2

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO NA?OIAI? AEIIII?EE ? I?AEIA?IAeIEO A?AeIINEI

N?AeAIEI Na?oeaia Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 364.442: 339.9.012 (043)

?ICAEOIE NENOAI

NIOe?AEUeIIAI CAOENOO

A OIIAAO AEIAAE?CAOe??

AEIIII?EE

08.05.01 — na?oiaa ainiiaea?noai

? i?aeia?iaei? aeiiii?/i?

a?aeiineie

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? aeiaaeueieo i?iaeai no/anii? oeea?e?caoe??
?inoeoooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

Iaoiiia TH??e Ieeieaeiae/, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo na?oiai?

aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Ie?iaeeia Na?a?e ?aaiiae/, aee?aeoi?

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei

i?e ?aae? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iia?eia Aaea??e Ieeieaeiae/, iaoeiaee
eiinoeueoaio I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ??aiaiei Aieiaeeie?

A?eai?iae/, aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo

na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?ee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15 “ /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.176.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe i?e ?inoeooo?
na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
252030, i.Ee?a, aoe. Eaiioiae/a, 5.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
252030, i.Ee?a, aoe. Eaiioiae/a, 5.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “14”o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe A.I.Oaoethe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A oiiaao no/anieo ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a Oe?a?i?
iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoea i?iaeaia nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy.
Oea ni?e/eiaia, c iaeiiai aieo, oei, ui nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo,
ui ae?yea a ?aieao eieeoiueiai N?N?, aeyaeeany ianoi?niith c i?eioeeiaie
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? aoea oe?eeii c?oeiiaaia. Iiaa nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo, aaeaeaaoia ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeuo, aein? ia noai?aia, aea
iio?aaa a ?? iineoaao ia’?eoeaii c?inoa?. Oea noaei iane?aeeii neeaaeieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoueny c?inoaiiyi
aac?ia?ooy, coaiae?iiyi cia/ieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, ?noioiei nioe?aeueiei
?icoa?oaaiiyi, nei?i/aiiyi o?eaaeino? aeeooy oa iaae?iiyi iieaciee?a
i?e?inoo ianaeaiiy, ui a i?aenoieo i?ecaaei aei cia/ieo ao?ao a yeino?
ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a.

Oae? ci?ie a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio noai? noni?euenoaa iathoue
iaaaoeai? iie?oe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? iane?aeee. A iie?oe/iiio aniaeo?
iia??oaiiy aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy
i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui iaaea? i?aeo?eiea ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i, a oea
iicia/a?oueny ia oaiiao ? ?acoeueoaoeaiino? naieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue.

A aeiiii?/iiio aniaeo? iecuee? aeioiaee ? iaiaaeaia niiaeeaaiiy
ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy ia noeioeththoue ?icoe?aiiy oa
iiaea?i?caoe?th iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ia ni?eythoue aeiiii?/iiio
c?inoaiith.

?ioei aaaeeeaei /eiieeii, ui coiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ? oie oaeo, ui Oe?a?ia iia’yco? ia?niaeoeae naiai
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo c aoiaeaeaiiyi a ?a?iiaenuee? no?oeoo?e. Oea
ciaia’yco? aeio?eioaaoeny a?aeiia?aeieo ?a?iiaenueeeo noaiaea?o?a a
iaeaaaeeea?oeo aaeocyo, a o./. a noa?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

A Oe?a?i? neeaany noa?aioeiiee i?aeo?ae, ca?aeii c yeei ?icaeoie
nioe?aeueii? noa?e ia? caeeoeiaee oa?aeoa? ? noaaeoueny a caeaaei?noue
a?ae a?iioaoe/iiai a?aeiiaeaiiy c?inoaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
Oiaoi noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui nii/aoeo ia? cai?aoethaaoe ae?iaieoeoai, a
iio?i iiaeia aoaea ae??ooaaoe nioe?aeuei? ieoaiiy. Oaeee i?aeo?ae
noia?a/eoue na?oiaiio aeina?aeo, ca?aeii c yeei ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
noa?e ia? eoe ia?aeaeueii ? iaeii/anii c ?aoi?ioaaiiyi nioe?aeueii?
noa?e caaaeii ? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo cie?aia. Oea iaoiiaeaii
iaiao?aei?noth caa?aaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo,
ine?eueee a ia??iaee aeiiii?/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e caaaeaee iaea?eueoeo
caeoe?a caciathoue ethaenuee? ?ano?ne, oi/a a oe? ia??iaee naia aiie
iathoue ae??oaeueiee aieea ia ?icaeoie ? ?acoeueoaoeai?noue
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue.

I?e noai?aii? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a Oe?a?i?, aaeaeaaoii?
i?eioeeiai ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, iaiao?aeii ?aoaeueii i?iaiae?coaaoe
na?oiaee aeina?ae ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a
iaea?eueo ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao na?oo, aea aiie ae?thoue c e?ioey ieioeiai
noie?ooy. Oiio a i?aaenoaaeai?e ?iaio? cacia/aiee aiae?c i?iaaaeaii ia
i?eeeaae? e?a?i — /eai?a I?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ?
?icaeoeo (IAN?).

Oae aea aino?i, ye ? aeey Oe?a?ie, i?iaeaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
noiyoue ia?aae ?ioeie iinoeiioi?noe/ieie e?a?iaie, ui cae?eniththoue
ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Aino?? i?iaeaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iinoathoue ia?aae e?a?iaie, ui
?icaeaathoueny, aea niinoa?aa?oueny aenieee ??aaiue aac?ia?ooy,
a?aeiino?, ia??aiino?, a nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, ui ii/aee
oi?ioaaoeny a ia??iae ?iciaaeo eieii?aeueii? nenoaie, ia iaaoee
aeinoaoiueiai ?icaeoeo.

I?ioa i?iaeaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aeooaeuei? aeey an?o aac aeiyoeo
e?a?i na?oo, aaeaea a eiaei?e e?a?i?, iaa?oue c aenieei ??aiai
aeia?iaooo, ?niothoue a?oie ethaeae iioeeiai a?eo, ?iaae?aee,
aaaaoiae?oi? n?i’?, aac?ia?oi?, ye? iio?aaothoue nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae.

Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui ia ?icaeoie ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa a e?ioe? OO
no. aaeeeee aieea ni?aaey? i?ia?anoth/ee i?ioean aeiaae?caoe??
aeiiii?ee, yeee, c iaeiiai aieo, ni?ey? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a, a
c ?ioiai, noaaeoue ia?aae na?oiaith ni?eueiioith iia? i?iaeaie. Aaeaea
ca?ac c 2,5 ie?ae. /ie., ui caeiyo? i?iaeoeoeaiith ae?yeuei?noth,
aeecueei 1,4 ie?ae. aeeaooue a a?aeieo e?a?iao c ??/iei aeioiaeii iaioa
695 aeie. Aeecueei 30% ?iai/i? neee a na?o? ca?ac ia iathoue
i?iaeoeoeaii? caeiyoino?, a?eueoa 120 iei. /ie. ca?a?no?iaai? ye
aac?ia?oi?, a aeecueei 700 iei. /ie. iathoue iaiiaio caeiyo?noue.
Aeecueei 1,3 ie?ae. /ie. a na?o? ?nio? iaioa, i?ae ia 1 aeie. NOA ia
aeaiue.

A oie aea /an a oiiaao aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee ?noioii c?inoa? cia/aiiy
ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo, ine?eueee ethaeeia ? iniiaiei iin??i ciaiue,
oaoiieia?e, ?ioi?iaoe??, aeina?aeo, iaeaaaeeea?oei oaeoi?ii
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? e?a?ie. Oiio aaeeea oaaaa a aaaaoueio aea?aeaaao
ca?ac i?eae?ey?oueny anaa?/iiio ?icaeoeo ethaeeie — ?? caei?ia’th,
ina?o?, aeia?iaooo. A ca’yceo c oeei aeaaeae? a?eueoiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
nioe?aeueiee caoeno, ui ? aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii caa?aaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo. A naiee nioe?aeueiee caoeno a no/anieo oiiaao
ia? aaea ia nooi iaoe?iiaeueia, a aeiaaeueia cia/aiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeany a ?aieao ianooiieo iaoeiaeo oai ?inoeoooo na?oiai?
aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie:

— “No?oeoo?a ? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ca?oa?aeieo ?eieiaeo nenoai”,

1993—1994 ??.;

— “Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? iiaeae? ?icaeoeo ? i?eaaoecaoe?y —
na?oiaee aeina?ae”, 1995—1996 ??.;

— “O?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane a ?icaeoeo oeea?e?caoe?e:
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o?aaeeoe?e oa ?iiiaaoe?e”, 1998 ?.

Ia caiiaeaiiy ICN Oe?a?ie i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a cae?eniaia ?ic?iaea
iaoeiaiai i?iaeoo “Aiae?c aeina?aeo cai?iaaaeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ieo ci?i a
iinoeiioi?noe/ieo e?a?iao oa aea/aiiy ?o aieeao ia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane, caeiyo?noue ianaeaiiy, cie?aia, ae?iie
oa iieiae?. I?iiiceoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy oaeiai aeina?aeo a oiiaao
Oe?a?ie” (43 coi?., o/anoue aaoi?a — 25 noi?.).

Nooi?iue ?ic?iaee aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. I?iaeaie aeia?iaooo,
caeiyoino?, a?aeiino?, ia??aiino? aeine?aeaeoaaeeny aaaaoueia a/aieie
na?oo. Ua Ieaoii aenoaaa ?aeath o??aiyiiy aeaniino? ? cieuaiiy
a?aeiino?. I?ci?oa oeei i?iaeaiai aoee i?enay/ai? i?aoe? aeaeaoieo
a/aieo: A.Ni?oa, Ae.??ea?aei, E.Ia?ena, O.Aiaaeuena, Aeae.I.Eaeina,
A.Ia?oaeea oa ?i.

C e?ioey ieioeiai noie?ooy caii/aoeiaaii na?eici? ni?iae aea/aiiy ?
aei??o a?aeiino?, ui aoee cae?eniai? o Aaeee?e A?eoai?? *.Aooii ?
N.?ioio??, i?aoe? yeeo iieeaee ii/aoie oe?ieei aeaaeai?/iei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi a oe?e aaeoc? ? iaee aaeeeee aieea ia nioe?aeueio
iie?oeeo aaaaoueio e?a?i, a ia?oo /a?ao ?icaeiaieo. A no/anieo oiiaao
i?iaeaiai a?aeiino? i?enay/ai? i?aoe? A.N?ia, A.Aioe?, A.Oiiiniia,
O.Ni?ae?iaa, I.Oi?noa?a oa ?i.

Eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?iaeai aeioiaeo, ia??aiino? oa caeiyoino?
i?noyoueny a i?aoeyo I.O??aeiaia, I.Naioaeueniia, N.O?oa?a, ?.Aei?iaooa,
?.Oiaeaic?, A.Ioeaia, E.A?eeue, I.Aiaeue?, I.ssaioo?, I.Oainaia,
O.I.Aaine? oa ?i.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a i?aoeyo ca?oa?aeieo oao?aoe?a a?aeaaaeaia
aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeai “aea?aeaae aeia?iaooo”. Iaoai?cie ??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, iiceoeai? caeiaooee oa iaaa?acaee aena?oeai? a i?aoeyo
aaaaoueio a/aieo na?oo, cie?aia, Aeae.Auetheaiaia, A.Ei?i?, ?.Iaeaeia?a,
A.Oaaeai?aa, A.Aii?ini, A.Aeae?ea, AE.A?oi oa ?i.

Ia ?icaeoie no/anieo nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aaeeeee aieea ni?aaey?
i?ioean aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei o?aina?aie/iiai
?ooo eai?oaeo ? ?iai/i? neee, i?aeaeuo? aeiiae aei yeino? ?iai/i? neee
oa ia’?eoeaii ni?e/eiy? aeayea iineaaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo. Aieea ie?aieo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a ia caeiyo?noue oa
aeioiaee, cie?aia, ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?, aena?oeaii a i?aoeyo
I.E?iaea?oa, I.Naioaeueniia, A.Noieia?a, A.Oaeoa?a, A.Ie?ia, I.Ii?oa?a,
I.Aainoiia oa ?i. Inoaii?i /anii c?inoa? e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c
i?iaeai nioe?aeueieo iane?aee?a i?ioeano aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo i?iaeai i?noyoueny a i?aoeyo ss.O?iaa?aaia,
I.Oainaia, N.Oiooiaia oa ?i.

Aeiaae?caoe?y ? nioe?ae?caoe?y aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ? iaa?ae’?iieie
ao?eaooaie ? aiaeii/an oe?eyie no/aniiai caaaeueiina?oiaiai
o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai i?ioeano. Naia a ?aieao oeeo i?ioean?a a?aeaoaa?oueny
? ia?ao?ae eieeoi?o nioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i aei ?eieiai? nenoaie ? oea
icia/a?, ui ia?ao?aeiee aei ?eieo i?ioean ia’?eoeaii ia? ea?oaaoenue
caaaeueiina?oiaeie, ii noo? oeea?e?caoe?eieie oe?iiinoyie ? e?eoa??yie.

O?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a iinoeiioi?noe/ieo
e?a?iao, aiae?cothoueny a /eneaiieo ?iaioao, aeaeaieo a aaaaoueio
e?a?iao na?oo. A ieo, cie?aia, aeathoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
iaoai?ci?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai aei ?eieo
ia??iaeo. I?iaeaiai aeia?iaooo, caeiyoino?, aeioiaeo oa ?aoi?ioaaiith
nioe?aeueii? noa?e i?enay/ai? i?aoe? Aeae.Aoeoainiia, Aeae.Naena,
I.Iaee?aeaia, I.A?oii, E.Neaae??a, O.Oaaa?ana, ?.Aaouey?aa, I. Aa??a,
A.Aeaeaie?in, ?.O??aeiaia, Ae.E?ioiia, I.O??aeiaia, E.Aaeueoea?iae/a,
?.Aei?iaooa, I.Oooa, A.Aaeueaa, E.A?ooa?oa, A.Aea?aea, A.Ainai?oa,
?.Eoia?a, A.Eaia, A.Ii?aeaaona, I.Iaea, O.??/a?aeniia, E.Oii, Ae.Eii?oea
oa ?i.

