IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? I.I.Ae?AAIIAIIAA

AAEAIAOeUe

IEAENAIAe? A?EOI?IAE*

OAeE 370.1

?ICAEOIE INA?OE ? IAAeAAIA?*II? AeOIEE IA CAO?AeIIOE?A?INUeEEO CAIEssO A
XVI-XVII NOIE?OOssO

13.00.01 — OAI??ss OA ?NOI??ss IAAeAAIA?EE

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

AEOOAEUeI?NOUe ? AeIOe?EUeI?NOUe AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Iiaooi?e niaeao oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, c?inoaiiy
oaaae aei ?noi?e/ii? niaaeueie, aei iaaooiai noie?ooyie aeooiaiiai
aaaaonoaa — aeaai?iaeia ciaiaiiy OO noie?ooy. Iiaa?oathoueny ?c caaoooy
nioi? ? oeny/? oaeo?a, iiae?e, ?iai aeaeaoieo in?a, iai?acaaooeo oai??a
iaaeaaia?/ii? oa eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie. Iinooiiai, ye i?ney caoyaeii?
oai?iae, iaae?athoue neee o i?aaaeeaiio iieac? iaoi? ieioaoeie
ca?aeaieia?ciaai? oaeueoeaeie iinooeaoaie aoiai?oa?i? iaoee.

Caii?oea aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie — a?aeoai?aiiy i?aaaee,
ciaiiy naiai ?iaeiaiaeo, eoeueoo?ieo iaaeaaiue i?aaee?a. O OVI-XVII
noie?ooyo iaoa e?a?ia, iacaaaeath/e ia ia?aiiae ? ii?acee a ai?iouea? ca
aea?aeaai?noue, i?aaineaaio a??o oa ia?iaei?noue, ia?aaeeaaea
nai???aeiee ?aianain, yeee caaacia/ea ?e ?a?iiaenueeee ??aaiue
nioe?aeueiiai ? eoeueoo?iiai i?ia?ano.

A Oe?a?i? o XVI-XVII noie?ooyo aeoeaii ii/aea ?icaeaaoeny iaaeaaia?/ia
aeoiea ia aoiai?noe/ieo canaaeao aioe/iino? oa oni?oao iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, aieiaiei i?eioeeiii oa caaaeaiiyi yei? aoei
aeoiaaiiy ii?aeueieo ia?iaeii-o?enoeyinueeeo oe?iiinoae, oae ye
ai?iaeiaae a?e?a aeeaiea aioo??oiy ?ae?a?ei?noue — iaa?ae’?iia ?ena
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.

A o? /ane oe?a?inueeiio ia?iaeia?, uia caa?aaoe naith iiao, eoeueoo?o,
o?aaeeoe?? aeiaiaeeeiny aanoe iino?eio ? o?eaaeo ai?ioueao i?ioe
iieuenueei-eeoianueei? oeyooe, e?einueeeo oai?a, oaoa?i-iiiaieuenueeeo
caaieiaiee?a, oai?nueeeo caaa?aiee?a oa ?ae?a?eii? aa?an?? Aaoeeaio.
Iniaeeai oea noinoaaeinue cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ye? i?ioyaii
aeiaaeo a?e?a ciaoiaeeeenue i?ae ?iicaiiei ai?oii —
oaoa?i-iiiaieuenueeei, eeoianueeei, iieuenueeei, aano??enueeei. Oea
ia?aoeiaeaeaei ?icaeoeia? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo, a a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao iaaeaaaei ?e iaaieo niaoeeo?/ieo ?en. Ia
?icaeoie a?o/eciyii? ina?oe iaee iaaiee aieea i?iieeiaiiy ia?aaeiaeo
iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae A?caio??, aiioe A?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ?aoi?iaoe??,
i?ia?aneaii? iaaeaaia?/ii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee cao?aeieo ? no?aeieo
neia’yi. Iaeiae ana ae oaee a nai?e iniia? oe?a?inueea oe?eueieoeoai a
XVI-XVII noie?ooyo ?icaeaaeinue ia aeaniiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio?.

