoe?aiiyi, ocaaaeueiaiiyi oeueiai cia/aiiy (-burger, -erati, -furter,
-(a)thon). Oaea naiaioe/ia aaiethoe?y iniaeeai i?eoaiaiia o?aaiaioai, ui
aeieeee aiane?aeie aeia?eueiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy eaenai ia “oeai? ii?oaie”.

3) Caoaeaiiy, niaoe?ae?caoe?y cia/aiiy o?aaiaioo, yeee ? nei?i/aiiyi
eaenaie (euro-, narco-).

O i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a ia??aeei
noai?th?oueny yaeua a?ooieoe?iiaeuei?no? iiaieo iaeeieoeue, aeeiiaiiy
ieie iaeii/anii ? ?ie? ao?en?a, ? ?ie? eaenai, i?e/iio oaea
a?ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue i?eoaiaiia ia o?eueee aeaiaioai, ye? aeieeee ia
aac? ?aaeueieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue (a neio?ii?/iiio aai ae?ao?ii?/iiio
c??c?), aea e inaaaeiii?oaiai, o?aaiaioai eaenai, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii
naaa?eueiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy oeeo eaenai: -burger, -gate, gram, — zine.
A?ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaeeieoe? iaeaaeaoue, oaeei /eiii, ? eaene/iiio ?
ii?oaiiiio ??aiyi iiae ? iiaeooue ?iaioaaoeny «i?ae??aiaaeie ei?aeyoaie»
aai «ooieoe?iiaeueieie iiii?iaie».

ssaeua ooieoe?iiaeueii? iiii?i??, ?nioaaiiy cia/ii? e?eueeino?
i?ii?aeieo aeaiaio?a, ye? ia`?aeiothoueny i?ae caaaeueiith iacaith
“iai?aao?ene”, na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a aiae?enuee?e iia? iaa?yae /e
iiaeia i?iaanoe /?oeo iaaeo i?ae eaenaiaie oa ao?enaie a oiiaao
aca?iiae?? eaene/ii? oa neiaioai?/i? nenoai. Aca?iicaeaaei?noue
eaene/ieo oa neiaioai?/eo ?iiiaaoe?e iaaaaeo? «e?oaiai??o»: eaene/ieie
?iiiaaoe?yie noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy neiaioai?/eo
?iiiaaoe?e, ye?, a naith /a?ao, caaacia/othoue oiiae, iioaioe?ae aeey
aeieeiaiiy eaene/ieo ?iiiaaoe?e, ? oae aeae?.

O ?iaio? aiae?cothoueny aeoeai? niiniae neiaioai?o, i?iaeoeoeai? iiaeae?
oa aeaiaioe. I?e ?icaeyae? ao?enaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui na?aae aeaaii
?nioth/eo noo?en?a ?iaiiee?a iniaeeai aenieii?iaeoeoeaiei ? noo?en
–ization, niinoa??aa?oueny iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? noo?en?a
-dom, -hood, ye? aeiaaee /an aaaaeaeeny iai?iaeoeoeaieie, iniaeeai a
a?eoainueeiio aa??aio?. Aenieo aeoeai?noue i?iyaeyee ao?eni?aee -fest,
-phile, -phobe, -phobia (aviaphobia, cyberphobia, europhile, homophobe,
pianophile, technophobe, nerdfest, hyperfest, sponsorfest). ?icoe?ea
nai? neiaioai?/? iiaeeeaino? noo?en -able. sseui ?ai?oa a?i ooai?thaaa
i?eeiaoieee a?ae ae??ne?a, oi a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy a?i ana /ano?oa
aa?a o/anoue o i?ioean? «ae?iaieoeoaa» i?eeiaoiee?a a?ae ?iaiiee?a, o
oiio /ene? ? a?ae neeaaeieo: cartop — cartoppable, microwave —
microwaveable, oven — ovenable.

Neiaineeaaeaiiy, ye cacia/aeiny, ? iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiei niiniaii
neiaioai?o. Cia/ia /anoeia iiaeo neeaaeieo ne?a yaey? niaith niieo/aiiy
aeaio ?iaiiee?a (iiaeaeue N+N). Naia aiae?oeci aiae?enueei? iiae
noai?th? iaiao?aei? oiiae aeey noyaiaiiy eaenai a ?aeei? neeaaei?, aea
oe?euei? iii?iaie. Aeoeaii a?aeaoaaany i?ioean ooai?aiiy
aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, «neeaaeieo ne?a neioaene/iiai
oeio». A?eueoa /anoeia oaeeo iaeeieoeue aeieea? ia aac? o?aciaeo
icia/aiue, aiie aeooae?cothoueny ye i?eeiaoieee (brick-and-mortar,
kiss-and-tell, not-for-profit, pay-per-view, right-to-roam), iaeiae a
inoaii?e /an c?inoa? ? e?euee?noue ?iaiiee?a, ooai?aieo oaeei /eiii:
fly-by-light, just-in-time, smoke-and-mirrors, video-on-demand. O
i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy neeaaeieo ne?a ia aac? neiainiieo/aiue iiaea iaoe
i?noea «eiii?an?y » inoaii?o, ye oea a?aeaoaa?oueny, iai?eeeaae, o
aeiaaeeao ooai?aiiy iaeiiai ae??neiaa a?ae aeaio ae??ne?a oa niieo/ieea:
to strip and search — to strip-search, to drink and drive — to
drink-drive. Eiii?an?y iiaea ii?aeioaaoeny c ?aaa?n??th: to hold the
fort — to forthold, to cap the charge — to charge-cap, to skim the
cream, to creamskim. Ii?oieia?/ii-neioaene/i? ci?ie noi?iaiaeaeothoueny
? naiaioe/ieie ci?iaie, ia?ainieneaiiyi aeo?aeiiai neiainiieo/aiiy
oeyoii iaoaoi?e/iiai ia?aiino.

Aaeeeo ?ieue o noai?aii? iaieia?ci?a-neeaaeieo ne?a a?ae?a?a? aiaeia?y,
eiee iiaa iaeeieoey noai?th?oueny ia no?eueee ca iaaiith iiaeaeeth,
ne?eueee ca c?aceii eiie?aoiiai neiaa. O i?ioean? aiaeia?/iiai
neiaioai?aiiy oaeiae ia? i?noea nai???aeia iiaeaethaaiiy, a?aeaeooy
iiaeae? c?acea, eiai ii?oieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e oeyoii /anoeiaiai
caiiaiaiiy iiaeae? iiaei eaene/iei iaoa??aeii: airlift — boatlift —
babylift; baby-sitter — church-sitter — home-sitter; seaworthy —
carworthy. A?eueo oiai, iiaeaethaaiiy c?acea a?aoo?-?aoo aaaea aei
ioi?ieaiiy ? aano?aeoii? neiaioai?/i? iiaeae?: naia caaaeyee noai?aiith
oe?ei? iecee iiaeo iaeeieoeue ca c?aceii neeaaeiiai neiaa iaci?iiee
eiiiiiaio ia?aoai?th?oueny o aeniei/anoioiee, c`yaey?oueny iiaeaeue c
iino?eiei eiiiiiaioii. O ?acoeueoao? iino?eiee eiiiiiaio oaei? iiaeae?
iiaea aeeiioaaoe ooieoe?th noo?ena.

?ieue aiaeia?? noa? ua a?eueo i/aaeaeiith, yeui a?aoe aei oaaae, ui
iaieia?cie a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao nai? noathoue c?aceaie aeey
iiaeaeueoiai neiaioai?aiiy (? oea noino?oueny ia o?eueee neeaaeieo
ne?a): downsizing — upsizing; high tech – low tech; outsourning —
insourning — E-sourning; internet — intranet — extranet;
state-of-the-art — state-of-the-tech — state-of-the-market. E??i oiai,
aiaeia?y i?iieco? ?io? caniae neiaioai?o, naia aeieeiaiiy «eiiaa?n??»
noaei iiaeeeaei caaaeyee aiaeia??, ?? ae?th a?aeaeaa? ?aaa?n?y.

Iiaeae? c?inoa? e?euee?noue nei?i/aiue. Na?aae ieo ne?ae iniaeeai
a?aecia/eoe ae?ii?ie, ye? caeiaoee oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a inoaii?e
/an. Cia/aiiy aaaaoueio ae?ii?i?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia
na?e aa?aa?aoo?iee oa?aeoa?, aiie noathoue aacith aeey iiaeaeueoiai
neiaioai?aiiy. Neiai yuppie (young upwardly mobile professional person),
iai?eeeaae, noaei ia o?eueee iaeiei c iiaeieo ne?a 80-90o ?ie?a,
neiaieii iieiaei?, /anoiethaii? ae?eiai? ethaeeie, aea e ia?aoai?eeiny a
ni?aaaei?e oeaio? neiaioai?/i? ia?aaeeaie c aeanyoeaie ?? aeaiaio?a:
yuppoish, yupie flu, yuppiegate, yuppeism, yuppiedom, yupp?afy,
yuppiafication, technoyupie, yuppie-line, etc. Iiioey?ieie a inoaii?e
/an noaee ooai?aiiy aaoai?noe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, a yeeo aa?aa?aoo?a
ii?aeio?oueny c? neiaii «word», T-word, S-word, W-word. Aa?aa?aoo?a a
oeeo aeiaaeeao ? ia?oith e?oa?ith ne?a, ye? aaaaeathoueny neiaaie-oaao (
ia??aeei oaao?caoe?y ni?e/eith?oueny iie?oe/iith ei?aeoi?noth).

Eiiaa?n?y i?iaeiaaeo? aooe aeoeaii ae?th/ei niiniaii neiaioai?o, i?ioa
niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y cieaeaiiy /anoee eiiaa?n?eieo ooai?aiue o
ii??aiyii? c iiia?aaei?ie aeanyoee?ooyie (c 11% aei 4%). Oey oaiaeaioe?y
iiynith?oueny a?eueo aeoeaiith ?ieeth ?ioeo niinia?a, a oaeiae oei, ui
eiiaa?n?y aaea aeia?a iii?aoethaaea ca /an naiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.
Aeoeai?noue eiiaa?n??, ye na?ae/aoue i?ae?aooiee, a cia/i?e i???
i?aeo?eio?oueny naia iaieia?ciaie, ye? neoaeaoue ca “ne?iaeio” aeey
oeueiai i?ioeano. A?aei?iiith ?enith eiiaa?n?? ia no/ani?i aoai? ? ana
a?eueo aeoeaia o/anoue a oeueiio i?ioean? aeaiii?oaiieo, neeaaeieo ne?a,
iaa?oue neiainiieo/aiue. Niinoa?aaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui a aaaaoueio
aeiaaeeao aeieeiaiiy iiaiai neeaaeiiai neiaa aai neiainiieo/aiiy
icia/a?, ui iacaaa?ii c`yaeoueny ? a?aeiia?aeia ae??neiai, eiiaa?oiaaia
a?ae oeueiai iaieia?cio: bar code – to bar code, bottom line – to bottom
line, eurospeak — to eurospeak, fast track — to fast track, flip flop —
to flip flop, own goal — to own goal, rat-run – to rat-run. Oa ae naia
noino?oueny ? neeaaeiinei?i/aieo ne?a, aa?aa?aoo?, c?iuaiue, iai?eeeaae,
VCR — to VCR, e-mail — to e-mail, deejay — to deejay.

Ia??aeei niinoa??aathoueny ? aeiaaeee ia?aoai?aiiy a ae??neiaa
neiainiieo/aiue ? o?ac, eiee eiiaa?n?y noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ae?ioe/ieie
nei?i/aiiyie oa aeayeeie ?ioeie ci?iaie, iai?eeeaae, selling short — to
short, dog and pony show — to dog and pony, to have a green thumb — to
green thumb, to give a green light — to green light. O oie aea /an ia?
i?noea ? cai?ioiee i?ioean — ooai?aiiy ?iaiiee?a oa i?eeiaoiee?a a?ae
ae??ne?aieo neiainiieo/aiue oa cai?io?a, iniaeeai a ?iciiaieo
i?aenenoaiao: give me = gimme, go for = gofer (gopher), I want to be =
wannabe, I can do it = can-do. Ne?ae oaeiae ie?aii a?aecia/eoe aeiaaeee
ia?aoai?aiiy a ?iaiieee ia ae??ne?aieo, a iii?iaoeaieo niieo/aiue oa
o?ac aiane?aeie ae?ine/ieo nei?i/aiue. I?ioean eiiaa?n?? o oaeeo
aeiaaeeao aai cian?i ia a?aeaoaa?oueny, a ia? i?noea «?ioaa?aoe?y»,
ceeooy, aai a?i ? ?iie?oeeoiei.