Aaaeeeaee aianie a ?ic?iaeo aeaieo i?iaeai c?iaeee ?in?enuee? a/ai?.
Caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iei i?iaeaiai oa nioe?aeueiei iane?aeeai ?eieiaeo
ia?aoai?aiue oa ?aoi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e i?enay/ai? i?aoe?
A.Aiaiue?aa, I.Aiaiiieiaa, ?.Aaeaoeueeiai, ?.Aaca?aaaeueii?, A.Aiaeiaa,
?.Aaeaea?a, I.Aeoiaanueei?, E.Aaocia?a, E.Aeaaoy?, A.Einia?ianueeiai,
A.Eoci?oeiaa, E.Eaaaae?ai?, E.Eo/e?ii?, O.Iaeaai?, O.Iaiiioiai?,
I.Ianeianueeiai—Inoeneaanueeiai, I.Iaeeiaeiaa, A.Ianoa?aiei, A.Ieaen?,
A.?i?e, A.Oa?aia, A.*aoe?e?ia, I.Oaaaeiai?, I.Oanoaeiai?, ?.sseiae?aa oa
?i.

Aiae?c ooieoe?iioaaiiy no/anii? “aea?aeaae aeia?iaooo” i?noeoueny a
i?aoeyo A.Aieeiaa, I.Aaaoe?ii?, E.Eai?oee, E.A?aaeiaeoiai?, E.Ai?ioiai?.

?in?enuee? a/ai? iathoue iaai? caeiaooee i?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeai
a?aeiino?. Oe?e aeooaeuei?e i?iaeai? i?enay/ai? i?aoe? A.Aeaaeaeiae/a,
I.Iiaeeii?, A.Iiaeociaa, E.Ia/a?iai?, ?.Oo?oioeaaa, ?.Ei?/aa?ii? oa ?i.

Aieea ?icaeoeo i?ioeano aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee ia ethaenuee? ?ano?ne oa
nenoaio nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aiae?co?oueny a ?iaioao A.Eoci?oeiaa,
TH.Oeoeiaa, ?.?aaiiaa oa ?i.

A oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? i??i?eoaoiiai cia/aiiy
iaaoaathoue oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy i?aeoeee
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaea?eueo c??eeo nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo oa
iaa?oooaaiiy ?o canoinoaaiiy a i?aeoeoe? aeiiii?/iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy.
Na?aae oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo, /e? i?aoe? i?enay/ai? aeaiei i?iaeaiai,
N.Ie?iaeeia, Ae.Aiaeiy, A.??aiaiei, A.E?aaiiaa, I. A?o?aiei, A. ?iei/a,
A. Iiaeeia, A. Aaceethe, A. Ceaiei, I. Oea?oeia, I.Iae?e, A.?oaee/,
O.Eiaeai, A.A?eiaiei, I.Aeanthe, A.Neo?ao?anueeee oa ?i.

A iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo c i?iaeai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aeine?aeaeothoueny
ie?ai? eiai iaoai?cie — n?iaeia aeiiiiiaa, caeiyo?noue, i?iaeaie ?eieo
i?aoe?, i?iaeaie aeia?iaooo oa aeioiaeo. ? i?aoe?, i?enay/ai?
nioe?aeueiei i?iaeaiai a ie?aieo e?a?iao, iai?eeeaae, iiiia?ao?y
I.A.Oea?oeiaa “NOA: ?aaeee nioeeaeueiie aeecie”. A?eueo eiiieaeniee
oa?aeoa? iathoue iiiia?ao?? A.A.?iei/i? “Nioe?aeueia ?eieiaa
ainiiaea?noai: a?ae eiioeaioe?? aei ?aaeueiino?” oa A.A.??aiaiea “Iniiae
nioe?aeueii? aeiiii?ee”. Nioe?aeueiei i?iaeaiai ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo
i?enay/ai? iiiia?ao?? I.I.A?o?aiei “Nioeeaeueiay eio?ano?oeoo?a Oe?aeiu:
ioeaiea o?iaiy e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey”, A.Neo?ao?anueeiai, I.Iae?e oa
A.E?aaiiai? “Nioe?aeueia iie?oeea”.

Oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo oeea?e?caoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei oa o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a
iinoeiioi?noe/ieo e?a?iao, ui iathoue aieea ia ?icaeoie nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, aena?oeai? a i?aoeyo TH. Iaoiiiaa, ?.Eoe?iiaa,
I.*oia/aiea, A.Aaeoey, E.Aac/aniiai, I.A?ei?ona, A.Aoaee?ia,
A.Aaeue/einueeiai, A.Ii?o/ieea, E.Aaea?aa, TH.Iaaeaiea, A.Eeeiea,
A.O?e?iaiea, I.Oie?eiaa, ?.Ao?aeianueeiai, ?. Iai/aiea, I.Ieioi?eiaa,
A.?oi’yioeaaa, A.Iiaeoeueeiai, A.E?aae?niaa, A.Noaiaiaiea,
Ae.Eoe’yiaiea, ?.Iaeai?iaee, oa ?i.

Aea aein? a Oe?a?i? ia i?iaiaeeeenue nenoaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy a aniaeo?
i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a oa ii??aiyiue a noa?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo,
iaia? ?ia?o, ye? a ocaaaeueithaaee na?oiaee aeina?ae ?icaeoeo nenoai
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua ? aeiaae?caoe??
aeiiii?ee, ui ? coiiaeei aeooaeuei?noue oaie oeueiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aoiaoth/e iaaeinoaoi?noue a Oe?a?i?
a?oioiaieo ? eiiieaenieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao ?icaeoeo
i?aeia?iaeiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a oe?e noa??, ye aaaeeeaiai i?iyao
aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee, a oaeiae caaaeath/e ia aaaeeea?noue iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo i?iaeai aeey Oe?a?ie, iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy, ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
no/anieo nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao ?icaeiaiiai a?aee?eoiai
?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua ? aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee, anoaiiaeaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae, aeanoeaeo oeei i?ioeanai, oa iniiaieo oi?i ?o i?iyao a
eiie?aoieo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaaeao, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy iiaeeeainoae ?
iaae canoinoaaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo aei oiia e?a?i c ia?ao?aeiith
aeiiii?eith, ? a oiio /ene? Oe?a?ie.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? cacia/aii? iaoe aoei iinoaaeaii ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

— ?ice?eoe nooue nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ye aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???;

— aeine?aeeoe caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a
??cieo e?a?iao na?oo;

— aecia/eoe oa?aeoa?enoeee ??cieo iiaeaeae nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo,
ui ?niothoue o na?o?;

— anoaiiaeoe no/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a
oiiaao i?ioeano aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee;

— aeine?aeeoe iniiai? iaoai?cie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a noa??
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo oa eiai iniaeeaino? a oiiaao aeiaae?caoe??
aeiiii?ee;

— anoaiiaeoe aca?iica’ycee ? aca?iicaeaaeiino? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo c
?ioeie aeaiaioaie iae?iaeiiii?ee;

— ocaaaeueieoe i?aeoeeo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoai
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, cie?aia, a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei;

— ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaioe?th ?aoi?ioaaiiy noa?e nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a
Oe?a?i? aeoiaey/e ?c caaaeaiue ?ioaa?aoe?? e?a?ie a i?aeia?iaei?
aeiiii?/i? no?oeoo?e.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoe?iiaeueia nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ye aeaiaio aeiaaeueii? nenoaie aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, caeiiii??iino? oa
iniiai? oi?ie ?? ?icaeoeo.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoe?iiaeuei? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
e?a?i — /eai?a IAN?, e?a?i c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith, a oaeiae nenoaia
i?aeia?iaeieo ii?i ?aaoethaaiiy, ui noinothoueny nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe noaiiaeoue iaoiaeieia?y
ae?aeaeoeee, nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae oa ae?aeaeoeei-iaoa??ae?noe/iee
?noi?eci.

Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae o ii?aeiaii? c? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiei aiae?cii
aeicaiey? ?icaeyiooe no?oeoo?o ? oaiaeaioe?? ie?aieo aaeocae
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ye aeaiaioe oe?e?nii? iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, yea, a naith /a?ao, ?icaeyaea?oueny ye aeaiaio
no/anii? nenoaie na?oiainiiaea?nueeeo a?aeiinei.

Ia iniia? ae?aeaeoeei-?noi?e/iiai iaoiaeo i?inoaaeaii ?icaeoie a?ae
i?inoeo oi?i nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo (nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy) aei
?icaeiaii? oe?e?nii? nenoaie (no/ani? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo).
Aei eiie?aoieo iaoiae?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiinyoueny:
aiae?c ? neioac, iaoiaee aeaaeoeoe?? oa ?iaeoeoe??, aeiiii?/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy, eiiia?aoea?noeee, noaoenoe/ieo a?oioaaiue, a?ao?/ii?
?ioa?i?aoaoe??.

Noaoenoe/iith aacith aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoai
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a e?a?iao IAN? iineoaeeee aiae?oe/i? ? noaoenoe/i?
iaoa??aee, ca?oe ? iaeyaee I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e, cie?aia
oiiaeo THI?NAO oa ?a?iiaenueei? Aeiiii?/ii? Eii?n??, I?aeia?iaeii?
i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? (III), Anana?oiueiai aaieo, I?aeia?iaeiiai
aaethoiiai oiiaeo, oa ?i.

?iaioa aeeiioaaeany ia iniia? aea/aiiy ii?iaoeaii? aace oa i?ea?iaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a III noiniaii iniiaieo aaeocae oa aeaiaio?a nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo, oaiaeaioe?e ?o ?icaeoeo i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo /ano oa a
no/anieo oiiaao aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee.

Noai nioe?aeueii? noa?e a Oe?a?i? aeine?aeaeaii c aeei?enoaiiyi
aiae?oe/ieo ? noaoenoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, Aea?aeeiinoaoo, Oe?a?inueei-?a?iiaenueeiai
eiinoeueoaoeaiiai oeaio?o c ieoaiue caeiiiaeaanoaa oa ?iicaiieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa ? oiiae?a, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iieyaa? a ieae/aiaaaaeaiiio.

1. Iaa?oioiaaii i?eioeeiiai iia? aeey Oe?a?ie iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee
aei i?iaeaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, ui iieyaa? a ianooiiiio: nenoaia
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ia? aooe ia caeeoeiaei i?iaeoeoii
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa oa ia eeoa iaoai?ciii
iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae iaea?eueo a?aceeaei eiai aa?noaai, a ianaiia?aae
iaoai?ciii caa?aaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo. Aeoiaey/e c
oeueiai cai?iiiiiaai? iaoai?cie ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oa iiaa?iaiiy aei
aeoeaiiai noni?eueiiai aeeooy ?aoeei??io?a nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae.

2. Aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?/i?e iaooe? ia aac? i?ea?iaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a III oa III aeine?aeaeaii oa nenoaiaoeciaaii oi?ie ?
oaiaeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ii aeaa’yoe iniiaieo eiai aaeocyo, ye?
aecia/ai? Eiiaaioe??th N 102 III (1952 ?.), ui ia? aaaeeeaa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy i?e oi?ioaaii? a Oe?a?i? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo,
noi?nii? c i?eioeeiaie ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee oa i?aeia?iaeieie noaiaea?oaie
a oe?e noa??. Oea ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy c iiceoe?? aaeaioaoe?? Oe?a?ie
aei oiia, i?eeiyoeo a ?aieao ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco, a eiioaeno?
aeeiiaiiy oeeaaeaieo oaiae c ?N oa iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo a?aeiinei c
iei.

3. Aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao
aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee, yea coiiaeth? cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie?
ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a aeey caaacia/aiiy noaeeo iiceoe?e e?a?ie ia
na?oiaeo ?eieao ca c?inoath/i? i?aeia?iaeii? eiieo?aioe??. Aeiaaaeaii
iniaeeao aeooaeuei?noue aeey Oe?a?ie ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, yaa?aaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo
ye /eiiee?a i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? e?a?ie a ?aieao na?oiai?
aeiiii?ee.

4. Aia?oa a Oe?a?i? ocaaaeueiai? ? nenoaiaoeciaaii aeeeaaeai? iaoiaee
aei??o a?aeiino?, ye? ae?iaeai? a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao oa iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue o a?o/eciyi?e i?aeoeoe?. Iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue
oaeeo iaoiaeee ye a ieai? aeei?enoaiiy nenoai aae?anii? nioe?aeueii?
aeiiiiiae, oae ? aeey caiia?aaiiy iioe?aiith oa iiaeeaeaiith a?aeiino? a
e?a?i?.

5. Eeaneo?eiaai? iniiai? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe ? aaaeae? iaoai?ci?a
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a nioe?aeuei?e noa?? a oiiaao ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa, aoaeoeai?noue yeeo ia?aa??aia na?oiaith i?aeoeeith.
Aeiaaaeaii iaiao?aei?noue ?iaeoe aeoeaio a aeiiii?/i?e no?aoaa?? ia
iaoiaee aeoeaii? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ia ?eieo i?aoe?, ui ? iniaeeai
aeooaeueiei aeey Oe?a?ie a oiiaao c?inoath/iai aac?ia?ooy.

6. Iaa?oioiaai? aca?iica’ycee ? aca?iicaeaaeiino? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
c ?ioeie eaoaai??yie iae?iaeiiii?ee. Ia oe?e iniia? ia o?eueee
ni?inoiaaii ?nioth/? noa?aioeie a?aeiinii aeanoaa?e?coth/iai aieeao
nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai ia aeiiii?eo oa aeanoeioethth/iai aieeao ?o ia
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue oa aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, aea e iieacaii
iiceoeaiee ?o aieea ia iie?auaiiy eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e oa aeiiii?/ii?
aeeiai?ee e?a?ie.

7. Aecia/ai? aacia? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaio ye?nii a?aei?iieo iiaeaeae
“aea?aeaae aeia?iaooo” — e?aa?aeueii? oa ?aaoeueiaaiiai ?eieo. Oea ?
aeooaeueiei aeey Oe?a?ie i?e aecia/aii? eiioeaiooaeueieo iniia ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?ee.

