OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

E?aa/aiei Oaoyia Ieeiea?aia

OAeE 947(477.54) «18»/»19″:373.3

?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe

ia Oa?e?auei?

a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no.

07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?A?eioea?e?anueeee
Aaneeue sseiae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
A.N.Neiai?iaee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Oaioeth?a Aaneeue ?aaiiae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
caa?aeoaa/ caaaeueiioi?aa?neoaonueei? eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo aeaa iiceoeaiee a?aecea ?c
caoaaaeaiiyie:

Eieii??oeue Oaoyia Aanee?aia, eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e oe?a?iiciaanoaa Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa I?i?noa?noaa
aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie aeaea iiceoeaiee a?aecea ?c caoaaaeaiiyie:

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 15-00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.10 a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee ( 310077, i Oa?e?a,
iaeaeai Naiaiaee, 4, aoae. IV-65)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
A.N.Neiai?iaee ( 310077, i Oa?e?a, iaeaeai Naiaiaee, 4, aoae. IV-65)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 23 ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ioaa/
?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ina?oa ? aieiaiith oiiaith ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai,
eoeueoo?iiai, aeooiaiiai, nioe?aeueiiai e aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa oa aea?aeaae. Aac ?icaoaeiae nenoaie ina?oe, ??
aeiei??iiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaiiaeeeaa a?aeoai?aiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai,
aeooiaiiai iioaioe?aeo ia?iaeo, iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino?, aeaiie?aoecaoe?y noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

Iniiaith nenoaie ia?iaeii? ina?oe ? ii/aoeiaa oeiea. Aiia caeeaaea?
i?aeaaeeie na?oiaeyaeo, aecia/a? aieiai? iai?yiee o?ce/iiai,
ii?aeueiiai, ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai c?inoaiiy iaeaooiueiai a?iiaaeyieia.
Ai?ioueaa ca no/anio iaoe?iiaeueio oeieo caaaeaee ciaoiaeeea i?aeo?eieo
a oe?ieeo aa?noaao oe?a?inueei? a?iiaaenueeino?. Iaaeiei ia?iaeii? oeiee
ia’?aeioaaeeny iiaeaeaeieee-aiooc?anoe, iaoeaiaoe, eoeueoo?i? onoaiiae
oa i?aai?caoe??.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ina?oe aaaeeeai ia ao?aoeoe ?? e?au?
?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe??. Aaeaea aiie iiaeooue ? iiaeii? noaoe a i?eaiae?
no/aniei ina?oyiai. C oe??? oi/ee ci?o iniaeeao oaaao i?eaa?oa? aiioa
ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O—ii/aoeo OO no., iciaiaiiaaia i?enei?aiith
iiaea?i?caoe??th an?o noa? noni?eueiiai aeeooy, i?aeianaiiyi
a?iiaaenueeiai ?ooo, noaiiaeaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e oa ina?oe. Ia
oa?eoi??? Iaaeaei?i?yiueie, ui aoiaeeea aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia???,
ao?oeeaee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie noia?a/eeai ii?aeioaaany c
iineeaiith ?oneo?eaoe??th. I?ioa a ie?aieo i?noeaainoyo Oe?a?ie oeae
i?ioean a?aeaoaaany ii-??ciiio. Ia aeiaaeeiai ?noi??y ina?oe a ?aa?iiao
aaaaea?oueny nueiaiaei? iaei??th c oeaio?aeueieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo
i?iaeai oe?a?inueei? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee.

Neiaiaeaiueia, a?eueoa /anoeia yei? a O?O—ia ii/aoeo OO no. ia?aaoaaea a
iaaeao Oa?e?aueie, aeae?eyeany c-iii?ae ?ioeo i?noeaainoae Oe?a?ie
?noioieie iniaeeainoyie ?noi?e/iiai aoooy. Aeaye? c ieo coiiaethaaeeny
aeaai?ie o?aaeeoe?yie ina?oiuei? ni?aae, iia’ycaieie c ?nioaaiiyi
Oa?e?anueeiai eieaa?oio, a?aee?eooyi ia?oiai ia Iaaeaei?i?yiuei?
oi?aa?neoaoo a 1805 ?., i?aai?caoe??th ina?oiuei? ni?aae a iaaeao
Oa?e?anueeiai o/aiaiai ie?oao. ?io? aeieeee a oiiaao no??ieiai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO
no. ? aoee iia’ycai?, cie?aia, c i?iieneiaei aoae?aieoeoaii, i?eoieii
a?o/eciyiiai oa ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo, aeieeiaiiyi iiaeo eiioi?eaoe?e,
i?a?aoe?eieie i?ioeanaie. I?e oeueiio cia/iee a?aenioie
?in?enueeiiiaiiai ianaeaiiy c?inoaa, iniaeeai a i?noao, ca ?aooiie
i?e?aeaeaeeo c ?in??. Iio?aae aeiiii?ee aeaaeii aeiaaaee iiiaeaiiy oa
i?enei?aiiai ?icaeoeo caaaeueii? ? niaoe?aeueii? ina?oe ia oa?eoi???
e?ath.

Nai???aei?noue ina?oi?o i?ioean?a ia Oa?e?auei? cia/iith i??ith
caeaaeaea a?ae ?icaeoeo a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy. Oa?e?aueia, ye a?aeiii,
iaeaaeaea aei /enea aoaa?i?e, aea c 1864 ?. ae?yee cainoaa. ?icaeoie
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ooo noi?iaiaeaeoaaany oe?ieei ?iciaoii
a?iiaaenueeiai ?ooo, noai?aiiyi /eneaiieo eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e oa onoaiia, /ey ae?yeuei?noue aoea iniaeeai iii?oiith a
aaeoc? ina?oe. Ia Oa?e?auei? aeieeaee oa ae?yee i?aeoe/ii an? iniiai?
oeie ia?iaeii? oeiee — a?ae aea?aeaaii?, a?aeii/i?, oea?eiaii? aei
cainueei?, a?iiaaenueei? ? i?eaaoii?. Cae?eniaiiy ina?oiuei? ?aoi?ie ia
Oa?e?auei? a?aeia?aaeaei, oaeei /eiii, ia eeoa ?? ?aa?iiaeueio
niaoeeo?eo, a e aeaye? caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? a iaaeao on???
?in?enueei? ?iia???.

Oea?nueeee o?yae o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. iineeea ?oneo?eaoe?th a
Oe?a?i?, cie?aia, ? a oea?ei? ina?oe. Oea icia/aei, ui iiea aeey
ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo aiooc?ano?a iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe iino?eii
ciaiooaaeiny. Oe?a?inueea oeiea oa ina?oa ia Oa?e?auei?, oaeei /eiii,
noeeaeeny c aaeeeeie o?oaeiiuaie, a?eueoeie, i?ae a ?ioeo aoaa?i?yo
Oe?a?ie, ine?eueee a e?a? aeeaoa i?oee ?oneo?eaoe?ei? i?ioeane.

Ona neacaia coiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueiee oa
i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an oaie aeena?oaoe??. Aaaaoee aeina?ae, iaa?iiaaeaeaiee
oa?e?anueeeie iaaeaaiaaie, aeoeaia o/anoue a?iiaaenueeino? a i?ioean?
?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oe, ?nioaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo oi?i ? iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo
ii/aoeiai? oeiee, — ana oea nueiaiaei? iiaea e iiaeiii aooe ei?eniei
aeey oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

I?ae oei, ?noi??y ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei? ae?oai? iieiaeie
O?O—ii/aoeo OO no. aein? ia aoea iinoaaeaia ye ie?aia iaoeiaa i?iaeaia ?
ia ciaeoea iaeaaeiiai aena?oeaiiy a niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeyo.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaia ii/aoeiai? ina?oe, yea neeaeany ia
Oa?e?auei? ? aeeth/aea a naaa iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee, i?aaie ?oiueiai
oi?aae?iiy, o/eoaeuenueeee oa o/i?anueeee eiioeiaaio, iaoiaeeeo
iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa ? /anoeiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
A.N.Neiai?iaee, a oaeiae ia? ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie eaoaae?e
?noi??? Oe?a?ie ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy — ae?oaa iieiaeia