Eiiaa?n?y a cia/i?e i??? ? naiaioe/iei caniaii neiaioai?aiiy, ine?eueee
aaaeeeaith ?? ?enith iiaeia aaaaeaoe ci?io cia/aiiy aeo?aeiiai neiaa o
ca`yceo c eiai ia?aianaiiyi a ?ioo eaeneei-a?aiaoe/io eaoaai??th. Ci?ia
cia/aiiy a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao — oea ia?ainieneaiiy, iaoaoi?e/iee
ia?aiin, ine?eueee a naiiio aeo? ia?aianaiiy iaei??? /anoeie iiae a ?ioo
aeieea? aeaiaio ii??aiyiiy, iai?eeeaae; hip pocket — to hip pocket «to
retain one`s posession as if by putting it in one’s hip pocket»;
knee-jerk — to knee-jerk » to react instinctively»; test tube — to test
tube » to produce as if by artificial insemination»; handbag — to
handbag » to attack or destroy as by hitting with a handbag». E??i oiai,
ia?aeiiee iaoa??ae, ui eiiaa?oo?oueny (oea iniaeeai noino?oueny
neeaaeieo ?iaiiee?a), a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao oaeiae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ia?ainieneaiiyi: flip-flop » a sudden complete change or reversal; a
U-turn» to flip-flop «to change to the diametrically opposite point of
view; to do a U-turn»; rat-run «minor road used as a detour by rush-hour
traffic» — rat-run «to make a detour through rural roads».

Caaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y ?icaeoeo neiaioai?o i?inoaaeo?oueny a iai?yieo
a?eueoi? naiaiaee i?e noai?aii? ?iiiaaoe?e, a ?icoe?aii? iiiyooy
«ii?iaoeai?noue» a oiiaao ?ioaineaii? aca?iiae?? iaoe?iiaeueieo
aa??aio?a aiae?enueei? iiae, (?ioa?aa??aioia i?a?aoe?y eaene/iiai ?
neiaioai?/iai iaoa??aeo) oa aca?iiae?? nioe?aeueieo,
ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/ieo i?aenenoai a iaaeao ie?aiiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo (?io?aaa??aioia i?a?aoe?y). C?inoa? e?euee?noue
eaene/ieo ?iiiaaoe?e, a ooai?aii? yeeo aa?ooue o/anoue e?eueea cania?a,
aeeth/a?oueny aeae?eueea iii?iaoe?eieo oa aea?eaaoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a, ui,
c iaeiiai aieo, na?ae/eoue i?i iaaio nenoaii?noue neiaioai?o, a c ?ioiai
aieo — i?i oneeaaeiaiiy iii?iaoe?eiiai i?ioeano, iia`ycaiiai c
oneeaaeiaiiyi «ea?oeie na?oo», aai c oneeaaeiaiiyi iaoeo ciaiue oa
oyaeaiue i?i iaaeieeoi?e na?o.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny iai?yie ooieoe?iiaeueii-naiaioe/ieo
ci?i, iaoai?ci aeieeiaiiy naiaioe/ieo iaieia?ci?a oa iane?aeee
naiaioe/ieo c?ooaiue oa iiaeeo?eaoe?e, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a neiaao,
aea?oueny e?iaa?noe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea o?acaieia?/ieo iaieia?ci?a,
?icaeyaeathoueny aeaea?aea ?o aeieeiaiiy oa iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy,
i?inoaaeothoueny ca`ycee i?ae o?acioai?/eie, neiaioai?/eie oa
naiaioe/ieie i?ioeanaie. Aiae?c naiaioe/ieo ?iiiaaoe?e inoaii?o
aeanyoee?oue na?ae/eoue, ui ci?ie cia/aiiy iia`ycai?, aieiaiei /eiii, c
ooieoe?iiaeueiith iia?euei?noth eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, c i?ioeanaie ?o
niaoe?ae?caoe?? (oa?i?iieia?caoe??), aeaniaoe?ae?caoe??
(aeaoa?i?iieia?caoe??) oa «o?ainniaoe?ae?caoe??»
(o?ainoa?i?iieia?caoe??).

sse ? a iiia?aaei? ia??iaee, i?ia?aeio ?ieue a naiaioe/ieo ci?iao
a?ae?a?aaaa iaoai?ci iaoaoi?eee, i?e/iio iaoaoi?e/iee ia?aiin
noi?iaiaeaeoaaa ia o?eueee i?ioeane aeaoa?i?iieia?caoe?? (high-octane,
stand-alone, allergy, poison-pill, hygiene), aea e i?ioean
oa?i?iieia?caoe?? caaaeueiiiiaieo iaeeieoeue (bus, get-together, core,
hostile, icon, menu, niche, packet, player, suitir, window). Aeineoue
oeiiaei ? oi?ioaaiiy a naiaioe/i?e no?oeoo?? oiai /e ?ioiai neiaa
e?eueeio iiaeo eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo aa??aio?a i?ioyaii aeineoue ei?ioeiai
/ano, ui aea? ciiao niinoa??aaoe ae?th ??cieo iaoai?ci?a naiaioe/ieo
ci?i.

Aeieeiaiiy iiaeo eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo aa??aio?a /anoi iia`ycaia c ae?inii
(nei?i/aiiyi o?ace). Oeiiaei ? nei?i/aiiy ao?eaooeaiiai neiainiieo/aiiy,
a yeiio ae?oaa neiai aeeo/a?oueny ye cae/ia, a eiai cia/aiiy
ia?aiineoueny ia i?eeiaoiee aai ?iaiiee a ao?eaooeai?e ooieoe?? (ia?oa,
aecia/aeueia neiai): floppy disk = floppy, presale view = presale,
magnet school = magnet, non-profit organization = non-profit, start-up
company = start-up, lap top computer = laptop. O iiae?aieo
neiainiieo/aiiyo iiaea aeeo/aoeny ? ia?oa neiai, a eiai cia/aiiy
ia?aiineoueny ia ae?oaa, iai?eeeaae, baby boomer = boomer, spaca shuttle
= shuttle, heart bypass = bypass. Cono??/athoueny aeiaaeee nei?i/aiue ia
o?eueee a?ia?ieo, aea e a?eueo neeaaeieo, aaaaoine?aieo niieo/aiue,
o?ac: to slap a fine on smb. = to slap; a young person who dresses in
expensive casual clothing = casual; a person with multiple personality
disorder = multiple. Ae?in, oaeei /eiii, icia/a?, ui ?acii ?c
nei?i/aiiyi neiainiieo/aiiy, eiai eiiaeainaoe??th a iaei?i neia?
a?aeaoaa?oueny ? naiaioe/ia eiiaeainaoe?y: cia/aiiy neiainiieo/aiiy
eiioeaio?o?oueny a iaei?i neia?. Naiaioe/i? iaieia?cie ia??aeei
aeieeathoue aiane?aeie aaoai?caoe?? — i?aaiaiiy cai?ieoe a?oa? aai i?yi?
iicia/aiiy a?eueo «i`yeeie» (creative a cia/aii? «yeee aeoiaeeoue ca
iaae? aeicaieaiiiai», challenged «c o?ce/ieie iaaeie?eaie»).

Ooai?aiiy naiaioe/ieo iaieia?ci?a o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao coiiaeth? ?
iaai? neiaioai?/? i?ioeane, aaaea aei iiyae iiaeo iaeeieoeue, oiaoi
naiaioe/i? iaieia?cie /anoi ni?eythoue aeieeiaiith eaene/ieo ?iiiaaoe?e.
Iiiyooy «naiaioe/iee iaieia?ci» iaaoaa? a aiae?enuee?e iia? a?eueo
oe?ieiai cia/aiiy c o?aooaaiiyi ?nioaaiiy ??cieo
iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueieo aa??aio?a oa ?ioaineaii? aca?iiae?? i?ae
ieie, ianaiia?aae, i?ae a?eoainueeei oa aia?eeainueeei aa??aioaie:
aia?eeainuee? cia/aiiy caaaeueii-aiae?enueeeo ne?a, yeui aiie
ii/eiathoue ooieoe?iioaaoe a a?eoainueeiio aa??aio?, ni?eeiathoueny naia
ye iia? cia/aiiy, iaa?oue yeui aiie ia ? iiaeie aeey aia?eeainueeiai
aa??aioo. sse naiaioe/i? ?iiiaaoe?? ni?eeiathoueny a iia? ? o? cia/aiiy,
ui caiice/othoueny «noaiaea?oiith» iiaith c ?iciiaieo i?aenenoai,
iai?eeeaae, c i?inoi??//y, nioe?aeueieo ae?aeaeo?a.

Iane?aeeii naiaioe/ieo ci?i a oiiaao iineeaiiy oaiaeaioe?? aioo??oiuei?
iia?eueiino? eaeneee, noe?aiiy iaae? i?ae caaaeueiiiiaiith eaeneeith oa
eaeneeith niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, i?ae «noaiaea?oiith» ?
«ianoaiaea?oiith» eaeneeith ? ana a?eueoa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy yaeua
iie?nai??, yea ioiieth? ca?ac oe?ie? oa?e eaeneee. I?i oea na?ae/aoue ?
oae? oaeoe, ye iaaoaaiiy cia/iith /anoeith naiaioe/ieo iaieia?ci?a ia
iaeiiai, a e?eueeio eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo aa??aio?a, ia?aoai?aiiy aaeeei?
e?eueeino? eaene/ieo iaieia?ci?a o iaieia?cie naiaioe/i? i?ioyaii
aeineoue ei?ioeiai ia??iaeo a ca`yceo c ?o iiaeaeueoei ?icaeoeii ?
iaaoaaiiyi iiaeo cia/aiue.

I?e ?icaeyaeaii? iiai? o?acaieia?? iiaea?oueny ?? no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea, aiae?cothoueny aeaea?aea, oeyoe oa iaoai?ci
o?acaieia?caoe??. Oi?ioaaiiy o?acaieia?/ieo iaeeieoeue a?aeaoaa?oueny
aieiaiei /eiii oeyoii ia?ainieneaiiy a?eueieo (ci?iieo) neiainiieo/aiue,
?o iaoaoi?ecaoe??. Iaoaoi?e/iee, a ?iiae? ? iaoii?i?/iee ia?aiin ia?, ye
i?aaeei, i?noea i?e ia?aianaii? ci?iieo aai noaeeo neiainiieo/aiue
iao?acaieia?/iiai oeio c aocueei? (i?ioan?eii? aai niaoe?aeueii?) noa?e
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a caaaeueio iiao aai a?eueo oe?ieo noa?o. I?ioa aeineoue
/anoeie ? aeiaaeee, eiee ia?ainieneaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny a i?ioean?
ia?aianaiiy neiainiieo/aiiy c caaaeueii? iiae a niaoe?aeueio, aai c
iaei??? aocueei? noa?e a ?ioo. Oea iniaeeai i?eoaiaiii o?acaieia?/iei
iaeeieoeyi noa?e ?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoiieia??: graceful degradation
«cae?ai?noue eiii`thoa?ii? nenoaie aei ooieoe?iioaaiiy o aeiaaeeo
iioeiaeaeaiiy ?? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a», information superhighway, «nenoaia
caeiaoooy oa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, yea noai?aia oeyoii
ia`?aeiaiiy eiii`thoa?ii? oa oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eii? oaoi?ee», salami
technique «i?eaeaniaiiy a?ioae ca aeiiiiiaith eiii`thoa?a oeyoii
«ie?oaeaiiy» ?aaeueii? noie o?iainiaeo iia?aoe?e», tiger team «a?oia
ethaeae, yea ia?aa??y? iaae?ei?noue eiii`thoa?ieo nenoai».

Ia?ainieneaiiy neiainiieo/aiue, ye? ooieoe?iiothoue o noa??
eiii`thoa?ii? oaoiieia??, a cia/i?e i??? iia`ycaia ? c o??th aiaeia??th,
yeo i?iaiaeyoue i?ae «ethaenueeith» oa eiii`thoa?iith nenoaiaie. Oea
coiiaeth?, iai?eeeaae, aeei?enoaiiy iaaee/ii? oa?i?iieia??, noai?aiiy
o?acaieia?/ieo iaeeieoeue, ia?aci?noue, aioo??oiy oi?ia yeeo
a?oioo?oueny ia caoai?thaaiiyo ethaeeie oa ?o e?eoaaii?: viral invasion,
phantom bug, vaccination program. O i?ioean? ooai?aiiy eiii`thoa?ieo
o?acaieia?/ieo iaeeieoeue niinoa??aathoueny ? aeiaaeee iiaoi?ii?
iaoaoi?ecaoe??, nai???aeii? «ia?ao?acaieia?caoe??». I?i iiaoi?io
iaoaoi?ecaoe?th ye iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy iiai? o?acaieia?? iiaea eoe iiaa ?
i?e ?icaeyaeaii? iiaeo iaeeieoeue ?ioeo noa?, iai?eeeaae, oaeeo
?iiiaaoe?e aeiiii?ee ? ae?eiai? noa?e, ye big bang «oieiaa oa?ai?y»,
«?aaeeeaeuei? aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie», (a ano?io?ceoe? oea neiainiieo/aiiy
icia/a? «aaeeeee aeaoo» — oai??th aeieeiaiiy Anana?oo), white knight
«iniaa, yea o?iaino? o??io aeey caiia?aaiiy caoiieaiiy ?? ?ioith o??iith
(ii??ai. iaoaoi?e/ia aaeeaaiiy oeueiai neiainiieo/aiiy a cia/aii?
«?yo?aiee»).