8. Aeyaeaii iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo iaoai?ci?a nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo a ia??iae ?eieiaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?e a iinoeiioi?noe/ieo e?a?iao
Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie, eieeoiueiai N?N?, a o./. a Oe?a?i?.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui iiaoaeiaa aoaeoeaieo ?eieiaeo nenoai a cacia/aieo e?a?iao
iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae ?aoaeueiiai a?aooaaiiy caaaeueiina?oiaeo
oaiaeaioe?e a noa?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, ye? aeaaeae? ae?aci?oa
aeyaeythoueny a no/anieo oiiaao aeiaae?caoe??.

9. Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy caaaeueiina?oiaeo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo oa
aeina?aeo i?ia?aeieo e?a?i c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith, a oaeiae aeina?aeo
i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?i a ??cieo e?a?iao na?oo ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th
noai?aiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a Oe?a?i?, aaeaeaaoii?
i?eioeeiai ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? oe?eyi ?ioaa?aoe?? a i?aeia?iaei?
aeiiii?/i? no?oeoo?e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iieyaa? a oiio, ui c?iaeai? a ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaaeueiiiaoiaeieia?/i? aeniiaee oa oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy noaiiaeyoue
iaaiee aianie a iiaeaeueoo ?ic?iaeo oai??? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee oa
aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy i?aaenoaaeaii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a
oiio, ui iaea?aeai? a oiae? iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? a?aeiia?aeieo nioe?aeueieo
i?ia?ai ? caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a noiniaii nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, a oaeiae
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey aeeeaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo eo?n?a o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?ieia?/ieo niaoe?aeueiinoae.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue, iia’ycaieo c oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aoee i?aeaioiaai? ? ia?aaeai? aeey o?yaeo Oe?a?ie aiae?oe/i?
iaoa??aee “?icaeoie ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei” (7 noi?.) oa “I?iaeaie nioe?aeueii? ia??aiino? oa a?aeiino? a
ia??iae ?eieiaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?e” (8 noi?.).

Ia aiae?oe/i? iaoa??aee, i?aeaioiaai? aeey Oaaea?aoe?? i?ioan?eieo
ni?eie Oe?a?ie “Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoai
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee” (29 noi?.),
28.04.93 ?.,”Aeina?ae cieaeaiiy ??aiy aac?ia?ooy a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao ?
i?aeo?eiea aac?ia?oieo” (22 noi?.), 17.03.1994 ?., “Iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao” (15 noi?.), 14.03.1994 ?., “?ieue
aea?aeaae a nioe?aeueiiio caoeno? ianaeaiiy” (13 noi?.), 7.07.1994 ?.,
“No?oeoo?a ? o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao”
(18 noi?.), 1.03.1994 ?., “Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?
(ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae)” (16 noi?.), 18.1. 1999 ?. iaae?eoia iiceoeaiee
a?aeaoe i?i ?o i?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy i?e i?aeaioiaoe? caeiiii?iaeo?a
aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee ca i?aeienii ia?oiai canooiieea Aieiae OIO
A.Iniaiai.

Ia aiae?oe/iee iaoa??ae “Iaoiaee ioe?iee a?aeiino? a ca?oa?aeieo
e?a?iao” (10 noi?.), 12.11.1998 ?., i?aeaioiaaiee aeey Aea?aeeiinoaoo
Oe?a?ie, iaae?eoia iiceoeaiee a?aeaoe i?i aeei?enoaiiy a i?aeoe/i?e
?iaio? ca i?aeienii ia/aeueieea oi?aae?iiy ?.?.Ineiiai?.

Ia iaoeiao aeiiia?aeue “Aiae?c aeina?aeo cai?iaaaeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ieo
ci?i a iinoeiioi?noe/ieo e?a?iao oa aea/aiiy ?o aieeao ia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane, caeiyo?noue ianaeaiiy, cie?aia, ae?iie
oa iieiae?. I?iiiceoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy oaeiai aeina?aeo a oiiaao
Oe?a?ie” iaae?eoia iiceoeaiee a?aeaoe ca i?aeienii canooiieea i?i?no?a
caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Ae.?.Oea/a.

Ia iiiia?ao?th “Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e”,
iioae?eiaaio o ni?ai?aoe? c I.A.Aaa?eetheii oa A.A?aaao, a ye?e
?icaeyiooi iaeei c iniiaieo /eiiee?a i?ioeanno aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee —
?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe??, io?eiai? na?aeioeoaa i?i aeei?enoaiiy a i?aeoe/i?e
?iaio? Eii?n?? o caei?aeiiieo ni?aaao ? ca’yceao c NIAe Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie ca i?aeienii canooiieea Aieiae Eii?n?? ?.A.Ia?iaciaa oa
I?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Oe?a?ie ca i?aeienii canooiieea i?i?no?a
A.Ae.Oaiaeia?y.

Iaoeia? aeniiaee, aeeeaaeai? o i?ai?eio? iaoeiai? aeiiia?ae? “No?aoaa?y
?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a
Oe?a?i?”, iaienaiiai o ni?aaaoi?noa? c ?.A.Iai/aieii ? I.A.Aaa?eetheii,
canoiniaothoueny o aeeeaaeaoeueeiio i?ioean? a ?inoeooo? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii eenoii ca i?aeienaie caa?aeoaa/a eaoaae?ith oi?aae?iiy
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieie ca’yceaie ? ia?eaoeiao, aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?a A.?.E?aaeeniaa oa caa?aeoaa/a eaoaae?ith i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a
A.N.O?e?iaiea.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaii? a?aeae?e?a
i?iaeai na?oiaeo ?eieiaeo iiaeaeae oa aeiaaeueieo i?iaeai no/anii?
oeea?e?caoe?? ?NAIA IAI Oe?a?ie. Oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny: a i?aaenoaaieoeoa? Anana?oiueiai aaieo a Ee?a? ia
can?aeaii? aeiiii?/iiai e?oaeiai noieo ia oaio “?ieue aea?aeaae a
ia?aoiae? aei ?eieo: yeith aoaea aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie a 2005 ?ioe??” (20
ea?oiy 1995 ?.); a i?aaenoaaieoeoa? Anana?oiueiai aaieo a Ee?a? ia
can?aeaii? aeiiii?/iiai e?oaeiai noieo ia oaio “Noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii?
nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aeey Oe?a?ie” (12 aeiaoiy 1995 ?.); ia
Oe?a?inueei-aia?eeainueeiio neiiic?oi? ia oaio “Iae?iaeiiii?/ia
ia?niaeoeaa: iai?yiee oa i?iaeaie” ca o/anoth ?NAIA IAI Oe?a?ie oa
?inoeoooo A?oe?iana (NOA), 13—15 eenoiiaaea 1995 ?.; ia can?aeaii?
aeiiii?/iiai e?oaeiai noieo ia oaio “Noai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i
a Oe?a?i?: noeaia??? oa iiaeeea? iane?aeee ?icaeoeo”, ca o/anoth
aeaiooaonueei? a?oie “?aoi?ie”, ?NAIA IAI Oe?a?ie oa ?inoeoooo
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa, 22 aa?aniy 1995 ?.; ia i?aeia?iaeiiio
iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? “Na?oiaee aeina?ae noai?aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo nithc?a”, ca o/anoth aeaiooaonueei? a?oie “?aoi?ie”, ?NAIA
IAI Oe?a?ie oa ?inoeoooo o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa, 23—24 a?oaeiy 1995
?.; ia i?aeia?iaeiiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio oi?oi? “Iain?eia ?aoi?ia a Oe?a?i?
oa oeyoe ?? cae?eniaiiy”, Ee?a, 6 ethoiai 1999 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaea?eueo ?noioi? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ci?no
aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii 22 iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo ianyaii 28,7 ae?oe.a?e.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c 286
iaeiaioaaiue.Ianya aeena?oaoe?? iae?/o? 355 noi??iie oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e
7 ?enoie?a, 43 oaaeeoe? oa 27 aeiaeaoe?a.

Caaaeueiee iai?yi oa eia?ea aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eee oaeo no?ooo?o
aeena?oaoe??.

ANOOI

?ICAe?E 1. No/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao

1.1 Eiioeaiooaeuei? iniiae no/anieo nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

1.2. Eaoaai??? oa iieacieee, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a nenoai?
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

1.3 No/ani? oaiaeaioe?? oa ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo nenoai
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a e?a?iao na?oo.

1.4. I?ioean aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee ye ia’?eoeaiee /eiiee
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

1.5. ?ieue i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e o noaiiaeaii? ? ?icaeoeo
nenoainioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

?ICAe?E 2. Caaaeueiina?oia? oaiaeaioe?? oa iaoai?cie ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo

2.1. ?icaeoie nenoai iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae ca aac?ia?ooyi.

2.2. Aaiethoe?y nenoai aeiiiiiae ca a?eii, ca ?iaae?aei?noth oa o
aeiaaeeo ao?aoe aiaeoaaeueieea. 2.3. Caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy oa iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae o ca’yceo c oai?iaith oa
o aeiaaeeao ae?iaie/iai o?aaiaoecio.

2.4. N?iaeia aeiiiiiaa oa aeiiiiiaa o ca’yceo c ia?iaeaeaiiyi aeeoeie
ye oaeoi? a?aeoai?aiiy ? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo.

?ICAe?E 3. Caeiiii??iino? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a noa??
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao aeiiii?ee, ui aeiaae?co?oueny

3.1. Iaiao?aei?noue ? iaae? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a nioe?aeuei?e
noa??.

3.2. Iniiai? aaaeae? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a noa?? nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo.

3.3. Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo nenoai aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?.

3.4. Nioe?aeueiee caoeno a eiioeaioe?? oa iiaeaeyo no/anii? “aea?aeaae
aeia?iaooo”.

. ?ICAe?E 4. Nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie a no?oeoo?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai a
oiiaao aeiaae?caoe??

4.1. Nioe?aeueiee caoeno a nenoai? iae?iaeiiii?ee.

4.2. Iniiai? iaoai?cie aieeao i?ioeano aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee ia
aaiethoe?th nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

?ICAe?E 5. ?aoi?ioaaiiy noa?e nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao aeeth/aiiy
aei i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie e?a?i Oeaio?aeueii? ? No?aeii?
?a?iie oa NIAe

5.1. Nioe?aeuei? aniaeoe ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?
No?aeii? ?a?iie oa NIAe.

5.2. Iae?iaeiiii?/i? canaaee caaacia/aiiy aeia?iaooo a e?a?iao c
ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith.

5.3. Iniiai? i?eioeeie oa iai?yiee noai?aiiy nenoai nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo, aaeaeaaoieo ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeuo.

5.4. Oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a Oe?a?i? ye oaeoi?
caa?aaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo oa
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? e?a?ie.

AENIIAEE

NIENIE E?OA?AOO?E

AeIAeAOEE

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “No/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo nenoai nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao” ?ice?eoa nooue nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ye
aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???. Iieacaii, ui o?aeooaaiiy noo? nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo a ??cieo e?a?iao aa??th? a?ae iaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae
iaea?eueo a?aceeaei aa?noaai ianaeaiiy (NOA, Eaiaaea) aei
anaioiiethth/i? nenoaie ca an?ia ?nioth/eie ?eceeaie (i?aeia?iaei?
i?aai?caoe??, ia?aaeon?i III oa III). Aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui
nioe?aeueiee caoeno iiaeia aecia/eoe ye noeoii?noue caeiiiaeaa/i
cae??ieaieo aeiiii?/ieo, i?aaiaeo ? nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e, ye? iaaea?
noni?euenoai eiaeiiio nai?io /eaio a ?ac? aac?ia?ooy, ao?aoe aai ??ceiai
nei?i/aiiy aeioiae?a, oai?iae, ia?iaeaeaiiy aeeoeie, ae?iaie/i? o?aaie,
?iaae?aeiino?, noa?ino? oiui.

A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai? aeaiaioe ?nioth/eo a na?o? nenoai
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo: nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy; nioe?aeueio aeiiiiiao;
aeieaoe, ui o?iainothoueny c caaaeueieo aeioiae?a aea?aeaae; aeieaoe
iniaai, ui iathoue n?i’th; iuaaei? oiiaee; oo?eiaiiy ca ?aooiie
i?aoeaaeaaoey; nioe?aeuei? iineoae. A ?yae? e?a?i, iai?eeeaae a NOA oa
Eaiaae?, a ?aae?caoe?? caoiae?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iii?oio ?ieue
a?ae?a?a? i?eaaoia aeaaiae?ei?noue.

Ia i?aeoeoe? aeuacaaaeai? aeaiaioe nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ii?aeiothoueny
o ??cieo aa??aioao. I?e oeueiio aeiiiiiaa iiaea iaaeaaaoeny ia iniia?:

— ioe?iee cania?a aei ?nioaaiiy (aeiea/o?oueny o?eueee iniaai, a yeeo
aeioiae ? aeia?iaoo ciaoiaeyoueny ieae/a iaaiiai ??aiy);

— ?aeeii? noaaee (aeiea/o?oueny ca o?eniaaiith noaaeith);

— oi?aa?naeueii? nenoaie (aeiea/o?oueny ia iniia? aecia/aieo aea?aeaaith
e?eoa???a aac i?iaaaeaiiy ioe?iee iio?aa).

Eaoaai??th nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ?icaeyiooi a aoiai?oa?iiio, iie?oe/iiio
oa aeiiii?/iiio aniaeoao.

A aoiai?oa?iiio ieai? iaiao?aeii aeoiaeeoe c oiai, ui ethaeeia ye
iniaeno?noue ? aieiaiith oe?ii?noth noni?euenoaa, ? aiii iiaeiii
iaiaaaoeny eiaeiiio c? nai?o /eai?a caaacia/eoe iaeneiaeueii ni?eyoeea?
oiiae aeeooy, i?aoe?, ina?oe, a?aeii/eieo. Ca?aeii c Aeaeea?aoe??th III,
aooe a?eueiei icia/a? aooe a?eueiei a?ae “no?aoo ? ioaeaee”, ui
ia?aaeaa/a? ia o?eueee aa?aioiaaia ?nioaaiiy, aea e caaacia/aiiy
iie?oe/ieo ? a?iiaaeyinueeeo naiaiae. Noaeee nioe?aeueiee oa aeiiii?/iee
?icaeoie noni?euenoaa a aeiaaino?ieia?e ia?niaeoea? iaiiaeeeaee aac
aeaiie?ao?? ? aeio?eiaiiy i?aa ethaeeie.