O?O—ii/aoie OO no., aecia/athoueny, c iaeiiai aieo, ii/aoeii cae?eniaiiy
?aoi?i o ?in?enuee?e ?iia???, neeaaeiaith /anoeiith yeeo aoea ina?oiy, a
c ae?oaiai — ia?oith aeaiie?aoe/iith ?aaiethoe??th 1905 ?., yea, a naith
/a?ao, a?aee?eea iiao noi??ieo a ?noi??? ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?? — Oa?e?anueea aoaa?i?y a iaaeao
O?O—ii/aoeo OO no.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe — aea/eoe ?icaeoie
ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia oa?eoi??? Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i?? a ae?oa?e iieiaei?
O?O—ia ii/aoeo OO no. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iinoaaeai? oae?
caaaeaiiy:

· c’ynoaaoe ??aaiue ?icaeoeo, no?oeoo?o ii/aoeiai? ina?oe e?ath
iaia?aaeiaei? neanoaaiiy e??iaoeoaa;

· aea/eoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/i? oiiae,
iaoai?ci ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoi?ie oeiee ia Oa?e?auei?;

· aena?oeeoe ae?yeuei?noue iniiaieo oei?a caeeaae?a ii/aoeiai? ina?oe;

· i?inoaaeeoe ci?ie a nenoai? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe oa anoaiiaeoe
?acoeueoaoe ?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui a
iueiio aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? cae?eniaii eiiieaenio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo nenoaie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei? a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O—ia ii/aoeo OO no., cie?aia:

· aena?oeaii iniiai? aoaie, oeyoe, iaoiaee ? ?acoeueoaoe ?aoi?ioaaiiy
ia?iaeii? oeiee;

· ?ice?eoi ?ieue aea?aeaae, oea?eae, oe?iei? a?iiaaenueeino? a
?icaoaeia? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe;

· aeaii ii??aiyeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iniiaieo oei?a ina?oi?o caeeaae?a,
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a ieo;

· aea/aii nenoaio i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee, e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni?
ia?aiao?e a/eoaeuenueeiai ei?iono, oiiae aeeooy oa ?iaioe a/eoae?a;

· ooi/iaii e aeiiiaiaii noaoenoeeo ia?iaeii? ina?oe, a oiio /ene?
e?euee?noue iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ? ??aaiue ienueiaiiino? ianaeaiiy;

· ocaaaeueiaii a?aeiiino? i?i ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??
uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaaaaeaiee a i?e
oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, aeniiaee oa ocaaaeueiaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
a i?ioean? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oi?i ? iaoiaeee ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia
Oa?e?auei?, a oaeiae i?e noai?aii? eaeoe?eieo aoc?anueeeo caaaeueieo oa
niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a, iaoeiaeo oa iiioey?ieo aeaeaiue e?a?ciaa/iai
oa?aeoa?o; ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a
nenoai? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Aieiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy iia?aeiieyeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
?noi??? Oe?a?ie Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee. Iaeaaaeeea?o? ieoaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
i’yoe iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo — ?aa?iiaeueieo (“?aa?iie a iacaeaaei?e
Oe?a?i?: iiooe no?aoaa?? iioeiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo”, 1994 ?.; “I?iaeaie
caa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? iai’yo?: O?aoy iaoeiaa
eiioa?aioe?y c ieoaiue ioca?ciaanoaa oa ?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa”, 1995
?.), anaoe?a?inueeeo (“Eoeueoo?a Oe?a?ie: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue”, 1996
?.; “?noi?e/ia e?a?ciaanoai ? eoeueoo?a”, 1997 ?.) oa i?aeia?iaeii?
(“?inney e Oe?aeia ia ii?iaa OO? aaea”, 1997 ?.).

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe aeeeaaeaiee aaoi?ii a 5 noaooyo o oaoiaeo ia

iiy
aeena?oaoe??, a oaeiae ?? no?oeoo?o.

Ia?oee ?icae?e — “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aea” — i?enay/aii
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e oa aeaea?aeueii? aace
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeaco?oueny, ui ?noi??y ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia
Oa?e?auei? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O— ii/aoeo OO no. ua ia aeine?aeaeaia a
ocaaaeueithth/eo niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeyo. I?ioa ie?ai? ieoaiiy cacia/aii?
i?iaeaie aena?oethaaeeny a ioae?eaoe?yo, ii/eiath/e c e?ioey O?O no.

Iiiaeeiie? caaaeee i?i oe?eueio ni?aao ia Oa?e?auei? iiaeia ciaeoe a
ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeyo, i?enay/aieo ?noi??? ina?oe a ?in?enuee?e
?noi???, ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo onoaiia, cainoa, a?aeiinoa
i?aaineaaii? oea?eae, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Aaniina?aaeiuei oai? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/oaaeeny ie?ai? noi??iee
ioae?eaoe?e c ?noi??? i?noa Oa?eiaa (Ae.?.Aaaae?e ? Ae.I.I?eea?),
Oa?e?anueeiai i?nueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy (Ae.I.Iaeneiaiei), i?noeaaiai
Oiaa?enoaa a?aiioiino? (A.Ae?ae??onii), ?ioeo i?ina?oieoeueeeo onoaiia
Oa?eiaa oa aoaa?i??. Iaeii/anii cae?enithaaeeny ia?o? ni?iae
ocaaaeueieoe ?noi??th aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo aeayeeo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a e?ath, aecia/eoe iiia?aaei? ?acoeueoaoe ia iea? ina?oe
a?aeiieo oa?e?anueeeo iaaeaaia?a ? a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a —
O.Ae.Ae/aanueei?, I.O.Noioeiaa, Ae.?.Aaaae?y oa ?ioeo.

O oe?eiio o e?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no. aoee c?iaeai? eeoa ia?o?
e?iee uiaei iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo c
?noi??? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei? cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo. Iaiaaeai?
a oaiaoe/iiio a?aeiioaii?, aiie iaee, a iniiaiiio, iieniaee oa?aeoa?,
ii/anoe iaaeeaeath/enue aei ia?oiaeaea?ae.

I?ney ?icaaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia??? a 1917 ?. oa aeieeiaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? ?noi?e/ia neooaoe?y a noa?? aea/aiiy i?iaeaie ?noioii ia
ci?ieeany. Iiae?? a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie, a ai?oeaio?? yeeo iieieany
Oa?e?a, iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei noa?i? oeiee c aieo ?aaeyinueeeo
?aoi?iaoi??a ina?oe 20-o – ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a ia ni?eyee ?icai?oaiith
niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?noi??? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia oa?eoi???
Oa?e?aueie. Eeoa a i?aoeyo i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei? iaoeiai?
ai?a?aoe?? i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo, cie?aia A.I.A?aeiiaa, N.I.N??iiieea,
iiaeia ciaeoe ie?ai? a?aeiiino? i?i noai ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei? e?ioey O?O
– ii/aoeo OO no.

O?eaaea iaoca a i?ioean? iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
i?iaeiaaeoaaeany e i?ci?oa, a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 30-o – ia ii/aoeo 50-o
?ie?a. Aa?oi cacia/eoe, ui i??i?eoao o noa?? aea/aiiy ?noi??? ii/aoeiai?
ina?oe ia oa?eoi??? eieeoiuei? ?in?enueei? ?iia??? iaeaaeaa ?in?enueeei
?aaeyinueeei aaoi?ai. Aeaye? c ieo (A.A.?aoei, a aeaui i?ci?oa
?.I.Aiaaeaiia) i?e oeueiio caa?oaeeny aei aeaea?ae, iia’ycaieo c
Oa?e?aueiith. I?aoe? iacaaieo aeua oa aeayeeo ?ioeo ?aaeyinueeeo
aeine?aeiee?a cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo, oi/a e ia aena?oethaaee
aaniina?aaeiuei i?iaeaiaoeeo ii/aoeiai? oeiee ia Oa?e?auei?, i?ioa
aeicaieyee c’ynoaaoe iniiai? iai?yiee iie?oeee oea?nueeiai o?yaeo a
aaeoc? ina?oe, aecia/eoe iai?yiee ?icaeoeo i?ia?aneaii? iaaeaaia?ee.

