НАЦІОНАЛЬНА АКАДЕМІЯ НАУК УКРАЇНИ

ЦЕНТР ДОСЛІДЖЕНЬ НАУКОВО-ТЕХНІЧНОГО ПОТЕНЦІАЛУ

ТА ІСТОРІЇ НАУКИ імені Г.М.ДОБРОВА

ЗВОНКОВА Галина Леонідівна

УДК 50(091):62

Розвиток природничих і технічних наук у Харкові в другій половині ХІХ –
на початку ХХ століття

07.00.07 ? Історія науки і техніки

Автореферат

дисертації на здобуття наукового ступеня

кандидата історичних наук

Київ ? 2005

Дисертацією є рукопис

Роботу виконано у відділі історії науки і техніки Центру досліджень
науково-технічного потенціалу та історії науки ім. Г.М.Доброва НАН
України

Науковий керівник: доктор фізико-математичних наук

ХРАМОВ Юрій Олексійович,

Центр досліджень науково-технічного потенціалу та історії науки ім.
Г.М.Доброва НАН України,

завідувач відділу історії науки і техніки

Офіційні опоненти:

доктор історичних наук,

ПЛЮЩ Микола Романович,

Київський міський педагогічний університет ім. Б.Грінченка МОН України,
професор кафедри методики викладання історії і права

кандидат технічних наук, АЛЕКСАНДРОВА Ірина Євгенівна, Національний
технічний університет “Харківський політехнічний інститут” МОН України,

доцент кафедри історії науки і техніки

Провідна організація:

Національний технічний університет України “Київський політехнічний
інститут”, Державний політехнічний музей при НТУУ “КПІ”

Захист відбудеться 16.03.2005 р. о 14 годині на засіданні
спеціалізованої вченої ради Д 26.189.02 в Центрі досліджень
науково-технічного потенціалу та історії науки ім. Г.М.Доброва НАН
України за адресою: 01601, Київ, вул. Грушевського, 4, к. 615.

З дисертацією можна ознайомитися в бібліотеці Центру досліджень
науково-технічного потенціалу та історії науки ім. Г.М.Доброва НАН
України (01032, Київ, бул. Шевченка, 60).

Автореферат розісланий 11.02.2005 р.

Вчений секретар

спеціалізованої вченої ради

кандидат історичних наук В.Г.Гармасар
ЗАГАЛЬНА ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА РОБОТИ

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie coiiaeaia iaaaeueiith iio?aaith iiiiaiaiiy
?noi??ia?ao?? ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? iaoee ? oaoi?ee, aecia/aiiy ?? i?noey
a ?noi??? ?a?iiaenueei? oa na?oiai? iaoee. ?noi?e/iee ? i?aeoe/iee
?ioa?an aeeeeea? oaeiae i?ioean i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai? ?iaioe o Oa?eia? a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O ? ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aea? ciiao
aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? aaiethoe?? oe?a?inueei? iaoee a eiioaeno?
?a?iiaenueeiai oa caaaeueiina?oiaiai ?icaeoeo. Aea/aiiy oeeo ieoaiue ia
iaoa??aeao Oa?eiaa a?aeoai?th? aaaeeeao noi??ieo ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii?
iaoee, i?aeoaa?aeaeo? niaaeei?ii?noue ? oaeineiiaeaiiy oeo oi?i
i?aai?caoe?? iaoee, ye? caa?aaeenue oa ia ao?aoeee naiai cia/aiiy a
Oe?a?i?.

O aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oa?eiaa ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no.
noi?ioaaeany nenoaia i?iaaaeaiiy aeeeaaeaoeueei? oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe, yea ia?aaeaa/aea iaa/aeueiee i?ioean, iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
i?aeaioiaeo iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a. ?yae oiia niiioeaee a/aieo
aei ia’?aeiaiiy ? ?icai?oaiiy iaoeiai-i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a
iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoaao: aeine?aeiee?a i?e?iaee, iaaee/iiio, iaoaiaoe/iiio,
I?aaeaiii-?in?enueeiio oiaa?enoa? oaoiieia?a, n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iieneiaino?, Oa?e?anueeiio a?aeae?eaii?
?in?enueeiai oaoi?/iiai oiaa?enoaa oa ?i.

A aaeocyo o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, a?ieia??, o?i?? e iaaeeoeeie ?in?y
aei ii/aoeo OO no. aeinyaea iaaieo oni?o?a. A/ai? Oa?eiaa ni?eyee
oeueiio nai?th iaoeiaith ? iaaeaaia?/iith ae?yeuei?noth a oaeiae
aeoeaiith o/anoth a ?iaio? i?aeia?iaeieo ? ana?in?enueeeo c’?cae?a.
I?ioa, ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii, iaoea caeeoaeany aoc?anueeith.

C ii/aoeo 20-o ??. OO no. iaoeiaa ?iaioa ii/eia? a?aeie?aiethaaoeny a?ae
iaa/aeueii? ? cina?aaeaeo?oueny a niaoe?aeueii noai?aieo onoaiiaao – ia
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaoaae?ao ? a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeoooao.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith ieai?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o Oeaio?o aeine?aeaeaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo oa ?noi???
iaoee ?iai? A.I.Aeia?iaa IAI Oe?a?ie a aaeoc? ?noi??? iaoee ? oaoi?ee.
Oaia: “Розробка методологічних і методичних основ створення
“Бібліографічного словника діячів природознавства і техніки України”
підготовка реєстру персоналій і створення рукопису словника” (номер
державної реєстрації 0101U 002614).

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:

? oeyoii ocaaaeueiaiiy eiie?aoiiai ?noi?e/iiai iaoa??aeo noai?eoe
oe?e?nio ?noi?eei-iaoeiao ea?oeio ae?yeueiino? a/aieo Oa?eiaa a aaeoc?
iaoaiaoeee, o?ceee, o?i??, iaaeeoeeie, ano?iiii??, aeayeeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy;

? aena?oeeoe oiiae, a yeeo ii/aee i?iaiaeeoeny iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
c’ynoaaoe oaeoi?e, ui ni?eyee i?ia?ano i?e?iaeie/eo ? oaoi?/ieo iaoe;

? aeyaeoe ca’ycee i?ae ie?aieie aaeocyie iaoee ? ?icaeoeii caaaeueii?
eoeueoo?e, aeayeeo noa? noni?eueiiai aeeooy Oa?eiaa.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

? ia iniia? aea/aiiy a?o?aieo oa ?ioeo aeaea?ae a?aeoai?eoe oe?e?nio
?noi?eei-iaoeiao ea?oeio ?icaeoeo i?e?iaeie/eo ? oaoi?/ieo iaoe o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oa?eiaa i?ae aieeaii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?
iie?oe/ieo oiia, ui neeaeenue a ?in?? iai?ee?ioe? O?O noie?ooy, a
caiaeii ? o ia?oa aeanyoee?ooy ?nioaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie;

? c?iaeoe aiae?c iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe a/aieo Oa?eiaa, i?aeaioiaee
iaoeiaeo eaae??a o aei?aaiethoe?eiee ia??iae ? o 20-? ??. OO no.;

? iieacaoe nioe?aeueia cia/aiiy aeayeeo aeinyaiaiue, i?inoaaeeoe, ye
aoea iia’ycaia iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue a/aieo Oa?eiaa ?
iaoeiaoe?a Cao?aeii? ?a?iie;

? aena?oeeoe ? iaaanoe iaeia?aeii? ? iia? oaeoe ae?yeueiino? ? aieeao
iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa ia nioe?aeueia ? eoeueoo?ia aeeooy i?noa;

? aecia/eoe, yeeie /eiieeaie caaacia/oaaeinue ?aeiaiiy iaoeiai? ?
aeeeaaeaoeueei? ?iaioe a nenoai? aeui? ina?oe, ye aoea i?aai?ciaaia
i?aoey a/aieo Oa?eiaa a ?in?? e?ioey O?O noie?ooy ? a ?aaeyinuee?e
Oe?a?i? a 20-o? ?iee OO noie?ooy;

? cae?enieoe a?eueo iiaiee, i?ae oea c?iaeaii iiia?aaeieeaie,
?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c ?ia?o a/aieo uiaei ?icaeoeo i?e?iaeie/eo ?
oaoi?/ieo iaoe o Oa?eia?.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aai?caoe?y iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ae?yeuei?noue a/aieo, iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa, iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaoaae? ?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeooo?a o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O – 20-o? ??. OO no.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?e?iaeie/? oa oaoi?/i? iaoee o Oa?eia? a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O – 20-o? ??. OO no.

науково-дослідних кафедр і науково-дослідних інститутів. Ca aeiiiiiaith
nenoaiiiai aiae?co i?iaiae?ciaaii i?ioeane i?aai?caoe??
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe a aeu?e oeie?, eieaeoeaieo oi?iao
i?aai?caoe?? ? науково-дослідних кафедрах і науково-дослідних
інститутах. Aeey aena?oeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai cia/aiiy iaoeiai?
ae?yeueiino? caeo/aii noaoenoe/iee iaoiae. ?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiee iaoiae
iaaeaa iiaeeea?noue iieacaoe aoaeoeai?noue iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe a
oiiaao ?in?? e?ioey O?O noie?ooy ? 20-o ??. OO noie?ooy. A on?o
?icae?eao aeei?enoaii aiae?c ? neioac.