Iaoeiaa ? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia aeooaeuei?noue oaie coiiaeaia
iio?aaith ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoith caaacia/aiiy iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy
caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo oeiee ? ina?oe a o?niiio aca?iica’yeo ?c
caaaeueiei i?ia?anii oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

A oiiaao ?icaoaeiae iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae oa
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e aec??ea ia’?eoeaia iio?aaa a
a?oioiaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? oai?/i? niaaeueie a?o/eciyieo iaaeaaia?a ?
aeei?enoaiiy eiai ?acoeueoao?a aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaoee oa oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? i?aeoeee. Aiii aeiiiiiaea
e?aua i?ciaoe ieioea, caaaiooe no/ania e ia?aaeaa/eoe iaeaooi?,
a?ae?iaeeoe a Oe?a?i? aaoaioe/io iaaeaaia?/io aeoieo, caaacia/eoe
?aei?noue, ianooii?noue ? niaaeei?ii?noue iieie?iue.

Ia iiaeia neacaoe, ui ?icaeoie iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia oe?a?inueeeo, a
iniaeeai cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo ia oe?eaaea o/aieo. Aeine?aeaeaiiyi
?icaeoeo oe?eueieoeoaa oeueiai ia??iaeo a o?e /e ?ioee i??? caeiaeenue
o/ai? ??cieo /an?a, oi/a nenoaiia aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a ? aeo?a
?icii/aeiny a?aeiinii i?cii — a na?aaeei? XIX noie?ooy . Aei iaea?eueo
?aii?o i?aoeue iaeaaeaoue ioae?eaoe?? oaeeo aeine?aeiee?a ye
A.Anei/ainueeee, Ae.Coa?eoeueeee, ?.Caaae?i, ?.Oa?aiaae/,
E.Oa?eaiiiae/, I.Aoeaaeia, I.Eaa?ianueeee, I.?eeyoaae/, N.Nieiaeia,
ss.Aieiaaoeueeee.

Iaaiee aeeaae o aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie aianee Ae.Aei?ioaiei,
?.O?aiei, E.Nooaeeinueeee, I.Iao?ia, I.Iaeneiiae/, I.Ae?aaiiaiia,
I.A?ooaanueeee, I.Eoean, I.Iieiinueea-Aaneeaiei, I.?oeiaiei, N.Aieoa?a,
Oa.Oeoia, ?.E?ei’yeaae/ .

Aeine?aeaeaiith ?icaeoeo ina?oe oa iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee oeueiai
ia??iaeo, ae?yeueiino? a?aonoa ? a?aonueeeo oe?e iii?oio oaaao
i?eae?eyee oae? iaoeiaoe?, ye A.I?oth?ia, A.I?/aoa, A.Oieioei,
C.Oeaeiye, Ae.Ieoeueei, ?.Iaaeeinueeee, I.Eiaaeuenueeee, I.Aeaaeaieia,
I.Ia?/aiei, I.Aecthaa, N.Aaaeoei, O.Iaoiaiei, ss.?na?ae/ oa ?io?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia /enaeuei?noue iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeeo
aea/aeenue ?noi??y oe?eueieoeoaa oa iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea ia Oe?a?i? a
oeae ia??iae, aein? ua ia ia? i?aoe?, a ye?e ?ice?eaaeeny a on? noi?iie
?icaeoeo ina?oe ? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo.
Iaeaea ia aeine?aeaeaia ieoaiiy i?i aaiacen, nioe?aeueiee neeaae oa
i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o a?aonoa, ci?no ina?oe a a?aonueeeo oeieao, ?o
noni?eueii-iie?oe/io ae?yeuei?noue. Oaeoe/ii ia aeine?aeaeaia ieoaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a a?aonueeeo oeieao , ia ?ice?eoi aaee/aciee
aianie a?aonoa ? a?aonueeeo oe?e o ni?aao ?icaeoeo aeaiie?aoe/iiai oa
aoiai?noe/iiai iai?yie?a oe?a?inueei? ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e .

Naia aeine?aeaeaiith iacaaieo ieoaiue ? i?enay/aia iaoa aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa «?icaeoie ina?oe ? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo a OVI-OVII noie?ooyo «.

IA’?EOII AeINE?AeAEAIIss aenooia? i?ia?an oe?a?inueei? oeiee ?
iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? a aiioo na?aaeiueia?//y.

I?AAeIAOII AeINE?AeAEAIIss ? o?aaeeoe?? e oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
aeaiie?aoe/ii? iaaeaaia?ee ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o
XVI-XVII noie?ooyo.