C e?ioey 50-o – ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a oaiaoeea ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a N?N?, ?oiy aeaea?aeueia iniiaa a?ae/ooii ?icoe?eeeny.
Oaaao aeine?aeiee?a i?eaa?oaee ia?aaeon?i a?iiaaenuee? iaa/aeuei?
caeeaaee, aenia?eiaioaeueia nenoaia ina?oe, noaiiaeua a/eoae?a,
iaoiaeeea iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano oiui. O oeae /an iaeiei c aieiaieo
iai?yie?a aea/aiiy ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO
no. noaea ?noi??y oeiee oa iaaeaaia?ee a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao. Ia
iiiia?ao?/iiio ??ai? a?aeiia?aeia i?iaeaiaoeea aeine?aeaeoaaeany a
niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeyo, i?enay/aieo Aaee/ei? (E.A.Aa?e), I?aaiaa?aaei?e
Oe?a?i? (I.N.Iie?uoe, ?.?.?iae?i), Caea?iaooth (A.I.?aiao), I?aaeith
Oe?a?ie (A.A.Eieio). E?aiaa?aaeaey, aeeth/ii c? Neiaiaeaiueiith, ia
iiiia?ao?/iiio ??ai? ii/aa aeine?aeaeoaaoe a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 70-o—ia
ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a A.E.Ai?enaiei — aaoi? iiiia?ao?? a?aeiia?aeii?
oaiaoeee. Aieiaia i?noea o i?aoeyo o/aiiai a?aeaaaeaii ae?yeueiino?
cainueeeo, i?i?noa?nueeeo ? oea?eiaiiia?ao?yeueieo oe?e a iaaeao
Iieoaanueei?, *a?i?a?anueei? oa Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i?e a ae?oa?e iieiaei?
O?O no. Aaoi? iaa?a oe?eaa?, ii/a?iioo? c a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, a?aeiiino?
i?i aeeiai?eo c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? ia?iaeieo oe?e ia Oa?e?auei?, ?ieue
ie?aieo n?euenueeeo a?iiaae, cainueeeo onoaiia, aoaa?inueei?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo ina?oe. Niaoe?aeueio oaaao
aeine?aeiee i?eae?eea, ca?aeii c o?aaeeoe??th, oeieai Oa?e?anueeiai
oiaa?enoaa a?aiioiino? oa iaae?euei?e oeie? O.Ae.Ae/aanueei?, coieieany
ia nenoai? iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ?noi?ee ia aeae?eya Oa?e?anueeo aoaa?i?th aeey
niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a eiai ?iaioa iaiaaeaia o?iiieia?/ieie
?aieaie 60-90-o ?ie?a O?O no., iiiia?ao?y oa noaoo? A.E.Ai?enaiea noaee
ia?oith aaeaeith ni?iaith ?icii/aoe nenoaiaoe/ia aea/aiiy ?noi???
ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei? ii?aoi?iaiiai ia??iaeo. Aaaaeaiee iei
aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ? aieiai? aeniiaee
i?iaeiaaeothoue caa??aaoe naith iaoeiao oe?ii?noue ? nueiaiaei?.

Aeaye? iia? oaeoe c ?noi??? oeiee ia oa?eoi??? Oa?e?aueie e?ioey
O?O—ii/aoeo OO no. aoee aaaaeai? aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaoi?aie
ioae?eaoe?e e?a?ciaa/iai oa?aeoa?o, o ia?oo /a?ao a?aeiia?aeieo oii?a
na??? “?noi??? i?no ? n?e O?N?”. Aeai? i?i o/anoue ia?aaeiai?
a?iiaaenueeino? e?ath a ina?oiueiio i?ioean? iaaaaeai? oaeiae o i?aoeyo
A.C.O?aaee?ia i?i Oa?e?anueea ?noi?eei-o?eieia?/ia oiaa?enoai,
A.?.E?c/aiei oa A.I.Oea/oea i?i Oa?e?anueea oiaa?enoai a?aiioiino?,
I.?.Iaco?eaae/, I.ss.O??aeue?ai? oa Ae.A.Ioo?ia i?i iaaeaaia?/io
ae?yeuei?noue O.Ae.Ae/aanueei?, aeayeeo ?ioeo aaoi??a.

O oe?eiio ?aaeyinueea ?noi?e/ia iaoea c?iaeea iii?oiee aianie o aea/aiiy
?noi??? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? oa aeayeeo ?? ?aa?iiao cie?aia. Aea
?? aeinyaiaiiy o aeine?aeaeaii? ?icaeoeo oe?eueii? ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei?
aeaeyaeathoue iaaaaaoi ne?iii?oeie. Ca ?iee ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ia
c’yaeeiny aeiaeii? ioae?eaoe??, a ye?e aoei a c?iaeaii ni?iao aena?oeeoe
iniiai? iai?yiee oa caeiaooee ia?iaeii? ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei?
ii?aoi?iaiiai ia??iaeo. Aeine?aeieee caa?oaeeny aei iacaaii? oaiaoeee
eeoa iia?aeii a i?aoeyo, i?enay/aieo ?ioei ina?oi?i aai e?a?ciaa/ei
ieoaiiyi, oi?eath/enue, cie?aia, noaoenoeee a?aiioiino?, ae?yeueiino?
ie?aieo iaaeaaia?a oa a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a noa?? ii/aoeiai?
ina?oe. I?aoeyi aeayeeo aaoi??a aoea aeanoeaa iaaia oia?aaeaeai?noue,
ii?iaeaeaia aieeaaie ?aeaieia??, iie?oe/ii? eii’thieoo?e.

C i?iaieioaiiyi iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae oa ?iciaaeii N?N?
ci?ieeeny ia eeoa oiiae ?icaeoeo, a e i??i?eoaoe aeine?aeieoeueei?
?iaioe a aaeoc? ?noi??? ia?iaeii? ina?oe, iia’ycai? ia?o ca ana c
aeooae?caoe??th i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee, iiaeaeueoei ?icaeoeii
e?a?ciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue, c?inoaiiyi ?ioa?ano aei iaaea?aeaaii?
nenoaie ina?oe.

C ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a ii/aee noai?thaaoeny oiiae aeey ia?aoiaeo a?ae
ai?ciaee/ieo, ?ic??ciaieo o oaiaoe/iiio a?aeiioaii? aeine?aeaeaiue c
?noi??? ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei?, aei nenoaiaoe/iiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie.
Iniiaia caneoaa a oeueiio i?ioean? iaeaaeeoue oao?aoeyi Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee, ye? ca
ei?ioeee no?ie i?aeaiooaaee na??th aeaeaiue iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiai ?
aeia?aeeiaiai oa?aeoa?o c i?eaiaeo 180-? ??/ieoe? c aeiy canioaaiiy
oeueiai iaaeaaia?/iiai caeeaaeo. Oae, o iaa/aeueiiio iin?aieeo c ?noi???
ia?iaeii? ina?oe ia oa?eoi??? e?ath, iioae?eiaaiiio a 1990 ?.
?.O.I?ieiiaieii oa Ae.I.Ei/aoii, eieaeoeai?e iiiia?ao?? “?icaeoie
ia?iaeii? ina?oe ? iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee ia Oa?e?auei?”, ui iiaa/eea na?o
o 1992 ?., iaa/aeueiiio iin?aieeo c ?noi??? ??aeiiai e?ath oa
aeia?aeeiaiio aeaeaii? “Iaaeaaia?/ia Oa?e?aueia” ocaaaeueith?oueny
aaeeeee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, acyoee, caeaa?eueoiai, c iioae?eiaaieo
aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e. A?i aea? iiaeeea?noue aia?oa neeanoe oe?e?nia
oyaeaiiy i?i iniiai? caeiaooee ? ia?niaeoeai? iai?yiee iiaeaeueoiai
aea/aiiy oaie, ioe?ieoe caaaeueiee noai ?? ?ic?iaee. Oeueiio
ni?eyoeiooue, aei iaaii? i??e, ? iia? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?e?anueeeo
?noi?ee?a, e?a?ciaaoe?a (Ae.I.*i?iiai, N.?.Iinioiaa, A.I.ss?ieoa),
iniaeeai o?, ye? oi?eathoueny ie?aieo ieoaiue ?noi??? ina?oe ia
Oa?e?auei? o ca’yceo c ae?yeuei?noth i?noeaaiai oiaa?enoaa a?aiioiino?
(O.A.Eieii??oeue), i?nueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy (I.I.Aieiaea), ?icaeoeo
aeaaiae?eieoeoaa (A.?.Aiooaeia, A.A.?aci?eiai?, E.I.Aeia?ae?) oa
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.