Ia??oiooaaiiy ia??iaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy. O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy
ioiieththoue ia??iae c ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O ? aei e?ioey 20-o ??. OO no.
Ia?ai? iaae? iaaeathoue iiaeeea?noue iieacaoe i?aai?caoe?th ? ci?no
iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? a/aieo oi?aa?neoaoo, aaoa?eia?iiai, oaoiieia?/iiai
? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeooo?a Oa?eiaa o aeaio nenoaiao
noni?eueiiai eaaeo – a oiiaao ?in?enueei? ?iia???, a caiaeii ? a oiiaao
?nioaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie; ?ice?eoe iai?yiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe ia iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaoaae?ao oa a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?inoeoooao.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa eai?oae?noe/iiai ?icaeoeo o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O
no. a iniiaieo ?iaeono??aeueieo oeaio?ao ?in?? a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ioaineaia
aaiethoe?y ina?oiuei?, iaoeiai? ? nioe?aeueii? noa?, caiice/o?oueny
aeina?ae ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i a i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe aeui? oeiee,
i?aeaioiaee a/aieo.

Aei na?aaeeie O?O no. Oa?e?anueeee oi?aa?neoao iaaoa aeina?aeo
aeeeaaeaiiy ? aeine?aeaeaiue a aaeoc? iaoaiaoeee, o?ceee, o?i??,
iaaeeoeeie, ano?iiii??. C ae?oai? iieiaeie oeueiai ae noie?ooy
ii/eia?oueny i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ? aaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue o aaoa?eia?iiio ? oaoiieia?/iiio ?inoeoooao. C 1914 ?.
aei ieo i?e?aeiaany ? Iiai-Ieaenaiae??enueeee ?inoeooo n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa e?niaiaenoaa (c 1921 ?. ? Oa?e?anueeee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo), ui aoa ia?aaaaeaiee c Iieueu?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy o?iiieia?/ii iaiaaeaia 20-ie ??. OO no., eiee o
Oa?eia? ii/aee noaa?aeaeoaaoeny iia? eieaeoeai? oi?ie iaoeiai? ?iaioe ?
iaoeiai-aeine?aei? eaoaae?e ? iaoeiai-aeine?aei? ?inoeoooe.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeaeoaee ii?ooaii, ui aeeeeeaii
iaiao?aei?noth iieacaoe ?noi?e/i? ei?ai? aai iane?aeee oiai /e ?ioiai
yaeua.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy:

? aia?oa cae?eniaii ?noi?eei-iaoeiaee aiae?c ?icaeoeo i?e?iaeie/eo ?
oaoi?/ieo iaoe o Oa?eia? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.;

? aia?oa ocaaaeueiaii ? aena?oeaii ci?no ? iniaeeaino? ?iaioe oaeeo oi?i
i?aai?caoe?? iaoee o Oa?eia?, ye iaoeiai-aeine?aei? eaoaae?e ?
iaoeiai-aeine?aei? ?inoeoooe;

? i?iaiae?ciaaii caeiaooee a/aieo Oa?eiaa a ie?aieo aaeocyo i?e?iaeie/eo
? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, ?o ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ?c caei?aeiiieie iaoeiaoeyie,
?ieue aea?aeaae a ?icaeoeo iaoee, ci?oeiaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?
ina?oiueiai iioaioe?aeo;

? aecia/aii /eiieee, ye? aeaaaee iiaeeea?noue iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iei
i?aoe?aieeai Oa?eiaa iae?aoe i??i?eoaoe iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
ae?yeueiino?;

? aia?oa eiiieaenii cae?eniaii aiae?c i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa Oa?eiaa ? ?o aieea ia nioe?aeueia ?
eoeueoo?ia aeeooy i?noa;

? cae?eniaii a?eueo iiaiee, i?ae oea c?iaeaii iiia?aaeieeaie,
?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c ?ia?o a/aieo ye? i?aoethaaee o Oa?eia? o O?O –
ia ii/aoeo OO no. uiaei ?icaeoeo i?e?iaeie/eo ? oaoi?/ieo iaoe;

? ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a, ui aeei?enoaii a
aeena?oaoe??, aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao cai?iaaaeaeo?oueny aia?oa.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ? ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiiaiththoue iayaiee oai?aoe/iee a?naiae
oe?a?inueei? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee. Aeniiaee ? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? caeaoi? iaaiith i??ith caaeiaieueieoe iio?aae iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie c i?iaeaie, ui aea/aeany, ? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
i?e ?ic?iaoe? niaoeeo?n?a c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ?noi??? iaoee ? oaoi?ee,
?noi??? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, ?noi??? ie?aieo i?e?iaeie/eo ? oaoi?/ieo
iaoe, a oe?eiio aoc?anueei? iaoee Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae aeeth/ai? aei oaeeo
iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?i, ye iie?oieia?y oa nioe?ieia?y. Iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny o aeeeaaeaii? iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?i c
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e oa nioe?ieia?? o
Oa?e?anueeiio iaaeaaia?/iiio eieaaeae?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O?e ioae?eaoe?? aoee iaienai? o
ni?aaaoi?noa?:

?Aoc?anueea ina?oa ? iaoea o Oa?eia?: ?noi?e/iee aeneo?n o e?iaoeue 19 –
ii/aoie 20 noie?ooy (ni?aaao. E.I.A?nia) // A?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Oa?e?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”: Ca. iaoe.
i?aoeue. O., 2001. – ? 6. – N.10–13 (aaoi?nueea o/anoue 50%, i?aea?? ?
oc???????????

? Iaoeiai-i?ina?oieoeueea ? aeoiaia ?iaioa iocath Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?Oa?e?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo? (ni?aaa.
Ae?iiaa A.A., A?nia E.I., ?aiao/aiei A.A.) // Caa?aaeaiiy iai’yoie iaoee
? oaoi?ee a iocayo: ?noi??y, aeina?ae, ia?niaeoeaa. – Ca. iaoe. noaoae.
E., 2001. – N.49–53 (aaoi?nueea o/anoue 25%, cai?iiiiiaaii no?oeoo?o
ioae?eaoe??).

? Iaoeia? oeiee IOO “Oa?e?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”:
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/ee aniaeo (ni?aaa. A?nia E.I., AEi?i?e I.?.) //
Aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?noi??? oaoi?ee. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei. 2. – E.:
“Iie?oaoi?ea”, 2003. – N.93–99 (aaoi?nueea o/anoue 40%, aeeeaaeaii
?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae ca?iaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo oe?e o OO?).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo
?noi??? iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oeaio?o aeine?aeaeaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
iioaioe?aeo oa ?noi??? iaoee ?iai? A.I.Aeia?iaa IAI Oe?a?ie. Ie?ai?
iieiaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue a?iiaaenueeino?: ia i?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? (Oa?e?a, o?aaaiue 2001 ?.); o?ueio i?aeaoc?anueeeo
eiioa?aioe?yo (Ee?a, o?aaaiue 2000 ?., Oa?e?a, ea?oaiue 2001 ?. oa
o?aaaiue 2002 ?.); Ia?o?e Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? ?noi?ee?a iaoee
(Ee?a, 13–15 eenoiiaaea 2002 ?.); Ia?o?e oa ae?oa?e Anaoe?a?inuee?e
eiioa?aioe?yo ?noi?ee?a oaoi?ee (eenoiiaae 2002 ?., eenoiiaae 2003 ?.);
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo Oe?a?ie (Ee?a,
o?aaaiue 2003 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe?? .Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy iaoeiai? i?aoe? a?aeia?aaeaii o 13
noaooyo, 8 c yeeo iioae?eiaaii o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo caaaeueiei ianyaii
iiiaae o?e ae?.a?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Caaaeueiee ianya noaiiaeoue 232 noi??iee c yeeo iniiaiee oaeno 186
noi??iie. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, ui
i?noyoue 23 i?ae?icae?ee, aeniiae?a, 19 aeiaeaoe?a, (17 c yeeo o
aeaeyae? oaaeeoeue), ia?ae?eo nei?i/aiue, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
oa e?oa?aoo?e (277 iaeiaioaaiue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie; noi?ioeueiaaii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoo ? caaaeaiiy; aecia/aii o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, oai?aoe/i?
iniiae oa iaoiaee iaoeiaiai iiooeo; ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe; a?aeia?aaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i
ai?iaaoe?th iniiaieo iieiaeaiue.

O ?icae?e? ? ??noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy?
cae?eniaii ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e. Iaei??th c
iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae aiae?co ? ioiieaiiy e?oa?aoo?e, yea a
noeoiiino? a?aeia?aaea? ?noi?e/i?, a?ia?ao?/i?, niaoe?aeueii-i?ioan?ei?
oa nioe?aeuei? ieoaiiy iaoeiai? e ina?oyinueei? ae?yeueiino?. ?iaioe
a/aieo, i?aai?caoi??a i?ioan?eii? ina?oe o Oa?eia? aei?aaiethoe?eiiai
ia??iaeo, a?aeianai? aei ia?oi? a?oie ?ia?o. ?oi?e aiae?c aeeeeeaiee
?noi?e/iith caoe?eaaeai?noth aei ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe ? iaoee,
yeee noeioethaaany iio?aaaie noni?eueiiai ? eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy
aei?aaiethoe?eiiai Oa?eiaa. Ooo i?noyoueny ia?aeii? a?aeiiino? uiaei
iaoeiaeo caeiaooe?a a/aieo a aaeoc? o?ceee ? oaeeo ?? ?icae?e?a, ye
iaoai?ea, iioeea, aeaeo?eea, a oaeiae a aaeocyo o?i??, iaoaiaoeee,
o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??, iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, aeaeo?ioaoi?ee.