IAOA AeINE?AeAEAIIss — nie?ath/enue ia caaaeueiee aiae?c
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a, aeine?aeeoe noai
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia cao?aeiioe?a?ineeo caieyo o OVI-OVII
noie?ooyo, c`ynoaaoe nooue iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae, ia yeeo aiia
aacoaaeanue, aeyaeoe iiaeeeaino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy o no/ani?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe? e i?aeoeoe? a oiiaao a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa ?icaoaeiae
iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee.

A?IIOACA AeINE?AeAEAIIss — ia iniia? aiae?co a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a,
oai??a aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a a?o/eciyii? iaaeaaia?ee oa aeine?aeaeaiue ca
aeaiith oaiith oe?a?inueeeo ? ca?oa?aeieo iaoeiaoe?a ie i?eionea?ii, ui
cao?aeiioe?a?inueea ina?oa XVI-XVII noie?oue — oe?eeii naiiaooi? oa
naiino?eia yaeua. Caaaeueiiina?oi? ? ia?iaeiciaa/? ?aea?, a?aeia?aaeai?
a i?e ? i?ieiyo? i?eioeeiaie aoiai?cio e aeaiie?aoecio, ? ?acoeueoaoii
aaaaoia?eiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo c i?iyaii
?en ?a?iia?cio.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c ia’?eoii, i?aaeiaoii, iaoith oa a?iioacith
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aecia/ai? oae? eiai CAAAeAIIss :

-?ice?eoe ?ieue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo
oaeoi??a, ye? coiiaeee iaaiee i?ia?an ?icaeoeo ina?oe ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o XVI-XVII noie?ooyo ;

-i?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? ?iicaiieo aieea?a ia ?icaeoie a?o/eciyii?
iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee;

-aena?oeeoe naiiaooi?noue ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? ina?oe oeueiai ia??iaeo
oa ?? aaciao iniiao;

— cae?enieoe eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee aiae?c ? ?ice?eoe iniiai? ?ene e
ci?no ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo a?aonueeeo oe?e oa
iniaeeaino? iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy a oeae ia??iae ;

— aeaoe aiae?c iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? aeaeaoieo iaaeaaia?a ,
ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?ieo ae?y/?a Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie, ?o iaaeaaia?/ieo
iiaeyae?a ia oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? oa aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? ;

— aecia/eoe iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeina?aeo iaa/aiiy
oa aeoiaaiiy aiae?ciaaiiai ia??iaeo ia canaaeao ia?iaeii? iaaeaaia?ee a
no/aniiio ?aoi?ioaaii? ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy.

IA CAOENO AEIINssOUeNss :

1/ ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo oeiee ? ina?oe
ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo a oiiaao ?iicaiii? aeniain?? oa ai?ioueae
ca iaoe?iiaeueia aeciaiiy ;

2/ ocaaaeueiaiiy, ye? ?ice?eaathoue ci?no, iaoiaee ? caniae iaa/aiiy a
??cieo oeiao oe?e Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie o XVI-XVII noie?ooyo;

3/ aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue iniiai? o?aaeeoe?? e
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oeiee, ina?oe ? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia
cao?aeii-oe?a?inueeeo caieyo o iacaaiee ia??iae;

4/ aiae?c ? ioe?iea ?ie? e aianeo aeaeaoieo iaaeaaia?a oa
ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?ieo ae?y/?a o ?icaeoie ina?oe, oeiee, iaaeaaia?/ii?
aeoiee oa aeooiaiiai caaaa/aiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;

5/ ocaaaeueiaiiy ia?aaeiai? i?ia?aneaii? niaaeueie ieioeiai c iaoith
aeei?enoaiiy ?? o noaiiaeaii? oa ooaa?aeaeaii? oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ? no?oeoo?e ina?oe, iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo o
a?aeaoaeia/ee ia??iae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?.