Iaeii/anii c?inoa? ?ioa?an aei ?noi??? ie?aieo oei?a iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a iaoiai e?ath, a oiio /ene? a?iiac?e (O.A.Eooa?aa), i?eaaoieo
iain?ii?a oiui. Oaaao aeine?aeiee?a i?iaeiaaeo? i?eaa?oaoe ?noi??y
ae?ii/i? ina?oe ia oa?eoi??? Oa?e?aueie (N.A.I?e?ia?, A.A.Na?o?aa,
I.TH.?in?ia).

Caeeoa?oueny aeiaeaoe, ui a inoaii? ?iee oe?a?inuee? aaoi?e aeaaeae?
/ano?oa caa?oathoueny aei ieoaiue ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei? ia?oi?
iieiaeie O?O no. (I.A.?aooo, I.I.Oaeiae) oa ia??iaeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ??. (I.A.Ni?i/ai,
E.Ei?ae).

I?aeaiaey/e i?aenoiie neacaiiio, iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui a aaeoc?
aea/aiiy ?noi??? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei? ii?aoi?iaiiai ia??iaeo
iaa?iiaaeaeaii aaeeeee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae. Aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaaaeaii
aeai? i?i aeeiai?eo a?aiioiino?, e?euee?noue ii/aoeiaeo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a e?ath oa o/i?a o ieo. A?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a nie?aeeny i

?iaeii? oeiee. A i?aoeyo ?aaeyinueeeo aaoi??a iiaeia ciaeoe /eiaei
oaeo?a, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue o/anoue a/eoae?a o ?aaiethoe?eiiio ?on? a
?in?enuee?e aea?aeaa?.

O oie aea /an, caeeoathoueny i?aeoe/ii iaaeine?aeaeaieie oae? aaaeeea?
i?iaeaie, ye iniaeeaino? oa ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ina?oiuei?
?aoi?ie o Oa?e?anuee?e aoaa?i?? a oe?eiio oa ?? ie?aieo iia?oao,
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iniiaieo oei?a ii/aoeiai? oeiee oa oiiae ?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino? o ca’yceo c? ci?iaie a iie?oeoe? oea?nueeiai o?yaeo. Cian?i
iaei a?aeiii i?i eaae?iaee neeaae ia?iaeii? oeiee, nioe?aeueia oa
iaoa??aeueia noaiiaeua a/eoae?a, ??aaiue ?oiuei? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
oa nenoaio ?? aaeineiiaeaiiy. ?noi?eee /iionue ia i?eae?eeee
niaoe?aeueii? oaaae ?noi??? ?icaeoeo cainueei? oeiee ia Oa?e?auei?, ia
eaaeo/e aaea i?i oae? iaio /eneaii? oeie iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, ye
i?eaaoi?, a?aeii/? oeiee, iniaeeai iii?ueoeuee?, oea?eiaiiia?ao?yeuei?
oa o?, ui noai?thaaeeny i?e aaeeeeo i?aei?e?inoaao. A oe?a?inuee?e
?noi?e/i?e iaooe? eeoa ?icii/eia?oueny niaoe?aeueia aea/aiiy
aeaaiae?eieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? o noa?? ina?oe oa?e?anueeeo
i?aei?e?ioe?a, iii?uee?a, e?oiieo aeaniee?a.

A?o/eciyi? aeine?aeieee ? aein? ia noaaeee ia?aae niaith niaoe?aeueii
caaaeaiiy c’ynoaaoe, eiee ae naia oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y Oa?e?aueie
ia?aeoea aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee, eiee ?
ca yeeo ianoaaei aoee c?iaeai? ia?o? ni?iae cai?iaaaeeoe oe?a?inueeo
iiao aei iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. O ca’yceo c oeei caa?oa? ia naaa
oaaao oie oaeo, ui ?noi?eeai iiee ui iaei a?aeiii i?i a?iiaaenueeo,
iaaeaaia?/io oa i?ina?oieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue ia Oa?e?auei? oaeeo
a?aeiieo ina?oyi, ye A.Ae.A??i/aiea oa N.O.?oniai?.

Aeaea?aeueia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy aeineoue oe?iea e ??ciiiai?oia. Aiia
neeaaea?oueny c ioae?eaoe?e oa a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue,
o ia?oo /a?ao, aeieoiaioe i?i ae?yeuei?noue oeaio?aeueieo ? i?noeaaeo
aea?aeaaieo onoaiia o noa?? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe. Oea, cie?aia,
caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, oee?eoey?e, iaeace ii i?i?noa?noao ia?iaeii? ina?oe,
aiaeia?/i? ioae?eaoe?? a?aeiia?aeieo no?oeoo? Oa?e?anueeiai o/aiaiai
ie?oao. ?acii ocyo?, aiie aeicaieythoue neeanoe oyaeaiiy i?i ii/aoeiao
ae?yeuei?noue o?yaeo a aaeoc? ia?iaeii? ina?oe.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia?oi?yaeio ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue ca?oe ? aeo?iaee
Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?inueei? oa iia?oiaeo cainueeeo oi?aa ? cai??a,
Oa?e?anueei? i?nueei? aeoie, a oaeiae aeiiia?ae? oa ca?oe noai?aieo ieie
a?aeiia?aeieo eii?n?e. ?o aea/aiiy aeicaiey? neeanoe oyaeaiiy i?i
i?noea, yea a?aeaiaeeeiny i?iaeaiai ia?iaeii? oeiee a iioi/i?e
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a cainueeiai oa i?nueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, iaoai?cie
i?aeo?eiee ii/aoeiai? oeiee oa eiio?ieth ca ?? ae?yeuei?noth.

Aeieeaaei? a?aeiiino? i?i aeieeiaiiy, oiiae ae?yeueiino? iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a ??cieo oei?a i?noyoueny a iioae?eiaaieo ca?oao ?oi?o ea??aieo
onoaiia. Oea noino?oueny, cie?aia, a?aeiinoa i?aaineaaii? oea?eae,
ia???inueeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, i?ioan?eieo ii/aoeiaeo o/eeeu, oe?e,
i?aai?ciaaieo i?ina?oieoeueeeie oiaa?enoaaie.

Aaaeeeao ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe,
e?euee?noue iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, ??aaiue ienueiaiiino? ianaeaiiy
iiaeathoue iaoa??aee aea?aeaaii? oeaio?aeueii? oa i?noeaai? noaoenoeee.
Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue, cie?aia, iioi/i? aeieoiaioe Oeaio?aeueiiai
noaoenoe/iiai eii?oaoo ?in?enueei? ?iia??? oa Oa?e?anueeiai
aoaa?inueeiai noaoenoe/iiai eii?oaoo. Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae ieo
caeiathoue aeai? Ana?in?enueeiai ia?aieno 1897 ?. ii Oa?e?anuee?e
aoaa?i??, a oaeiae noaoenoe/i? a?aeiiino? ca??ieea “Ii/aoeiaa ia?iaeia
ina?oa ?in??”, ui aoa aeaeaiee ia ii/aoeo OO no. i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th
A.Oaeueai?ea oa A.*i?iieonueeiai. Aaaaoee ? ??ciiiai?oiee oeeo?iaee oa
ea?oia?ao?/iee iaoa??ae i?i noai ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei? 90-o
?ie?a O?O no. i?noeoueny a ca??ieeo i?ae iacaith “Ii/aoeiaa ia?iaeia
ina?oa a Oa?e?anuee?e aoaa?i??”, neeaaeaiiio I.Oii?iei ? aeaeaiiio a
1899 ?. Eiai /anoeiai aeiiiaiththoue iaeyaee oe?eueii? ni?aae a ie?aieo
iia?oao Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i??.