A iie?oe/iiio aniaeo? iiaeia a?aei?oeoe, ui naia aeieeiaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aoei iia’ycaia ia a inoaiith /a?ao c iia??oaiiyi
noaiiaeua oe?ieeo o?oaeyueo ian ia noaae?? iiiiiie?noe/iiai eai?oae?cio,
eiee iiey?ecaoe?y a noni?euenoa? aeinyaea cia/ieo ianooaa?a oa
caaino?eeeny eeania? noia?a/iino?, ?ica’ycaiiy yeeo noaei iiaeeeaei
oeyoii ?aae?caoe?? eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

A aeiiii?/iiio aniaeo? nioe?aeueia oa aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea o?nii
iia’ycai? oa aca?iicoiiaeai?, aaeaea aoaeue-yea aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea ia?
nioe?aeuei? iane?aeee, a nioe?aeueia iie?oeea iicia/a?oueny ia oaiiao ?
oa?aeoa?? aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy. Ne?ae oaeiae i?aee?aneeoe aaaeeea?noue
aeieao a nenoai? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aeey noeioethaaiiy niiaeea/iai
iiieoo, yeino? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy oa
?i.

C ?ioiai aieo, c ?icaeoeii ethaenueeiai i?ia?ano ?iai/a neea ia?anoa?
aeeiioaaoe ?ieue eeoa oaeoi?a ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeeaaeaiiy a ?iai/o neeo —
ina?oo, ioi?iio caei?ia’y, eoeueoo?o, eaae?o?eaoe?th — aeathoue iiao
ye?noue, ui noaiiaeoue eai?oae, yeee a oiiaao aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee oa
c?inoath/i? i?aeia?iaeii? eiieo?aioe?? iaaoaa? ae??oaeueiiai cia/aiiy.

Iinoaiiaea caaea/? iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae a nenoai? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
iia’ycaia c aecia/aiiyi ? ioe?ieith ??aiy a?aeiino?. Iaea?eueo aino?i
i?iaeaie ioe?iee a?aeiino? noiyoue ia?aae e?a?iaie, ye? cae?eniththoue
?eieia? ia?aoai?aiiy, aea a?aeiia?aei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ai?oa ia
i?iaiaeeeeny, a c?inoaiiy ianooaa?a a?aeiino? a?aeaoaa?oueny aenieei
oaiiii. Ocaaaeueiaii iaoiaee aei??o a?aeiino?, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a
na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?, cie?aia i?aeia?iaeieie i?aai?caoe?yie ? aeeth/athoue
iieacieee aeeaeie a?aeiino? (poverty gap), ?iaeaen a?aeiino? ianaeaiiy
III, ioe?iee ianooaa?a a?aeiino? Anana?oiueiai aaieo oa neioaoe/i?
iieacieee (Sen Index, ?iaeaen FGT) oa ?i.

A aeena?oaoe?? iine?aeiaii ?icaeyiooi ?icaeoie nenoai nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo, ii/eiath/e c e?ioey O?O no., oa eiai ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?.

Aea/aiiy na?oiai? i?aeoeee aea? i?aenoaae oaa?aeeoe, ui iaea?eueo
aeineiiae? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo noai?aii e?a?iaie IAN?. Aiie
iathoue noaa?eueii aenie? aeo?aoe ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno a no?oeoo?? AAI
/a?ae 6% o NOA aei iaeaea 20% a Aeai??, I?aea?eaiaeao oa iiiaae 20% o
Oaaoe??/. Aeo?aoe oeaio?aeueiiai o?yaeo ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno a oeeo
e?a?iao a 1990-o ??. ciaoiaeeeenue a ae?aiacii? a?ae 14,2% a A?aoe?? aei
a?eueo ye 40% a Eaiaae?, O?ieyiae??, O?aioe??, Aano???, I?ia//ei?
Aeai??, Oaaeoea??? ? iaa?oue 50% o Oaaoe??.

A e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny, noai?ai? eeoa iaiaaeai? nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy. Iinoeiioi?noe/i? e?a?ie Oeaio?aeueii? ?
No?aeii? ?a?iie oa NIAe a oiiaao ?eieiaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?e eeoa
noai?ththoue nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, aaeaeaaoi? i?eioeeiai
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa cia/iee aieea ia
nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ia? c?inoaiiy aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee,
iniiaieie /eiieeaie yei? ?: oaoiieia?/iee i?ia?an; e?aa?ae?caoe?y
oi?a?ae? oa iia’ycaieo c iath ?ioeo aeae?a i?aeia?iaeieo ca’yce?a ia
na?oiaiio, ?aa?iiaeueiiio oa noa?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?; ?aaiethoe?y a
?ioi?iaoe?ei?e oaoiieia??; cieaeaiiy oe?i ia iineoae ca’yceo ?
o?ainii?oo; a?aaoethaaiiy aaaaoueio iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a.

Na?aae iniiaieo i?iya?a i?ioeano aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee ne?ae
a?aei?oeoe: ??no ianya?a i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? oiaa?aie ? iineoaaie,
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?th iioie?a i?yieo ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e, iineeaiiy
?ioaa?aoe?? o?iainiaeo ?eie?a ? c?inoath/o ?ieue aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo
i?aei?e?inoa. Oe? oaeoi?e iathoue cia/iee aieea ia aeia?iaoo,
caeiyo?noue, ye?noue ?iai/i? neee ? ia nenoaio nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo. A
oie aea /an oe? i?ioeane iathoue aieea ia ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae,
ine?eueee iaiaaeothoue caeaoi?noue o?yae?a cae?enithaaoe eiio?ieue ca
iaoai?ciii i?iaaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee, oiio ui eeane/i?
?ino?oiaioe iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee a cia/i?e i??? ao?a/athoue naith
ae??a?noue. Ca oaeeo oiia iaa?oue aeey o?yae?a aaeeeeo aea?aeaa aaaeei
i?iaiaeeoe aoaeoeaio iacaeaaeio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io iie?oeeo.

Oaeei /eiii, aeiaae?caoe?y, i?aeaeuoth/e aoaeoeai?noue aeiiii?ee,
iioaioe?eii iana caa?ico aeaiiioaaeo on??? noai?aii? oi?iaeiaae noi??//y
nioe?aeueii? iaaeaoaeiae. Oiio na?oiaa ni?aoiaa?enoai oa i?aeia?iaei?
i?aai?caoe?? iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoe nioe?aeuei? aniaeoe i?ioeano
aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?aaee, ii?i ? iie?oeee oi?aae?iiy
na?oiaith aeiiii?eith.

A ca’yceo c oeei c?inoa? ?ieue ye ?aaoeyoi??a ? eii?aeeiaoi??a
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ? aeiaaeueiiio ??ai?
i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, cie?aia, I?aeia?iaeii? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?,
III, Anana?oiueiai aaieo, I?aeia?iaeiiai aaethoiiai oiiaeo, Anana?oiuei?
oi?aiai? i?aai?caoe?? oa ?i.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Caaaeueiina?oia? oaiaeaioe?? oa iaoai?cie
?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo” ia iniia? aea/aiiy eiiaaioe?e
? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e III anoaiiaeai? iniiai? ii?ie ? oiiae iaaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae ca iniiaieie ?eceeaie, ui i?noeoue Eiiaaioe?y III
N 102 (1952 ?.), a naia: aeiiiiiaa ca aac?ia?ooyi, ca a?eii, ca
?iaae?aei?noth, o aeiaaeeo ao?aoe aiaeoaaeueieea, iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae oa o ca’yceo c oai?iaith, n?iaeii? aeiiiiiae oa a ?ac?
ia?iaeaeaiiy aeeoeie.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy na?oiai? i?aeoeee ?aae?caoe?? aeuacaaaeaii? eiiaaioe??
aea? ciiao c?iaeoe ianooii? aeniiaee.

A?eueo?noue e?a?i IAN? noai?eee aoaeoeai? nenoaie aeiiiiiae ca
aac?ia?ooyi, ye? iathoue ia iao? caaacia/aiiy i?i?iaeueieie aeioiaeaie
in?a, ui ao?aoeee ?iaioo. Aeo?aoe ia aeiiiiiao ca aac?ia?ooyi a
no?oeoo?? noeoiieo aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao a 1990-o ?ieao noaiiaeee a?ae
iaioa 1% a Oaaeoea???, ssiii?? oa Oaaoe?? aei 7% a ?niai?? oa aei 8,1% a
Eaiaae? i?e na?aaeiueiio iieacieeo aeey e?a?i c aenieei ??aiai ?icaeoeo
ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo 2%.

O?oaeiaa caeiiiaeaanoai aaaaoueio e?a?i ciaia’yco? i?aoeaaeaaoe?a
i?iaiaeeoe a?aeiia?aei? ieaoaae? — aeo?aeio aeiiiiiao, eiiiainaoe?? i?e
ca?eueiaii? i?aoe?aiee?a c i?e/ei, ia iia’ycaieo c iaaeeiiaiiyi nai?o
iaia’yce?a. sse i?aaeei, oea ?iaeoueny o aeaeyae? iaeii?aciaeo ieaoaae?a
o aeayeiio ca’yceo c o?eaae?noth caeiyoino? i?aoe?aieea. O aeiaaeeo
a?aenooiino? a e?a?i? noaie aeieao ca aac?ia?ooyi oe? iaeii?acia?
ieaoaae? iiaeii? iii’yeoeoe o?oaeiiu? aeey aac?ia?oieo a ia??iae ?o
oei/aniai? iacaeiyoino?.

sse na?ae/eoue i?aeoeea, iaaei??ia aeiiiiiaa ca aac?ia?ooyi caeaoia
i?aeaeueoe eiai ??aaiue oa o?eaae?noue. Oiio iiceoeaiith oaiaeaioe??th
noaei noai?aiiy i?ia?ai, ui iiaeooue aeiiiiiaoe aac?ia?oiei a
iaea?aeaii? iiaiai ?iai/iai i?noey. Oeae i?aeo?ae ia??aeei aeeth/a?
aeiaeaoeia? aeieaoe ? aeiiiiiao a iiooeo ?iaioe, iaaeaiiy
eiinoeueoaoe?e, a oaeiae aaciao ? i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/io i?aeaioiaeo.

E?a?ie IAN? noai?eee ae??a? nenoaie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy in?a
iioeeiai a?eo, yea cae?enith?oueny a iniiaiiio a iaaeao iain?eieo
i?ia?ai “nie?aea?iino? iieie?iue” oa o?iainothoueny c aiane?a ia
nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy caeaaeii a?ae ??aiy iiia?aaeiuei? ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe. E??i iniiaii? ? aeiaeaoeia? nenoaie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy.

A aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui a no/anieo oiiaao o aaaaoueio e?a?iao
aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue i?eaaoii o?iainiaai? iain?ei? i?ia?aie, ye?
aeiiiaiththoue aea?aeaai?, /anoi aacothoueny ia anoaiiaeaieo
cacaeaeaa?aeue aianeao oa i?aai?ciaai? ca i?ioan?eiei i?eioeeiii.
I?eaaoieie iain?eieie noaiaie a a?eueoino? e?a?i IAN?, a o./.
Aaeeeia?eoai??, NOA, Eaiaae?, Aano?ae??, ioiieaii aeecueei 50% caeiyoeo
/o Oaaoe?? oeae iieaciee nyaa? 90%/. Ia ieo iicia/athoueny
caaaeueiiaeiiii?/i? i?ioeane, cie?aia, ?ioeyoe?y.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui no/ania aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y — nei?i/aiiy
ia?iaeaeoaaiino? oa i?iaeiaaeaiiy o?eaaeino? aeeooy, a oaeiae
i?aeaeuaiiy aeeoo?aiai noaiaea?oo, ui niinoa??aathoueny a aaaaoueio
e?a?iao, aeiaaa? aaeineiiaeaiiy iain?eieo nenoai, aeey /iai
cai?iaaaeaeothoueny ??ci? caoiaee — ca?eueoaiiy /anoee a?ae?aooaaiue ia
iain?eia caaacia/aiiy, iiaeiaaeaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo, caeo/aiiy
iain?iia??a aei ?iaioe, noeioethaaiiy caeiyoino? ae?iie oa ?icaeoie
aeiaeaoeiaeo nenoai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy. Oe? iaoiaee
aeei?enoiaothoueny a ??cieo e?a?iao caeaaeii a?ae nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee
oa ia?aieo i??i?eoao?a.

E?a?ie IAN? iaaeathoue iaeaea aaceiooiaia aenieiye?nia iaaee/ia
ianeoaiaoaaiiy onueiio ianaeaiith, oi/a noni?euenoao aiii eiooo? c
eiaeiei ?ieii ana aei?iae/a. Ca?aene c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i
iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaaeaiiy oeeo iineoa.
?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy a aaaaoueio e?a?iao
ia?aaeaa/a? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a ?eieiai? aoaeoeaiino?, ia
ii?oooth/e i?e oeueiio i?eioeei caaaeueiiai aeinooio ? aaceiooiaiiai aai
i?aeoe/ii aaceiooiaiiai e?eoaaiiy.