IAOIAeIEIA?*IO INIIAO aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iieiaeaiiy caaaeueii?
o?einio?? i?i ae?aeaeoe/iee aca?iica’ycie yaeu o i?e?iae? e
noni?euenoa?, aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? e noni?euenoaa,
?aea? ia?iaeii? iaaeaaia?ee, ?? ea??ai? i?eioeeie, iaa?oioiaai? oa
?icaeioo? iaaeaaia?/iith iaoeith, iieiaeaiiy i?i aca?iiae?th ia?iaeii? e
iaoeiai? iaaeaaia?ee, ?aea? aoiai?caoe??, aeaiie?aoecaoe?? iaa/aiiy e
aeoiaaiiy, iaoe?iiaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, i??i?eoaoii? ?ie? oe?a?iiciaanoaa ye iniiaiiai /eiieea aoi?/ii?
nioe?ae?caoe?? iniaenoino?, aa?iii?? iaoe?iiaeueieo ? anaethaenueeeo
oe?iiinoae oa ?ioa?an?a.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue canoiniaoaaeenue oae? IAOIAeE
aeine?aeaeaiiy: eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee ? ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee aiae?ce
aeaea?ae; oeiieia?caoe?y; eeaneo?eaoe?y ? ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoa??ae?a, ye?
i?noyoueny a ieo; aea/aiiy a?o?aieo aeaieo, ina?oyinueei?
aeieoiaioaoe??; aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c oai??? oa ?noi???
iaaeaaia?ee.

Iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? AeAEA?AEA, ye? iiae?ey?ii ia o?e a?oie:

Aei ia?oi? a?oie aoiaeyoue a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe e iaoa??aee, ui
aena?oeththoue ?noi??th ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e, ina?oe ? iaaeaaia?/ii?
aeoiee oeueiai ia??iaeo ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo.

O ae?oao a?oio aoiaeyoue i?ea?iaeuei? oai?e aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a
a?o/eciyii? iaaeaaia?ee, noa?iaeii? eieae iaa/aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o,
iai’yoee o?einionueei?, aiaineianueei? oa ?noi?e/ii? e?oa?aoo?e aeaiiai
ia??iaeo, a oaeiae aoiia?ao?/i? oa oieueeei?i? iaoa??aee, ye?
iineeththoue a?aoiaioaoe?th ?yaeo aenoiooeo iaie iieiaeaiue.

O o?aoth a?oio aoiaeyoue aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeaii? oaie aeaeaoieo
oe?a?inueeeo oa ca?oa?aeieo ?noi?ee?a-iaaeaaia?a ??cieo /an?a, ie?ai?
iiiia?ao??, aeena?oaoe??, aaoi?aoa?aoe, noaoo?, ui noinothoueny ieoaiue
oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?e an?e ??ciiiai?oiino? aeaea?ae ? a?ae?a?aieo c ieo oaeo?a, an? aiie
ia’?aeiai? iaei??th iaoith, aeiiiaiththoue iaeei iaeiiai oa neeaaeathoue
iniiao aeey eiie?aoiiai ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?? caaaeaiue.

IAOEIAA IIAECIA aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ice?eoo? ci?noo
aeaaiueioe?a?inueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? eoeueoo?e c iiceoe?e ia’?eoeaiiai
aiae?co ?icaeoeo oeiee e ina?oe ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o
XVI-XVII noie?ooyo.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aeiaaaeaii, ui ?icaeoie iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo acaaae?, ye ? ?icaeoie ina?oe o
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo a?aonueeeo oeieao cie?aia, aeoiaeea ?c canaae
ia?iaeii? iaaeaaia?ee e a?oiooaaany ia i?eioeeiao aoiai?cio,
aeaiie?aoecio, i?e?iaeia?aeiia?aeiino?, ca’yceo aeoiaaiiy ?c aeeooyi,
aeoiaaiiy a i?aoe?, a?aooaaiiy a?eiaeo, noaoaaeo oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
iniaeeainoae aeoiaaioe?a, nenoaiiino? e iine?aeiaiino? o iaa/aii? e
aeoiaaii?, ?aeiino? aeiia ? iiaaae aei iniaenoino?, ii?aeiaiiy
iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa c ?icaeoeii naiino?eiiai oa ?i?oe?aoeaiiai
aeoiaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny oaeiae oei, ui a i?e eiiieaenii
aeine?aeaeothoueny e aiae?cothoueny c iiceoe?e no/anii? oai??? aeoiaaiiy
/eiieee, ye? caaacia/oaaee caa?aaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie aeooiaiino?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, aea
aieiaiith iciaeith oe?a?ioey ? ?ae?a?ei?noue ? aeniea ii?aeuei?noue,
caniiaaia ia o?enoeyinueeeo canaaeao; o aecia/aii? aeoiaaiiy ye
noni?eueiiai yaeua; o iiaiio i?aeoiae? aei i?iaeaie aeoiaaiiy ?
iaa?oiooaaiiy ii?aeueieo ia?iaeii-o?enoeyinueeeo oe?iiinoae ye
oi?aa?naeueiiai eiiiiiaioo oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?.