Aei ae?oai? a?oie ?ia?o a?aeianaii aeaeaiiy c ?noi??? iaa/aeueieo
onoaiia ? iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa.

O?aoth a?oio e?oa?aoo?e neeaaeathoue i?aoe? c ?noi??? ?icaeoeo ie?aieo
aaeocae iaoee, aea i?noyoueny a?aeiiino? i?i iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/io
ae?yeuei?noue a/aieo.

Aei /aoaa?oi? a?oie ?ia?o a?aeianaii aeaeaiiy ? ca?oe, i?ioieiee
can?aeaiue ?aae aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa.

O i’yo?e a?oi? c?iaeaii aiae?c i?aoeue ?aaeyinueeeo aaoi??a 20-o ??., a
yeeo ia??oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeiei??iii? eiiee
nenoaie aeui? ina?oe oea?nueei? ?in??, aaaeaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe.

Aei oinoi? a?oie ?ia?o a?aeiinyoueny aeieoi?nuee? e eaiaeeaeaonuee?
aeena?oaoe?? c ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, ui i?yii aai iia?/ii oi?eathoueny oaie
iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c iieacaa: a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? iiee ui
iaaeinoaoiuei aena?oeai? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo iaoee ? oaoi?ee a Oa?eia?.
Aeaoaeueiiai aiae?co aeiaaathoue oae? oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai?
?iaioe, ye iaoeiai-aeine?aei? eaoaae?e ? iaoeiai-aeine?aei? ?inoeoooe.

O ?icae?e? 2 ? Iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao
Oa?eiaa a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO noie?oue (aei 1914 ?.)?
ia?oee i?ae?icae?e ?ice?eaa? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa iie?oe/i?
/eiieee, ye? ni?eyee ?icai?oaiith iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o Oa?eia?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? aena?oeaii, a yeeo iai?yieao i?aoethaaee
Ae.I.Aeaea?th, A.A.?ioaiaoeueeee, E.I.Aiae???a, I.I.Oeoiiaiae?eoeueeee,
I.I.Eyioiia, A.A.Noaeeia, Ae.I.Neioeia, Ae.I.A?aaa, N.I.Aa?iooaei.
Iieacaii, ye oi?ioaaeinue ?o ieneaiiy i?ae aieeaii i?aoeue ?in?enueeeo ?
ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, cie?aia oaeeo ye, I.Oa?i?, AE.Eaa?aiae, E.sseia?,
A.TH.Aeaaeaeia, I.A.Aoaaeia, I.E.*aaeoaa.

A oeueiio ae i?ae?icae?e? c?yniaaii, ye noai?thaaeany
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia aaca aeey iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai? ?iaioe
ano?iiiiaie A.I.Aea?aa’yiei, ?.?.N?ei?ith, E.I.No?oaa, A.A.Eaaeoeueeei,
I.I.?aaeieeiiaei. Ooo i?iaiae?ciaaii aianie a/aieo oi?aa?neoaoo a aaeoc?
o?ceee, o?i??, aioai?ee, a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. Aena?oeaia ae?yeuei?noue
aioai?ea ? a?iiaaenueeiai ae?y/a A.I.Aaeaoiaa. Iieacaii, a yeeo
iai?yieao ? ca yeeo oiia i?aoethaaee o?ceee-aenia?eiaioaoi?e
I.E.Iiai??eei ? I.Ae. Ieeue/eeia (a oi?aa?neoao?). ?ice?eoi
ae?yeuei?noue Ae.A.?iaeainueeiai c o?ce/ieo iniia ?aae?ioaoi?ee,
ae?yeuei?noue eiai o/iy A.I.Neooee?ia.

A aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeaii ae?yeuei?noue I.I.Aaeaoiaa a aaeoc? o?ce/ii?
o?i??. Iieacaii, ui iei caii/aoeiaaii ia?oo a Oe?a?i? iaoeiao oeieo,
i?aaenoaaieeaie yei? noaee A.I.Aeueoaeia, O.I.Oeaaиoeueeee, I.A.*i?ia,
?.I.In?iia, A.O.Oeiio??a, Ae.I.O?oaaao.

Ocaaaeueiaiiyi aeaea?aeueieo aeaieo aena?oeaii ?icaeoie iaaee/ii? iaoee
o Oa?eia?, iieacaii, ye iiiaethaaeenue i?ia?aie iaa/aiiy iaeaooi?o
e?ea??a c oai?aoe/ii? o??o?a??, caaaeueii? aiaoii??, noaeiai?
iaaeeoeeie, /anoeiai? o?c?ieia?? ? caaaeueii? iaoieia??, iia?aoeaii?
o??o?a??, aeooa?noaa, iieniai? aiaoii??, /anoeiai? iaoieia?? ? oa?ai??.
?ice?eoi aieea ia iaaee/io iaoeo e?ea??a A.A.O?aieianueeiai,
ss.E.Ai?aaiueiaa, i?ioani??a ss.N.E?aiyinueeiai ? A.O.Eociaoeiaa.
I?iaaaeaii aiae?c iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? a/aieo-iaaeaaia?a: o??o?a?a
A.O.A?oaa ? I.I.O??ieea?a, a?io?i?ea I.ss.Aeaieeaanueeiai ? o?c?ieiaa
A.ss.Aeaieeaanueeiai, iooaeueiieiaa E.E.A??oiaia, aeooa?-a?iaeieiaa
?.I.Eaca?aae/a, ee?i?oeenoa A.A.Eaoeaae/a – o/iy N.I.Aioe?ia, aiaoiia ?
aianoac?ieiaa A.A.Ai?iaeiaa oa ?i. Aenia?eiaiooth/e a eaai?aoi??yo
a?aeiieo a/aieo ?a?iie, aeine?aeieee Oa?eiaa aeiaoiaeeee iia? iaoiaee e
?ino?oiaioe, ciaeiieee c ieie oao?aoe?a ia i?aeia?iaeieo aenoaaeao,
ioae?eoaaee iaoeia? i?aoe? a ?in?? ? ca ei?aeiiii. Aiie ?i?oe?thaaee ?
i?aai?ciaoaaee i?io?eaeoe/i? caoiaee, a?aee?eooy e?eoaaeueieo,
aeine?aeieo ? ina?oi?o onoaiia i?noa, ?iciianthaeaeoaaee
iaoeiai-iiioey?i? ciaiiy.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? i?inoaaeo?oueny, ca yeeo oiia oi?ioaaeeny
iaa/aeuei? i?ia?aie oa i?aai?ciaoaaeeny iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy o
aaoa?eia?iiio ?inoeooo?. Aeiaaaeaii, ui, iath/e aeinoaoith
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/io aaco, ?inoeooo ia i?iaaaeea iaoeiai? ?iaioe.
Caeo/aiiy o 1884 ?. aei oe??? ni?aae i?ioani??a oi?aa?neoaoo
A.I.Oeieiaa, I.I.Aaeaoiaa, I.O.Noaiaiiaa, I.N.A??i, A.A.Oeoiiiae/a
ni?eyei iiaeaaaeaiith i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiaiai i?ioeano. Aiane?aeie
i?eioeeiiai? iiceoe?? caaaeaieo a/aieo a?aeaoeanue cai?ia aeeeaaea/?a,
ie?aieo caa?aeoaa/?a eaoaae?, ye? aaeueioaaee ?icaeoie iaoee, aoei
caeo/aii aei o/aiaiai i?ioeano iiaeo i?ioani??a c Oa?e?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, Iaoa?ao?ao, Aa?oaae, in?a, ye? iaa/aeeny ca ei?aeiiii.
AEi?noe? oiiae aoee aenoioo? aei aeai?o eaiaeeaeao?a ia i?noea aeaoeeo
i?ioani??a ? ia cai?uaiiy aaeaioieo eaoaae?, i?aeaioiaee aeanieo
iaoeiaoe?a. Aoei aeae?eaii eiooe ia aoae?aeth iiaeo i?ei?uaiue ?
caeoi?aeth iaeaaeiaiiy aeey iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Ii/aea i?iaaaeeoeny
iaoeiaa ?iaioa, aeaeaaaoeny ca??ieee i?aoeue a/aieo ?inoeoooo.