Aiae?c aeiiiiiae n?i’yi c ae?oueie a e?a?iao IAN? iieacaa, ui aiia a
iniiaiiio, ni?yiiaaia ia noeioethaaiiy ia?iaeaeoaaiino? oa i?aeaeuaiiy
aeia?iaooo n?iae c ae?oueie. A a?eueoino? oeeo e?a?i ae?? oi?aa?naeueia
aeiiiiiaa n?i’yi c ae?oueie. Aeiaeaoeiai aei ae?th/i? nenoaie aeiiiiiae
a aaaaoueio e?a?iao cai?iaaaeaeaia i?eueaiaa iiiaeaoeoaaiiy oa ??ciiai
?iaeo i?eueae i?e iieao? aeeoea, ia?iaeaeaii? aeeoeie, iaaeaii?
a?aeionoie, iieao? iineoa oa ?i. Aea/aiiy na?oiai? i?aeoeee aeicaiey?
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ca oe?ioith i?ia?ai n?iaeii? iie?oeee
aeae?eythoueny O?aioe?y, Oaaoe?y, Ii?aaa?y, Aeai?y, Aano??y, I?ia//eia,
O?ieyiae?y oa aeaye? ?io?. Aea a on?o ?icaeyiooeo e?a?iao iniiaio
/anoeio aeo?ao ia oo?eiaiiy ae?oae iana n?i’y. Aea?aeaai? noaneae??,
aeiiiiiaa a iaoo?aeueiiio oa a?ioiaiio aeaeyae? aai o aeaeyae? iineoa a
a?eueoino? e?a?i eiiiainothoue eeoa iacia/io /anoeio iaiao?aeieo aeo?ao
ia ae?oae ? aa??th? a iaaeao 40—60% a?aeiia?aeieo aeo?ao.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Caeiiii??iino? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a noa??
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao aeiiii?ee, ui aeiaae?co?oueny”
aeiaaaeaii, ui aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy a nioe?aeuei?e noa?? iaoiiaeaia
iaiao?aei?noth caa?aaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo, ui
ciaoiaeeoue ae?ac a ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo,
ia?a?iciiae?e? aeioiae?a ia ei?enoue iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy,
?aaoethaaii? caeiyoino? ? aeioiae?a oa ?i. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee aea?aeaaa aeei?enoiao? ??ci? iaoai?cie — i?eeiyooy
a?aeiia?aeieo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, iiaeaoeiao nenoaio, aea?aeaai?
nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie, noai?aiiy niiioeaeueieo iioea?a aeey caaacia/aiiy
aeia?iaooo (iaaeaiiy iicee, i?euea, eiinoeueoaoe?e), aeoeaio aea?aeaaio
iie?oeeo ia ?eieo i?aoe?.

sse na?ae/eoue na?oiaa i?aeoeea, aeey ?aae?caoe?? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee
aea?aeaaa aaea?oueny aei aeineoue aenieeo noaaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. Oiio
/anoea aeioiae?a aea?aeaae a?ae iiaeaoe?a a no?oeoo?? AAI a a?eueoino?
e?a?i IAN? ia?aaeuo? 30%, a o I?aea?eaiaeao — 43%. Oea coiiaeth?oueny
aenieei ??aiai aeo?ao oeaio?aeueiiai o?yaeo ia nioe?aeuei? iio?aae
(aeeth/ath/e ioi?iio caei?ia’y, nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy, aeeoei,
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i? iineoae), ye? a 1990-o ??. a noeoiieo aeo?aoao
aea?aeaaieo athaeaeao?a ia?aaeueee 50% a Eaiaae? oa NOA, 60% o O?aioe??,
I?aea?eaiaeao oa Ii?aaa??, 70% o O?ieyiae??.

Aaaeeeaei iai?yieii aea?aeaaii? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee ? aea?aeaai?
nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie, e?euee?noue yeeo o na?o? ca inoaii? 50 ?ie?a
c?inea o e?eueea ?ac?a. Iiceoeaiith ?enith no/anieo nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai
? ia?ao?ae a?ae eaoaai??eieo i?ia?ai, i?ecia/aieo aeey ie?aieo
niaoeeo?/ieo a?oi, aei caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai (iai?eeeaae,
i?ia?aie aeey n?iae c ae?oueie oa i?ia?aie caeiyoino?). A no/anieo
oiiaao nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie oaeiae iathoue caioi/oaaoe ethaeae aooe
aeoeaieie i?e iiooeo ?iaioe, ia?aeaae?o?eaoe??, iie?auaii? naiai
iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua.

Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e o?yaeo ? anoaiiaeaiiy
i?iaeeoeiaiai i?i?ioio ? i?i?iaeueii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?iaeaenaoe?? aeioiae?a, iaaeaiiy o?iainiaeo oa ?ioeo i?aoa?aioe?e aeey
ii/aoeo aeaniiai a?ciano.

Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy a oiiaao aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee iaaoaa? aea?aeaaia
iie?oeea ia ?eieo i?aoe?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ianeaii? iie?oeee (iaaeaiiy
aeiiiiiae ca aac?ia?ooyi), aeoeaia iie?oeea aeeth/a? oae? caoiaee, ye
ia?ai?aeaioiaea eaae??a a?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa aeiiii?ee, noaneaeoaaiiy
?aa?iiaeueii? iia?eueiino?, a?iiaaenuee? ?iaioe, i?aeo?eiea
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue oa ?i. Ia?ae?/ai?
caoiaee aecia/athoueny aeiiii?/iith eiiuethieoo?ith oa ia?aieie
i??i?eoaoaie e?a?ie. Ia aeoeai? i?ia?aie ia ?eieo i?aoe? a e?a?iao IAN?
a 1995—1997 ??. aeo?a/aeinue a?ae 0,5% aei 6,6% AAI.

A aeena?oaoe?? ia cia/iiio oaeoe/iiio iaoa??ae? ?icaeyiooi nioe?aeueiee
caoeno a eiioeaioe?? ? iiaeaeyo no/anii? “aea?aeaae aeia?iaooo”.
Iieacaii, ui a?eueo?noue ?icaeiaieo e?a?i na?oo aeio?eio?oueny
eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?ee aai “aea?aeaae
aeia?iaooo”. A?aeiia?aeii aei nooiaith aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a
nioe?aeuei?e noa?? a eiioeaioe?? no/anii? “aea?aeaae aeia?iaooo”
aeae?eaii e?aa?aeueio iiaeaeue, iiaeaeue ?aaoeueiaaiiai ?eieo oa
yiiinueeo iiaeaeue. Aea/aiiy oeeo iiaeaeae aeaei iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iiaeaeue ?aaoeueiaaiiai ?eieo (Oaaoe?y, Aeai?y,
Ii?aaa?y, I?ia//eia, Aano??y, O?aioe?y oa ?i.) a?ae??ciy?oueny
iaea?eueoith iaaeeaeai?noth aei noo? “aea?aeaae aeia?iaooo” — oe? e?a?ie
iathoue iaeaeu? aeo?aoe ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno oa nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie,
oe?iea eiei nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e, ? ye iane?aeie, iaioee a?aenioie
ianaeaiiy, ui ia?aaoaa? ca iaaeath a?aeiino?, iaioo nioe?aeueio
iiey?ecaoe?th a noni?euenoa? oa iaeaeu? iiaeaoee. Iaaiaee, e?aa?aeuei?e
iiaeae? (NOA, Eaiaaea, Aaeeea A?eoai?y, Aano?ae?y) i?eoaiaii? iaio?
aeo?aoe ia nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie, oa?iey/a a?aeiioaiiy aei a?aeiino? oa
nioe?aeueii? ia??aiino? a noni?euenoa?. ssiiinueeee oei “aea?aeaae
aeia?iaooo” a?ae??ciy?oueny ?icaeiooeie nioe?aeueieie ooieoe?yie ?
iaoa?iae?ciii ia ??ai? i?aei?e?inoaa i?e a?aeiinii iii??ieo nioe?aeueieo
aeo?aoao o?yaeo.

A oe?eiio i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo nenoai nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo a e?a?iao IAN? aeaei i?aenoaao c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui nioe?aeuei?
i?ia?aie ni?eythoue caa?aaeaiith ? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo,
nioe?aeuei?e noaa?e?caoe?? noni?euenoaa, ni?aaeythoue iiceoeaiee aieea
ia ?icaeoie aeiiii?ee, i?aeaeuoth/e eoi?aaeueio ni?iiiaei?noue ianaeaiiy
oa i?iiiceoe?th ?iai/i? neee, noeioeththoue ianyae ? ye?noue
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aeaeuothoue eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue
iaoe??.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie a no?oeoo?? aeiiii?/ieo
nenoai a oiiaao aeiaae?caoe??” ?icaeyioo? iniiai? aca?iica’ycee ?
aca?iicaeaaeiino? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo c aeaiaioaie nenoaie
iae?iaeiiii?ee. Iieacaii, ui ?ici??e aeo?ao ia nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie
acaaae? ? i?ia?aie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo cie?aia caeaaeaoue a?ae nooiaiy
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie, ?? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee, ia?aieo
i??i?eoao?a oa aeiiii?/iiai oeeeeo. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui a ia??iaee
aeiiii?/iiai i?aeeiio c?inoathoue caeiyo?noue oa aeioiaee ianaeaiiy, a
oiio nei?i/othoueny aeo?aoe ia aeiiiiiao ca aac?ia?ooyi oa nioe?aeueio
aeiiiiiao. Iaaiaee, a ia??iaee aeiiii?/ieo e?ec c?inoathoue aeo?aoe ia
aeiiiiiao ca aac?ia?ooyi oa a?aei?noth.

Aiae?c iaae canoinoaaiiy i?ia?ai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aeicaieea c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui ?o ieaeiueith iaaeath ? nioe?aeueiee /e o?c?ieia?/iee
i?iaeeoeiaee i?i?ioi, yeee anoaiiaeth? eiaeia e?a?ia aeoiaey/e c
i??i?eoao?a nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee, ??aiy aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo,
iaioae?oaoo ? o?aaeeoe?e iaoe??. Iaaaaaoi aaae/a anoaiiaeoe aa?oith
iaaeo nioe?aeueieo aeo?ao, aaeaea c?inoaiiy /anoee AAI, ui eaea ia
nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie, iiaea i?ecaanoe aei ciaioaiiy /anoee, iaiao?aeii?
aeey ?icoe?aiiai i?ioeano a?aeoai?aiiy oa eai?oaeioai?aiiy, oa
ni?e/eieoe ??no ?ioeyoe?? ? aioo??oiueiai ai?ao oa aeao?oeeo ieao?aeiiai
aaeaino. Oiio a no/anieo oiiaao iaeaea iaia? e?a?i, ia?aae yeeie ia
iinoa? i?iaeaia caa?aaeaiiy oeoeiai aaeaino i?ae aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii ?
nioe?aeueiei caoenoii.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneaii, ui i?ia?aie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iathoue
cai?ioiee aieea ia aeiiii?/iee ??no, noeioethth/e niiaeea/ee iiieo, a
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ?iai/i? neee iie?auo? ye?noue ?iai/i? neee.
Iiceoeaiee aieea iiieoo ia aeiiii?/iee ??no /a?ac aoaeo ioeueoeie?eaoi?a
aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy aoa iaiaeii?aciai aeiaaaeaiee a i?aoeyo ?.O.Eaia,
Aeae.Eaeina, A.Oainaia, I.Naioaeueniia. A.Ia?oaee iaa?oiooaaa
oai?aoe/iee i?eioeei, ca?aeii c yeei aoaeue-yea iaiaaeaiiy niiaeeaaiiy
i?eiineoue ia aeiiii?th, a ao?aoe. Oe? iieiaeaiiy iaee i?aeoe/ia
canoinoaaiiy a ?iee Aaeeei? aeai?an?? a NOA i?e aeoiae? c aeiiii?/ii?
e?ece. ?iciiae?e aeioiaeo a noni?euenoa? oaeiae aecia/a? a?aeiinio
oe?ii?noue eiie?aoieo aeaa aeey aeiiii?ee a oe?eiio. Cacia/ai?
oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee iathoue aaaeeeaa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee e?a?i c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith, ui ia? i???iooaaoenue ia
caa?aaeaiiy ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo, noeioethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ?
iiaea?i?caoe?? a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aeaeuaiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?.

A oiiaao aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee oa c?inoath/i? i?aeia?iaeii?
eiieo?aioe?? nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie iathoue iiceoeaiee aieea ia
i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? iaoe?iiaeueieo o??i. Aeoiaey/e c
oai??? eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa I.Ii?oa?a, aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui ia
?icaeoie eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa o na?oia?e aeiiii?oe? i?yiee aieea
ni?aaeythoue aea? a?oie oaeoi??a, iia’ycaieo ?c nioe?aeueiei caoenoii, —
noai ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a (/enaeuei?noue, eaae?o?eaoe?y, ??aaiue
iaiaaeaeiaioo, aa?o?noue ?iai/i? neee) oa oa?aeoa?enoeee iiieoo ia
oiaa?e ? iineoae o??ie ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo, yeee, a naith /a?ao,
caeaaeeoue a?ae no?oeoo?e ? ianyao iiieoo, eoi?aaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino?
ianaeaiiy. Ca?aene ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui aeeaaeaiiy a ina?oo,
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??, iaoeo, ioi?iio caei?ia’y oa ?icoe?aiiy iiieoo
/a?ac nioe?aeuei? o?ainoa?oe — aaaeooue aei c?inoaiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? a ?aieao na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? ciiao eiinoaooaaoe, ui ia caeiyo?noue,
aeia?iaoo ? ye?noue ?iai/i? neee iiceoeaiee aieea iathoue
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i? oaeoi?e — ?icaeoie i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?,
i?a?aoe?y ?iai/i? neee, i?eieea ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e, ?icaeoie OIE,
i?ioeane aeiiii?/ii? ?ioaa?aoe??. I?ioa i?ia?anoth/ee i?ioean
aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee, iaaeath/e ia?o?noue aeiiii?/i?e aoaeoeaiino? oa
aeioe?eueiino?, iiaea noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny ? iaaaoeaieie nioe?aeueieie
iane?aeeaie, iniaeeai aeey e?a?i, ui ?icaeaathoueny. Oiio aeieea?
iaiao?aei?noue a ?ic?iaoe? ? aeio?eiaii? a?aeiia?aeieo i?aeia?iaeieo
nioe?aeueieo ? o?oaeiaeo ii?i oa eii?aeeiaoe?? ae?e i?aeia?iaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ? aeiaaeueiiio ??ai? uiaei caiia?aaiiy
ooo/iiio caieaeaiith o?oaeiaeo ? nioe?aeueieo noaiaea?o?a c iaoith
iaea?aeaiiy eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa.