O oe?eiio aeia?aeeia?, noaoenoe/i?, aee?aeoeai? oa ca?oi? aeaeaiiy,
caaaeai? aeua, i?noyoue o nia? aaeeeee ca ianyaii iaoa??ae, yeee ua ia
ciaeoia iaeaaeiiai ii?aoethaaiiy. ?acii c oei, a?i iio?aao? e?eoe/iiai
i?aeoiaeo, ?aoaeueii? ia?aa??ee a nai?e oeeo?ia?e /anoei?. Iaiao?aeii
cacia/eoe, ui aeaye? c ioae?eaoe?e, i?i ye? eaeaoueny, noaiiaeyoue iei?
a?ae?ia?ao?/io ??aee?noue aai acaaae? ia caa?aaeeny o oiiaeao
a?o/eciyieo a?o?a?a oa a?ae?ioae.

Ie?aio a?oio ioae?eaoe?e neeaaeathoue ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy. Na?aae
oeaio?aeueieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue iaaeaaia?/iiai i?io?eth iaea?eueo
ci?noiaieie aeey aea/aiiy iaoi? oaie aoee “?onneee ia/aeueiue o/eoaeue”,
“?onneay oeiea”, a c i?noeaaeo aa?oi a?aecia/eoe aeo?iaee “Oa?ueeianeea
aia?oeaeueiua aaaeiiinoe”, “Aa?a e ?acoi”, aacaoe “Oa?ueeianeea
aoaa?ineea aaaeiiinoe”, “THaeiue e?ae”. ?acii ocyo?, ia??iaee/i?
aeaeaiiy oe?eaa? ia?aaeon?i aeey ?icoi?iiy oiia, o yeeo i?aoethaaee
ia?iaei? a/eoae? oa iaa/aeeny ?oi? o/i?. O ieo, cie?aia, ? oe?eaa?,
eiei?eoi? aeaoae? i?i aca?ieie iaaeaaia?a c naeyiaie, noaaeaiiy inoaii?o
aei oeiee.

Ii??aiyii iacia/ia i?noea na?aae ioae?eaoe?e aeaea?ae iaeaaeeoue
iaioa?ai. C ieo i?eaa?oathoue iaea?eueoo oaaao niiaaaee oa?e?anueeeo
ina?oyi O.Ae.Ae/aanueei?, N.O.?oniai?, ?.I.A?eieiinueeiai, Ae.?.Aaaae?y.
I?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oaeiae iaioa?e oe?a?inueeeo
? ?in?enueeeo a/eoae?a, ui i?aoethaaee a ?ioeo i?noeaainoyo ?in?enueei?
?iia???.

Ii?yae c iacaaieie aeua, aaoi?ii aeei?enoai? a?o?ai? aeaea?aea. Iniiaiee
?o ianea cina?aaeaeaiee a aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?. Oae
o oiiae? eaioeaey??? oa?e?anueeiai aoaa?iaoi?a caa??aathoueny ui??/i?
ca?oe aoaa?iaoi?a ia?aae ?in?enueeei iiia?oii oa iaoa??aee aei ieo, ui
i?noyoue o nia? aeaye? aeai? i?i ina?oo. A oeueiio ae oiiae?
caa??aathoueny ni?aae i?i noai ie?aieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a e?ath.

Oe?iia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ia?aiene ianaeaiiy Oa?e?aueie, ?? ie?aieo i?no oa
?ioeo ianaeaieo ioieo?a, iayai?noue a ieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
a?aeeeaaeaia o oiiae? Oa?e?anueeiai aoaa?inueeiai noaoenoe/iiai
eii?oaoo. A?aeiiino? i?i ?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a aoaa?i?? caa?aaee
aeieoiaioe o/eeeuieo ?aae: aoaa?inueei? oa aeayeeo iia?oiaeo, o oiio
/ene? Aaee?anueei?, Aia/ainueei?, ?cthinueei?. Na?aae ieo — ??/i? ca?oe
oa iia?aeiieaiiy i?i noai ii/aoeiaeo oe?e, ni?aae i?i ?o a?aee?eooy ?
i?eieiaiiy ae?yeueiino?, eaae?iaee neeaae o/eoaeuenueeiai ei?iono.

Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an aeeeeea? oiiae eaioeaey??? aee?aeoi?a ia?iaeieo
o/eeeu, aea i?aaenoaaeai? iaeace, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy, oee?eoey?e
i?i?noa?noaa ia?iaeii? ina?oe oa i?noeaai? aaei?i?no?aoe??, ??/i? ca?oe
aee?aeoe?? ia?iaeieo o/eeeu, a?aeiiino? i?i ie?ai? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee,
iniaeno? ni?aae a/eoae?a, i?aai?caoe?th i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe
oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, a?aee?eooy
aa/??i?o eo?n?a aeey aei?ineeo oa aeaye? ?io?. Ia?ae?/ai? aeua iaoa??aee
aeicaieythoue neeanoe oyaeaiiy i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ina?oiuei? ?aoi?ie ia
Oa?e?auei?, ?icaeoie aea?aeaaii?, i?i?noa?nueei? oa aeayeeo ?ioeo oei?a
ii/aoeiai? oeiee.

A?aeiiino? i?i ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy
(cainueeeo ? i?nueeeo) o aaeoc? ina?oe caa??aathoueny o oiiaeao
Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?inueei? cainueei? oi?aae oa Oa?e?anueei? i?nueei?
oi?aae. Na?aae ieo — aeo?iaee can?aeaiue oe?eueii? oa o/eeeuii? eii?n?e,
ca?oe iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a oa ?iniaeoi??a, iinoaiiae n?euenueeeo ?
aieinieo noiae?a uiaei ii/aoeiaeo oe?e, iaoa??aee, iia’ycai? c ?icaeoeii
i?ioan?eiiai ?ooo a/eoae?a.

O/anoue aeaiie?aoe/ii? a?iiaaenueeino? Oa?e?aueie a ina?oi?e ni?aa?
a?aeia?aaeathoue aeieoiaioe i?aae?iiy Oa?e?anueeiai oiaa?enoaa iioe?aiiy
a ia?iae? a?aiioiino?.

Oaeoe/i? aeai? i?i ia?aaeo ii/aoeiaeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ??cieo oei?a
iiaeia ciaeoe a iaoa??aeao Oa?e?anueei? aeooiaii? eiinenoi???, iia?oiaeo
? i?nueeeo ca Iieiaeaiiyi 1872 ?. o/eeeu.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? oaeiae aeieoiaioe Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie a Ee?a?, cie?aia iaoa??aee eaioeaey???
iiia/eoaey Oa?e?anueeiai o/aiaiai ie?oao, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue ?ioa?an
aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee a/eoaeuenueeiai ei?iono ia?iaeii? oeiee.

Caaaeii, a?o?ai? aeaea?aea ?noioii aeiiiaiththoue aeaeaiiy oa
ioae?eaoe??, i?i ye? eoeiny aeua. Aiie i?noyoue o nia? /eiaei iiaeo, ua
ia a?aeiieo aeine?aeieeai oaeo?a c ?noi??? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia
Oa?e?auei?.

A oe?eiio aeaea?aeueia iniiaa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey?
c iaeaaeiith iiaiioith aena?oeeoe aieiai? i?iaeaie aeaii? oaie.

?icae?e ae?oaee — “Oa?e?aueia a O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.” — neeaaea?oueny
c o?ueio ia?aa?ao?a.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? – “?noi?e/i? oiiae ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a O?O
– ia ii/aoeo OO no.” — eaeaoueny i?i oa?eoi??th, ianaeaiiy, ina?oi?
o?aaeeoe?? oa i?aenoiee ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? oeiee Oa?e?aueie
iaia?aaeiaei? neanoaaiiy e??iaoeoaa a ?in?enuee?e ?iia???. Iniiaia oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny iniaeeainoyi nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa
a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy e?ath a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no., ?oiueiio ca’yceo
c iio?aaaie ii/aoeiai? oeiee.

Ae?oaee ia?aa?ao — “Iniiai? iai?yiee ?aoi?ioaaiiy ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.” — i?enay/aii ina?oi?e
iie?oeoe? oea?nueeiai o?yaeo oa iniiaiei ci?iai o i?e, ui a?aeaoeeny a
oiae? ?aoi

/aoeiai? ina?oe a Oa?e?anuee?e aoaa?i??. A oeueiio iiaeia
aa/eoe i?iaeiaaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie ?noi?e/ieo o?aaeeoe?e a?iiaaenueeiai
ina?oiueiai ?ooo ia Neiaiaeaiuei? e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OOno.,
oa?i/aiiai a 1805 ?. a?aee?eooyi ia?oiai ia Iaaeaei?i?yiuei?
oi?aa?neoaoo. Aeoeai?noue ia?aaeiai? a?iiaaenueeino? aeicaieeea
caii/aoeoaaoe ia Oa?e?auei? iia? oi?ie ina?oe, cie?aia iaae?euei? oeiee,
ye? caiaeii iioe?eeeny ii an?e Oe?a?i? e ?in??.