Iiaoi?ia iaoaoi?ecaoe?y iiaea aooe ? iaoai?ciii naiaioe/iiai ?icaeoeo
naieo o?acaieia?/ieo iaieia?ci?a. Oea noino?oueny, iai?eeeaae,
neiainiieo/aiiy junk food, ui aeieeei ye ?iciiaia iicia/aiiy
aenieieaei??eii?, aea ia iiaeeaii? ?ae?, a a inoaii?e /an iicia/a?
oaeiae oa, ui ia ia? ae?enii? oe?iiino?, a?aeiia?aea? i?ei?oeaiei
niaeai. Cacia/eii, ui ? neiainiieo/aiiy fast food- e?oa?aoo?iee oa?i?i
aeey oaei? ?ae? — oaae aaeeaa?oueny iaoaoi?e/ii a ooieoe?? i?eeiaoieea
«aioiaee, oaeee, ui eaaei caeiaoaa?oueny, io?eio?oueny a aeinooii?e
oi?i? (iai?eeeaae, i?i ?ioi?iaoe?th)». *eneaii? aeiaaeee iaaoaaiiy
o?acaieia?/ieie iaieia?ciaie aeiaeaoeiaeo cia/aiue, a oaeiae
canoinoaaiiy iaoai?cio iiaoi?ii? iaoaoi?ecaoe??, ? na?ae/aiiyi iioe?aiiy
yaeua iie?nai?? ? na?aae o?acaieia??. Ooai?aiiy iiaeo noaeeo
neiainiieo/aiue a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao aaciina?aaeiuei iia`ycaia c
eaene/ieie oa naiaioe/ieie iaieia?ciaie, ye? noathoue aacith ia o?eueee
aeey neiaioai?aiiy, aea e aeey o?acioai?aiiy.

I?iaeoeoeaiei iaoai?ciii ooai?aiiy iiai? o?acaieia?? ? aiaeia?y. sse ?
i?e ooai?aii? iiaeo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, iiaeaeeth aeey aeieeiaiiy
o?acaieia?ci?a neoaeaoue eiie?aoi? iaeeieoe?: neiainiieo/aiiy smoking
bed «oaeoe, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i ?iciooio iiaaae?ieo (iniaeeai iie?oe/iiai
aai a?iiaaenueeiai ae?y/a)» aeieeei ca aiaeia??th c ?nioth/ith
o?acaieia?/iith iaeeieoeath smoking gun, iaieia?ci tortilla curtain
«ia?eai, iai?iaea aaeiaae aia?eeainueei-iaeneeainueeiai ei?aeiio (aeey
no?eiaiiy iaeaaaeueii? ?i?a?aoe??)» aoei iiaoaeiaaii ia iniia?
neiainiieo/aiiy iron curtain. Iiaeaeyie aeey aiaeia?/iiai o?acioai?aiiy
ia??aeei aenooiathoue nai? o?acaieia?/i? iaieia?cie. Iaieia?ci mommy
track «e?aaei ae?iee, yea aaaaea? nai?th aieiaiith iaoith n?iaeia
uanoy», noai?ea oiiae aeey aeieeiaiiy /a?ac aeayeee /an neiainiieo/aiiy
daddy track; iaieia?ci e?ioey 80o ?ie?a velvet revolution, yeee aeiee
aeey iicia/aiiy ie?iiai ia?aoiaeo a?ae oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio aei
aeaiie?ao?? a eieeoi?e *aoineiaa//ei?, a 90o? ?iee noaa aacith aeey
iiaeo neiainiieo/aiue velvet divorca, velvet exile. A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao
iaeii/anii iaeaea aeieea? e?eueea neiainiieo/aiue — «aiaeia?/iee
eaioethaeie», e?eueoey yeiai /ano?oa anueiai ciaoiaeyoueny o
neiii?i?/ieo aai aioii?i?/ieo a?aeiioaiiyo: disaster scenario — horror
scenario — nightmare scenario; window of opportunity — window of
vulnerability; retail politics — wholesale politics; dependency culture
— enterprise culture; secondhand drinking — secondhand smoking.

Iaaia /anoeia iiaeo no?eeeo neiainiieo/aiue a?aeaeaa? i?aaiaiiy c?iaeoe
aeaye? iiiyooy «e?aueie», cai?ieoe ?o a?eueo «i`yeeie». Neiainiieo/aiiy
aaoai?noe/iiai oa?aeoa?o ?iciianthaeaeai? a noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e noa??
(damage control, opposition research, chattering classes, ladies who
lunch), a noa?? aeiiii?ee oa a?ciano (creative bookkeeping, boutique
consultant, partnership building, reverse enginearing). Iino?eii ae?th/a
iio?aaa a aaoai?caoe?? iiiyoue ni?e/eith? ? iino?eia iiiaeaiiy
aaoai?noe/ieo cania?a, cai?io iaeieo aaoai?ci?a (ye? ia?aoai?ththoueny
ia naith i?ioeeaaei?noue) ?ioeie. Iiaa o?acaieia?y a?ae?a?a? iaaio ?ieue
? a caaaa/aii? neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo iiaeie eaene/ieie iaeeieoeyie oeyoii
noyaiaiiy neiainiieo/aiue o neiaa neioaene/iiai oeio aai oeyoii
o?acaieia?/ii? aea?eaaoe??, ia?ao?acaieia?caoe??.

A ie?aiiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny eiioaeoe aiae?enueei? iiae c
?ioeie iiaaie, anoaiiaeththoueny aieiai? aeaea?aea caiice/aiue,
aea?oueny ?o e?iaa?noe/ia oa nioe?ie?iaa?noe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea,
i?inoaaeo?oueny i?ioean ?ioaa?aoe?? ?ioiiiaieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue a
eaeneei-naiaioe/io nenoaio aiae?enueei? iiae. A inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ciaoiaeeoue oaiaeaioe?y aei cieaeaiiy ieoiii? aaae
caiice/aiue na?aae iaieia?ci?a (i?eaeecii 2,6%), ui na?ae/eoue i?i
aeinoaoi? aioo??oi? ?ano?ne aiae?enueei? iiae, iaiao?aei? aeey
aaeaeaaoiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy ci?i a ?aaeueiino?. ?acii c oei ia no/aniiio
aoai? aiae?enueea iiaa i?iaeiaaeo? a?ae/oaaoe iaaiee aieea ?ioeo iia ia
eaeneei-naiaioe/iiio ??ai?. Ia? i?noea «ia?ai???ioaoe?y» uiaei aeaea?ae
caiice/aiue. Ia ia?oa i?noea ana a?eueoa aeoiaeyoue ac?aonuee? iiae,
iniaeeai yiiinueea, i?e/iio caiice/othoueny ia eeoa aecioecie, a
iaeeieoe?, iaiao?aei? aeey aioo??oi?o iio?aa iin??a aiae?enueei? iiae.

E?iaoeue 80-o — ii/aoie 90-o ?ie?a iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia??iaeii
«?in?enueeiai aieeao» ia neiaieeiaee neeaae aiae?enueei? iiae o ca`yceo
c oeie iie?oe/ieie ? aeiiii?/ieie ci?iaie, ui iaee i?noea a eieeoi?i
?aaeyinuee?i Nithc?. A?aeii? iiae?? ia o?eueee ni?e/eieee caiice/aiiy oa
aoiaeaeaiiy «iiaeo oa?i?i?a» (glasnost, perestroika), aea e noai?eee
iioeaaoe?th, noeioe aei ?ioaa?aoe?? ne?a, ye? i?iieeee a aiae?enueeo
iiao ?ai?oa, i?ioa iaee, oaeoe/ii, noaoon ia caiice/aiue, a ?iicaiieo
ne?a, ooieoe?iioth/e eeoa a «?aaeyinuee?i eiioaeno?».

?io? iiae i?iaeiaaeothoue aooe aeey aiae?enueei? iiae aeaea?aeaie
neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a, i?e/iio iia? ao?ene ?ioiiiaiiai iioiaeaeaiiy
iiaeooue c`yaeyoeny ia o?eueee o?aaeeoe?eiei oeyoii — caiice/aiiyi
oe?ei? iecee ne?a ? aeae?eaiiyi a ieo neiaioai?/i? ii?oaie, — aea e
i?yiei caiice/aiiyi ao?ena, ye oea iaei i?noea c i?iaoeueeei i?ao?enii
-uber (ueberbanker, uebercomputer, ueberhip, uebermogul). C`yaeeany
oe?ea iecea neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a c? ne?a oa ei?ai?a eeane/ieo iia
(cryo-, cyber-, crat-, mega-, nano-, petro-), /eiaei ao?en?a aeieeei
aiane?aeie oeaii? aoeiieia?caoe?? ?iicaiieo ne?a, ?o aeia?eueiiai
?ic/eaioaaiiy ia oeai? ii?oaie, ia?aoai?aiiy /anoeie oaeeo ne?a o
neiaioai?/? aeaiaioe oeyoii noai?aiiy iaieia?ci?a ca c?aceii ?iicaiiiai
neiaa-iiaeae?. Naia oaeei /eiii aeieeee, iai?eeeaae, noo?ene -burger,
-cade, -erati, -furter, -holin, -thon.

A inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy niinoa??aa?oueny iaaiee ia?a?iciiae?e noa?
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ioiiiaieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue: noa?a aeiiii?ee oa a?ciano
aeoiaeeoue ia ia?oee ieai (iaeaea o?aoeia an?o caiice/aiue), iiaeae?
c?inoa? ieoiia aaaa ?ioiiiaieo ne?a o noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e noa??
(27,2%). Oey e?euee?nia nioe?iooieoe?iiaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea caiice/aiue
a?aeiia?aea? e?euee?niei ia?aiao?ai iaieia?ci?a inoaii?o aeanyoee?oue
acaaae?: naia noa?e aeiiii?ee, noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ? noa?aie
iaea?eueoi? eiioeaio?aoe?? ?iiiaaoe?e. Cacia/eii, ui a 60-70-o? ?iee
iaeaea 50% caiice/aiue aoei iia’ycaii c eoeueoo?ith (iaea?eueoa
e?euee?noue), c noni?eueii-iie?oe/iith noa?ith oa eoe?ia???th, a a
iiia?aaei? aeanyoee?ooy 60% caiice/aiue ?iciiae?eyeeny i?ae
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iith noa?ith, eoe?ia???th, a?enueeiaith ni?aaith.

sse ? a iiia?aaei? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo aiae?enueei? iiae a?eueo?noue
caiice/aiue

( 88,4%) aeeeeea?oueny iaiao?aei?noth iicia/aiiy iiaeo i?aaeiao?a oa
iiiyoue, cai?ie ?ic/eaiiaaiiai iaeiaioaaiiy ia?ic/eaiiaaiei. ?aooo
neeaaeathoue caiice/aiiy, ye? iiiiaiththoue aeni?aneai? caniae
aiae?enueei? iiae. sseui a 60 — 70 o? ?iee aecioecie neeaaeaee a?eueo
11% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? caiice/aiue, oi a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy ?o
/anoea cieceeany aei 7,6%, ui iia’yco?oueny c iiaeaeueoith
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe??th oaeeo ?ioiiiaieo aeaiaio?a, aiane?aeie /iai
iaaia ?o /anoeia aaea ia iiaea aaaaeaoeny aecioeciaie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueia oa
ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/ia aa??thaaiiy aiae?enueei? iiae ye oaeoi?
?icaeoeo neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo” ?icaeyaea?oueny aca?iiae?y a?eoainueeiai
oa aia?eeainueeiai aa??aio?a, a oaeiae aca?iiae?y e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae c
?iciiaieie i?aenenoaiaie. Aiae?enueea iiaa eeoa aano?aeoii iiaea aooe
oyaeaiith o aeaeyae? «iae?inenoaie» ( noia?nenoaie), a ?aaeueiino? aiia
i?aaenoaaeaia eiie?aoieie aa??aioaie oe??? nenoaie (a ia
«i?e?inenoaiaie»). Ine?eueee eiaeiee iaoe?iiaeueiee aa??aio aeeiio? an?
ooieoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? iiae ? neeaaea?oueny c oeo aea eiiiiiaio?a oa
i?aenenoai, i?e eiai aecia/aii? ne?ae o?aoiaoaaoe ia o?eueee e?oa?aoo?io
iiao oa oa?eoi??aeuei? ae?aeaeoe (a aeayeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo aa??aioao
aiie acaaae? a?aenooi?), aea e ?io? neeaaeia? eiiiiiaioe: i?inoi??//y,
neaia, nioe?ieaeoe oa ?io? ??ciiaeaee ?iciiaiiai iiaeaiiy. Naia a oaeeo
?iciiaieo ??ciiaeaeao cina?aaeaeai? a?aei?iiino? iaoe?iiaeueieo
aa??aio?a.