OAI?AOE*IA CIA*AIIss ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia ?ice?eaa?
naiiaooi?noue ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o XVI-XVII noie?ooyo ? aeiaiaeeoue iaoeiao
iaiaa?oioiaai?noue oaa?aeaeaiue ie?aieo aeine?aeiee?a, ye? c iaaieo
i??eoaaiue ia?ae?o/oaaee ?noeiio nooue oeueiai i?ioeano.

E??i oiai, oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?
iaei??? c aeooaeueieo i?iaeai no/aniiai ?icaeoeo ina?oe — aeoiaaiiy
aeooiaiino? iieiae?, aeei?enoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?ieo ? aeooiaieo
iaaeaaiue ?c aa?iii?eiei ii?aeiaiiyi aeinyaiaiue ?a?iiaenueei?
oeea?e?caoe?? o oai??? iaaeaaia?ee oa iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?.

I?AEOE*IA CIA*AIIss ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a oiio, ui c?iaeai?
aaoi?ii aeniiaee, aeeeaaeai? iia? iieiaeaiiy ? oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iaienaii? i?ae?o/iee?a ? eaeoe?e c ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? iaaeaaia?ee, aeey i?iaaaeaiiy caiyoue c ?noi??? a?o/eciyii?
iaaeaaia?ee oa ?noi??? a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e, eo?n?a ia?iaeiciaanoaa oa
?noi??? e?oa?aoo?e, niaoeeo?n?a oa niaoenai?ia??a cacia/aii?
i?iaeaiaoeee. Aeieoiaioaeuei? aeai? iaaeaaeooue i?aeoe/io aeiiiiiao a
noai?aii? aeniiceoe?e ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo ioca?a, ioca?a ?noi??? oeiee
oa ina?oe i?e iaaeaaia?/ieo ?inoeoooao ? oeieao, a eaeoe?ei?e
i?iiaaaiae? eoeueoo?ii? oa iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie iaoiai ia?iaeo.

A??IA?AeI?NOUe ?ACOEUeOAO?A aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny
iaa?oioiaai?noth aeo?aeieo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue, ?o a?aeiia?aei?noth
no/aniiio ??aith ?icaeoeo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee ? aeei?enoaiiyi
eiiieaeno iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaeaeaaoieo eiai iao? oa caaaeaiiyi;
aeei?enoaiiyi aeaieo a?o?a?a oa aeinyaiaiue no/anii?
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee.

AeINE?AeAEAIIss CAe?ENITHAAEINUe A O?E AOAIE :

Ia ia?oiio aoai? ( 1993-1994 ??. ) aecia/aeenue iaoa, a?iioaca ?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii?aoeueiaoaaeenue a?o?ai? aeaea?aea,
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ia oa iaoiaee/ia e?oa?aoo?a.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? ( 1994-1996 ??. ) aeine?aeaeoaaeenue i?e/eie
i?aeianaiiy oa i?ioean ?icaeoeo ina?oe ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo,
oai?/?noue aeaeaoieo iaaeaaia?a oa ina?oi?o ae?y/?a ieioeiai.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? ( 1996-1998 ??. ) cae?enithaaeanue ia?iaea oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia?aa??yeanue a??ia?aei?noue
aeniiae?a, c?iaeaieo aeena?oaioii, i?iaiaeeeanue nenoaiaoecaoe?y
iaoa??aeo oa i?aeaioiaea oaenoo aeena?oaoe??.