Niaoeeo?eo ina?oiueiai i?ioeano Oa?e?aueie cia/iith i??ith aecia/ea
oaeiae no??ieee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie e?ath. Eiai iane?aeee
aeyaeeeny noia?a/eeaeie — c iaeiiai aieo oe?ieee i?eieea ?in?yi
i?eaiaeea aei iiaeaeueoi? ?oneo?eaoe?? oeiee; c ae?oaiai, iio?aae
aeiiii?ee aeiaaaee noai?aiiy iiaeo, o oiio /ene? i?ioan?eii i???ioiaaieo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, ca?eueoaiiy aneaioaaiue ia ina?oo.

O oe?eiio ia Oa?e?auei? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no. aoee
noai?ai? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?aoi?ioaaiy oeiee, caeo/aiiy aei ia?
oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy. O oie aea /an, iiea ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueei?
?ioae?aaioe?? a iai?yieo noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe
aeyaeeiny caoaeaiei /a?ac ieceo ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo i?e/ei. Aei
1905 ?. ia Oa?e?auei? oae ? ia aeieeei aeiaeii? oe?a?inueei? oeiee, oi/a
aeoiea i?i ia? aoea noi?ioeueiaaia i?noeaaith ?ioae?aaioe??th ua a
aei?aoi?iaiee ia??iae.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Ia?aaea caeeaae?a ii/aoeiai? ina?oe Oa?e?aueie a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.” — ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean
aeieeiaiiy iiai? nenoaie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia oa?eoi??? aoaa?i??. sse
a?aeiii, ai?iaeiaae ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. a ?in?enuee?e
?iia??? noai?thaaeeny aeanyoee ??cieo ca oeiaie, a?aeii/ith,
iaoe?iiaeueii-?ae?a?eiith i?eiaeaaei?noth iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.
A?eueo?noue c ieo ia iaea ca’yceo i?ae niaith oa ianooiieie nooiaiyie
iaa/aiiy, aea iaeaea an? oe? oeiee aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ia Oa?e?auei?. O
ca’yceo c oeei ca iniiao ?oiuei? eeaneo?eaoe?? aoei i?eeiyoi ?iciiae?e
caeeaae?a ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? eean?a oa
ianyao iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai. A?aeoae, ?icae?e iiae?ey?oueny ia aeaa
ia?aa?aoe.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? — “Iaeiieeani? o/eeeua” — iiaa eaea i?i oeiee, ui
iaaeaaaee aeaiaioa?io ina?oo. Aiie neeaaeaee aaniethoio a?eueo?noue on?o
ii/aoeiaeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a (a?eueoa 90%). Aei oe??? a?oiie
aoiaeeee i?nuee? ? n?euenuee? ia?iaei? o/eeeua, oea?eiaiiia?ao?yeuei?
oeiee oa oeiee a?aiioe oiui..

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? — “Aaaaoieeani? o/eeeua“ —?icaeyaeathoueny
aeaieeani? c?aceia? o/eeeua i?i?noa?noaa ia?iaeii? ina?oe, aeaieeani?
ia?ao?yeuei? ? oea?eiaiiia?ao?yeuei? oa ?ai?nie/? o/eeeua, a oaeiae
iia?oia? oa i?nuee? ca iieiaeaiiyi 1872 ?. o/eeeua.

A?eueo?noue oe?e ia?aaoaaei o a?aeaii? i?i?noa?noaa ia?iaeii? ina?oe
(67%) oa nayo?oiai neiiaeo (aei 30%). Iaeaaaii?oo /anoeio neeaaeaee
cainuee? n?euenuee? oeiee. Aiie a?ae?a?aaaee iniiaio ?ieue a i?ioean?
?aoi?ioaaiiy ia?iaeii? ina?oe. Iacaaaeath/e ia oeoaiiy o?yaeiai?
iie?oeee a noa?? ina?oe, cie?aia, i?eeiyoee a 1880-? ??. eo?n ia
i?ioenoiyiiy cainueeei oeieai caeeaae?a aeooiaiiai a?aeiinoaa, ina?oa a
oe?eiio noaaaea na?onueeith. Na?onuee? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee cia/ii
aeia?aaeaeaee oea?eiai? ca ??aiai aeeeaaeaiiy; aiie ei?enooaaeeny
iaea?eueoith iiioey?i?noth na?aae ianaeaiiy. Cainuee? oeiee neeaaeaee
aeecueei 36% caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ii/aoeiaeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i??, aea a ieo iaa/aeiny ia iaioa iieiaeie an?o o/i?a.
Iaoii?noue oea?eiaiiia?ao?yeuei? oeiee, ui noaiiaeee a?eueoa 40% on?o
oe?e, iaa/aee eeoa 1/4 an?o o/i?a.

Ii??aiyiiy n?euenueeeo oe?e c i?nueeeie na?ae/eoue, ui noaiia?
ia?aaeeoee a nenoai? ina?oe ia nae?, iaaeinoaoiy oaaaa aei ia? c aieo
aea?aeaae noai?thaaee aaeee? o?oaeiiu? ia?aae naeyiaie a iaa/aii?.
N?euenuee? oeiee a?aenoaaaee a?ae i?nueeeo ca oiiaaie nai?? ?iaioe,
aeaaiono?i?i, caaacia/ai?noth i?ae?o/ieeaie oa a/eoaeyie. Ooo caaaeaee
aenieith aoea ieeii?noue o/i?a.

sseui aiai?eoe i?i iaoe?iiaeueii-?ae?a?ei? oeiee, oi c?aceiaeie na?aae
ieo iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee, noai?ai? i?iaoeueeeie
eieii?noaie. Ca an?ia iieac/eeaie aiie aeia?aaeaeaee ia eeoa aea?aeaai?
oa oea?eiaiiia?ao?yeuei?, a e aeaye? cainuee? oeiee.

Iaaaaeaiee o ?icae?e? iaoa??ae ia?aeiio? a oiio, ui ia Oa?e?auei?
a?aeaoaaeiny iaaieiia e?euee?noia c?inoaiiy ia?aae? caeeaae?a ii/aoeiai?
ina?oe. Iniaeeai iii?oieie a oeueiio a?aeiioaii? noaee inoaii? ?iee O?O
– ii/aoie OO no., eiee o?yae ii/aa a?aeiiaeyoeny a?ae aeeeth/ii?
i???ioaoe?? ia oea?eiaiiia?ao?yeuei? oeiee ? ii/aa iaaeaaaoe a?eueoo
i?aeo?eieo cainueeei oeieai. I?ioa ia?aaea ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ioiiethaaea
Oa?e?aueio ia??aiii??ii. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
cina?aaeaeoaaeany a Oa?e?anueeiio, Noa?ia?euenueeiio, Ci??anueeiio,
?cthinueeiio ? Eoi’yinueeiio iia?oao.

A ?icae?e? aena?oeaia i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a
o/aiaeo caeeaaeao on?o oei?a, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy oeiee,
nenoaia o?iainoaaiiy ? eiio?ieth ca iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii. Iniaeeaa
oaaaa i?eae?eyeany ai?iaaaeaeaiith i?ia?aneaii? iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy.
Aiae?cothoueny iaa/aeuei? i?ia?aie, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a aiaeeiao i?ae
??cieie aeenoeeie?iaie, neeaae oe?eueieo a?ae?ioae. Aea/aiiy a?o?aieo
aeieoiaio?a ia?aeiio? a oiio, ui eiio?ieue c aieo aea?aeaae ca oeieaie
cian?i ia aoa, ye oea aaaaeaeiny a ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??, aeeeth/ii
ath?ie?aoe/iei. ?iniaeoe?y ia?iaeieo o/eeeu a iniiaiiio i???iooaaeany ia
eiino?oeoeaio aeiiiiiao a/eoaeyi.