Eiaeiee iaoe?iiaeueiee aa??aio — oea ie?aia naiiaeinoaoiy iiaia nenoaia,
yea aaeaeaaoii aeeiio?, ianaiia?aae, aioo??oith eiioi?eaoeaio ooieoe?th,
ooieoe?th ni?eeoaaiiy i?ae iin?yie iaaiiai aa??aioo, oiio iniaeeao
aaaeeea?noue iaaoaa? naia aioo??oi? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
aa??aio?a. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c, yeee ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy a i?aeoeoe?
aeeeaaeaiiy oa aea/aiiy aiae?enueei? iiae, iiaeiai, ii-ia?oa,
??oiooaaoeny ia ia iienaii? aa??aio?a ca aeiiiiiaith ni?eueiiai yae?a.
Oaea iienaiiy ae?enii “aeeeth/a? c ?icaeyaeaiiy anth ??ciiiai?oi?noue
?aae?caoe?? iaeeieoeue, ui c?noaaeythoueny a aeaio aai e?eueeio
aa??aioao”. Ii-ae?oaa, iniaeeao oaaao ne?ae i?eae?eyoe ia ?iaaioa?iei
?icoiaeaeaiiyi (ye oea ?iaeyoue aaaaoi aeine?aeiee?a, oi/ nai?
aeciathoue, ui aeeno?eaooe?ei? a?aei?iiino? ia?aaaaeathoue iaae
?iaaioa?ieie), a naia ??ciei oeyoai ?aae?caoe?? iaeieo ? oeo aea iiaieo
iaeeieoeue a ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueieo aa??aioao, iniaeeai c o?aooaaiiyi
oiai, ui aiane?aeie eiioaeo?a iaoe?iiaeueieo aa??aio?a ia? i?noea
iiaeaeueoa i?aaethaaiiy ?iaaioa?ieo ?icoiaeaeaiue aai ?o ia?aoai?aiiy a
aeeno?eaooe?ei?, a i?aeaa??aioi? eaene/i? iiiceoe?? noathoue, oaeoe/ii,
aioo??oiueiaa??aioieie iiiceoe?yie.

?icaeoie eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae a
cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny /eiieeaie, iia`ycaieie c ??
iie?iaoe?iiaeuei?noth, ?c aca?iiae??th ?? iaoe?iiaeueieo aa??aio?a,
cie?aia, a?eoainueeiai e aia?eeainueeiai. Aieea aia?eeainueeiai aa??aioo
ia a?eoainueeee ia?o ca ana a?ae/oaa?oueny a oiio, ui i?iaeiaaeo?oueny
iiiiaiaiiy eaeneee oa o?acaieia?? a?eoainueeiai aa??aioo cia/iith
e?euee?noth aia?eeai?ci?a. Aiae?c aia?eeai?ci?a na?ae/eoue, ui na?aae
ieo iaiaei ne?a, iia`ycaieo c ?noi?e/iei ieioeei, c iaa?aeiieie
aiae?eoeyi ?aae?yie, ye? caciaee ia?ainieneaiiy a NOA. Oae? iaeeieoe? ia
o?eueee caiice/othoueny, aea e ia??aeei noathoue iniiaaie aeey
?iiiaaoe?e a a?eoainuee?i aa??aio?, oiaoi iaa?aeii?noue ?aae?e ? oei
naiei iayni?noue «aioo??oiuei? oi?ie» ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe na?eiciith
ia?aoeiaeith ia oeyoo caiice/aiiy oa anei?eyoe?? ia?acieo aia?eeai?ci?a.
Iieacieeaie anei?eyoe?? aia?eeai?ci?a o eaeneei-naiaioe/i?e nenoai?
a?eoainueeiai aa??aioo ne?ae aaaaeaoe ?o «a?ae?ea» a?ae «aia?eeainueeiai
eiioaenoo», ooai?aiiy aeaiaio?a neiaioai?/i? oa o?acaieia?/ii?
ia?aaeeaie, oiaoi o/anoue o neiaioai?/eo oa o?acioai?/eo i?ioeanao.

Aeaye? aia?eeai?cie yaeythoue niaith eeoa eaeneei-ii?oieia?/i? aa??aioe
caaaeueii-aiae?enueei? eaeneee aai a?eoeoeeci?a. O oaeeo aeiaaeeao
caiice/o?oueny ieai ae?aaeaiiy aac caiice/aiiy ieaio ci?noo. I?i
iiae?aiee aeae caiice/aiiy ne?ae aiai?eoe ? o aeiaaeeao ooieoe?iioaaiiy
a a?eoainueeiio aa??aio? i?eeiaiieeiaeo eiino?oeoe?e cai?noue
aaci?eeiaiieeiaeo (to consult with, to lose out, to start up),
aia?eeainueeeo eaene/ieo aa??aio?a caaaeueiiaiae?enueeeo eaene/ieo
iaeeieoeue. Caiice/aiiy ieaio ae?aaeaiiy aac caiice/aiiy ieaio ci?noo —
oea iaeia ?c ?en i?aeaa??aioieo eiioaeo?a ye eiioaeo?a ??ciiaeae?a
iaeii? iiaii? nenoaie (ia a?aei?io a?ae eiioaeo?a ??cieo iiaieo nenoai).
?ioeie iniaeeainoyie aca?iiae?? aa??aio?a ne?ae aaaaeaoe caiice/aiiy
o?acaieia?/ieo iaeeieoeue, neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a oa iiaeaeae,
?aaaia?aoe?th a?oa?ci?a a iaeiiio c aa??aio?a i?ae aieeaii ?ioiai, a
yeiio oe? a?oa?cie caa??aathoueny a aeoeaiiio aaeeoeo. Aaaaea?oueny
oaeiae, ui niaoeeo?/iith ?enith i?aeaa??aioieo eiioaeo?a ? ia?aianaiiy
c iaeiiai aa??aioo a ?ioee eaenai ?acii c aeaiaioaie ?o neiaioai?/i?
ia?aaeeaie. Oaea yaeua ae?enii i?inoaaeo?oueny a i?ioean? aca?iiae??
aa??aio?a, aea i?e oeueiio aeaeaei ia caaaeaee iiaeia c iiaiith
aeinoia??i?noth anoaiiaeoe, /e caiice/othoueny oae? aeaiaioe
neiaioai?/i? (? o?acaieia?/ii?) ia?aaeeaie c ?ioiai aa??aioo, /e aiie
aoee noai?ai? a aa??aio?-?aoeei??io? a i?ioean? iacaeaaeiiai
eiiaa?aaioiiai ?icaeoeo.

Acaaae?, i?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?aeaa??aioieo eiioaeo?a ne?ae aiai?eoe ia
no?eueee i?i «caiice/aiiy», ne?eueee i?i «aieea» iaeiiai aa??aioo ia
?ioee. Iniaeeao aeooaeuei?noue iaaoaathoue neiaa I.I.Iioaai? i?i oa, ui
aeine?aeiee iiaieo eiioaeo?a iiaeiai cina?aaeeoe oaaao ia ia oiio, ui
caiice/aii, a ui noai?aii naiith iiaith a ?acoeueoao? ?iioeueno c ?ioeo
iia. Iiaeeeaino? noeioeyoe?? iiaieo i?ioean?a, yaeu, oaiaeaioe?e
?icaeoeo a iiai?e i??? ?aae?cothoueny a i?ioean? aca?iiae?? ??ciiaeae?a
iaei??? iiaii? nenoaie. Aia?eeainueeee aa??aio, iai?eeeaae, ae?? ye
noeioeyoi? iaaieo neiaioai?/eo oa naiaioe/ieo oaiaeaioe?e a?eoainueeiai
aa??aioo. Naia i?ae aia?eeainueeei aieeaii a a?eoainueeiio aa??aio?
?icoe?th?oueny iiea ae?yeueiino? eiiaa?n??, c`yaeythoueny iia? ao?ene ?
c?inoa? i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?nioth/eo neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a.

A inoaii?e /an aaaaoi ieoooue i?i oa, ui oaiaeaioe?y eiiaa?aaioiiai
?icaeoeo a?eoainueeiai oa aia?eeainueeiai aa??aio?a ia?aaaaea? iaae
oaiaeaioe??th ?o aeeaa?aaioe??. Ae?enii, a oiiaao no/aniiai aoaio
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai «aeaooo» ia? i?noea naia
oaeee ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueieo aa??aio?a. O i?ioean? aca?iiae?? aa??aio?a
ana a?eueoa aoaeooue noe?aoeny ?icoiaeaeaiiy, ui aeieeee aiane?aeie
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? aeaiioaoe?? (eiee iaei? e o? ae i?aaeiaoe, iiiyooy
iicia/athoueny ??cieie neiaaie a ??cieo aa??aioao). I?ioa iin?? ??cieo
aa??aio?a aoaeooue ? iiaeae? a?ae??ciyoeny ianaiia?aae ??cieie caniaaie
?aae?caoe?? oiai ae naiiai iiaiiai iaoa??aeo, aei yeeo iaeaaeeoue ?
neiaania ?aaeoe?y ia o? ae nai? neooaoe??. Iiaia i?aaethaaiiy
a?aei?iiinoae i?ae aa??aioaie iaiiaeeeaa, ine?eueee ?niothoue
a?aei?iiino? a iaoa??aeuei?e oa aeooiai?e eoeueoo?? nioe?oi?a, ye?
ei?enoothoueny o??th ae naiith iiaith, aiane?aeie /iai aeieeathoue ?
??ci? eiioi?eaoeai? iio?aae oeeo nioe?oi?a.

Aioo??oiueiiiai? ?ano?ne, ye? aeieeathoue o i?ioean? aca?iiae??
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae c ?iciiaieie ??ciiaeaeaie, neeaaeathoue aaaeeeaa
aeaea?aei ?icaeoeo neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo a oiiaao iineeaiiy oaiaeaioe??
aei aeaiie?aoecaoe?? aiae?enueei? iiae, aei caeeaeaiiy
ienaiii-e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae c onii-?iciiaiith. I?inoaaeo?oueny o?niee
ca`ycie oaeiai caeeaeaiiy, c?inoaiiy ianooaa?a iiiiaiaiiy neiaieeiaiai
neeaaeo c? neaiao oa nioe?ieaeo?a ?c aca?iiae??th a?eoainueeiai oa
aia?eeainueeiai aa??aio?a. Naia a?eoainueea aeaiioe/ia ii?ia a?ae/oaa?
aieea a?eueo aeaiie?aoe/ii? aia?eeainueei? ii?ie.

A inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy ia o?eueee aia?eeainueeee, aea e a?eoainueeee
aa??aio a cia/i?e i??? iiiiaith? nai? eaeneei-o?acaieia?/i? oa
neiaioai?/? ?ano?ne ?c caaaeueiiai oa niaoe?aeueiiai neaiao (aieiaiei
/eiii, c aia?eeainueeiai). Caiice/aiiy iaeeieoeue neaiao oa aea?aii?a,
iia`ycaia, aieiaiei /eiii, c iio?aaith a aeni?aneaieo caniaao. Oae?
iaeeieoe?, ye i?aaeei, ia no?eueee aeathoue iaeiaioaaiiy ?a/ai, yaeuai
oiui, ne?eueee oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?o ? ooieoe?iiothoue ye
aeni?aneaii-noee?noe/i? neiii?ie e?oa?aoo?ii? eaeneee. Iioe?aiei yaeuai
iiaeia aaaaeaoe ? aacaea?aaeaioi?noue neaia?ci?a oa aea?aii?ci?a uiaei
e?oa?aoo?ieo iaeeieoeue, oiaoi eiee oae? neiaa aeieeathoue a
nioe?aeueieo oa i?ioan?eieo ??ciiaeaeao ?iciiaiiai iiaeaiiy (a naia oai
aeieea? a?eueo?noue iaieia?ci?a) ye ?aeei? iicia/aiiy iaaieo ?a/ae oa
yaeu. I?e?iaeii, ui naia oae? neiaa a ia?oo /a?ao caeiaoaathoue
a?iiaaeyinoai a e?oa?aoo?i?e ii?i?: baby-boomer (boomer), bugging,
crack, buster, mugging, yuppie. C?inoaiiy ianooaa?a caiice/aiiy oa
anei?eyoe?? neaia?ci?a oa aea?aii?ci?a a a?eoainueeiio «noaiaea?o?»
iia`ycaia c ?o oe?ieei aaeeaaiiyi a naieo ?aniaeoaaaeueieo a?eoainueeeo
aeaea?aeao, a «ye?ni?e» i?an?, ye?e a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy i?eoaiaiiith
noa? iaaia i???ioaoe?y ia «?iciiai?noue» (ca i?eeeaaeii aia?eeainueei?
i?ane).

Ia?ao?ae aeaiaio?a neaiao, nioe?aeueieo, i?ioan?eieo oa ei?ii?aoeaieo
aea?aii?a c ia?eoa??? aei yae?a, ?o anei?eyoe?y /ano?oa anueiai
noi?iaiaeaeo?ony, iaaieie naiaioe/ieie ci?iaie oa c?ooaiiyie. Oae? ci?ie
a?aeaoaathoueny ye a aeaiioaoeai?i eiiiiiaio? (?icoe?aiiy, ia?aiin
cia/aiiy), oae ? a eiiioaoeai?i (iiaia aai /anoeiaa «noe?aiiy»
aeni?aneaii-aiioe?eii? eiiioaoe??, ioe?ii/ia ia?ai???ioaoe?y). Neaia oa
aea?aiie a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue o ?icoe?aii? naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e
e?oa?aoo?ieo iaeeieoeue, oiaoi a iiiiaiaii? aiae?enueei? iiae
naiaioe/ieie iaieia?ciaie, a caaaa/aii? o?acaieia?/iiai oiiaeo,
neiaioai?/eo ?ano?n?a. Aenoaaiiy a oeaio? oaaae noni?euenoaa oeo /e
?ioeo nioe?aeueieo, i?ioan?eieo, ei?ii?aoeaieo a?oi, caaino?aiiy iaaieo
i?iaeai coiiaeth? ? c?inoaiiy ?ie? iaaieo aea?aii?a (nioe?ieaeo?a) ye
aeaea?ae iiiiaiaiiy neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo, ye i?aenenoai, ui iaea?eueoa
aieeaathoue ia eaeneei-naiaioe/io nenoaio. Na?aae ieo ne?ae a?aecia/eoe
aea?aii, iia`ycaiee c ia?eiiai??th (ia?eiaea?aii), nioe?ieaeo
ao?iaia?eeaioe?a, iieiae?aeiee neaia, aea?aii oao?aoe?a oa aiaoi??a
eiii`thoa?ii? oaoi?ee oa i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy, aea?aii cei/eiiiai
na?oo (eaio).