O oeueiio ae i?ae?icae?e? aena?oeaii iane?aeee aenia?eiaiooaaiiy ?
i?aeoeee uaieaiiy i?ioe nea??ee a aaaaoueio ?aa?iiao ?in?? i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii i?ioani??a: Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?
E.N.Oeaieianueeiai ? Iaoa?ao?cueei? Iaaeeei-o??o?a?/ii? aeaaeai?? ?
I.I.?a?anueeiai. Iaaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aaeoeei,
noai?aieo a/aieie aaoa?eia?iiai ?inoeoooo ? NOA, O?aioe??, Oai?ueie oa
Oaaeoea???. Aoei ?aae?ciaaii ?aeath noai?aiiy o Oa?eia? aaeoa??ieia?/ii?
noaioe??, a?aeaoeiny iioe?aiiy aeina?aeo ?? ?iaioe a ?in??. Ooo ii/aee
aea/aoe ?ioaeoe?ei? oai?iae ? canoiniaoaaoe niiniae ai?ioueae i?ioe
oai?ia: ?iae? naeiae, ?oiuei? /oie, a?nie iaaoeue, naio eiiae.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? ae?oaiai ?icae?eo iieacaii, ye
cae?enithaaeinue noaiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ? eiai
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace, ye A.E.Ee?ie/ia, aeei?enoiaoth/e aeina?ae
naiai a/eoaey ?.I.Aeoiaa?aaenueeiai, noai?ea ooo oiiae aeey iaa/aiiy ?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe. Iaenoa?i? e eaai?aoi??? oaoiieia?/iiai
?inoeoooo noaee i?noeai i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, yeeo aeiaaaee
i?aei?e?inoaa Oa?eiaa oa ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a ?in??. Aiae?cii a?o?aieo
aeieoiaio?a iieacaii, ui a?ae?yaeaeaiiy ca ei?aeii ? a iaaeao ?in??
i?ioani??a oa caa?aeoaa/?a eaai?aoi??yie aeeeooaaeiny iio?aaaie
iiiiaiaiiy ?oi?o iaoeiaeo ciaiue aeey iaienaiiy i?ae?o/iee?a, aea/aiiy
iaoiae?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. I?ae?aoiaaii, ui ca 1888 – 1916 ??.
i?ioani?e ? aeeeaaea/? ?inoeoooo c iaoith iiiiaiaiiy ciaiue ?
i?aeaioiaee aei i?ioani?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a?ae’?caeeee o
a?ae?yaeaeaiiy, ia Ana?in?enuee? ? I?aeia?iaei? c’?caee iiiaae 400
?ac?a. Aiae?c ca?o?a i?i a?ae?yaeaeaiiy aei Aano???, Aaeuea??,
I?ia//eie, O?aioe??, NOA oa ?i. ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i ? a iaaeao ?in??
na?ae/eoue, ui aiie ? i?eeeaaeii iaoeiaiai ia??oiooaaiiy iaoiae?a ?
caoiae?a uiaei iie?auaiiy eiino?oeoe?e iaoei ? oaoiieia?e, i?aai?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa.

A eaai?aoi??yo ?inoeoooo aae’thieo-i?ioani? I.E.Iiai??eei aeaiiino?oaaa
i?iieeiaiiy e??cue ethaenueeee i?aai?ci O-i?iiai?a. Ia can?aeaii?
iaaee/iiai oiaa?enoaa a?i c?iaea aeiiia?aeue i?i aeei?enoaiiy a?aee?eooy
A.E.?aioaaia aeey ae?aaiinooaaiiy caoai?thaaiue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
?aae?iea?iaaieo naiio?aeieo iaoai?ci?a, ca’yceo i?ae ia?ooiiith ?
?ooiiith ?aae?inoaioe?yie i?iaiaeea I.Ae.Ieeue/eeia. Iei aoei
aeei?enoaii ?aae?ioaeaa?ao aeey i?aeoe/ieo iio?aa iaoai?ieia??, noai?aii
o?ce/io eaai?aoi??th, iaeio c e?aueo a ?in??. Aiia noaea ia?oei
ina?aaeeii aeine?aeaeaiue c ?aae?io?ceee o Oa?eia?. Ooo aaee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeio ?iaioo c oaeeo iai?yie?a: i?ioani?-o?i?e I.I.*a?iae –
aenia?eiaioe c ae??th oeneo ia aonoeio aeayeeo o?i?/ieo ?a/iaei;
aeeeaaea/ A.ss.Ieeiae/ – c iioe?aiiy iioieo caoeiaeo oaeeue; eaai?aio
I.I.?eue?a – c aeaeo?io?i?/iiai caienoaaiiy ciae?a ia no??/oe? oaeaa?aoo
Ii?ca , aea/aiiy oa?iino?oi?a o ii?ioeiiiae?aieo o?eao oa ?i.

Ia iniia? aiae?co a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a aena?oeaii ?icaaeoaeaiee niaeo?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ia caiiaeaiiy ? a?ae i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa,
i?aai?caoe?e ? aeaniee?a, cainoa, aoaa?i?e, o?ainii?oieo onoaiia ?
noiniaii aeine?aeaeaiiy c?ace?a iaoaeo ia ?ic?ea ??cieo aeae?a cae?ca ?
/a?aiii? i?ae?, aeanoeainoae eai?iiy aeey cae?cieoeue, iiaeeeainoae eiai
aeei?enoaiiy aeey nii?oae, aiaee ?c naa?aeeiaei aeey ia?iaic?a, c
e?eieoeue ? ia caeeth/aiiy i?i i?eaeaoi?noue ?? aei aaeeaaiiy
ianaeaiiyi, eai’yiiai aoa?eey ? ia o?i?/iee neeaae, oeaaee ? ia
aecia/aiiy neee iii?o ia ?icae??aiaiiy, oeoe?iaiai i?neo ? ia
caeaoi?noue iiaeeiaoe aieiao c iia?o?y ? i?aeeyaaoe ci?iai, eoeo?oaece
??cieo ni?o?a ? c iaoith aecia/aiiy ci?noo e?ioiaeth oa ?i. Ca iaoeie
i?ae?aooieaie a ia??iae c 1894 ii 1914 ??. a eaai?aoi??yo ?inoeoooo
i?iaaaeaii iiiaae 400 iaoai?/ieo, o?ce/ieo ? o?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. C
ii/aoeii ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie ooo ii/aeeny iiooee oeyo?a a?o/eciyiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa iaioieo, aaena-iao?eaio, aeaceioaeoe?eiiai ieea,
a?a?ineii?/ii? aaoe, aeae?eaiiy eiaeo c aiaee aaeeinueei? iaooe.

?icae?e 3 “Iaoeia? oiaa?enoaa Oa?eiaa ye ina?aaeee i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iiaaaiaee ciaiue ? iioe?aiiy eoeueoo?e”

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aena?oeai? ia?aaeoiiae noai?aiiy iaoeiaeo
oiaa?enoa Oa?eiaa o O?O no. C’yniaaii, ye? /eiieee ni?eyee aeieeiaiith
oaei? oi?ie ae?yeueiino? a/aieo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? cae?enithaaeenue o/anieeaie oiaa?enoa, ia aoiaeeee
aei ieai?a ?ia?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, a ca?iaeaeoaaeenue c ?i?oe?aoeae
a/aieo ? iaoa??aeueii i?aeo?eioaaeenue c aieo oiaa?enoa. ?aea? a/aieo
/anoi ?aae?ciaoaaeenue i?noeaaeie e aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? iieacaii eiie?aoio ae?yeuei?noue oiaa?enoaa
aeine?aeiee?a i?e?iaee. Cie?aia, ye /eai oiaa?enoaa, i?ioani?
i?ia?aeia?? oi?aa?neoaoo I.Ae.Ai?enye iiaeaa i?eeeaae iiaea?oaoaaiue ia
aoae?aieoeoai iia?o?yii? eoe? I.Eaa?aioue?aei. I?ioani? I.I.Aaeaoia
eiinoeueooaaa aeiao?aeieea, i?aai?coaaa ia?aa??eo i?ini/oaaiino? eoe? a
eaai?aoi???. A/ai? oi?aa?neoaoo aeiiiiiaee aeiao?aeieeo c?iaeoe aeaye?
iaoaiaoe/i? ?ic?aooiee eoe?. Iieueioe a ieieeoeyo Oa?eiaa c iaoeiaith
aia?aoo?ith cae?enithaaeenue ia aenio? 3000 i. A iaeiiio c oaeeo
iieueio?a acya o/anoue i?ioani? TH.?.Ii?icia. Aeiiiiiaa I.Eaa?aioue?ao
iaaeaea iiaeeea?noue cae?enieoe oae? iieueioe a Iinea?, Iaean?,
?inoia?-ia-Aeiio, Oaaai?ic? oa ?ioeo i?noao. O i?ae?icae?e? aena?oeaii
aea/aiiy /eaiaie oiaa?enoaa i?aai?/ii? e iai?aai?/ii? i?e?iaee,
?aeue?oo, ee?iaoo, oei?e ? oaoie ia eeoa oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, a e
aaaaoueio ?aa?ii?a ?in??.

Ae?yeuei?noue iaaee/iiai oiaa?enoaa, iai?yiee eiai ?iaioe aena?oeai? o
o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e?. C’yniaaii, ca yeeo oiia, i?e o?iainia?e ?
ii?aeuei?e i?aeo?eioe? a?iiaaenueeino?, oiaa?enoai aeinyaei oni?oo o
a?aee?eoo? AE?ii/iai iaaee/iiai oa Ianoa??anueeiai ?inoeooo?a, e?ea?aiue
i?noa. Iieacaia ni?ai?aoey eiai /eai?a c iaoeiaoeyie ?a?iiaenueeeo
e?a?i.