AI?IAAOe?ss ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeanue o ??ciiiai?oieo
oi?iao: iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
i?aeia?iaeieo oa i?aeaoc?anueeeo iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo- OOOVIII iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y
i?ioani?-nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo EAeI? ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee
(Eooeuee, 1992), Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y (Oiaiue,
1993), OOOVIII iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo (Eooeuee, 1993), I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa e?a?ciaa/a eiioa?aioe?y
(?cyneaa, 1994), I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y
(Ee?a-??aia, 1995), OLII iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee (Eooeuee, 1996); ia can?aeaiiyo
eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? ii/aoeiaiai ? aeioe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee. Iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiiy cai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee
i?ioean Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee,
NO?24 i.Eooeueea, Aieeinueeiai iaeaniiai e?oeath i?e?iaeie/iai i?io?eth
a oiae? i?iaaaeaiiy eaeoe?e, i?aeoe/ieo ? nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue c
?noi??? oe?a?inueei? iaaeaaia?ee, ioae?eoaaeenue o iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
oa iaoiaee/ieo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao “??aeia oeiea”, “Oeyo ina?oe”,
“Aieeinueeee iaoeiaee a?niee”, “Iaoeia? caienee ani??aio?a».

NO?OEOO?A AeENA?OAOe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo iniiaii? aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e.

AeAEEA?AOe?ss INIAENOIAI AIANEO AeENA?OAIOA. ?iaioa aeeiiaia iiai?noth
naiino?eii.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EIIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie oa ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
aecia/a?oueny ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa, a?iioaca, caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
?ice?eaa?oueny iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai aeo?aei?
iieiaeaiiy, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeaea?aea, aecia/a?oueny iaoeiaa
iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaa?oioiaai?noue oa aeinoia??i?noue iaoeiaeo aeniiae?a ? iieiaeaiue,
aenoiooeo aaoi?ii, aeaco?oueny, ye i?ioiaeeea ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Ia?aaeoiiae aeoea?caoe?? ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee
ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o XVI-XVII noie?ooyo” neeaaea?oueny c
aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo a oiiaao iineeaiiy eaoieeoeueei? aeniain??” aeine?aeaeo?oueny
?icaeoie ina?oe e iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo ,
ye? ciaoiaeeeenue i?ae ai?oii Iieueu?. A oeueiio i?ae?icae?e?
?ice?eaa?oueny iie?oeea, yeo i?iaiaeeee o?yaeia? eiea ?a/? Iiniieeoi? oa
eaoieeoeueea oea?eaa ii a?aeiioaiith aei oe?a?inueei? i?aaineaaii?
oea?eae, oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe.

I?aaey/? eiea ?a/? Iiniieeoi?, eaoieeoeueea oea?eaa i?iaiaeeee iie?oeeo
caaaeueiiai iieaoiee/aiiy e iieii?caoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
aeooiaiiai i?aeei?aiiy eiai. Noaiiaeua oe?a?inueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae
aoei aeoaea aaaeeei. O XVI noie?oo? i?aaineaaia oea?eaa ia Cao?aei?e
Oe?a?i? caciaea iaea?eueoiai caiaiaaeo ? ii/aea i?aeiineoenue o?eueee a
inoaii?e /aa?o? oeueiai noie?ooy i?ae aieeaii iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii?
ai?ioueae, eiee oe?a?inueea a?iiaaeyinoai a?ae/oei ? c?icoi?ei, ui
?aeeiee a?oio, ia yeiio iiaeia ina?oiuei cao?ooaaoe an? aa?noae
ianaeaiiy — oea iaoe?iiaeueia i?aaineaaia oea?eaa.

I?ney oaea?o ii oea?ea? ?co?oe ?icai?ioee ia oa?eoi??? Cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie oe?ieo ina?oith ae?yeuei?noue, iaiaaath/enue o nai?o iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao aeoiaaoe a??ieo ? iie??ieo neoa Aaoeeaia. ?co?onuee?
iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee aoee a?aee?eo? a ss?ineaae?, Eooeueeo,
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiio, Eueaia?, Ee?a?, Ino?ic?, Oaeai?iae? oa
?ioeo i?noao. Iaaeiei ?co?onueeeo oe?e cao?oiaoaaeenue a/ai? aiaineiae,
ye? an?ia neeaie i?iiia?aeoaaee eaoieeoeeci, aenooiaee i?ioe
i?aaineaa’y, a oaeiae i?ioe a?o/eciyieo o?aaeeoe?e aeoiaaiiy.