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy
nioe?ieaeo ao?iaia?eeaioe?a ia?aoai?th?oueny ia iaeia c aieiaieo
aeaea?ae iiiiaiaiiy ?iciiaiiai iiaeaiiy oa e?oa?aoo?iiai noaiaea?oo
aiae?enueei? iiae a NOA, ni?aaey? iaaiee aieea ia a?eoainueeee aa??aio.
Oeae nioe?aeueii-aoi?/iee ae?aeaeo yaey? niaith ?ioa?an ye a
e?iaa?noe/i?i, oae ? a nioe?aeueii-e?iaa?noe/i?i aniaeo?. C iaeiiai
aieo, a?i eiioeaio?o? a nia? iniaeeaino?, i?eoaiaii? nioe?aeueiei
??ciiaeaeai iiae, a c ?ioiai aieo, aeyaey? niaoeeo?/i? ?ene, oaiaeaioe??
?icaeoeo, ye? iaaoaathoue aaaeeeaino? c o?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui a inoaii?
aeanyoee?ooy aiie aeoiaeyoue ca iaae? i?e?inenoaie oeueiai
nioe?aeueii-aoi?/iiai ae?aeaeoo.

O ?icae?e? “?icaeoie noni?euenoaa ? ?icaeoie neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo”
aieiaia oaaaa cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia aena?oeaii? i?iaeaie «iiaa ?
nioe?aeueia na?aaeiaeua», ia anoaiiaeaii? ?ie? iae?inioe?aeueieo
/eiiee?a, ia ?ice?eoo? eiie?aoieo ca`yce?a (ei?aeyoe??) i?ae iaaieie
noni?eueieie oa eaeneei-naiaioe/ieie ci?iaie, yaeuaie oa eiie?aoieo
/eiiee?a, ye? iaea?eueo aieeaathoue ia ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane, ia
aeine?aeaeaii? cia/aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?aaiethoe?? aeey
eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie aiae?enueei? iiae. Aiae?c ?iiiaaoe?e
i?iaiaeeany oeyoii ?o ?iciiae?eo ia nioe?iooieoe?iiaeuei? eeane c
o?aooaaiiyi ?o cae??ieaiiy ca iaaieie noa?aie nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy.
Aeae?eythoueny noa?e iaea?eueo ao?oeeaiai ?icaeoeo, aiie aoee ? noa?aie
iaea?eueo aeoeaieo ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, noa?aie ca?iaeaeaiiy iaaieo
oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie, aieiaieie
iinoa/aeueieeaie iaieia?ci?a.

Eaeneei-o?acaieia?/i? oa naiaioe/i? ?iiiaaoe?? noa?e aeiiii?ee oa
a?ciano a?aeia?aaeathoue ?aaeeeaeuei? ci?ie, ye? iia`ycai? c
?iciianthaeaeaiiyi oa ao?eaiiyi a aeeooy aeiiii?/ieo oai??e,
eiioeaioe?e, aeieo?ei, c ia?aoiaeii aaaaoueio e?a?i aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee, c iino?eieie ?aoi?iaie oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith, ?? ie?aieo
eaiie, c ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie, c ?ai?aai?caoe??th ia i?e?iaeiiii?/iiio
??ai?, ?c ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi no/anii?, iniaeeai eiii`thoa?ii? oaoi?ee. Naia
iaaeiei iiiyoue, iia`ycaieo c cacia/aieie i?ioeanaie oa yaeuaie,
niinoa??aa?oueny eiioeaio?aoe?y iaieia?ci?a. Na?aae aeo?aeieo aeaiaio?a
iiaeo neiaioai?/eo oa o?acaieia?/ieo ia?aaeeai ne?ae a?aecia/eoe
nioe?iooieoe?iiaeueii ia?eiaai? eaene/i? iaeeieoe? card, corporate
(corporation), entrepreneur, gold (golden), job, market, work, eeth/ia?
neiaa oa neiaioai?/? aeaiaioe, ye? iia`ycai? c eiii`thoa?ecaoe??th oe???
noa?e aeeooy (cyber-, digital-, electronic, computer, info-, techno-,
tele, virtual).

Iaieia?cie noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? noa?e eiioeaio?othoueny iaaeiei
iiiyoue, iia`ycaieo c oaiaeaioe?yie oeea?e?caoe?eiiai i?ia?ano,
iie?oe/ieie eaiiai?yie, a?iiaaenueeeie ?ooaie, nioe?aeueiith
no?aoeo?eaoe??th noni?euenoaa. Aieea ai?ioueae ae?iie i?ioe ?o
aeene?ei?iaoe?? ia aoa iaiaaeaiee eeoa caaaa/aiiyi neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo
iii?iaiaie: a?i ni?e/eiea aeieeiaiiy oae caaii? «?ieeoceaii? iiae»
(inclusive language) — oi?ie iiaeaiiy, ae?aco, yea ia aeene?ei?io?
ae?iie, «iie?oe/ii ei?aeoii? iiae», cia/ii? e?eueeino? aaoai?noe/ieo
“?ieeoceaieo” ne?a oa ae?ac?a. Iiaeae? c?inoa? e?euee?noue “aeieia?/ieo”
iaieia?ci?a, iii?oia iane/ai?noue a?aeiia?aeieo ?ioi?iaoe?e
iiaioai?aiiyie inoaiiueiai /ano, niinoa??aa?oueny ?o cina?aaeaeaiiy
iaaeiei aeooaeueieo iiiyoue. Noa?a aeieia?? iiai?noth aai /anoeiai
ianeoaiao?oueny oe?eith ieceith iiaeo neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a (bio-,
eco-, enviro-, friendly), aeieia?/ia ni?yiiaai?noue ci?noo oe?ei? iecee
naiaioe/ieo iaieia?ci?a (alternative, green, recycle) c?iaeea ?o
oeaio?ii neiaioai?/eo, o?acaieia?/ieo oa eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo ia?aaeeai.

Caaino?aiiy i?iaeai cei/eiiino?, ia?eiiai?? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
ia?aoai?aiiyi ooieoe?iiaeueii-ia?eiaaieo iaeeieoeue o oeaio?e
?ioaineaiiai neiai oa o?acioai?aiiy (bomb, drug, terrorism),
«e?ei?iaeueiith niaoe?ae?caoe??th» oe?ei? iecee iiaeo ao?en?a (-abuse,
-jack, -lout, -mail, -nap, -narco), oi?ioaaiiyi oe?ieeo neiii?i?/ieo
?yae?a iaaeiei iaca ia?eioee?a. Aaeeea ?ieue, yea iaeaaeeoue o
noni?euenoa? caniaai ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, coiiaeth? oie oaeo, ui naia
«ian-iaae?a» ? noa?ith ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia o?eueee
«aioo??oi?o ?iiiaaoe?e» (cae??ieaieo ca oe??th noa?ith), aea e cia/ii?
/anoee iaieia?ci?a acaaae?, ye? ? ?acoeueoaoii ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
neiaioai?/ino? aea?aeaaieo, iie?oe/ieo, a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a,
aeo?iae?no?a, ienueiaiiee?a, o/aieo.

A oiiaao ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?aaiethoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny, ianaiia?aae,
iiiiaiaiiy neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo iaeaea iac/eneaiiith e?euee?noth
«?ioiiaieia?ci?a» — ne?a oa neiainiieo/aiue, ye? iia`ycai? c
eiii`thoa?iith oa ?ioith no/aniith ?ioi?iaoe?eiith oaoi?eith, c
i?ioeanaie oa yaeuaie, ui iathoue i?noea a noni?euenoa? o ca`yceo c
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi oaei? oaoi?ee iaeaea a on? noa?e nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy.
Oe?eeii i?e?iaeii, ui e?euee?ni? ci?ie a neiaieeiaiio neeaae? coiiaeee ?
ye?ni? ci?ie a ie?aieo eaieao neiaioai?o, eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie.
?icaeyaeath/e aieea eiii’thoa?ecaoe?? ia naiaioeeo iiaieo iaeeieoeue,
iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui naiaioe/ia aea?eaaoe?y ? iaea?eueo
i?iaeoeoeaiei niiniaii oi?ioaaiiy eiii`thoa?ii? oa?i?iieia??. Ia?aeiiei
iaoa??aeii, yeee i?aeaea?oueny naiaioe/iei c?ooaiiyi oa ci?iai, iiaeooue
aooe ye caaaeueiiiiai? iaeeieoe? (oa?i?iieia?caoe?y), oae ? oa?i?iieia?y
?ioeo noa? (ia?aoa?i?iieia?caoe?y), i?e/iio a iaio aeiaaeeao a
?iiiaaoe?eiee i?ioean aeoeaii aeeth/a?oueny iaoai?ci iaoaoi?e,
aiane?aeie /iai eiiioaoeaia caaa?aeaiiy i?eoaiaiia cia/i?e /anoei?
eiii`thoa?ii? oa?i?iieia?? ? eiai iiaeia aaaaeaoe niaoeeo?/iith ?enith
naiaioeee oe??? oa?i?iieia??: browse, clone, icon, loop, menu, mouse,
surf, web, window, etc.

Aeni?aneaii-aiioe?eia eiiioaoe?y aaaaoueio eiii`thoa?ieo oa?i?i?a
coiiaeth?oueny oei oaeoii, ui oe? oa?i?ie aeieeathoue, ye i?aaeei, a
?iciiai?e iia? oao?aoe?a «na?oo eiii`thoa??a», a oaeiae naiei
ooieoe?iiaeueiei i?ecia/aiiyi «iaoei», aiaeia??th, yeo i?iaiaeyoue i?ae
ethaenueeith oa iaoeiiith «nenoaiaie». Ca eiii`thoa?aie c naiiai ii/aoeo
aoee cae??ieai? oae? «ethaenuee?» eaene/i? iaeeieoe?, ye conversation,
dialogue, intelligent, language, memory, think. A inoaii?e /an ae?y
aio?iiiiao?e/ii? iaoaoi?e i?inoaaeo?oueny o aeei?enoaii? iaaee/ieo
oa?i?i?a aeey iicia/aiiy «oai?ia» eiii`thoa?ieo nenoai oa cania?a ?o
e?eoaaiiy: antidote, antivirus, bug, hygiene, immunity, disinfection,
vaccine, viral infection, virus.

Oe?ea iecea eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue cae??ieth?oueny ca no/aniith
?ioi?iaoe?eiith oaoi?eith an??th naiaioe/iith no?oeoo?ith aai ie?aieie
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieie aa??aioaie (chip, digital, information,
interactive, Internet, net, silicon, video, virtual). Oe? iaeeieoe?
ia?aoai?ththoueny ia oeaio?e, iaaeiei yeeo «aoaeothoueny» /eneaii?
aeaiaioe neiaioai?/eo, o?acaieia?/ieo, eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo ia?aaeeai.
Noai?aiiy i?aeia?iaeii? eiii`thoa?ii? ia?aae? ?ioa?iao ni?e/eieei iiaee
aoai ianiaeo naiaioe/ieo ci?i a ?nioth/eo neiaao oa neiaioai?/eo
aeaiaioao. Naia neiai ?ioa?iao noaei aacith aeey oe?ei? iecee eaene/ieo
oa o?acaieia?/ieo iaieia?ci?a, iai?eeeaae: internaut, Internet
appliance, Inernet host, Internetworking, intranet, extranet. Iii?oia
oaeiae ao?aeoe?y iaiiii?iai aei naiiai iiiyooy «i?aeia?iaeia
eiii`thoa?ia ia?aaea».

Aeooaeuei?noue i?ioean?a oa yaeu, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoue ?ioi?iaoe?eio
?aaiethoe?th, coiiaeth? i?aaiaiiy a?aeaeoe oe? i?ioeane oa yaeua
aa??aoeaieie iiaieie caniaaie, iiynith? cia/io eiioeaio?aoe?th
?iiiaaoe?e iaaeiei iaaieo iiiyoue, oi?ioaaiiy ?icaaeoaeaeaieo
neiii?i?/ieo ?yae?a. O?eueee ca inoaii? e?eueea ?ie?a oe?ie? neiii?i?/i?
?yaee aoee noai?ai? iaaeiei iiiyoue «aaeeeee aiaoi? no/anii?, iniaeeai
eiii`thoa?ii? oaoi?ee»: chip-head, computer-junkie, cyber-buff,
cyber-head, cyber-addict, cyber-junkie, digit-head, gear-head, net-head,
technofreak, technophile, tekki, telephile; «a?aeiiee oao?aaoeue, o/aiee
a aaeoc? no/anii? oaoi?ee»: computernerd, cyberguru, cybernerd,
supernerd, technoguru, techgeek, technopundit, technosavant, ubernerd;
«ethaeeia, yea ?aaoey?ii ei?enoo?oueny eiii`thoa?iith ia?aaeath
«?ioa?iao»: cybercitizen, cybersurfer, e-surfer, netizen, nethead,
netter, inernaut, netsurfer; «oaeee, ui ?icoi??oueny ia eiii`thoa?i?e
oaoi?oe?, ai?? i?aoethaaoe c iath”: cimputer hip, computerate,
computent, computersavvy, cybersavvy, technoliterate, techsavvy.