Iaoaiaoe/ia oiaa?enoai, ae?yeuei?noue yeiai aeine?aeaeo?oueny o
/aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e?, ia’?aeioaaei iaoaiaoee?a, iaoai?e?a, o?cee?a ia
o?eueee Oa?eiaa. Eiai ii/anieie /eaiaie aoee i?ioani?e Ee?aa, Iineae,
Iaoa?ao?ao. Ooo iaaiai?thaaeenue iia?aeiieaiiy eiai /eai?a, ?oiy o/anoue
a ?iaio? c’?cae?a, aoaiiaoaaeanue iai’youe aeaeaoieo a/aieo. Oae, o 1916
?. Ae.I.Neioeiaei ia can?aeaii? oiaa?enoaa aoei c?iaeaii aeiiia?aeue
“I?i Nio?th Eiaaeaanueeo oa ?? iaoeia? i?aoe?”. I?eeiyoi ??oaiiy i?i
aeaeaiiy i?aoeue a/aii?. *eaie oiaa?enoaa ?aoeaicoaaee ? ?aeiiaiaeoaaee
aei ae?oeo i?aoe? c iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co, aaiiao???, iaoaiaoe/ii?
o?ceee, iaoai?ee. Iaea?eueo aeoeaieie eiai /eaiaie aoee iaoaiaoeee ?
iaoai?ee A.A.?ioaiaoeueeee, I.I.Eyioiia, Ae.I.Neioeia, N.I.Aa?iooaei,
I.I.Naeoeeia.

O i’yoiio ? oinoiio i?ae?icae?eao iieacaii, ca yeeo oiia noai?ai? ? ia
yeeo canaaeao i?aoethaaee Oa?e?anueea a?aeae?eaiiy ?in?enueeiai
oaoi?/iiai oiaa?enoaa (OA ?OO) ? I?aaeaiii-?in?enueea oiaa?enoai
oaoiieia?a (I? OO). Iaaaaeaii ?oi?e neeaae. ?ice?eoi, yeo aeiiiiiao
/eaie oiaa?enoa iaaeaaaee aea?aeaaiei i?aaiai ? i?aei?e?inoaai,
oaa?eeaioai ? caaiae/eeai o ae??oaii? ieoaiue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo i?aaeiy ?in??, i?aai?caoe?? aenoaaie. Aiie ?ic?iaeyee
iieiaeaiiy ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ei?enooaaiith i?eeaaeaie ? i?eno?iyie,
oaoi?oe? aaciaee. Oae, o 1884 ?. ia aeno?aiiio can?aeaii? OA ?OO aoei
i?aeo?eiaii i?ioaiiy a??ie/eo i?iieneiaoe?a Aeiiaano noiniaii iacaiaee
i?i ia iiiaeaoeiaoaaiiy eai’yiiai aoa?eey, ui i?eaoaa? c-ca ei?aeiio aei
/i?iiii?nueeeo ii?o?a, ine?eueee oea iaaea?aeii aeey ?ioa?an?a e?a?ie.
Oea aaeueioaaoeia ?icaeoie Aeiiaoeueeiai i?iieneiaiai oa ?ioeo
a??ie/ii?iieneiaeo ?aeii?a. Nai? ??oaiiy OA ?OO iiaeaei aei o?yaeo.
Ii?yae c iaaiai?aiiyi ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a/aieo, a
iie? ci?o OA ?OO ? I? OO aoee ieoaiiy i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a o
ieae/eo ?ai?nie/eo oeieao, oiia i?aoe? ia i?aei?e?inoaao, i?aai?caoe??
caaaeueiiaeinooiieo eaeoe?e aeey ?ia?oiee?a oa ?o n?iae. I? OO
?i?oe?thaaei noai?aiiy o Oa?eia? AE?ii/iai iie?oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo. O
1914 ?., ni?eueii c iaoaiaoe/iei oiaa?enoaii, aoei iaaiai?aii ieoaiiy
i?i aeeeaaeaiiy aeui? iaoaiaoeee a na?aaei?e oeie?. ?acii c oa?e?anueeei
oiaa?enoaii n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iieneiaino? (OONA ? NAI) OA ?OO i?aai?coaaei aei?iaoaaiiy aeaeaoi?a
aioo??oiueiai cai?yiiy. *eaie oaoi?/ieo oiaa?enoa aoee aeoeaieie /eaiaie
I?aeia?iaeieo ? Ana?in?enueeeo c’?cae?a, aenoaaie.

??aoi?ia nenoaie aeui? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ? iiooe iiaeo oi?i iaoeiai?
ae?yeueiino? a 20-o? ?iee OO noie?ooy ?.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aena?oeaii noni?eueii-iie?oe/io neooaoe?th, a
ye?e a?aeaoaaeiny ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeui? ina?oe, i?aai?caoe?y iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeo i?eioeei?a, ? iiaoaeiaa
i?ieaoa?nueei? iaoee. Ooo aea a?aeia?aaeaii i?ioean ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
aeui? ina?oe oeyoii a?aeie?aieaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe a?ae
iaa/aeueii?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? aena?oeaii i?eioeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaoaae?, ye iiaeo oi?i i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai?
ae?yeueiino?. O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? iieacaii ?iaioo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? eaoaae?e o?ceee ? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? eaoaae?e
ano?iiii?? Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo ia?iaeii? ina?oe (O?II). Ia?oo c 1921
?. i/ieea Ae.A.?iaeainueeee, ae?oao ? I.I.?aaeieeiia. A?aeia?aaeaii, ye
ia iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e eaoaae?? o?ceee i?iaaaeeeiny aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy ei?ioeeo oaeeue aeey ca’yceo ia aaeee?
a?aenoai?, aaia?oaaiiy aeaoeeiao?iaeo ? naioeiao?iaeo oaeeue. Ooo aia?oa
A.I.Neooee?iei ? Ae.N.Ooaeiaa?aii aoei io?eiaii iaaiao?iii? eieeaaiiy c
aeiaaeeiith oaee? 7,3 ni. ? noai?aiee iaaiao?iiiee aaia?aoi?. Oea
aecia/eei ia aaaaoi ?ie?a iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue ?aae?io?cee?a Oa?eiaa.
C 1924 ?. /eaie eaoaae?e ii/aee i?aoethaaoe ia iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
eaoaae?ao aeaeo?ii?ee i?e Oa?e?anueeiio oaoiieia?/iiio ?inoeooo?. C 1926
?. ciiao a?aeiiaeth? ?iaioo iaoeiai-aeine?aeia eaoaae?a o?ceee i?e
Oa?e?anueeiio ?inoeooo? ia?iaeii? ina?oe i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
Ae.A.?iaeainueeiai. C 1927–1928 ??. ia oe?e eaoaae?? oi?io?oueny
eieaeoea ?aae?io?cee?a, yeee i?iaeiaaeea iiooe iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy
ei?ioeeo oaeeue aeey ca’yceo ia aaeee? a?aenoai?. C i?aai?caoe??th
Oe?a?inueeiai o?ceei-oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo (OOO?), aei neeaaeo yeiai
oa?eoee eaai?aoi??y, a caiaeii naeoi? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo eieeaaiue,
?icii/aeany oai?/a ni?aae?oaei?noue eieaeoea?a ?aae?io?cee?a O?II ?
OOO?.

Aena?oeaii oiiae, ui ia?aoeiaeaeaee iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e eaoaae??
ano?iiii?? aei 1923 ?. ?icai?iooe aeine?aeaeaiiy. A ianooii? ?iee ooo
aoei c?iaeaii ?yae a?aee?eoo?a I.I.?aaeieeiiaei, I.I.Aa?aaaoiaei,
A.I.Inoauaiei-Eoae?yaoeaaei, Ae.E.Iaaea?aei, N.I.Nai?e?oiaei oa ?i. O
neeaae? aeaeaaao?a Oe?a?ie /eaie eaoaae?e acyee o/anoue a ?iaio?
Ananithciiai c’?caeo ano?iiii?a. I?ioani?e I.I.?aaeieeiia ?
A.I.Aa?aneiiae/ aoee i?aaenoaaieeaie ia I?aeia?iaeiiio ano?iiii?/iiio
eiia?an? a Eiiaiaaaai?. Ieie cae?eniaii caoiaee ii i?iaaaeaiith o 1926
?. oi?oio ano?iiii?a o Oa?eia?. I?ioyaii ianooiieo ?ie?a /eaie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? eaoaae?e ano?iiii?? iioae?eoaaee ?acoeueoaoe nai?o
niinoa?aaeaiue.