A i’yoiio ?icae?e? “?aoi?ioaaiiy noa?e nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao
aeeth/aiiy aei i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie e?a?i Oeaio?aeueii? ?
No?aeii? ?a?iie oa NIAe” ?icaeyiooi nioe?aeuei? iane?aeee
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a oeeo e?a?iao oa iaoai?cie
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo oa oi?ioaaiiy oaei?
nenoaie, ui a?aeiia?aea? i?eioeeiai ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

Ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeey ?aoi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e ia?ao?aeieo
aeiiii?e, noaa?eueiiai ?inoo aeioiae?a oa ?o ??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo
na?aae iniiaieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi iathoue iae?iaeiiii?/i? caoiaee,
ni?yiiaai? ia oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua, no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao
aeiiii?ee, i?eaaoecaoe?th oa ?icaeoie iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano,
noeioethaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo. Oae, no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa aeiiii?ee
ia? aaeeeee iioaioe?ae a aniaeoao noai?aiiy ?iai/eo i?noeue a iiaeo
ia?niaeoeaieo aaeocyo aeiiii?ee, ?inoo aeioiae?a, iiieoo ia iineoae
nenoaie ia?aeaae?o?eaoe?? eaae??a a?aeiia?aeii aei i??i?eoao?a aeiiii?ee
oa caaaeaiue i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?. A ?icaeoie iaeeo ?
na?aaeieo i?aei?e?inoa caeaoiee iiaeeiooe cia/io /anoeio ?iai/i? neee,
ui ca?eueiy?oueny c iaia?niaeoeaieo aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa. Aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy iathoue aeoeaia ?iaanoeoe?eia iie?oeea aea?aeaae ? aea?aeaaia
i?aeo?eiea i??i?eoaoieo iaoei?iieo ae?iaieoeoa, ni?yiiaai? ia
i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioicaeaoiino?.

A oiiaao ?eieiaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?e aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo iiaeeeainoae, iia’ycaieo c
aeoiaeii ia iia? ?eiee oa caeo/aiiyi iiaeo aeaea?ae eai?oaeo. Cie?aia,
iiceoeaio ?ieue iiaeooue a?ae?a?aoe ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe??, noai?aiiy
ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, a?eueieo aeiiii?/ieo cii. sse na?ae/eoue
aeina?ae aaaaoueio e?a?i, cie?aia I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Ac??, aeoeaia
iie?oeea o caaaeaieo iai?yieao ni?ey? noai?aiith iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue,
ai?iaaaeaeaiith iiaeo oaoiieia?e, iia’ycaieo c a?eueo aenieith
eaae?o?eaoe??th ?iai/i? neee, c?inoaiith aeioiae?a i?aoethth/eo — ui
caaaeii ciaioo? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

Iaaecae/aeii? aeooaeueiino? aeey e?a?i c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith, a
oiio /ene? Oe?a?ie, iaaoaa? aea?aeaaia iie?oeea ia ?eieo i?aoe?, yea ia?
aooe i?aai?/ii iia’ycaia c aioee?eciaith i?ia?aiith, caoiaeaie
no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae, ia?aoai?aiiyi oi?i aeaniino?, ?iaanoeoe?eiith,
iiaeaoeiaith, o?iainiai-e?aaeeoiith iie?oeeith, ci?iaie a ?ici?uaii?
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie ? nioe?aeueieie i?ia?aiaie.
Ia?niaeoeaieie iai?yieaie iie?oeee ia ?eieo i?aoe? iathoue aooe:
i?ioan?eia iaa/aiiy ? ia?aiaa/aiiy iacaeiyoeo, a?iiaaenuee? ?iaioe,
caoiaee c? noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue, i?aoa?aioe?? aeey ii/aoeo
aeaniiai a?ciano oa ?i.

E??i caaaeaii? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee, ui i?iaiaeeoueny aea?aeaaith a
?ioa?anao anueiai ianaeaiiy, iaiao?aeia noai?aiiy ae??ai? oa aoaeoeaii?
nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, ye iaeiiai c eeth/iaeo eiiiiiaio?a
aoaeue-yei? aoaeoeaii? i?ia?aie ?aoi?i, aac yeiai iaiiaeeeai ae??oeoe
aeiiii?/i? ieoaiiy, ni?eyoe ii?iaeueiiio ooieoe?iioaaiith ??cieo oi?i
aeaniino? oa ?aoi?ioaaiith aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?, aeinyaoe noaa?eueiiai
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. Nioe?aeueia iie?oeea ia? aacoaaoeny ia
i?eioeeiiai iiaeo canaaeao, a naia — i?eioeei? aae?aniino?,
aaciina?aaeiueiio iaaeaii? aeiiiiiae oa i?euea c aieo aea?aeaaieo
onoaiia, a ia i?aei?e?inoa, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiio i?aeoiae? aei ??cieo
a?oi ianaeaiiy oa ?i.

I?iaaaeaiee a ?iaio? aiae?c aeiaiaeeoue, ui ?aoi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii?
noa?e iio?aao? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy oa
nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeo?eieo n?iae c ae?oueie,
ia?aeaae?o?eaoe?th oa iiaa?iaiiy aei ?eieo i?aoe? aac?ia?oieo, i?ia?ai
aeey iieiae? oa ?i. — oiaoi i?ia?ai ?eieiaiai oeio, iiaeae? yeeo
aei?iaoaai? e?a?iaie c ?icaeiaith ?eieiaith nenoaiith.

Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui oiiaao o?eaath/i? aeiiii?/ii? e?ece oa a?aenooiino?
ae??ai? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iaiao?aeiei caoiaeii caa?aaeaiiy
ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo ? ai?ioueaa c a?aei?noth, yea aaaea aei
nioe?aeueii? aeaa?aaeaoe?? ianaeaiiy oa nei?i/o? noeoiiee iiieo. Aeey
oeueiai iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeoe nioe?aeuei? ?iaeeeaoi?e aeey i?aaeeueii?
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? a?aeieo oa iino?eii a?aene?aeeiaoaaoe oeae i?ioean, ui
aeanoue ciiao iaaeaaaoe aae?anio aeiiiiiao, oei, ooi ?? ia’?eoeaii
iio?aao?, oa i?eieieoe iioe?aiiy oa iiaeeaeaiiy a?aeiino?. A?aoiaoth/e,
ui a aeayeeo e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith, a oiio /ene? a Oe?a?i?,
aeiiii?/i? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iia’ycai? ?c cia/ieie ? o?eaaeeie aeiiii?/ieie
o?oaeiiuaie, ye? coiiaeththoue nei?i/aiiy /enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy, c
iaoith noeioethaaiiy ia?iaeaeoaaiino? oa i?aeaeuaiiy aeia?iaooo n?iae c
ae?oueie iaiao?aeia caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueia oi?aa?naeueia nenoaia
aeiiiiiae n?i’yi c ae?oueie, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o aeioiaeo.

Iaa?aeeeaaeiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy iio?aao? nenoaia iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
in?a iioeeiai a?eo, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ia?ao?ae aei iain?eii? nenoaie, yea
aaco?oueny ia no?aooaaii? ? aaaeaii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iuaaeieo
?aooie?a, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo nenoai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy oa
i?eaaoieo iain?eieo oiiae?a, a?aooaaiiy o?oaeiaiai noaaeo oa ca?eueoaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii aei i?aeia?iaeieo ii?i a?eo aeoiaeo ia iain?th.

Aea/aiiy ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo aeaei ciiao c?iaeoe aaaeeeaee aeniiaie
aeey i?aeoeee Oe?a?ie i?i oa, ui nioe?aeuei? i??i?eoaoe iathoue iniaeai
?aoaeueii ?aae?ciaoaaoeny a ia??iaee iaea?eueoeo aeiiii?/ieo e?ec oa
?aaeeeaeueieo ?aoi?i — c iaoith caa?aaeaiiy ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo oa
noai?aiiy oiia aeey ia?aoiaeo a noaae?th aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy.

OAI?AOE*I? ? I?AEOE*I? AENIIAEE

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao
aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ianooii? ocaaaeueithth/?
aeniiaee:

1. Nioe?aeueiee caoeno ? ia’?eoeaiith aeiiii?/iith eaoaai???th, ui
iia’ycaia c a?aeoai?aiiyi, caa?aaeaiiyi oa ?icaeoeii iniiaii?
i?iaeoeoeaii? neee noni?euenoaa — ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo. A oiiaao
aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iniia? iia?oi?o
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, cia/aiiy ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo, a ioaea ?
aoaeoeaiiai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, ia’?eoeaii i?aeaeuo?oueny.

2. Nioe?aeueiee caoeno o nai?io ?icaeoeo i?ieoia aeiaaee aaiethoe?eiee
oeyo a?ae i?inoi? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ca aeayeeie ?eceeaie
a ie?aieo e?a?iao na?oo aei anaioiiethth/i? nenoaie, ye oea ia? i?noea a
iaea?eueo ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao na?oo.

Iaea?eueoiai ?icaeoeo nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iaaoee a e?a?iao
IAN?, aea aiie ? ?acoeueoaoii ?icaeoeo ? aaeineiiaeaiiy oeo ia?oeo
caoenieo iaoai?ci?a, ye? aeieeee a e?ioe? O?O no. A e?a?iao, ui
?icaeaathoueny, nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, ye i?aaeei, aein? ia
iaaoee iaeaaeiiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo: eeoa a ie?aieo o?aai?ciaaieo e?a?iao
Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee ? io?oe?ei? i?ia?aie nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, ui
ia?aaeaa/athoue aeieaoe ca aeayeeie ?eceeaie. Ie?aio a?oio e?a?i
noaiiaeyoue e?a?ie c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith, aea a?aeaoaa?oueny
a?aeo?ae a?ae nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai iaoa?iae?cio ? noai?aiiy nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, aaeaeaaoii? i?eioeeiai ?eieiai? nenoaie.

3. A e?a?iao IAN? ae?thoue ?icaaeoaeai? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo,
ui aeeth/athoue an? iioaioe?ei? ?eceee oa ioiieththoue i?aeoe/ii ana
ianaeaiiy. Iniiaieie na?aae ieo ? ianooii?:

3.1. Nenoaie aeiiiiiae ca aac?ia?ooyi ia?aaeaa/athoue caaacia/aiiy
aac?ia?oiei i?i?iaeueiiai aeioiaeo. A i?ia?aiao nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy aaee/eia aeiiiiiae ca aac?ia?ooyi noaiiaeoue 50—60%
iiia?aaeiueiai ca?ia?oeo ?, ye i?aaeei, aeiea/othoueny aeiaeaoeia? noie
ia oo?eiaiiy /eai?a n?i’?. A oe?eiio nenoaia aeiiiiiae ca aac?ia?ooyi
aeicaiey? aoaeoeai?oa i?iaiaeeoe caoiaee c? no?oeoo?iiai ei?aaoaaiiy
aeiiii?ee ? caiia?aaoe cia/iiio iaae?iith ieaoini?iiiaeiiai iiieoo
iaa?oue a ia??iae aeiiii?/iiai niaaeo, ui aenooia? ye iiooaeiee
noaa?e?caoi? aeiiii?ee.

3.2. Nenoaie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ca a?eii aeicaieythoue caa?aaoe
??aaiue aeeooy in?a iioeeiai a?eo ia ??ai?, aeecueeiio aei iiiaioo
aeoiaeo ia iain?th. Aea?aeaai? iain?ei? nenoaie aeiiiaiththoueny
iaaea?aeaaieie oa i?eaaoieie. C?inoaiiy /anoee iain?iia??a ca a?eii
a?aeiinii e?eueeino? i?aoethth/eo aeiaaa? a no/anieo oiiaao
aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ia iniia? i?aeaeuaiiy
na?aaeiueiai a?eo aeoiaeo ia iain?th, caeo/aiiy iain?iia??a aei ?iaioe
oa caioi/aiiy aeia?ia?eueieo nenoai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy.

3.3. I?ia?aie n?iaeii? aeiiiiiae ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy aeia?iaooo
n?iae c ae?oueie oa ??aiy ia?iaeaeoaaiino?. E??i n?iaeieo aeieao nenoaia
aea?aeaaii? aeiiiiiae n?i’yi c ae?oueie ia?aaeaa/a? a a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a i?eueaiaa iiiaeaoeoaaiiy n?iae c ae?oueie, i?eueae i?e iieao?
aeeoea, a?aeionoie, ia?aaoaaiiy a aeeoy/eo aeioe?eueieo caeeaaeao oa ?i.

3.4. E?a?ie IAN? noai?eee nenoaie caaaeueiiai aenieiye?niiai iaaee/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy anueiai ianaeaiiy, ui cia/ii i?aeaeuo? o?oaeiaee
iioaioe?ae, caeaoi?noue aei aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? oai?/i? i?aoe?. A
inoaii? 40—50 ?ie?a aeo?aoe ia iaaee/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?inee cia/ii
oaeaeoa, i?ae AAI, ? eeoa a inoaii? 10 ?ie?a oe? aeo?aoe c?inoathoue o
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei oaii?a ?inoo AAI. A e?a?iao IAN? noi?ioaaany aenieee
ii?iaoea aeo?ao ia iaaee/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy — i?eaeecii 8% AAI. Oe?
e?a?ie iaiaaathoueny ?aoi?ioaaoe nenoaie iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ca ?aooiie
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ieo aeaiaio?a ?eieiai? aoaeoeaiino?, ia ii?oooth/e i?e
oeueiio i?eioeeio caaaeueii? aeinooiiino? ? iaaeaiith ?noioieo i?euea
aeey e?eoaaiiy a ?ac? caoai?thaaiiy.

4. Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy a nioe?aeuei?e noa?? ia? aieiaiith iaoith
caa?aaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo a oiiaao ?eieiaiai
na?aaeiaeua. Aeey cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueii? ooieoe?? aea?aeaaa
aeei?enoiao? oe?ieee a?naiae aaaeae?a — caeiiiaeaa/iai anoaiiaeaiiy
nioe?aeueieo noaiaea?o?a, o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai, noai?aiiy
noeioe?a oa i?aoa?aioe?e aeey caaacia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai aeia?iaooo
a?iiaaeyi, iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, iie?oeee aeioiae?a, aeoeaii? iie?oeee
ia ?eieo i?aoe?. Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e o?yaeo ?
anoaiiaeaiiy iaia’yceiaeo nioe?aeueieo i?i?ioi?a — i?iaeeoeiaiai
i?i?ioio, i?i?iaeueii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, a oaeiae cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoai?ci?a caoenoo aeioiae?a a?ae ?ioeyoe?? -?iaeaenaoe?? aeioiae?a.