No/aniee aoai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ai?n iaai? ci?ie a nenoaio
neiaioai?/eo cania?a, coiiaea aeieeiaiiy iiaeo neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a
aai iiaeo naiaioe/ieo aa??aio?a ?nioth/eo noo?en?a. O na?o?
eiii`thoa?ii? oaoi?ee ca?iaeeany aenieii?iaeoeoeaiee caaaeueiiiiaiee
aeaiaio -friendly, eiai aoei aeae?eaii ?c neeaaeo eiii`thoa?iiai
iaieia?cio user-friendly, yeee noaa c?aceii aeey ia/eneaiii? e?eueeino?
iaieia?ci?a (customer-friendly, nature-friendly, etc), ni?e/eiea
aeieeiaiiy aioii?i?/ieo neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a –hostile,
-unfriendly. I?iaeoeoeaieie a caaaeuei?e iia? noathoue a inoaii?e /an
iia? eiii`thoa?i? neiaioai?/? aeaiaioe, noo?en -ware (geneware,
humanware, wetware), i?ao?en giga- (gigabucks, gigastore, gigaworld).

Na?aae neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a, ia?iaeaeaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eiith
?aaiethoe??th, ne?ae iniaeeai a?aecia/eoe noia?i?iaeoeoeaiee i?ao?en
cyber-«iia`ycaiee c eiii`thoa?iith, ?ioi?iaoe?eiith oaoi?eith;
iia`ycaiee c ?ioa?iao, oaeee, ui cae?enith?oueny /a?ac eiii`thoa?io
ia?aaeo ?ioa?iao». Aeniea i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?eoaiaiia oaeiae ao?eni?aeai
techno-, tele-, ye? caciaee niaoe?ae?caoe?? ? oe?iei aaeeaathoueny aeey
a?aeaeooy iiiyoue, iia(ycaieo c eiii(thoa?iith, oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eiith oa
?ioith ?ioi?iaoe?eiith oaoi?eith.

O na?o? eiii`thoa?ii? oaoi?ee aeieeathoue ? iia? neiaioai?/? iiaeae?,
caii/aoeiaothoueny iaai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo neiaioai?o. Iai?eeeaae, o
na?e /an ae??ne?aii-i?eeiaiieeiaa neiainiieo/aiiy put in noaei aacith
aeey ?iaiieea input, yeee, a naith /a?ao, a na?aaeei? 80o ?ie?a aoei
«?aeiiaa?oiaaii» a ae??neiai input. Caiaeii iiae?aia ?aeiiaa?n?y noaea
aeineoue iioe?aiith a aiae?enuee?e iia?. E??i oiai, oaea iiaeaeue noaea
c?aceii aeey aiaeia?/iiai neiaioai?o (input — exput), noeioethaaea
oaiaeaioe?th oi?ioaaiiy i?ao?en?a a?ae i?eeiaiiee?a oa i?ene?aiee?a o
«o?aciaeo ae??neiaao» (to place out ( to outplace, to sell on ( to
onsell).

Oe?iea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoi?ee a iianyeaeaiia aeeooy,
eiii`thoa?ia «a?aiioi?noue» a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy aiaeiiiaieo e?a?i
coiiaeth? ianiao, iaeaea oioaeueio aeaoa?i?iieia?caoe?th,
«?ioioa?i?i?a», ?o ia?aoai?aiiy a iaeeieoe? caaaeueiiai aaeeoeo aai a
iaeeieoe?, ye? ? iaeii/anii ? iaeeieoeyie caaaeueii? iiae ? oa?i?iaie a
niaoe?aeueieo oaenoao. Eeoa c o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai i?ioeano
ona?aeiieth?oueny aieea ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?aaiethoe?? ia caaaa/aiiy,
?icaeoie neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo, aa?o/e aei oaaae oe?eeii neooia
caoaaaeaiiy A.A.Aeoeaiea i?i oa, ui oa?i?iieia?y iaeaaeeoue «iiaai aeey
niaoe?aeueieo oe?eae» ? ?? eeoa oiiaii iiaeia aaaaeaoe /anoeiith
«aoi?/ii? iiae».

Nioe?aeueii-e?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c eaeneee oa o?acaieia??, ui
ni?aa?aeiineoueny c ?ioi?iaoe?eiith ?aaiethoe??th, na?ae/eoue, ui
no/aniee aoai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ae?enii caneoaiao? iacae
«?aaiethoe?y», ine?eueee a?i ni?e/eiea ea?aeeiaeuei? ci?ie a aaaaoueio
noa?ao nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy. «?ioiiaieia?cie» a?aeaeaathoue ye aeaaa oa
aeaiaee, oae ? iia? nioe?aeuei?, ineoieia?/i? oa ?io? i?iaeaie, ui
aeieeathoue a i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?aaiethoe??.

AENIIAEE

?aae?caoe?y iioaioe?aeo nenoaie o ca’yceo c ?? i?enoinoaaiiyi aei iiaeo
iio?aa eiioi?eaoe?? cae?enithaaeany , aieiaiei /eiii, caaaeyee
aeei?enoaiith aeanieo iii?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a. ye? aeieeathoue aiane?aeie
oe?ieiai ae?aiaciio aa??thaaiiy aiae?enueei? iiae, aca?iiae?? ??
iaoe?iiaeueieo aa??aio?a, ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo
i?aenenoai. Iaiao?aei?noue caaacia/aiiy aeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae
eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie ni?e/eieea iaaiee ia?a?iciiae?e ??
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, cie?aia, iiaeaeueoa ciaioaiiy ieoiii? aaae
?ioiiiaieo caiice/aiue ? c?inoaiiy ?ie? caiice/aiue aioo??oiueiiiaieo,
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? eiiiiceoieo iaeeieoeue, cieaeaiiy e?eueeino?
eiiaa?n?eieo ooai?aiue, aeoeaia oi?ioaaiiy ? i?ia?aeio ?ieue iiai?
aaia?aoe?? aea?eaaoe?eieo aeaiaio?a.

I?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo ao?en?a ?ice?eaathoue aca?iicaeaaei?noue
??cieo niinia?a neiaioai?o, i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue eiai eiiieaenii-nenoaiio
i?e?iaeo. Iia? neiaioai?/? aeaiaioe oi?iothoueny ye oeyoii
ao?enae?caoe?? iiaiicia/ieo ne?a, oae ? oeyoii ii?oai?caoe??
“inaaaeiii?oai”, ye? iiaeooue aooe “iiioi?iaie” ?nioth/eo eaene/ieo
iaeeieoeue aai ?o /anoeiaie aiane?aeie aeia?eueiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy eaenai
o ca’yceo c iaaieie anioe?aoe?yie, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoii o?aaiaioaoe??
oaeeo eaenai o ca’yceo c ?o o/anoth a neiaioai?/eo i?ioeanao
(oaeaneii?y, nei?i/aiiy). Aieiaiei iaoai?ciii ca?iaeaeaiiy iiaeo ao?en?a
ne?ae aaaaeaoe neiaioai?aiiy ca aiaeia??th, ca c?aceii eiie?aoii?
eaene/ii? iaeeieoe? oeyoii cai?ie a oe?e iaeeieoe?-iiaeae? ?aaeueiiai
aai oyaiiai eiiiiiaioa. Oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo ao?en?a noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
ci?iaie a naiaioeoe? aeo?aeiiai iiaiiai iaoa??aeo: caoaeaiiyi,
niaoe?ae?caoe??th oa ia?aiinii cia/aiiy iiaiicia/ieo ne?a, ye?
i?aeaeathoueny ao?enae?caoe??; naiaioecaoe??th o?aaiaio?a oeyoii
aani?aoaaiiy ieie cia/aiiy anueiai neiaa c iiaeeeaei ocaaaeueiaiiyi
oeueiai cia/aiiy.

Aeineoue iioe?aiei a aiae?enuee?e iia? iiaeia aaaaeaoe yaeua
“a?ooieoe?iiaeueiino?” (ooieoe?iiaeueii? iiii?i??) iaeeieoeue, ye?
aeeiiothoue aiaeii/an ? ?ieue eaenai, ? ?ieue ao?en?a, i?e/iio oaea
a?ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue i?eoaiaiia ia o?eueee neiaioai?/ei aeaiaioai, ui
aeieeee ia aac? eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, aea e ia aac? inaaaeiii?oai,
o?aaiaio?a ne?a. ssaeua a?ooieoe?iiaeueiino?, i?ae??aiaai? ei?aeyoe??,
iayai?noue cia/ii? e?eueeino? i?ii?aeieo iiaieo aeaiaio?a (iai?aao?en?a)
na?ae/eoue i?i a?aenooi?noue /?oei? iaae? i?ae ii?oaiiei oa eaene/iei
??aiyie, i?i “aeeooci?noue” iaeeieoeue oeeo ??ai?a.

Caaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y ?icaeoeo neiaioai?o i?inoaaeo?oueny a iai?yi?
?icoe?aiiy ?aae?caoe?? eiai iioaioe?aeo ca ?aooiie a?eueoi? naiaiaee,
?icoe?aiiy ?aiie ii?iaoeaiino? a oiiaao ia?ao?auaiiy ae?? /eiiee?a,
iia’ycaieo c ?ioa?aa??aioiith oa ?io?aaa??aioiith i?a?aoe??th eaeneee.
C?inoa? ?ieue eiiieaenieo niinia?a noai?aiiy ?iiiaaoe?e, aeeth/aiiy
e?eueeio iii?iaoe?eii-aea?eaaoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a ui, c iaeiiai aieo,
a?aeaeaa? iaaio nenoaii?noue neiaioai?o, a c ?ioiai aieo ? na?ae/aiiyi
oneeaaeiaiiy iiiian?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a o ca’yceo c oneeaaeiaiiyi iaoeo
ciaiue oa oyaeaiue i?i iaaeieeoi?e na?o.

Naiaioe/i? ?iiiaaoe?? iia’ycai? c oeie iiaeeo?eaoe?yie ci?noo ?nioth/eo
iaeeieoeue, ye? aeieeathoue aiane?aeie ?o ooieoe?iiaeueii? iia?eueiino?,
? ni?e/eiththoue i?ioeane niaoe?ae?caoe??, aeaniaoe?ae?caoe?? oa
“o?ainniaoe?ae?caoe??”. A ooai?aii? cia/ii? e?eueeino? naiaioe/ieo
iaieia?ci?a aa?ooue o/anoue e?eueea iaoai?ci?a ci?ie cia/aiiy,
oneeaaeithth/e aioo??oith oi?io, iioeaiaai?noue iiaeo
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo aa??aio?a. I?ioeane naiaioe/ieo ci?i o ca’yceo c
ooieoe?iiaeueiith aeeooci?noth eaeneee coiiaeththoue ana a?eueoa
?iciianthaeaeaiiy yaeua iie?nai??, yea ioiieth? oe?ie? eaene/i? oa?e.

Ca’ycie neiaioai?/eo oa naiaioe/ieo i?ioean?a c i?ioeanaie o?acioai?/eie
i?iyaey?oueny a oiio, ui o?acaiia aea?eaaoe?y ia??aeei cae?eniththoueny
ia aac? eaene/ieo oa naiaioe/ieo iaieia?ci?a. C ?ioiai aieo, iiaa
o?acaieia?y ia?aoai?th?oueny ia iaeia ?c aeaea?ae caaaa/aiiy
neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo iiaeie eaene/ieie iaeeieoeyie. O?acaieia?caoe?y
a?eueieo neiainiieo/aiue, ocaaaeueiaiiy cia/aiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ye o
i?ioean? ia?aianaiiy oaeeo neiainiieo/aiue c aocueei? noa?e a caaaeueio
iiao, oae ? iaaiaee, a oaeiae o i?ioean? ia?aianaiiy c iaei???
oa?i?iinenoaie a ?ioo. Iiaoi?ia iaoaoi?ecaoe?y ? iaoai?ciii ye ooai?aiiy
iiai? o?acaieia??, oae ? ?? naiaioe/iiai ?icaeoeo. O?acioai?aiiy ca
aiaeia??th a cia/i?e i??? caaaa/o? o?acaieia?/iee oiiae, ?icaeaa?
ia?aaeeaiaoeeo (neiii?i?th oa aioii?i?th) o?acaieia?? acaaae? ? iiai?
o?acaieia?? cie?aia.