*aoaa?oee i?ae?icae?e ?ice?eaa? ae?yeuei?noue iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
eaoaae? Oa?e?anueeiai oaoiieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo: oaoiieia?? i?ia?aeueieo
? oaoiieia?? i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, a?ae?aae?ee ?
aa?aoe??; noai?aiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace aeey aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie. Ooo aena?oeaii caoiaee o?yaeo ii
o?iainoaaiith iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaaiaeeoueny oa?aeoa?enoeea
?ia?o, aeeiiaieo i?ae ea??aieoeoaii i?ioani??a A.O.I?ineo?e, ?.?.I?eiaa,
I.?.Eociaoeiaa, A.?. E?anonueeiai, A.A.O??a, A.O.Ao?aeiaa, A.A.Iii?/a,
O.A.A?eyeiaa, E.?.Aaeaiae?ia, A.A.Aeiaa ? ?oi? aeani? ?iaioe. Iieacaii,
ye oi?ioaaany neeaae ani??aio?a, ci?no i?ia?ai iaa/aiiy, oiiae ?oiuei?
?iaioe ? caoeno aeena?oaoe?e. Aena?oeaii aaia?ao?th a?ae?yaeaeaiue
a/aieo ? ani??aio?a ca ei?aeii ? a N?N?, oaiaoeeo ieoaiue, ye?
aea/aeeny, ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeyaeaii i?e/eie
iia??oaiiy ?iaioe ie?aieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaoaae? iai?ee?ioe? 20-o
??., iaae?iiy ?ioa?ano aei iaa/aiiy a ani??aioo??.

O i’yoiio ? oinoiio i?ae?icae?eao iieacaii, ye, c i?e/ei iaiaaeaiiai
o?iainoaaiiy, iayaiino? neaaei? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace,
a?aenooiino? noeioe?a, no?eioaaany ?icaeoie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia
eaoaae?ao aaoa?eia?iiai ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeooo?a. O?eueee
c ae?oai? iieiaeie 20-o ??. a/aieie aei?aaiethoe?eii? aeui? oeiee aoei
io?eiaii ia?o? eiie?aoi? ?acoeueoaoe ia iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaoaae?ao
??oioiciaanoaa, i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa e?niaiaenoaa,
ee?i?/ii? aaoa?eia???. Ooo iaoeiai-aeine?aeia ?iaioa aeoea?coaaeany
oiae?, eiee aei neeaaeo eaoaae? oa?eoee ani??aioe ? nooaeaioe noa?oeo
eo?n?a. O iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaoaae? aeyaeeanue aeniea a?aeo/?noue
ani??aio?a, iaaeinoaoi?noue ?oi?o ciaiue. O i?aoe?aiee?a eaoaae? ia aoei
aeaiaioa?ieo oiia i?aoe? c i?e/ei a?aenooiino? eioo?a. C oeeo aea i?e/ei
ia iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaoaae?ao ia aea/aeenue aaaeeea? ieoaiiy
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

?icae?e 5 „Iaoeiai-aeine?aei? ?inoeoooe ye iniiaia oi?ia iaoeiai?
ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?” aena?oeth?, ye ooieoe?iioaaee iaoeiai-aeine?aei?
?inoeoooe a Oa?eia? o ia??iae, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny.

?icae?e i?noeoue iaoa??aee i?i ci?no ? iai?yiee ?iaioe
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeooo?a: o?i?ei-oa?iaoeaaoe/iiai,
?aioaaiieia?/iiai ? ?aae?ieia??, a oaeiae Oe?a?inueeiai
o?ceei-oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo (OOO?), ?inoeoooo iaoae?a ? ?inoeoooo
nee?eaoii? i?iieneiaino?. Iieacaii, ye i?e a?aenooiino? caaeia?eueiiai
o?iainoaaiiy ? aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? eaae?o?eiaaieo eaae??a, iaeaaeieo
oiia i?aoe?, oe?eani?yiiaaii ae??ooaaeeny i?iaeaie боротьби з
oaeueneo?eaoe??th e?e?a, caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy e?eaie a?o/eciyiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, ae?aaiinooaaiiy ? e?eoaaiiy oai?eo.

?ice?eoi ae?yeuei?noue eiie?aoieo aeeiiaaoe?a ?ia?o a OOO?,
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? iaoae?a ? iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo?
nee?eaoii? i?iieneiaino?. Aeinyaiaiiy aaaaoi a /iio iiyniththoueny
nii??aeiaiith i?aoeath iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaoaae? ?inoeoooo ia?iaeii?
ina?oe ? oaoiieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo, aenieith eaae?o?eaoe??th eaae??a.
Aena?oeaii aieea A.O.?iooa ia i?aai?caoe?th, oi?ioaaiiy eaae??a,
aecia/aiiy iai?yie?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue OOO?, ui ni?eyei noai?aiith
ia?oi? a?o/eciyii? e??iaaiii? eaai?aoi???, aea iacaaa?ii, aia?oa a N?N?,
caii/aoeiaaii aeine?aeaeaiiy a aaeoc? o?ceee iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?. Naia a
OOO?, aia?oa a eiioeiaioaeuei?e ?a?ii?, ?icuaieaii yae?i aoiia e?o?th.

Ia aac? a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a ?ice?eoi ?iaioo ia?oiai o na?o? ?inoeoooo
nee?eaoii? i?iieneiaino? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii i?ioani?a ?.?.I?eiaa. ?iaioa
?icai?oaeany a eaai?aoi??yo Oa?e?anueeiai oaoiieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ? ia
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao. Ooo aeeiioaaeeny aeine?aeaeaiiy ia
caiiaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoa Oe?nee?eaoo?anoo, O?iaoa?eey, I?aaeainoae?,
oeaaaeueiiai o?anoo oa ?i. Iieacaii, eei ? ye? aoee aeiaeaeai?
aeiiii?/ii aea?aei? niiniae, ye ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny iaoiaee aeei?enoaiiy
aiaiao?eaeeo aeei, eaie?io aeey iio?aa iaoaeo?a?eii?, neeyii?,
oeaiaioii? oa ?ioeo aeae?a i?iieneiaino? N?N?.

Ae?yeuei?noue iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo iaoae?a, yeee i/ieea
i?ioani? I.I.Iooa/ia, aoea ni?yiiaaia ia aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae iaoae?a, aeae?eaiiy a ieo ai?noo aeii?oie, aecia/aiiy
??aeeicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a o noae?, ia oiiae ?? caa?thaaiiy ? ia?iaee,
eeooy, caeaaeiino? i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaoaeo?a?eieo ia/ae a?ae ??cieo
oaeoi??a ? aeiiii?/io aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo aeae?a iaeeaa.
A?aeia?aaeaii ieaie, aeiiii?/i? iieacieee aeeiiaiiy ?ia?o a eaai?aoi??yo
i?aei?e?inoa-caiiaiee?a.

O aeniiaeao aeeeaaeaii iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Aia?oa a?aeoai?aii oe?e?nio ?noi?eei-iaoeiao ea?oeio ae?yeueiino?
a/aieo Oa?eiaa a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O ?ia ii/aoeo OO no. a aaeoc?
i?e?iaeie/eo ? oaoi?/ieo iaoe.

і розвинув ii?yae c I.Oaneith iaoiae ?aae?iea?oaaiiy, iiaoaeoaaa
ia?anoaio ?aae?inoaioe?th.

3. Iieacaii, ui a Oa?e?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? I.I.Aaeaoiaei caii/aoeiaaii
o?ce/io o?i?th, ye iiao iaoeiao aeenoeeie?io, ? noai?aii ia?oo a ?in?? ?
Oe?a?i? iaoeiao oeieo a oe?e aaeoc?.

4. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ae?yeuei?noue Ae.A.?iaeainueeiai, ye ea??aieea
?aae?io?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, oa ?iaioe eiai o/i?a A.I.Neooee?ia ?
Ae.N.Ooaeiaa?aa iieeaee ii/aoie oi?ioaaiith oa?e?anueei? ?aae?io?ce/ii?
oeiee.

5. Aia?oa eiiieaenii aena?oeaii i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue
iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa Oa?eiaa, iniaeeaino? ?oiuei? ?iaioe a O?O oa ia
ii/aoeo OO no. Iieacaii, ui oe? oiaa?enoaa aoee a?euei? o aeai??
oaiaoeee aeine?aeaeaiue, a ?o i?iiiceoe?? /anoi i?aeo?eioaaeeny o?yaeii
? ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny o i?aeoeeo (aoae?aieoeoai iia?o?yii? eoe?
I.I.Eaa?aioue?aei, a?aee?eooy AE?ii/iai iaaee/iiai oa Ianoa??anueeiai
?inoeooo?a, canioaaiiy Aeueo iie?oaoi?/ieo eo?n?a aeey ae?iie ). A 20-o
??. OO no. ae?yeuei?noue aaaaoueio iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa aoei i?eieiaii.

6. I?iaiae?ciaaii nenoaio i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe a
Oa?eia? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O ? 20-o ??. OO no. Iieacaii o?niee ca?ycie
iaa/aeueieo ? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo i?ia?ai.

7.Aia?oa aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaiaeyoueny iia? iaoeia? oaeoe, iia? oa
iai?acaaoo? ?iaia a/aieo, ye? i?aoethaaee a Oa?eia? a aeine?aeaeoaaiee
ia??iae.

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??????aeia eaoaae?a oaoiieia?? i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
oaoiieia?/iiio ?inoeooo?); aecia/aii i?e/eie naiicaeiaiiy aoa?eey,
?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii iaoiae iaea?aeaiiy c iaooe ao??ieo eeneio
(iaoeiai-aeine?aeia eaoaae?a oaoiieia?? i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei i?e
Oa?e?anueeiio oaoiieia?/iiio ?inoeooo?); ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aiae?co
ea?aiiaoieo ii??ae ? ??oio?a, neeaaeaii ea?oo ??oio?a Oe?a?ie
(iaoeiai-aeine?aeia eaoaae?a ??oioiciaanoaa i?e
N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ?inoeooo?).