Aaaeeeaith noa?ith ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae a noa?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
? iie?oeea caeiyoino?, aai aea?aeaaia iie?oeea ia ?eieo i?aoe?. A oiiaao
aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee ? iia’ycaieo c iath aeiia aei yeino? ?iai/i?
neee c?inoa? cia/aiiy oaeeo caoiae?a ia ?eieo i?aoe?, ye i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe??, ia?aeaae?o?eaoe?y eaae??a a?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa ?eieo,
i?ioi???ioaoe?y iieiae?, noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue a no/anieo
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeieo naeoi?ao aeiiii?ee.

5. ?aae?caoe?y nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae a?oioo?oueny ia
iiaeaoeia?e nenoai?. Aeioiaee a?ae iiaeaoe?a a no?oeoo?? AAI a
a?eueoino? e?a?i IAN? ia?aaeuothoue 30%, a a ie?aieo e?a?iao c
nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaiei ainiiaea?noaii — aeinyaathoue 40% ? a?eueoa.
Aeo?aoe oeaio?aeueiiai o?yaeo ia nioe?aeuei? iio?aae a noeoiieo
aea?aeaaieo aeo?aoao a aaaaoueio e?a?iao ia?aaeuothoue 50% a a ie?aieo —
aeinyaee 70%.

6. ?icaeoie nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a OO no. i?eca?a aei ooai?aiiy
a ?yae? e?a?i IAN? iniaeeai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iiaeae?
-nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?ee, aai “aea?aeaae aeia?iaooo”,
iniiaieie aeaiaioaie yei? ? iie?oe/ia aeaiie?ao?y, ?icaeiaia ?eieiaa
nenoaia, aenieee ??aaiue aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ?icaaeoaeaia nenoaia
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo. Aeey e?a?i c nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaiith
aeiiii?eith oa?aeoa?i?: aenieee ??aaiue aeioiaeo ia aeooo ianaeaiiy,
aeniea /anoea o?yaeiaeo aeo?ao ia nioe?aeuei? iio?aae, ae??aithaaiiy a
iaaieo iaaeao ??ai?a aeioiaeo, ?iaeaen ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo
III, yeee iaaeeaea?oueny aei 1.

7. Cacia/aia iiaeaeue nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?ee ia? ?noioi?
iaoe?iiaeuei? a?aei?iiino? uiaei iaoai?ci?a caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueii?
ni?yiiaaiino? ?icaeoeo ? aeaea?ae eiai o?iainoaaiiy. Aea?aeaai? aeo?aoe
ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno, ye a?aenioie AII, ciaoiaeeoueny, ye i?aaeei, a
?ioa?aae? a?ae 6% aei 23%. Aeo?aoe oeaio?aeueiiai o?yaeo ia nioe?aeueiee
caoeno eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao a?ae 14% aei 50% AII.

Ca i??ith aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a nioe?aeuei?e noa?? iiaeia
aeae?eeoe e?aa?aeueio iiaeaeue oa iiaeaeue ?aaoeueiaaiiai ?eieo. A
ia?o?e a?oi? e?a?i niinoa??aathoueny iaio? aeo?aoe ia nioe?aeuei?
i?ia?aie, iaioee iiaeaoeiaee oene, a?eueoa nioe?aeueia iiey?ecaoe?y a
noni?euenoa? oa aeaui a?eueoa /anoea ianaeaiiy, ui ia?aaoaa? ca iaaeath
a?aeiino? — ii??aiyii c e?a?iaie, ?icaeoie yeeo aaco?oueny ia
eiioeaioe?? ?aaoeueiaaiiai ?eieo.

8. ?icaeoie nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a e?a?iao IAN? ni?aaey? aaaiiee
aieea ia caa?aaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo ca oaeeie
iai?yieaie:

8.1. ?icaeoie ? aaeineiiaeaiiy iain?eieo noai oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeineiiaeeo noai iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ni?eyee ?inoo o?eaaeino?
aeeooy;

8.2. Nenoaie aeiiiiiae ca aac?ia?ooyi ? aea?aeaaia iie?oeea ia ?eieo
i?aoe? aeicaieythue i?aeo?eioaaoe ??aaiue aac?ia?ooy a ii?iaeueieo
iaaeao, a naia aac?ia?ooy a?eueoa ia caa?iaeo? nioe?aeueiith
aeaa?aaeaoe??th oa a?aei?noth;

8.3. Nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie ni?eyee e?ea?aeaoe?? a?aeiino? a iaeieo
e?a?iao oa cieaeaiith ?? ??aiy a ?ioeo;

8.4. Nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie oa nioe?aeueia iie?oeea ni?eyee ?aaa?e?oaoe??
? iiaa?iaiith aei aeoeaiiai aeeooy cia/ii? iane ianaeaiiy. Caaaeyee
aea?aeaaiei i?aoa?aioe?yi ? i?aeo?eioe? aaaaoueii aaea?oueny naiei
i?aeiyoeny iaae iaaeath a?aeiino?, ?icii/aoe aeaniee a?cian;

8.5. Nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie aeiiiiaaathoue iii’yeooaaoe iane?aeee
oeeee?/ieo niaae?a ? iia??oaiiy eiiuethieoo?e, a aeieaoe ??ciiai ?iaeo
aeiiiiiae caaacia/othoue noaa?e?caoe?th niiaeea/iai iiieoo;

8.6. Nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith eaae?o?eaoe?? ?iai/i?
neee, ui aeinyaa?oueny aae?anieie ?iaanoeoe?yie a niaoe?aeueio ?
caaaeueio ina?oo; oea ? iiooaeiei oaeoi?ii, ui aieeaa? ia iioaioe?ae
?inoo aeiiii?ee oa ?? iiaea?i?caoe?th.

8.7. Nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie, e?ea?aeoth/e a?aei?noue, ciaiooth/e
aac?ia?ooy ? ae??aithth/e aeioiaee, ni?eythoue nioe?aeuei?e
noaa?e?caoe?? noni?euenoaa.

9. Nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ia? o?ni? aca?iica’ycee c ?ioeie
aeaiaioaie nenoaie iae?iaeiiii?ee — aeiiii?/iei ?inoii, oeeeeii,
?iaanoeoe?eiei i?ioeanii, niiaeea/ei iiieoii, ??aiai caeiyoino? oa ?i.
I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ca ia??iae c 1965 ?. ia i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
?nioth/? noa?aioeie a?aeiinii iaaaoeaiiai aieeao nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai ia
oaiie aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo oa eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue e?a?ie, a oaeiae
noiniaii ?o ?ioeyoe?eiiai aieeao ia aeiiii?eo. Aeo?aoe ia nioe?aeueiee
caoeno ia iathoue iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a ia i?ioeane eai?oaeioai?aiiy:
iacaeaaeii a?ae ianyao aeo?ao ia nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie a on?o e?a?iao
/a?aothoueny ia??iaee niaaeo oa c?inoaiiy aaeiaeo aioo??oi?o
?iaanoeoe?e. Ia i?inoaaeo?oueny oaeiae i?yii? caeaaeiino? i?ae aeo?aoaie
ia nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie oa aaeiaeie aioo??oi?ie aeeaaeaiiyie a iniiaiee
eai?oae. Aaeain aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo a on?o e?a?iao, ca aeiyoeii
ie?aieo ?ie?a, iacaeaaeii a?ae ianya?a aeo?ao ia nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie,
ye i?aaeei, caiaeeoueny c aeao?oeeoii.

10. Aeaaeae? c?inoath/ee aieea ia aeiiii?eo acaaae? oa nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo cie?aia ia? i?ia?anoth/ee i?ioean aeiaae?caoe??
aeiiii?ee, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny e?aa?ae?caoe??th ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo
ca’yce?a, o?aina?aie/iei ?ooii eai?oaeo ? ?iai/i? neee, ?icaeoeii
?ioaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a, c?inoath/ith ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe??th
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a. A oe?eiio oe? i?ioeane iathoue
cia/iee iioaioe?ae iiceoeaiiai aieeao ia caeiyo?noue, aeioiaee,
aeia?iaoo; aiie i?aeaeuothoue aeiiae aei yeino? ?iai/i? neee. A oiiaao
aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee i?iaeaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aeoiaeyoue ca
iaoe?iiaeuei? iaae? oa iaaoaathoue aeiaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Oea aeiaaa?
aeio?eiaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo i?aeia?iaeii ocaiaeaeaieo o?oaeiaeo ?
nioe?aeueieo ii?i, ui noa? noa?ith ae?yeueiino? ? eii?aeeiaoe?? c aieo
i?ia?aeieo i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, ia?o ca ana III, III,
Anana?oiueiai aaieo oa ?i.

Aeaaeae? a?eueoiai cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue i?iaeaie ae?iaeaiiy ocaiaeaeaieo
nioe?aeueieo oiia i?aeia?iii? eiieo?aioe?? a ?aieao na?oiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa, caiia?aaiiy “nioe?aeueiiio aeaii?iao” aeey io?eiaiiy
ooo/ieo ia?aaaa a oe?e eiieo?aioe??.

11. A oiiaao ?eieiaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?e a iinoeiioi?noe/ieo e?a?iao, ui ?
neeaaeiaith caaaeueiioeea?e?caoe?eiiai i?ioeano ?icaeoeo, ethaenueeee
eai?oae o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a caciaa cia/ieo caeoe?a. Oea ciaeoei ae?ac
a ?noioiiio iaae?ii? ??aiy ? o?eaaeino? aeeooy, cia/iiio nioe?aeueiiio
?icoa?oaaii? ianaeaiiy, oaeaeeiio c?inoaii? a?aeiino? oa aac?ia?ooy,
a?ae/ooiiio iaae?ii? iieacieea ?iaeaeno ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai
iioaioe?aeo. Ia?inoaiiy oeeo iaaaoeaieo yaeu na?ae/eoue i?i
iaiao?aei?noue nooo?ai? ei?aeoe?? a a?eueoino? aea?aeaa iaoiae?a
?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue. A oe?eyo caa?aaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai
iioaioe?aeo i?ioean aeiiii?/iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiiy ia? eoe ia?aeaeueii ?
iaeii/anii c ?aoi?ioaaiiyi nioe?aeueii? noa?e a oe?eiio oa noai?aiiyi
nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, aaeaeaaoii? i?eioeeiai ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa, cie?aia. Oea — aeai?aeeia caaea/a ia?ao?aeiiai aei
?eieiai? nenoaie ia??iaeo.

A oiiaao aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee ? iaiaaaiiy ia?aaaaeii? e?eueeino?
iinoeiioi?noe/ieo e?a?i ?ioaa?oaaoenue aei ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco — c
eiai aenieeie nioe?aeueieie noaiaea?oaie — ?aoi?ie nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo a cacia/aieo e?a?iao ne?ae c naiiai ii/aoeo i???iooaaoe ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee, anoaiiaeai? ?icaeiaieie nenoaiaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
a e?a?iao ?N ?, ye i?i?ioi, ia o?, ui cae??ieai? /eiieie eiiaaioe?yie
III.

12. Noai?aiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a Oe?a?i? ia? nai?
iniaeeaino?, iia’ycai? ?c caoyaeiei oa?aeoa?ii ?aoi?i, o?eaaeith
a?aenooi?noth aeiiii?/iiai iiaeaaaeaiiy a aeiiii?oe?, iaeii/aniei
c?inoaiiyi coaiae?iiy ia?aaaaeii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy oa nioe?aeueii?
iiey?ecaoe?? a noni?euenoa? — i?e aeeaie?e e?ec? aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a,
ui iaiaaeo? nioe?aeuei? caoiaee. Ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie iiaeiii iaoe
oae? i??i?eoaoe:

12.1. Aeey caaacia/aiiy caeiyoino? oa aeinoaoiueiai ??aiy aeioiae?a, a
ioaea ciaioaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia nenoaio nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo,
iiceoeaiee aieea ia aoai? ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia
iae?iaeiiii?/iiio ??ai? iiaeooue iaoe caoiaee, ui noeioeththoue
aeiiii?/iee ??no, ?iaanoeoe?? a ia?iuoaaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?,
aeeth/ath/e: ?iaanoeoe?? a ethaenueeee eai?oae (iniaeeai a ina?oo ?
ioi?iio caei?ia’y), ni?eyiiy no?oeoo?i?e ia?aaoaeia? aeiiii?ee, ?icaeoie
iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, aeoeaio iie?oeeo ia ?eieo i?aoe? (ia?o ca
ana i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? oa ia?aeaae?o?eaoe?y a?aeiia?aeii aei
iio?aa aeiiii?ee), ?aoi?io iie?oeee ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, aoaeoeaiee
?icaeoie ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a (cie?aia, noiniaii i?eieeao
?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e).

12.2. Iaeii/anii iaiao?aeia noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeii? ?eieiaiio
na?aaeiaeuo nenoaie ?inoeooo?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, yea iiaeiia aooe
caaaeueiith, aio/eith, caaacia/oaaoe a?aeiia?aeiee ??aaiue aeioiaeo,
aeicaieyoe ia?aoiaeeoe c iaei??? eaoaai??? ca aeioiaeaie a ?ioo,
eiiieaiaioa?iith, aooe i?inoith a ei?enooaaii? oa oi?aae?ii?.

12.3. A iaoiaeao o?iainoaaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a Oe?a?i?
aeoeaio ia? aooe ia?aianaiee ia iaoiaee no?aooaaiiy a?ae ??cieo ?ecee?a.
A nenoaiao iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ca a?eii iaiao?aeii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aeiaeaoeiaeo — iaaea?aeaaieo oa i?eaaoieo — iain?eieo oiiae?a,
i?aeaeuaiiy iain?eiiai a?eo aeoiaeo ia iain?th oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aoaeoeaieo noai caeo/aiiy iain?iia??a aei ?iaioe. Aiaeii/an, n?iaeia
aeiiiiiaa iiaeiia caa?aaoe naith oi?aa?naeuei?noue oa anaioiiethth/ee
oa?aeoa?.

12.4. C iaoith caa?aaeaiiy ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo iaiao?aeii caiia?aoe
iioe?aiith oa iiaeeaeaiith a?aeiino?, aeey /iai ne?ae cai?iaaaeeoe
iaoai?cie ?? a?aene?aeeiaoaaiiy (iii?oi?eia) oa aea/aiiy ia iniia?
ai?iaiaaieo a i?aeia?iaei?e i?aeoeoe? iaoiaeee.