Iiaeaeueoa cieaeaiiy ieoiii? aaae ?ioiiiaieo caiice/aiue na?ae/eoue ye
i?i a?aeiinio aeinoaoi?noue aioo??oi?o ?ano?n?a aiae?enueei? iiae aeey
aaeaeaaoiiai a?aeaeooy ?aaeueiino?, oae ? a?aeaeaa? iniaeeao
“aeiaiaeinio” neooaoe?th. ?acii c oei, ? a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy
neiaieeiaee neeaae aiae?enueei? iiae a?ae/oaa? ?ioiiiaiee aieea:
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny caiice/aiiy aacaea?aaeaioii? eaeneee, ia?ic/eaiiaaieo
iii?iai, ye? cai?iythoue ?ic/eaiiaai? iaeiaioaaiiy, iaeeieoeue, ui
ni?eythoue cae?eniaiith aeni?aneaii? ooieoe?? iiae; ?io? iiae
aenooiathoue aeaea?aeii iiaeo aea?eaaoe?eieo aeaiaio?a; c ?ioeo eoeueoo?
caiice/o?oueny cia/ia e?euee?noue iiaeo iiiyoue, ye? a?aeaeaathoueny a
aiae?enuee?e iia? oeyoii eaeueeoaaiiy aoeiii?a. Iae?inioe?aeuei? /eiieee
coiiaeee ci?ie a aieiaieo aeaea?aeao caiice/aiiy (c?inoaiiy e?eueeino?
caiice/aiue c iia ac?enueeeo e?a?i), a noa?ao eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ioiiiaieo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue (cina?aaeaeaiiy a aeiiii?/i?e oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e
noa?ao aeeooy), ni?e/eieee cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? aecioeci?a o ca’yceo c
iineeaiiyi oaiaeaioe?? aei ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe??.

?icaeoie eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie aiae?enueei? iiae a cia/i?e i???
aecia/a?oueny /eiieeaie, iia’ycaieie c ?? iie?aoi?/i?noth,
iie?aa??aioi?noth. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aa??aio?a iiaeiai ??oiooaaoeny
ia ?icoi?ii? oiai, ui eiaeiee iaoe?iiaeueiee aa??aio — oea ia
“i?e?inenoaia”, a naia “aa??aio iae?inenoaie”, a oaeiae ia
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iiiyoue “ni?eueia yae?i” ? “ni?eueiiaiae?enueea yae?i”
oa a?aeiia?aeieo iiiyoue “ni?eueia eaeneea” ? “ni?eueiiaiae?enueea
eaeneea”. Iniaeeao oaaao ne?ae i?eae?eyoe ia ?iaaioa?iei ?icoiaeaeaiiyi,
a ??ciei oeyoai ?aae?caoe?? iaeieo ? oeo aea iiaieo iaeeieoeue a ??cieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo aa??aioao, ??ci?e aa?aaeuei?e ?aaeoe?? iin??a ??cieo
aa??aio?a ia ?aeaioe/i? neooaoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui
aiane?aeie i?aeaa??aioieo eiioaeo?a a?aeaoaa?oueny i?aaethaaiiy
?iaaioa?ieo ?icoiaeaeaiue aai ?o ia?aoai?aiiy a aeeno?eaooe?ei?
a?aei?iiino?, a ?ioa?aa??aioi? eaene/i? iiiceoe?? ia?aoai?ththoueny,
oaeoe/ii, ia ?io?aaa??aioi? ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? iiiceoe??.

Aca?iiae?y a?eoainueeiai oa aia?eeainueeiai aa??aio?a ? iaeiei c
aeaoa?i?ioth/eo oaeoi??a ?icaeoeo neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo ye aa??aio?a
iae?inenoaie, oae ? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? “iae?inenoaie” acaaae?. Aieea
aia?eeainueeiai aa??aioa ia a?eoainueeee a?ae/oaa?oueny a i?ioean?
iiiiaiaiiy eaeneee oa o?acaieia?? a?eoainueeiai aa??aioo cia/iith
e?euee?noth aia?eeai?ci?a, ye? caaaa/othoue a?naiae iii?iaoe?eieo oa
aeni?aneaieo cania?a, aia?eeainueeee aa??aio ae?? ye noeioeyoi? iaaieo
naiaioe/ieo, neiaioai?/eo oaiaeaioe?e a?eoainueeiai aa??aioo.
Iniaeeainoyie i?aeaa??aioieo eiioaeo?a ne?ae aaaaeaoe oae? oi?ie aieeao,
ye caiice/aiiy ieaio ae?aaeaiiy aac caiice/aiiy ieaio ci?noo,
ia?aianaiiy c iaeiiai aa??aioa a ?ioee o?acaieia?/ieo iaeeieoeue,
neiaioai?/eo aeaiaio?a oa iiaeaeae, ?aaaia?aoe?th a?oa?ci?a a iaeiiio c
aa??aio?a i?ae aieeaii ?ioiai, caiice/aiiy eaenai ?acii c aeaiaioaie ?o
neiaioai?/i? oa o?acaieia?/ii? ia?aaeeaie.

C?inoathoue ianooaae caiice/aiue e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae c ?iciiaieo
i?e?inenoai, iniaeeai c? neaiao oa nioe?aeueieo ae?aeaeo?a, ana a?eueo
a?ae/ooiei noa? aieea oeeo i?e?inenoai ia naiaioe/i? oa neiaioai?/?
i?ioeane aiae?enueei? iiae acaaae?. Ca’ycie caeeaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?ii? oa
?iciiaii? iiae ?c aca?iiae??th a?eoainueeiai oa aia?eeainueeiai
aa??aio?a i?iyaey?oueny a oiio, ui a?eoainueea aeaiioe/ia ii?ia
a?ae/oaa? aieea a?eueo aeaiie?aoe/ii? aia?eeainueei? ii?ie, oi?ioaaiiy
yei? i?ioiaeeei a oiiaao ae?? iaaieo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a, i?ae
aieeaii aen?ieia?/ii? ii?ie. Anei?eyoe?y aeaiaio?a neaiao oa
nioe?aeueieo ae?aeaeo?a a nenoai? iiaiiai noaiaea?oo noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny,
ye i?aaeei, iaaieie ci?iaie a naiaioeoe? oa i?aaiaoeoe? oaeeo aeaiaio?a,
coiiaeth? ia?aaoaeiao ?nioth/eo eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo ia?aaeeai oa
oa?oioaaiue, ?icoe?th? naiaioe/io no?oeoo?o eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue,
caaaa/o? o?acaieia?/iee oiiae iiae, eiai neiaioai?/? ?ano?ne oa caniae.

Aenoiaiiy a oeaio? oaaae noni?euenoaa iaaieo nioe?aeueieo, i?ioan?eieo,
ei?ii?aoeaieo a?oi, caaino?aiiy iaaieo nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai coiiaeei
c?inoaiiy ?ie? ie?aieo nioe?ieaeo?a o caaaa/aii? neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo.
Nioe?ieaeo ao?iaia?eeaioe?a yaey? niaith ?ioa?an ye c oi/ee ci?o
“aioo??oiuei? e?iaa?noeee”, oae ? nioe?ie?iaa?noeee. A?i eiioeaio?o? a
nia? iniaeeaino?, i?eoaiaii? nioe?aeueiei ae?aeaeoai, ? a oie aea /an
aeyaey? niaoeeo?/i? ?ene oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo, ye?
?iciianthaeaeothoueny a caaaeueiiio iiaeaii? iin??a ia o?eueee
aia?eeainueeiai, aea e a?eoainueeiai aa??aio?a.

Iiaa eaeneea, yea ni?aa?aeiineoueny c aeiiii?/iei aeeooyi, noaiiaeoue
iaea?eueoo nioe?iooieoe?iiaeueio a?oio ?iiiaaoe?e inoaii?o aeanyoee?oue
(o iiia?aaei? ia??iaee ia ia?oee ieai aeoiaeeee ?io? noa?e nioe?aeueiiai
aeeooy). Iaieia?cie noa?e aeiiii?ee oa a?ciano a?aeia?aaeathoue
aeiei??ii? ci?ie, ye? iia’ycai? c ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi oa ?aae?caoe??th
aeiiii?/ieo oai??e, c ia?aoiaeii aaaaoueio e?a?i aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee,
c oaeineiiaeaiiyi oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith oa ?? ie?aieie eaieaie, ?c
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi no/anii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoi?ee. Ana a?eueo iii?oiith
noa? ?ieue aeiiii?/ii? noa?e o iinoa/aii? ?iiiaaoe?e a caaaeueio iiao, a
caaaa/aii? o?acaieia?/iiai oiiaeo. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i c?inoaiiy aieeao
/eiiee?a, iia’caiieo c aeiiii?/iith aacith noni?euenoaa.

Iaieia?cie noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? noa?e a?aeaeaathoue aea? noi?iie
oeea?e?caoe?eiiai i?ia?ano ethaenoaa – ?ioaa?aoe?ei? oa aeeoa?aioe?ei?
i?ioeane, iie?oe/i? oa a?iiaaenuee? ?ooe, na?ae/aoue i?i c?inoaiiy
aieeao ia ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane oaeeo /eiiee?a, ye aoiin, noaoue, a?e,
nioe?aeueiee noaoon, oe?ii?noi? i???ioaoe?? iin??a aiae?enueei? iiae.
Aiane?aeie c?inoaiiy aieeao cacia/aieo /eiiee?a i?aaiae?iaa?noe/iee
ia?aiao? “iie?oe/ii? ei?aeoiino?” ana a?eueoa aeaoa?i?io? ia o?eueee
iie?oe/iee, aea e ?io? aeeneo?ne.

Aeaoo eiii SYMBOL 146 \f «Times New Roman» \s 14 ’ thoa?ieo iaieia?ci?a
ni?e/eith? ae?th iaoai?ci?a naiaioe/ieo ci?i, iaiao?aeieo aeey
cae??ieaiiy ?nioth/eo iaeeieoeue ca iiaeie ?aoa?aioaie. Aeniain?y
niaoe?aeueii? eaeneee, iia’ycaii? c ?ioi?iaoe?eiith oaoi?eith, a
caaaeueio iiao oaeiae noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny naiaioe/ieie c?ooaiiyie oa
iiaeeo?eaoe?yie. Iane?aeee naiaioe/ieo i?ioean?a oa ci?i ciaoiaeyoue
nai? ao?eaiiy a iiaeo iiaieo yaeuao, ye? ana a?eueoa i?iiecothoue
nenoaio, aieeaathoue ia ?nioth/? naiaioe/i? i?aenenoaie oa naiaioe/i?
oa?oioaaiiy eaeneee. Aeooaeuei?noue i?ioean?a oa yaeu no/aniiai aoaio
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, coiiaeth? i?aaiaiiy a?aeaeoe oe? i?ioeane
oa yaeua aa??aoeaieie iii?iaoe?eieie caniaaie, aiane?aeie /iai
niinoa??aa?oueny ao?aeoe?y neiii?i?a aei a?aeiia?aeieo iiiyoue.
?ioi?iaoe?eia ?aaiethoe?y aeeeeeaea ye yaeua iie?iii?iaoe?? ?? aaaeeeaeo
iiiyoue, oae ? coiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue a?eueo /?oeiai ?iciaaeoaaiiy
iaaieo “aeie?aa?iaoe/ieo” iiiyoue ca aeiiiiiaith ?ao?ii?i?a, oiaoi yaeua
“aeeoa?aioe?thth/i? ?aiii?iaoe??”.

Eiii’thoa?ecaoe?y ii?iaeeea oe?eo ieceo iiaeo i?iaeoeoeaieo
aea?eaaoe?eieo aeaiaio?a, ni?e/eieea ia?ai?uaiiy oe?ei? iecee i?ao?en?a
oa noo?en?a (?acii c ia?ai?uaiiyi oe?eeo oa??a eaeneee) a?ae ia?eoa???
nenoaie, aea aiie ianeoaiaoaaee eeoa “iiae aeey niaoe?aeueieo oe?eae”)
aei yae?a, aei caaaeueiiia?iaeii? iiae, noe?ath/e oei naiei iaaeo i?ae
yae?ii oa ia?eoa???th iiae. Iiaa eaeneea oa o?acaieia?y, yea aeieeea o
ca’yceo c ?ioi?iaoe?eiith ?aaiethoe??th, i?iieco? ca?ac iaeaea an? noa?e
nioe?aeueiiai aoooy, aiia a?aeaeaa? ye /eneaii? aeaaa oa aeaiaee, oae ?
iia? nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie, iaaaoeai? iane?aeee no/aniiai aoaio
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano.

C oaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii oae? i?aoe?:

1. ?icaeoie neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae. —
Caii??aeaey: Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, 1998. – 431 n.

2. I?aeoeea eaene/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue //Iia? i?aeoiaee aei aea/aiiy e
aeeeaaeaiiy o?eieia?? o aeu?e oeie?: Iaoeiaa iiiia?ao?y. Oii 3. –
Caii??aeaey: CAeO, 1998. – N. 115-129.

3. Iaieia?cie aiae?enueei? iiae 80-90 ?ie?a OO-ai noie?ooy. —
Caii??aeaey: ?A «Oaiaeai-O», 1997. – 396n.

4. Iiaay eaeneea e o?acaieiaey aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – Ieeiiieue: Einoeooo
oi?aaeaiey, aeciana e i?aaa, 1993. – 96 n.

5. Aiaei-oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeee neiaiee iaieia?ci?a.-Caii??aeaey: CAeO,
1993. -109n.

6. Oeyoe oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie no/anii?
aiae?enueei? iiae: O/aiaee iin?aiee. — Caii??aeaey: CAeO, 1992. — 110 n.