9. Aeine?aeaeaii oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? iaoee a Oa?eia? iai?ee?ioe? 20-o
?ie?a OO no. – iaoeia? ?inoeoooe; aia?oa aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaaaeaii
?acoeueoaoe iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? iecee caaooeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?inoeooo?a: oiiaeeeaeaii aeyaeaiiy oaeueneo?eiaaieo iaaeeeaiaio?a;
iaeaaiaeaeaii ae?iaieoeoai a?o/eciyiiai i?aia?aoo Aloform cai?noue
caei?aeiiiiai i?aia?aoo Xeroform (O?i?ei-oa?iaoeaaoe/iee ?inoeooo);
aeiaeaeaii niin?a ae?iaieoeoaa o?i?/ii /enoiai ieeno aethi?i?th c aeei,
iaoiae iaea?aeaiiy aia?ae?eoiaiai oeaiaioo a caaiaenueeeo oiiaao,
io?eiaiiy oeaeiaiai oeaiaioo aac aeiaaaee oeaiaioo ee?iea?a (?inoeooo
nee?eaoii? i?iieneiaino?); aecia/aii aeiionoei? iaae? ai?noo oinoi?o ?
n??ee o eeaa?iiio /aaoi?, aeine?aeaeaii ?iaioo ia?oai?anueei? ia/? i?e
iiaeaii? ?? iacooii (?inoeooo iaoae?a), aia?oa a N?N? ?icii/ao?
e??iaaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?icuaieaiо yae?i aoiio e?o?th ooo/ii
i?enei?aieie i?ioiiaie, iaea?aeaii ??aeeі aiaeaiue ? aae?e (Oe?a?inueeee
O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo).

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o ianooiieo ?iaioao:

1. Caiieiaa A.E. Aei ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo iaoee a Oe?a?i? o O?O – ia ii/aoeo
OO noie?oue: ?noi?e/iee ? iaoiaeieia?/iee aniaeoe. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue.
Na??y “?noi??y oa aaia?ao?y”. – Oa?e?a: “IAN”, 2000. – Aei.5. – N.163
?171.

2. Caiieiaa A.E. Aei noi??iie ?noi??? a?o/eciyii? iaoee: (e?iaoeue 19 –
ii/aoie 20 noie?ooy) // ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? iaoee ia iaae? oeny/ie?oue.
Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – E., 2000. – Aei. 2. – N.30 –34.

3. Caiieiaa A.E. Iaoea Oa?eiaa (1850?1920): ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? iaoee
ia iaae? oeny/ie?oue Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – E., 2001. ? Aei. 4. – N.73 –
80.

4. Caiieiaa A.E. ?icaeoie i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe a Oe?a?i? o ae?oa?e iieiaei?
O?O ? ia ii/aoeo OO noie?oue. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Na??y “?noi??y oa
aaia?ao?y”. – Oa?e?a: “IAN”, 2001. –Aei.7. – N.141–154.

5. Caiieiaa A.E. Iaoeia? oa oaoi?/i? oiaa?enoaa Oa?eiaa a O?O – ia
ii/aoeo OO no. // Ia?en c ?noi??? i?e?iaeiciaanoaa ? oaoi?ee. – E.:
Oeaio? aeine?aeaeaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo oa ?noi??? iaoee
?i. A.I.Aeia?iaa IAI Oe?a?ie, 2002. – ?44. – N.155 –164.

6. Caiieiaa A.E. Iaoeia? oeiee IOO “Oa?e?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo”: ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/ee aniaeo (ni?aaao. A?nia E.I., AEi?i?e
I.?.) // Aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?noi??? oaoi?ee. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei. 2. –
E., 2003. “Iie?oaoi?ea”. – N.93 – 99.

7. Caiieiaa A.E. I?aai?caoe?y iaoeiai? ?iaioe a Oa?eia? o 20-? ?iee OO
noie?ooy // Aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?noi??? oaoi?ee. ? Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei.
3. – E., 2003. “Iie?oaoi?ea”. – 2003. ? N.113 ? 123.

8. Caiieiaa A.E. Ae?yeuei?noue iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaoaae? Oa?eiaa o
20-o? ?iee OO noie?ooy // Iaoea oa iaoeiciaanoai. ? 2004. ? ? 2. ?N. 113
– 124.

9. Caiieiaa A.E. Oo?eoe aei ii?o?aoo A.E.Ee?ie/iaa oa eiai aianeo o
oi?ioaaiiy, i?aai?caoe?th, ?icaeoie ? ci?no a?o/eciyii? ?iaeaia?ii?
ina?oe // Oe?a?inueea ae?oa oa ?? ?ieue a aea?aeaaioai?aii?. Ca. iaoe.
i?aoeue ?1?(14). Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? (18–19 o?aaiy 2000 ?.). – E., 2000. – N.12 –17.

10. Caiieiaa A.E. Iaoeiai-i?ina?oieoeueea ? aeoiaia ?iaioa iocath
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?Oa?e?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo? (ni?aaa. Ae?iiaa A.A., A?nia E.I., ?aiao/aiei A.A.) //
Caa?aaeaiiy iai’yoie iaoee ? oaoi?ee a iocayo: ?noi??y, aeina?ae,
ia?niaeoeaa. – Ca. iaoe. noaoae. E., 2001. – N.49–53.

11. Caiieiaa A.E. Aoc?anueea ina?oa ? iaoea o Oa?eia?: ?noi?e/iee
aeneo?n o e?iaoeue 19 – ii/aoie 20 noie?ooy (ni?aaao. E.I.A?nia) //
A?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Oa?e?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. O., 2001. – ?6. – N.10 –13.

12. Caiieiaa A.E. Iaoea o Oa?e?anueeiio aaoa?eia?iiio ?inoeooo? o
ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O – 20-? ?iee OO noie?oue // Ainueia eiioa?aioe?y
iieiaeeo ?noi?ee?a ina?oe, iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie. 23 o?aaiy 2003 ?. –
E., 2003. – N.80 ?90.

13. Caiieiaa A.E. Iaoeiai?aeine?aeia ?iaioa o Oa?e?anueeiio
oaoiieia?/iiio ?inoeooo? iai?ee?ioe? O?O ? ii/aoeo OO noie?oue //
Iaoa??aee 2-? Anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ?noi???
oaoi?ee”. ? E., 2003. ? N.18 ?19.

AIIOAOe?ss

Caiieiaa A.E. ?icaeoie i?e?iaeie/eo ? oaoi?/ieo iaoe o Oa?eia? a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O ? ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.07 ? ?noi??y iaoee ? oaoi?ee. Oeaio?
aeine?aeaeaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo oa ?noi??? iaoee ?iai?
A.I.Aeia?iaa IAI Oe?a?ie. ? E., 2005.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eoi iniaeeaino?, aioo??oi? ? ciai?oi? /eiieee, ui
noeioethaaee i?ia?an i?e?iaeie/eo ? oaoi?/ieo iaoe o aei?aaiethoe?eiiio
Oa?eia? oa o ia?oa aeanyoee?ooy ?nioaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie. Iieacaii
iniaenoee aianie a/aieo oi?aa?neoaoo, aaoa?eia?iiai, oaoiieia?/iiai ?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeooo?a o nea?aieoeth ?a?iiaenueei? iaoee,
cie?aia, c o?ceee, o?i??, a?ieia??, iaoaiaoeee, iaaeeoeeie, aaoa?eia???,
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. Aecia/aii ?ieue ? i?noea aeinyaiaiue iaoeiaoe?a i?noa
ia oe? ?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e.

Aena?oeaii, ye noai?thaaeenue oiiae iie?auaiiy i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a, aoaeoeaiiai aaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, ui iaee i?eeeaaeiee
oa?aeoa? ? aeaaaee nioe?aeueiee aoaeo. I?iaiae?ciaaii ae?yeuei?noue
iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa, ye ia’?eoeaiiai i?ioeano ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai
caaaa/aiiy a/aieo, i?aeaeuaiiy caaaeueii? ? i?ioan?eii? eoeueoo?e.

Aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? aei?aaiethoe?eiiai ? ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iae?a o
oa?aeoa?? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith ?
i?aai?caoe?????????????????????????????

Oaeei /eiii, iaoeiaith i?aoeath /anoeiai caiiaiaii i?iaaeeio o
a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? c ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo i?e?iaeie/eo ? oaoi?/ieo
iaoe o Oa?eia? o o?iiieia?/ieo ?aieao ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O ? ii/aoeo OO
noie?ooy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeua ina?oa, iaa/aeueia aeenoeeie?ia, aeine?aeaeaiiy,
eaai?aoi??y, iaoea, oaoi?ea, iaoeiaa oiaa?enoai, eaoaae?a, iaoeiaa
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai, eoeueoo?a, iaoeiai-aeine?aeia eaoaae?a,
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo.

AIIIOAOeEss

Caiieiaa A.E. ?acaeoea anoanoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo iaoe a Oa?ueeiaa ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia O?O ? ia/aea OO noieaoey. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.07 ? enoi?ey iaoee e oaoieee. Oeaio?
enneaaeiaaiee iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai iioaioeeaea e enoi?ee iaoee eiaie
A.I.Aeia?iaa IAI Oe?aeiu. ? E., 2005.