O oe?eiio iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i oni?oia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoi?ie ii/aoeiai?
ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei? ? noai?aiiy ia ii/aoeo OO no. iaiao?aeieo
ia?aaeoiia aeey ia?aoiaeo aei caaaeueii? iaia’yceiai? ina?oe.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e — “Iaaeaaia?/i? eaae?e ii/aoeiai? oeiee Oa?e?anueei?
aoaa?i?? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ia ii/aoeo

OO no” — i?enay/aiee oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeeeaaeaoeueeiai ei?iono
ii/aoeiai? oeiee Oa?e?aueie. A ia?aa?ao? ia?oiio — “I?aeaioiaea
a/eoae?a” — eaeaoueny, cie?aia, i?i oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoie iiai? nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee i?ioan?eieo eaae??a, o oiio /ene? o/eoaeuenuee? nai?ia???,
iaaeaaia?/i? eo?ne, i?aai?caoe?th iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a ieo, aeiiae
aei aeioneiee?a.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? — “Aeeeaaeaoeueeee ei?ion ii/aoeiai? oeiee” —
iaaiaeyoueny e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
ei?iono ii/aoeiai? oeiee. Eaeaoueny, cie?aia, i?i eiai ?iciiae?e ca
a?eii ? noaooth, iaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae, nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua oiui.

A ?icae?e? iaaiaeyoueny a?aeiiino? i?i oa, ui na?aae a/eoae?a Oa?e?aueie
ii??aiyii aenieei aoei i?aaenoaaieoeoai ae?iie, a oaeiae iieiae?.
Oe?eaaeie aeaeyaeathoue aeai? i?i noaiiao i?eiaeaaei?noue iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a: eiaeia /aoaa?oa c a/eoaeueie aoea c aeai?yi, a eiaeiee i’yoee
o/eoaeue iioiaeea ?c naeyi. Aeey ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.
oa?aeoa?iei aoei i?aeaeuaiiy i?anoeaeo a/eoaeuenueei? i?ioan??. Iaaeaaia
iaa iaai? nioe?aeuei? i?eueae, ui ni?eyei ia?aoiaeo aei iaaeaaia?/ii?
?iaioe cae?aii? iieiae?. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eyeany ca?iaeaeaiith
ia?oeo i?ioan?eieo ia’?aeiaiue o/eoae?a. C ieo naia ia Oa?e?auei? aia?oa
?icii/aee naith ?iaioo iaaeaaia?/i? c’?caee oa iaaeaaia?/i? ia?aaee.

?acii c oei, iaoa??aeueia noaiiaeua a/eoaey, iniaeeai ia nae?,
i?iaeiaaeoaaei caeeoaoeny iacaaeia?eueiei. Iecueea ca?ia?oia ieaoa
aeaeaaaeany ia?aaoey?ii, ?ieiee c aaeeeei cai?ciaiiyi. Oiio
i?aeoeeoaaeiny iaae?eaiiy o/eoae?a caiaeueieie ae?eyieaie.
Ia?aaaioaaeaiiy iaaeaaia?a, iiaai? nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/i? oiiae ?iaioe
i?eaiaeeee aei iino?eii? ieeiiino? eaae??a, iniaeeai ia nae?.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee oa iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoi?ie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei?. Aiie
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeeie oeeo?aie. sseui a na?aaeei? O?O no. a
Oa?e?anuee?e aoaa?i?? iae?/oaaeiny aeecueei 140 iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
nenoaie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe, oi iaia?aaeiaei? aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?aaiethoe??
1905 ?. ?o aoei aaea 1640. E?euee?noue o/i?a ca oeae aea /an
ca?eueoeeany c 5 oen. aei 102 oen. /ieia?e. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?eueeino?
o/i?a oa ianaeaiiy aoaa?i?? iaia?aaeiaei? ?aoi?ie aeaeyaeaee ye 1:176, a
ia ii/aoeo OO no. — ye 1:22. Ona oea aeicaieeei Oa?e?anuee?e aoaa?i??
i?aeiyoeny c iaeiiai c ia?aaeinoaii?o i?noeue na?aae aoaa?i?e Oe?a?ie ia
aeniea 15-a i?noea na?aae aoaa?i?e ?a?iiaenueei? /anoeie ?in?enueei?
?iia???. O i?noao a?aeiia?aei? iieacieee aoee ua aeueie. Oaeei /eiii,
Oa?e?aueia iiaea aaaaeaoeny iaeiei c i?eeeaae?a oni?oiiai oa aoaeoeaiiai
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoi?ie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe. O oie aea /an, oe?a?inuee?e
a?iiaaenueeino? ia aaeaeiny ?ica’ycaoe i?iaeaio noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
oeiee. Oea caaaeaiiy noaaaei aeaaeae? aeooaeuei?oei o ianooiiee ia??iae
?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? oeiee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?? AEEEAAeAIEE O IOAE?EAOe?ssO

1.E?aa/aiei O.I. Ae?yeuei?noue i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia Oa?e?auei?
a ni?aa? ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe (ae?oaa iieiaeia O?O — ii/aoie OO
no.) // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Na??y: ?noi??y oa aaia?ao?y. Aeione 1.
– O., 1997. – N. 144-155.

2.E?aa/aiei O.I. Oa?e?aueia a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no.
Oa?eoi??y oa ianaeaiiy // ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/iee a?niee. Aeione ?15
(2). – O., 1997. – N. 93-97.

3.E?aa/aiei O.I. Aaaaoieeani? o/eeeua a nenoai? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia
Oa?e?auei? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no. // Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Na??y

iaei? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy // Aeooiaia
eoeueoo?a, aoiin, o?aaeeoe?? ianaeaiiy ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/ieo ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie oa caniae ?oiueiai aeyaeaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao.: Oac. aeii.
i?ae?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “?aa?iie a iacaeaaei?e
Oe?a?i?: iiooe no?aoaa?? iioeiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo”. – O., 1994. – N. 107.

4.E?aa/aiei O.I. Noaiiaeaiiy ieae/i? oa na?aaeiuei? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a
Oa?e?anuee?e aoaa?i?? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no.
//I?iaeaie caa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? iai’yo?: O?aoy iaoeiaa
eiioa?aioe?y c ieoaiue ioca?ciaanoaa oa ?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa. Oace
aeii. – O., 1995. – N. 122.

5.E?aa/aiei O.I. Ii/aoeiaa n?euenueea oeiea ia Oa?e?auei? ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. //Eoeueoo?a Oe?a?ie: ?noi??y ?
no/ani?noue. Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??.
– O., 1996. – N. 13.

6.E?aa/aiei O.I. Caaaeueiiina?oiy ii/aoeiaa oeiea ia Oa?e?auei? a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no. // VIII Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiaa
eiioa?aioe?y “?noi?e/ia e?a?ciaanoai ? eoeueoo?a”: Iaoeia? aeiiia?ae? oa
iia?aeiieaiiy. *.2. – E. – O., 1997. – N. 254-255.

7.E?aa/aiei O.I. Caineia ia?aciaaiea ia Oa?ueeiaueia ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
O?O — ia/aea OO no. // ?inney e Oe?aeia ia ii?iaa OO? aaea. Iooe
ni/aoaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo eioa?ania e a?aoneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey: Oacenu
iao/. aeiee. e niiau. iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee. – Ai?iiaae, 1997. –
N. 30-31.

8.A?ae/aiei A.A., E?aa/aiei O.I. Oa?e?anueea oiaa?enoai iioe?aiiy a
ia?iae? a?aiioiino? (1869-1920) // Iaaeaaia?/ia Oa?e?aueia: Aeia?aeiee.
– O., 1997. – N. 135-136.

9.E?aa/aiei O.I., Eooa?aa O.A. Iaaeaaia?/iee a?aeae?e Oa?e?anueeiai
?noi?eei-o?eieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa (1892-1919) // Iaaeaaia?/ia
Oa?e?aueia: Aeia?aeiee. – O., 1997. – N. 137-138.

10.Iiiiaa E.Ae., E?aa/aiei O.I. Iaaeaaia?/ia oiaa?enoai ni?eyiiy ni?aa?
aeoiaaiiy // Iaaeaaia?/ia Oa?e?aueia: Aeia?aeiee. – O., 1997. – N.
136-137.