12.5. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aae?aniino? i?e iaaeaii? nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae
iaiao?aeii a??ii ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe a?oie ianaeaiiy, ui ?? ia’?eoeaii
iio?aaothoue. Oea aeiaaa? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo noaoenoe/ieo
iaoiae?a, ui ?niothoue a i?aeia?iaei?e i?aeoeoe? o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
ii?i oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e III.

12.6. C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? caeiiiaeaa/i? aace oa c
iaeyaeo ia caaaeaiiy ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie a?aeiinei c ?a?iiaenueeei Nithcii
iaiao?aeia ?aoeo?eaoe?y iecee eiiaaioe?e III ? ae?iaeaiiy i?ia?aie
iiaoaiiiai iaaeeaeaiiy aei nioe?aeueieo noaiaea?o?a ?N.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Nioe?aeueiee aei?? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. — E.: Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio?
“Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao”, 1998. — 248 n.

(?aoeaic?y Iai/aiea ?.A. Iiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy aeooaeueii?
i?iaeaie//Oe?a?inueeee i?iieneiaaoeue.— 1999. — ? 2).

2. Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e (o ni?aaaoi?noa?
c I.A.Aaa?eetheii ? A.N.A?aaao). — E.: ?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ?
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie, 1995. — 121 n. (Aianie aaoi?a c.
17—47, 119).

3. Iaaeainoaea?noaaiiay eiiia?aoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e iaoaieci i?yiuo
naycae // Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoaiecia nio?oaeie/anoaa no?ai — /eaiia NYA
(o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.?.N?aeaieii). — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1986. -180 n.
(Aianie aaoi?a n. 68—76, 84—89).

4. ?aaeiiaeueiua i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey nio?oaeie/anoaa ia iniiaa i?yiuo
naycae // ?aaeiiaeueiua aniaeou iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eioaa?aoeeiiiiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa NNN? ni no?aiaie — /eaiaie NYA. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea,
1988. — 181 n. (Aianie aaoi?a n. 132—141).

5. Iniiaiua oi?iu e oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey i?yiuo naycae a noa?a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe // I?yiua nayce a eioaa?aoeeiiiii nio?oaeie/anoaa no?ai
NYA. — E., Iaoeiaa aeoiea. — 1990. — 195 n. (Aianie aeoi?a n. 80—89).

6. No?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e a Oe?a?i? (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c ?.A.Iai/aieii ? I.A.
Aaa?eetheii). — E.: ?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie, 1993. — 37 n. (Aianie aaoi?a n.15—26).

7. ?acaeoie i?yieo ca’yce?a i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e O?N? ? e?a?i —
/eai?a ?AA // Aeiiii?ea ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie. — 1988. — ? 8. — N. 79—84.

8. Aeiiii?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy ? aeia?iaoo ia?iaeo // Aeiiii?/iee /aniien. —
1996. — ? 3. — C. 5—6.

9. Ca?ia?oia ieaoa: i?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy // Oe?a?ia: aniaeoe i?aoe?. —
1996. — ? 2—3. — C. 33—35.

10. Aoiai?oa?iee eai?oae a no?aoaa?? iinoeiioi?noe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue //
Iie?oe/ia aeoiea. — 1999. — ? 2. — C.61—70.

11. Otazky intensifikacie vyrobnoj spoluprace // Zakladne otazky
pohrani?nej spoluprace krajin ?lenov RVHP. — Ko?ice: Spolo?enskovedny
Ustav Slovenskej Akademie Vied, 1988. — S. 240— 249.

12. I?iaeaiu niaeaniaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo eioa?ania o/?aaeeoaeae
niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.?.N?aeaieii) //
Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu aeayoaeueiinoe niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee. — I.:
Iineianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, 1989. — N. 28—30. (Aianie
aaoi?a n. 28-29).

13. Oaiiiai aac?ia?ooy a Oe?a?i? // Caeii ? a?cian. — 1995. — ? 30. — N
2.

14. Aeaaininoiyiea ethaeae — iniiaa iacaaeneiiai ainoaea?noaa // Caeii e
aecian. — 1996. — ? 8. — N.4..

15. Oeaio?aeueii-Ainoi/iay Aa?iia: oeaia ?aoi?i // Yeth. — 1996. — ? 1.
— C. 57—59.

16. Labor Market Problems and Prospects // Passport to the New World. —
September—October 1996. — P. 42—43.

17. No?aoaa?/i? a?oe iain?eii? ?aoi?ie // Caeii ? a?cian. — 1997. — ? 47
(313). — N. 3.

18. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaia’yceiaiai iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy //Caeii ?
a?cian. — 1997. — ? 48 (314). — N. 4.

19. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaaea?aeaaieo iain?eieo oiiae?a // Caeii ? a?cian. —
1997.— ? 49 (315). — N. 4 .

20. Aeaye? aniaeoe eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? Oe?a?ie // Oe?a?inueeee
i?iieneiaaoeue. — 1998. — ? 12. — C. 20—21.

21. Aac?aaioeoea: oa?ica eee caeiiiia?iinoue ?aoi?i? // Aerobusiness. —
1998. — ? 1. — C. 45—47.

22. Nioe?aeuei? aaeueia ?icaeoeo // Caeii ? a?cian. — 1998. — ? 18
(336). — N. 4.

Aiioaoe?y

N?aeaiei N.A. ?icaeoie nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao
aeiaae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.05.01 — na?oiaa ainiiaea?noai ? i?aeia?iaei?
aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie. Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii i?eioeeiiai iiaee iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae:
nioe?aeueiee caoeno ?icaeyaea?oueny ia ye caeeoeiaee i?iaeoeo
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, a ye iaoai?ci caa?aaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai
iioaioe?aeo. Aeine?aeaeaii iaoai?cie ?aae?caoe?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ca aeaa’youeia iniiaieie aaeocyie, anoaiiaeaii ?o iaoe?iiaeuei?
iniaeeaino?. Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy na?oiai? i?aeoeee, cie?aia e?a?i
IAN?, aeine?aeaeai? iniiai? iaoai?cie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a noa??
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, ?eieo i?aoe?. ?icaeyioo? aca?iica’ycee
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo c aeaiaioaie iae?iaeiiii?ee, anoaiiaeaiee aieea ia
iueiai ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a. I?iaiae?ciaai? i?iaeaie noai?aiiy
nenoai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith.
C?iaeai? aeniiaee oa i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? a?aeiinii noai?aiiy a
Oe?a?i? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, aaeaeaaoii? i?eioeeiai ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueiee caoeno, nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy,
nioe?aeueia aeiiiiiaa, nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie, ethaenuee? ?ano?ne,
i?aeia?iaei? i?aai?caoe??, aeiaae?caoe?y aeiiii?ee, ?eiie i?aoe?,
aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy a nioe?aeuei?e noa??.

Aiiioaoeey.

Neaeaiei N.A. ?acaeoea nenoai nioeeaeueiie caueou a oneiaeyo
aeiaaeecaoeee yeiiiieee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.05.01 — ie?iaia oicyenoai e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaiai nioeeaeueiie caueou a oneiaeyo
aeiaaeecaoeee yeiiiieee. A aeenna?oaoeee i?eiaiai i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue
iaoiaeieiae/aneee iiaeoiae e aeaiiie i?iaeaia, a eiaiii — nioeeaeueiay
caueoa ?anniao?eaaaony ia eae inoaoi/iue i?iaeoeo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa e iaoaieci i?aaeinoaaeaiey
iiiiue iaeaieaa oycaeiui neiyi iauanoaa, a eae iaoaieci nio?aiaiey e
?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iioaioeeaea. Ia iniiaa eco/aiey aeieoiaioia e
iaoa?eaeia IIO enneaaeiaaiu iaoaieciu ?aaeecaoeee nioeeaeueiie caueou ii
aeaayoe aai iniiaiui io?aneyi, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeaiu Eiiaaioeeae IIO ?
102, e onoaiiaeaiu eo iaoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe. ?ane?uaaaony aeeyiea
ia ?acaeoea nenoai nioeeaeueiie caueou ni noi?iiu i?ia?anne?othuaai
i?ioeanna aeiaaeecaoeee yeiiiieee, eioi?ue, nicaeaaay iiaua oneiaey aeey
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe yeiiiieee, iaeiia?aiaiii noaaeo iiaua i?iaeaiu a
aa nioeeaeueiie iaeanoe. A yoie nayce iieacaii aic?anoaiea ?iee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee a ea/anoaa ?aaoeyoi?ia e eii?aeeiaoi?ia
nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee ia ?aaeiiaeueiii e aeiaaeueiii o?iaia.

A aeenna?oaoeee aeieacuaaaony, /oi iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiua nenoaiu
nioeeaeueiie caueou nicaeaiu a ?acaeouo no?aiao ie?a, eaeeie yaeythony
no?aiu IYN?. A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao nicaeaiu eeoue ia?aie/aiiua
nenoaiu nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey. Iaeaieaa ino?i i?iaeaiu nioeeaeueiie
caueou noiyo ia?aae iinoeiiioienoe/aneeie no?aiaie Oeaio?aeueiie e
Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho ?uii/iua i?aia?aciaaiey e a
eioi?uo i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann nicaeaiey yoeo nenoai, aaeaeaaoiuo
i?eioeeiai ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Ia iniiaa eco/aiey e iaiauaiey ie?iaie
i?aeoeee, a /anoiinoe no?ai IYN?, enneaaeiaaiu iniiaiua iaoaieciu
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a noa?a nioeeaeueiie caueou, naycaiiua n
i?eiyoeai niioaaonoaothueo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, iaeiaiaie nenoaiie,
ainoaea?noaaiiuie nioeeaeueiuie i?ia?aiiaie, nicaeaieai noeioeia aeey
iaania/aiey aeaaininoiyiey, onoaiiaeaieai i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia,
ieieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou e ae?. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeaii i?iaeaiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uiea o?oaea, /oi eiaao iniaaiii
aeooaeueiia cia/aiea aeey no?ai n ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieeie a oneiaeyo
aic?anoathuae aac?aaioeoeu. ?anniio?aiu iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey
nioeeaeueiie caueou a ?aciuo eiioeaioeeyo e iiaeaeyo nia?aiaiiiai
“ainoaea?noaa aeaaininoiyiey” — eeaa?aeueiie iiaeaee, iiaeaee
?aaoee?oaiiai ?uiea e yiiineie iiaeaee.

Ia cia/eoaeueiii oaeoe/aneii iaoa?eea ?anniio?aiu acaeiinayce e
acaeiicaaeneiinoe nioeeaeueiie caueou n yeaiaioaie iae?iyeiiiieee, /oi
aeaei aiciiaeiinoue i?ineaaeeoue aeeyiea ?anoiaeia ia nioeeaeueiua
i?ia?aiiu ia yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, i?ioeannu eaieoaeiia?aciaaiey,
aeeiaieeo eioeyoeee e aaeain ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, a oaeaea ia
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oe?i no?aiu. Ia iniiaa eiiieaeniiai enneaaeiaaiey
onoaiiaeaii aeeyiea ia aeioiaeu, caiyoinoue e aeaaininoiyiea ni noi?iiu
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia, oaeeo eae aiaoiyy oi?aiaey, ?acaeoea OIE,
iea?aoeey ?aai/ae neeu, eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee.

A aeenna?oaoeee aiaeece?oony i?iaeaiu nicaeaiey nenoai nioeeaeueiie
caueou a no?aiao n ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieeie. Aeieacuaaaony, /oi ?aoathuaa
cia/aiea aeey ?aoi?ie?iaaiey nioeeaeueiie noa?u, noaaeeueiiai ?inoa
aeioiaeia e eo ?aaiiia?iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiatho iae?iyeiiiie/aneea
ia?ii?eyoey, iai?aaeaiiua ia oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iie n?aaeu, no?oeoo?ioth
ia?ano?ieeo yeiiiieee, i?eaaoecaoeeth e ?acaeoea iaeiai e n?aaeiaai
aeciana, noeioee?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, a oaeaea eiaanoeoeeiiiay
iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa e eniieueciaaiea aeaaii?eyoiuo aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo
oaeoi?ia. Aeaeaaony auaiae, /oi a oeaeyo nio?aiaiey e ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/aneiai iioaioeeaea i?ioeann yeiiiie/aneiai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey
aeieaeai eaeoe ia?aeeaeueii e iaeiia?aiaiii n i?ioeannii nicaeaiey
yooaeoeaiie nenoaiu nioeeaeueiie caueou, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue
anaiauae, aeaeie, eiiieaiaioa?iie e i?inoie a oi?aaeaiee, iaania/eaaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue aeioiaea. Nioeeaeueiua i?ei?eoaou iaiaoiaeeii
iniaaiii ouaoaeueii ?aaeeciauaaoue a ia?eiaeu yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia e
?aaeeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i — n oeaeueth nio?aiaiey /aeiaa/aneiai iioaioeeaea e
nicaeaiey oneiaee aeey ia?aoiaea a noaaeeth yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueiay caueoa, nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea,
nioeeaeueiay iiiiuue, nioeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu, /aeiaa/aneee iioaoeeae,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua i?aaiecaoeee, aeiaaeecaoeey yeiiiieee, ?uiie o?oaea,
ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea a nioeeaeueiie noa?a.

Annotation

Sidenko S.V. The development of social security systems under the
globalization of economy. — Manuscript.

Thesis for Doctor of Science (Economics) degree by speciality 08.05.01 —
world economy and international economic relations. — The Institute of
World Economy and International Relations of the National Academy of
Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

The dissertation is based on a principally new methodological approach,
with social protection dealt not as a by-product of economic development
but as a mechanism for preserving and enhancing the human potential. The
mechanisms to provide social security by nine basic sectors are
examined, with their national peculiarities revealed. On the basis of
generalization from international practices, the OECD countries in
particular, the main instruments of government regulation in the fields
of social protection and labour market are investigated. The
interrelations of social security and the elements of macroeconomics are
dealt with, and the impact of external economic factors on the former is
established. The problems related to the creation of social security
systems in transition economies are analysed. Conclusions and
recommendations for practical application in Ukraine are formulated, in
order to create a social security system compatible with the principles
of market economy.

Key words: social security (protection), social insurance, social
assistance, social security programmes, human potential, international
institutions, globalization of economy, labour market, government
regulation of social standards.

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