7. Aiaeiaey e iaeioi?ua neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu aiaeeeneiai
ycuea a 70-80 aiaeu // Eiino?aiiua ycuee a aunoae oeiea.-1991.-Auione
24.-N.93-98.

8. «THiie» e ae?oaea // Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea.-1991.-?5.-N.84.

9. Nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u e neiaa?iue ninoaa aeeaeaeoa ao?iaia?eeaioeaa //
Oeeieiae/aneea iaoee.-1991.-?3.-N.107-111.

10. Iaiaauaiea neiaa?iiai ninoaaa aiaeeeneiai ycuea a 80-a aiaeu:
O/aaiia iiniaea ii eaeneeieiaee.-E.: OIE AI, 1990.-88n.

11. Iniaaiiinoe a?eoaineiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea a iaeanoe
eaeneee: Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eaeneeieiaee.-Caii?iaeuea: CAO,
1990.-28n.

12. ?onneea caeinoaiaaiey aoi?ie iieiaeiu 80-o aiaeia a aiaeeeneii
ycuea. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eaeneeieiaee. – Caii?iaeuea: CAO,
1989. – 20 n.

13. ?onneea neiaa, io?aaeathuea ia?ano?ieeo a NNN?, a aiaeeeneii ycuea
// Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea. — 1989. — ?4. — N.85-87.

14. Nioeeaeueii-eeiaaenoe/aneea aniaeou aiaeeeneeo iaieiaeciia.-Noiu:
Noineie ain.iaae.einoeooo ei. A.N.Iaea?aiei, 1989. — 28n. (Ni?aaaoi?
N.I.Oaa/ei).

15. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey ii eco/aieth oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey
a?aiiaoe/aneiai no?iy nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – Caii?iaeuea:
CAO, 1988. – 38 n. (Ni?aaaoi? N.ss.Eeoaae).

16. A?eoaineee aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai ycuea eae iauaeo aeeyiey
aia?eeaineiai aa?eaioa // Nioeeaeueiay eeiaaenoeea e iauanoaaiiay
i?aeoeea: Aniaeou nioeeieoeueoo?iiai aa?uee?iaaiey iieeyoie/iiai
aiaeeeneiai ycuea.-E.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai i?e EAO ecaeao.iauaaeeiaiey «Auua
oeiea», 1988. — N.21-36.

17. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ?aaioa n iaieiaeciaie aiaeeeneiai
ycuea 80-o aiaeia. — Caii?iaeuea, CAO, 1988. — 28n.

18. Ia?aciaaiea neia ii aiaeiaee a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea //
Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea. — 1988. — ?5. — N.84-85.

19. Caeeaeaiiy a?eoainueeiai e aia?eeainueeiai aa??aioia aiae?enueei?
iiae ia a?aiaoe/iiio ??aii // Iiicaiia o?eieia?y.-1988.- ? 89. — N.
9-13. (Ni?aaaoi? N.ss.Eeoaae).

20. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ?aaioa n iaieiaeciaie
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie eaeneee e o?acaieiaee. – Caii?iaeuea:
Caii?iaeneee ain. iaae. einoeooo, 1984. – 19 n. (Ni?aaaoi? I.I. A?oa?).

21. E aii?ino ia aia?eeaieciao eaioiaiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey a eeoa?aoo?iie
eaeneea a?eoaineiai aa?eaioa // Eeiaaenoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey 1980.
Aeeao?iiey e oeiieiaey ycueia.-I.: Einoeooo ycueiciaiey AI NNN?, 1980. —
N.66-71. (Ni?aaaoi? N. I.Aae??a).

22. Aiaeeeneee ycue «iyoiai eiioeiaioa» // Eiino?aiiua ycuee a
oeiea.-1980. — ?3. — N.93-95.

23. Aeaye? iniaeeaino? anei?eyoe?? aea?aii?ci?a oa neaia?ci?a
aia?eeainueeiai aa??aioa a e?oa?aoo?i?e eaeneoe? a?eoainueeiai aa??aioa
// Ieoaiiy ?iiaii- aa?iainueei? o?eieia??.-E.: Aeua oeiea, 1976. —
N.67-74.

24. I aeeyiee aia?eeaineiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea ia a?eoaineee a
iaeanoe neiaiia?aciaaiey// Oai?aoe/aneea aii?inu aiaeeeneie oeeieiaee
(eaeneeieiaey). – Ai?ueeee, 1975. – N. 218-226.

25. Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey a?eoaineiai e aia?eeaineiai
aa?eaioia aiaeeeneiai ycuea ia eaeneei-naiaioe/aneii o?iaia//
Eeiaaenoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey.– E.: Aeua oeiea, 1974.–N.145-153.

26. E aii?ino i iieacaoaeyo anneieeyoeee aia?eeaieciia a a?eoaineii
aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea// Aii?inu ?iiaii-aa?iaineie oeeieiaee. – E.:
Aeua oeiea, 1974. – N. 76-81.

Caoeiee TH. A.

?icaeoie neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo aiae?enueei? iiae a 80-o? — 90-o? ?iee OO
noie?ooy. — ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe.

10.02.04. — aa?iainuee? iiae.

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

E?iaa?noe/ia oa nioe?aeueii-e?iaa?noe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oeyo?a oa
cania?a caaaa/aiiy neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo, oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo
eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie aiae?enueei? iiae. ?icaeoie neiaieeiaiai
neeaaeo aiae?enueei? iiae a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao
iiaeaeueoiai oneeaaeiaiiy iicaiiaiiai na?aaeiaeua, a oiiaao iiaiai aoaio
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ? a?aeaeaa? i?ioean i?enoinoaaiiy iiaii?
nenoaie aei iiaeo iio?aa eiioi?eaoe??. Oaea i?enoinoaaiiy
cae?enithaaeiny, aieiaiei /eiii, oeyoii ?aae?caoe?? aioo??oiueiai
iioaioe?aeo, iniaeeai ?ano?n?a, ye? aaia?othoueny oe?ieei ae?aiaciiii
aa??thaaiiy aiae?enueei? iiae ye iiae iie?aoi?/ii?,
iie?ooieoe?iiaeueii?, aca?iiae??th iaoe?iiaeueieo, nioe?aeueieo,
ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/ieo aa??aio?a oa i?aenenoai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aa??aio, aca?iiae?y, caiice/aiiy, ?ioi?iaoe?eia
?aaiethoe?y, i?a?aoe?y, iaieia?ci, neiaieeiaee neeaae, neiaioa??.

Zatsniy Y.A. The Development of the English Vocabulary in the 1980ies
—1990ies.

Dissertation for Doctor of Philology Degree (speciality 10.02.04 —
Germanic languages).

Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv, 1999.

Linguistic and sociolinguistic analysis of the ways and means in which
English has grown, of the trends in the development of its vocabulary.
This development over the last decades has been going under the
conditions of the new stage of scientific and technological advance and
reflects the process of the English language adaptation to the new needs
of communication. Such adaptation is realized by using the resournes
generated by the different varieties and subsystems of the
multinational, multifunctional English language in their interaction.

Key-words: variant, contact, borrowing, information revolution,
migration, neologism, vocabulary, word-formation

Caoeiue TH.A.

?acaeoea neiaa?iiai ninoaaa aiaeeeneiai ycuea a 80-a — 90-a aiaeu OO
noieaoey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04-aa?iaineea ycuee

Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Eeiaaenoe/aneia e nioeeaeueii-eeiaaenoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea iooae e
niiniaia iaiaauaiey neiaa?iiai ninoaaa, oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey
eaeneei-naiaioe/aneie nenoaiu aiaeeeneiai ycuea. ?aaeecaoeey iioaioeeaea
nenoaiu a nayce n ?? i?eniiniaeaieai e iiaui iio?aaiinoyi eiiioieeaoeee
inouanoaeyeinue, aeaaiui ia?acii, aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth
iiieiaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia, aicieeathueo aneaaenoaea oe?ieiai aeeaiaciia
aa?uee?iaaiey aiaeeeneiai ycuea, acaeiiaeaenoaey a? iaoeeiiaeueiuo
aa?eaioia, ooieoeeiiaeueii-noeeenoe/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo iiaenenoai.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaania/aiey aeeiaie/iiai ?aaiiaaney
eaeneei-naiaioe/aneie nenoaiu iaoneiaeea ii?aaeaeaiiia
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aa iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, a /anoiinoe, aeaeueiaeoaa
nieaeaiea oaeaeueiiai aana eiiycu/iuo caeinoaiaaiee e iiauoaiea ?iee
aioo?eycueiauo caeinoaiaaiee, aeoeaioth ?ieue a neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo
i?ioeannao iiauo aea?eaaoeeiiiuo yeaiaioia.

?acaeoea aiaeeeneiai ycuea a iineaaeiaa a?aiy inouanoaeyaony a oneiaeyo
oneeaiey oaiaeaioeee e aai aeaiie?aoecaoeee, e naeeaeaieth eeoa?aoo?iie
?a/e n ?acaiai?iie. Aic?anoatho ianooaau caeinoaiaaiee ec ?acaiai?iuo
iiaenenoai, iniaaiii ec neaiaa e nioeeieaeoia, an? aieaa iuooeiui
noaiiaeony aeeyiea yoeo iiaenenoai ia naiaioe/aneea e
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu eeoa?aoo?iiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

Nioeeiooieoeeiiaeueiue aiaeec iaieiaeciia aea?o aiciiaeiinoue
onoaiiaeoue ?ieue iae?inioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia a ?acaeoee neiaa?iiai
ninoaaa, ?ane?uoue eiie?aoioth naycue iaaeaeo ii?aaeaeaiiuie
iauanoaaiiuie e eeiaaenoe/aneeie eciaiaieyie, i?ioeannaie e yaeaieyie.
Eiaiii a noa?ao nioeeaeueiie aeecie, eioi?ua yaeythony noa?aie
?aaeeeaeueiuo o?ainoi?iaoeee, iaeaieaa aeoeaii i?ienoiaeyo
eiiiaaoeeiiiua ycueiaua i?ioeannu, ca?iaeaeathony ii?aaeaeaiiua
oaiaeaioeee neiaiia?aciaaiey, naiaioe/aneiai ?acaeoey eaeneee.
Iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia i?ioeannu ?acaeoey neiaa?iiai ninoaaa ieacuaatho
oaeea nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u, eae yeiiiie/aneay aaca, yoiin, iie, aic?ano,
nioeeaeueiue noaoon, oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee iineoaeae aiaeeeneiai
ycuea.

Cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia neiaa?iue ninoaa aiaeeeneiai ycuea. ia aai
eaeneei-naiaioe/aneoth nenoaio ieacaea eioi?iaoeeiiiay ?aaiethoeey.
Ac?ua eiiiuethoa?iuo iaieiaeciia iaoneiaeeaaao aeaenoaea iaoaieciia
naiaioe/aneeo eciaiaiee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey cae?aieaiey nouanoaothueo
aaeeieoe ca iiauie ?aoa?aioaie; yeniainey niaoeeaeueiie eaeneee a iauee
ycue oaeaea nii?iaiaeaeaaony naeaeaaie e iiaeeoeeaoeeyie niaea?aeaiey.
?acoeueoaou naiaioe/aneeo i?ioeannia iaoiaeyo nai? aiieiuaiea a
yaeaieyo, eioi?ua i?iiecuaatho nenoaio aiaeeeneiai ycuea, aeeytho ia
nouanoaothuea ia?aaeeaiu e naiaioe/aneea a?oiie?iaee. Eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey
ii?iaeeea iiaua neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua iiaeaee e yeaiaiou, iaoneiaeea
ia?aiauaiea oeaeiai ?yaea aooeenia (aianoa n ia?aiauaieai oe?ieeo nei?a
eaeneee) io ycueia aeey niaoeeaeueiuo oeaeae e iauaia?iaeiiio ycueo,
noe?ay oai naiui a?aiue iaaeaeo yae?ii e ia?eoa?eae nenoaiu. Iiaay
“eioieaeneea” i?iiecuaaao, oaeoe/anee, ana noa?u nioeeaeueiie aeecie,
io?aaeaao eae aeaaa e auaiaeu, oae e iiaua i?iaeaiu, iaaaoeaiua
iineaaenoaey nia?aiaiiiai yoaia iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aa?eaio, acaeiiaeaenoaea, caeinoaiaaiea,
eioi?iaoeeiiiay ?aaiethoeey, iea?aoeey, iaieiaeci, neiaa?iue ninoaa,
neiaiia?aciaaiea.

Eeeiaiei I.O., Ea?i?eianueea ?.A. Ii?oai?ea neia’yinueeeo iia ye ia’?eo
oeiieia?/iiai aea/aiiy // Iiaiciaanoai. – 1998. — ?2 – 3. – N. 131.

*a?aaeie/aiei A.E. sscue e iauanoai a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao Ao?eee.
I?iaeaia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai ycuea. -E.: Aeua oeiea,
1983.-N.72.

*a?aaeie/aiei A.E. sscueiaay iieeoeea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa ii
ioiioaieth e no?aiai “o?aoueaai ie?a” // Iaaeycueiaua ioiioaiey e
ycueiaay iieeoeea. — E.,1988,- N.166.

Aeoeaiei A.A. I Au?aaeaiee eiee/anoaaiiinoe a naiaioeea ycuea.-E.:
Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1990.-N.10.

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