A aeenna?oaoeee aini?iecaaaeaia целостная enoi?e/aneay ea?oeia ?acaeoey
anoanoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo iaoe a iaeiii ec e?oiiuo iao/iuo, eoeueoo?iuo
e i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia Oe?aeiu ? Oa?ueeiaa ? ai aoi?ie iieiaeia O?O ?
ia/aea OO noieaoee. Aei yoiai iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey было ecaeaii ?yae
enoi?e/aneeo e ioaeeoeenoe/aneeo o?oaeia, a eioi?uo iaiauaeenue
?acoeueoaou a aeinoeaeaiee oie eee eiie iaeanoe iaoee. I?e/?i aieueoay
/anoue yoeo o?oaeia iaeiinoi?iiia ?ane?uaaea oieueei iieiaeeoaeueiua
iiiaiou a i?aaiecaoeee o/aaiie e iao/iie ?aaiou. Anee e auee iiiuoee
?ane?uoue a aaeeinoaa oaeoth aeayoaeueiinoue a ioaeaeueiii aunoai
o/aaiii caaaaeaiee, oi iieacuaaee a? a io?uaa io
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee. Ie iaeia ec ?aaio i?aaeoanoaaiieeia
ia ?ane?uaaea a eiiieaena enneaaeoaioth oaio a iauaaa?iiaeneii
eiioaenoa.

A aeenna?oaoeee naeaeai enoi?eia?aoe/aneee aiaeec o?oaeia
o/?iuo-iaaeaaiaia aunoae oeieu enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea. Aia?aua
inouanoae?i aiaeec cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ?aaio, ecaeaiiuo a aeiniaaoneee
ia?eiae. Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo ?yae iaeiecaanoiuo oaeoia ii
i?aaiecaoeee iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee a Oa?ueeiaa, nioeeaeueiuo e
eoeueoo?iuo i?aia?aciaaiee.

Eniieuecoy iauai?eiyooth iaoiaeeeo, a aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee
iaiauaii cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai aeieoiaioia ainoaea?noaaiiuo a?oeaia,
?aiaa ia aaiaeeiuo a iao/iue iai?io.

Oaeei ia?acii, eco/aia aeayoaeueiinoue aunoae oeieu e ioaeaeueiuo o/?iuo
Oa?ueeiaa a oneiaeyo ?inneeneie eiia?ee e Niaaoneie Oe?aeiu.

???????ыaeia, I.A.Aoaaaa, I.E.*aauoaa.

Niaea?aeaony eioa?aniua iaoa?eaeu ii iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe
O.O.Ineiianeiai, A.I.Aea?aayiei, E.E.Neei?u, E.I.No?oaa, A.A.Eaaeoeeiai,
I.I.?aaeieeiiaa, I.I.Aa?aaaoiaa a iaeanoe ano?iiiiee. Iieacai aeeaae a
iaoeo oeceeia A.E.Iiai?aeei, I.Ae. Ieeue/eeiaa, Ae.A.?iaeaineiai,
Ae.N.Ooaeiaa?aa, A.A.Neooeeeia, a oaeaea aioaieea A.I.Aaeaoiaa. Iaoe?iua
naaaeaiey i?aaenoaaeaiu i noaiiaeaiee e ?acaeoee oa?ueeianeie
iaaeeoeeineie iaoee o?oaeaie a?a/ae: A.A.O?aieianeiai, ss.E.Ai?aai?aa;
i?ioanni?ia ss.N.E?aiyineiai e A.O.Eociaoeiaa. Naeaeai aiaeec
ioaeaeueiuo iao/iuo ?aaio o/aiuo-iaaeaaiaia: iaoieiaa-aiaoiia
A.I.E?ueiaa, iaoieiaa E.I.Iaieaineiai, oe?o?aa A.O.A?oaa, aeioeieea
A.ss.Aeaieeaaneiai, oeceieiaa A.ss.Aeaieeaaneiai, iooaeueiieiaa
E.E.Ae?oiaia, aeooa?a-aeiaeieiaa E.I.Eaca?aae/a, eeeieoeenoa
A.A.Eaoeaae/a, ? o/aieea N.I.Aioeeia, ? iniiaaoaey oa?ueeianeie oeieu
iaoioeceieiaia, A.A.?ai?aaa, oe?o?aia N.Ae.Einoth?eia, I.I.O?eieea?a,
aiaoiia e aianoaceieiaa A.A.Ai?iaue?aa.

Ia iniiaaiee a?oeaiuo aeieoiaioia aia?aua ?ane?uoa eieoeeaoeaiay ?ieue
i?ioanni?ia oieaa?neoaoa A.I.Oeieiaa, I.I.Aaeaoiaa, I.O.Noaiaiiaa,
I.N.A?ei, A.A.Oeoiiiae/a, E.N.Oeaieianeiai a inouanoaeaiee ia?ii?eyoee
ii i?aiaeieaieth canoiy a ?acaeoee aaoa?eia?iie iaoee Oa?ueeiaa. Eo
?aaioa a yoii iai?aaeaiee ai iiiaii niaeaenoaiaaea caaiaaaieth
aaoi?eoaoa aaoa?eia?iiai einoeoooa o oicyenoaaiieeia ?innee e ca
?oaaaeii.

Показано, как осуществлялось становление технологического института и
его материально-технической базы, роль в этом процессе В.Л.Кирпичева. На
основании архивных документов освещен разветвленный спектр
научно-исследовательских работ на заказ, которые проводил Харьковский
технологический институт.

Ioaeaeueiui ?acaeaeii a aeenna?oaoeee i?aaenoaaeaia aeayoaeueiinoue
iao/iuo iauanoa Oa?ueeiaa, eae oeaio?ia iauaaeeiaiey iao/iuo nee.
?ane?uoi eo aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea nioeeaeueiie noa?u, ia?aciaaiey,
eoeueoo?u ai?iaea, ?aoaiea ?yaea aii?inia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey.

Показано, что в высших учебных заведениях Харькова второй половины ХІХ
века, сформировалась система преподавательской и
научно-исследовательской работы, которая предполагала учебный процесс,
научные исследования и подготовку научно-педагогических кадров.

Iaiauaieai a?oeaiuo aeieoiaioia a aeenna?oaoeee aini?iecaaaeaia
enoi?e/aneay ea?oeia ?aoi?ie?iaaiey aunoae oeieu e i?aaiecaoeee iao/iie
?aaiou ia iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo eaoaae?ao e a
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo einoeoooao Oa?ueeiaa a 20-o aa. OO no.
Освещен процесс реформирования системы высшего образования путем
отделения научно-исследовательской работы от учебного процесса. ?ane?uou
iniaaiiinoe iiiiiieueiiai oi?aaeaiey aunoae oeieie e iao/iie ?aaioie a
oneiaeyo aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee e Niaaoneie Oe?aeiu. Iieacaiu
приоритетные результаты, которые были достигнуты учеными Харькова на
научно-исследовательских кафедрах и научно-исследовательских институтах.

Oaeei ia?acii, iao/iie ?aaioie, eaeie yaeyaony aeenna?oaoeey, caiaoii
ainiieiai i?iaae a ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?e/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ii ?acaeoeth
anoanoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo iaoe a Oa?ueeiaa a o?iiieiae/aneeo ?aieao
aoi?ie iieiaeiu O?O ? ia/aea OO aaeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aunoaa ia?aciaaiea, enneaaeiaaiea, eaai?aoi?ey, iaoea,
oaoieea, iao/iia iauanoai, eaoaae?a, iao/iia nio?oaeie/anoai, eoeueoo?a,
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay eaoaae?a, iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee
einoeooo.

ANNOTATION

Zvonkova G.L. The development of natural and engineering sciences in
Kharkov during the second part of O?O century ? beginning of the OO
century. – Manuscript.

The thesis for obtaining the scientific degree of Candidate of
historical sciences in speciality 07.00.07 – The history of science and
engineering – G.M.Dobrov Center for Scientific and Technological
Potential and Science History of NAS of Ukraine E., 2005.

The thesis is investigated the peculiarities, internal and external
reasons of evolution of natural and engineering sciences in
pre-revolutionary Kharkov and during the first decade of Soviet Ukraine.

Personal contribution of scientists from the university, veterinarian,
technological and agricultural institutes to the treasury of the
European science, especially in physics, chemistry, biology,
mathematics, medicine, veterinary, machine building, electro techniques
is shown. The role of the scientists and position of their analysis in
European culture background is explored.

The terms of specialist training, effective running of scientific
researches that had practical character and improved social effect. The
activities of scientific and engineering communities as a base of
objective process of intellectual enrichment of scientists, growing of
professional culture is investigated. The peculiarity of
pre-revolutionary and soviet systems in the high education and the
scientific research management, young scientists training is explored.

The thesis is partly fill up the pause in national historiography of the
problem of the development of natural and engineering sciences in
Kharkov during the second part of O?O century beginning of the OO
century.

Key words: high school, course, research, laboratory, scientific
community, scientific, engineering, department, scientific cooperation,
culture, cathedra of scientific, institute of scientific.

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