E?aa/aiei O.I. ?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia Oa?e?auei? a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao. Oa?e?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny nenoaia ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia oa?eoi???
Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i?? ii?aoi?iaiiai ia??iaeo. Aena?oeththoueny
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? oiiae ina?oiueiai i?ioeano,
ae?yeuei?noue o iueiio aea?aeaaieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e,
oea?eae. Aea/athoueny iniiai? aoaie, iai?yiee ?aoi?ioaaiiy ? no?oeoo?a
ia?iaeii? ina?oe, aeieeiaiiy oa aeeiai?ea c?inoaiiy iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a on?o oei?a, o/eoaeueneiai oa o/i?anueeiai eiioeiaaio?a.
Oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaeiieeani? oa aaaaoieeani? o/eeeua, o oiio /ene?
i?i?noa?nuee?, cainuee?, oea?eiai?, a?iiaaenuee?. Aiae?co?oueny
i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia
caaacia/aiiy oeiee, a oaeiae nenoaia i?aeaioiaee, e?euee?niee oa ye?niee
neeaae, oiiae aeeooy oa ?iaioe iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a. C’yniaothoueny
aieiai? aeinyaiaiiy oa iaaeie?ee ii/aoeiai? ina?oe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Oa?e?aueia, ?noi??y, ina?oa, oeiea.

E?aa/aiei O.I. ?icaeoea ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ia Oa?ueeiaueia
ai aoi?ie iieiaeia O?O — ia/aea OO a.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao. Oa?ueeia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeoaony enoi?ey nenoaiu ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey,
neiaeeaoayny ia oa??eoi?ee Oa?ueeianeie aoaa?iee ii?aoi?iaiiiai
ia?eiaea. A ?aaioa inaauathony iniaaiiinoe nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e
eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey e?ay, iieeoeea oea?neiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a iaeanoe
ia?aciaaiey, iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ia?iaeiie oeieu.
Eco/aaony ?ieue i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, aaeieieno?aoeee,
oea?eae, iauanoaaiiinoe a inouanoaeaiee oeieueiie ?aoi?iu ia
Oa?ueeiaueia. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony aicieeiiaaieth iiaaoi?neeo oi?i
ia?aciaaiey, iieo/eaoeo aiineaaenoaee ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia oa??eoi?ee anae
Oe?aeiu. Aaoi? i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo i oii, /oi a e?aa auee nicaeaiu a
oeaeii aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, a
aiineaaenoaee e ia?aoiaea ei anaiauaio iao/aieth.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony i?ioeann nicaeaiey ?acee/iuo oeiia e
oi?i ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, i?ineaaeeaaaony aeeiaieea eo ?inoa,
aaia?aoey, aiaeece?oaony noaoenoeea o/aueony e i?aiiaeaaaoaeae a ieo.
I?eaiaeyony naaaeaiey ia oneiaeyo aeayoaeueiinoe, oeiainiaii e
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneii iaania/aiee o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, iinoaiiaea
o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, eiio?iea ca iei ni noi?iiu
aaeieieno?aoeee. Iainiiauaaaony auaiae i oii, /oi iniiao nenoaiu
ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ia oa??eoi?ee Oa?ueeiaueiu ninoaaeyee caineea
naeueneea oeieu, iieueciaaaoeany iaeaieueoae iiioey?iinoueth n?aaee
aeeoaeae e?ay. Iaace?ay ia iaiineaaeiaaoaeueioth iieeoeeo i?aaeoaeuenoaa
a iaeanoe ia?aciaaiey, oeiea ana aieaa noaiiaeeanue naaoneie.
Oea?eiaiii?eoiaeneea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey iinoaiaiii oa?yee naia aeeyiea a
iauanoaa.

N?aaiaiea naeueneeo oeie n ai?iaeneeie iicaieyao aiai?eoue i oii, /oi
e?anoueyia oae e ia iieo/eee ?aaiuo n ai?iaeaiaie aiciiaeiinoae aeey
iieo/aiey ia?aciaaiey. Iiiai/eneaiiua nineiaii-iao?ea?oaeueiua
ia?aaeeoee ia naea, oyaeaeua iaoa?eaeueiua oneiaey, iaaeinoaoie
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia i?eaiaeeee e aunieiio o?iaith oaeo/anoe
n?aaee o/aueony naeueneeo oeie.

?acee/iuie auee oneiaey aeey iaoeeiiaeueiiai e ?aeeaeiciiai
ia?aciaaiey. A oi a?aiy, eae oeieu iaiaoeeeo eieiienoia ia Oa?ueeiaueia
iiaoo auoue i?eciaiu ia?acoeiauie, i?aainoiaeyueie ii naiaio o?iaith
oea?eiaiua e naaoneea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey ae?oaeo oeiia, oe?aeineia
ianaeaiea aoaa?iee ia eiaei aiciiaeiinoue iao/aoue aeaoae ia ?iaeiii
ycuea.

A aeenna?oaoeee aeaaony oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ei?iona
ia/aeueiie oeieu. Eco/aaony i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey iiaie
nenoaiu iiaeaioiaee iaaeaaiae/aneeo eaae?ia, inaauaaony iinoaiiaea
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey a o/eoaeueneeo naieia?eyo, ia
iaaeaaiae/aneeo eo?nao ?aciuo oeiia e oi?i. Iiae?iaii aiaeece?oaony
nioeeaeueiay, iaoeeiiaeueiay, iieiaic?anoiay no?oeoo?a eiioeiaaioa
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae ia/aeueiie oeieu. Iniaaiiinoueth iineaaeiaai, a
/anoiinoe, iiaeao auoue i?eciai n?aaieoaeueii aunieee o?iaaiue
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa aeaiuei e iieiaeaaee. I?e yoii eaaeaeay /aoaa?oay ec
o/eoaeueieoe i?eiaaeeaaeaea e aeai?yineiio nineiaeth, oiaaea eae
eaaeaeue iyoue o/eoaeue i?ienoiaeee ec e?anoueyi. Iiauoaiea
i?anoeaeiinoe o/eoaeueneiai o?oaea, nii?iaiaeaeaaoaany iieo/aieai
iaeioi?uo nioeeaeueiuo eueaio, niinianoaiaaei i?eaea/aieth e ?aaioa a
ia/aeueiie oeiea niiniaiie iieiaeaaee, oiaiueoaieth oaeo/anoe eaae?ia.
Ia o?iaia i?ioanneiiaeueiie e a?aaeaeaineie c?aeinoe o/eoaeae
Oa?ueeiaueiu naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ca?iaeaeaiea a eo n?aaea ia?auo
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iauaaeeiaiee. Eiaiii caeanue a naia a?aiy aicieeee e
aiineaaenoaee ?ani?ino?aieeenue ii anae Oe?aeia iaaeaaiae/aneea nuacaeu
e iaaeaaiae/aneea niaauaiey.

Inouanoaeaiea ?aoi?iu ia/aeueiie oeieu a Oa?ueeianeie aoaa?iee i?eaaei
e cia/eoaeueiiio ?inoo /eneaiiinoe o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, o/aueony e
iaaeaaiaia. Aeeiaieea eo ?inoa a oeaeii niiinoaaeia n ao?iui
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei ?acaeoeai e?ay. Ii niioaaonoaothuei
iieacaoaeyi Oa?ueeianeay aoaa?iey a ia/aea OO no. auoea ia iaeii ec
ia?auo iano ii Oe?aeia. Aianoa n oai, i?iaeaia nicaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie
oe?aeineie oeieu ia iaoea naiaai ?ac?aoaiey. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey oi?iiceeinue e aaaeiinoaaiiie ?aciauaiiin

ion on
the territory of Kharkiv region during the reformation period. The
economical and political conditions of the education process are under
our research here and also the activity and role of the state, church,
and public organizations in this process.

Main stages, directions of reformation, the structure of national
education, the appearance and dynamics of all types of educational
establishments rising, their teachers and students staff extention are
being studied here. There have been given characteristics of mono-class
and multi-class technical schools under Ministry, Zemstvo and Church
supervision, including.

The analysis has been undertaken of the educational and upbringing
process organisation, the material and technical school basis and of the
system of training, quantity and quality of teachers staff, their life
and work conditions.

The main achievements and drawbacks of primary education of the time
are under light here.

Key words: Kharkiv region, history, education, school.

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