E??i oiai, a e?ioe? XVI- ia ii/aoeo XVII noie?oue nai? oeiee ii/eia?
noai?thaaoe e oi?aonueea oea?eaa. Ca?aeii c ei?ie?anueeei i?ea?ea?i 1613
?ieo, oi?aonuee? oeiee i?e??aithaaeenue aei eaoieeoeueeeo. Aieiaiei
caaaeaiiyi oi?aonueeeo oe?e, ye ? eaoieeoeueeeo, aoei ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
oi?? .

Aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano aoei cae/iei ?aooaaoe, ui i?eeiyooy oi?? ni?eyei
iieaoiee/aiith oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy ? ia i?eianei Oe?a?i? i?/iai
aeia?iai. I?ioa oea ia oae — i?eeiyooy oi?? iaei aeey Oe?a?ie aeoaea
aaeeea iiceoeaia cia/aiiy. Iaena?aeii?o? ethaee oiai /ano aiey/a
a?ae/oaaee caiaiaae i?aaineaaii? oea?eae, iecueeee noai aeooiaainoaa,
iaaeinoa/o ina?oe. Aiie ia aa/eee cania?a, yeeie naia oea?eaa ciiaea a
iicaooenue naiai aeaniiai noaiiaeua.

Ca oi?th i?iiiaeyei oaeiae oa, ui Iieuenueea aea?aeaaa a ?ac? i?eeiyooy
oi?? ioneea a ci?ieoe nai? noaaeaiiy aei oe?a?inueei? oea?eae. Iiaeii?
aoee a cae?i/eoenue ia?ane?aeoaaiiy, ui ?o oa?i?ee i?aaineaai?.
Oe?a?inueea aeooiaainoai ae?noaei a ??ai? i?aaa c iieuenueeei, ia
ieaoeei a iiaeaoe?a, iaei a nai?o i?aaenoaaiee?a o naiao?, ui iaaeaei a
?i iiaeeea?noue a?aoe o/anoue o aea?aeaaiiio oi?aae?ii?, a caa?aaeaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino?, a i?aeianaii? ??aiy ina?/aiino? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo. Aei oiai ae, ia an? oe?a?ioe?, ui i?eeiaee oi?th oa
eaoieeoeueea a??ia/aiiy, iaia’yceiai ?aeaioeo?eoaaee naaa c iieyeaie,
/anoi aiie oea ?iaeee o?eueei /anoeiai. A?aee?eaath/e oi?aonueee oeiee ?
i?aeoi ni?eyth/e iioe?aiith eaoieeoeecio ? aeoiaaiith o/i?a o aeon?
a??iino? ?einuee?e eo???, aiie oaeoe/ii noaaeee ia?aae niaith oe?eue
— ?iciia-nthaeaeaiiy ina?oe ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo c iaoith
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? aenieiina?/aieo ethaeae, ?icoi?th/e, ui o?eueee
aiie iiaeooue i?ioenoiyoe ianooiia? anei?eyoe??. A ?acoeueoao? ?o
i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? noai?eeenue oiiae aeey iiyae iiai?
aaia?aoe?? oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae oa iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee.

Iaeiae ae?yeuei?nue oe?a?inueeeo eaoieee?a ia?aioe?ithaaoe oaeiae ia
aa?oi, ai iniiaia /anoeia ianaeaiiy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie i?iaeiaaeoaaea
aeio?eioaaoenue i?aaineaaiiai a??ia/aiiy, yea iaei ooo cia/i? o?aaeeoe??
? aoei i?enoiniaaia aei i?noeaaeo oiia. Aei oiai ae a oiiaao
eiio?iioaoe?? i?ae eaoieeeaie oa i?aaineaaieie, aeaeaei ia ana, ui
aeoiaeeei a?ae eaoieee?a (iaa?oue yeui ? iaei i?ioe?a?inueeo
ni?yiiaai?noue), ni?eeiaeinue iiceoeaii i?aaineaaieie oe?a?ioeyie. A
naia a i?aaineaaiiio, a caiaeii oaeiae o a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiio
na?aaeiaeu? a iniiaiiio oi?ioaaeanue oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia
na?aeii?noue.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aieea ?aeae ?aoi?iaoe?? oa A?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia
?icaeoie ina?oe ? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee” iaiaaa?iinue iieacaoe, ui
ai?ioueaa i?ioe nioe?aeueiiai oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai aiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo noai?thaaea ni?eyoeeaee a?oio aeey ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
a?eueiiethaeaeo ?aeae ?oae?enueeeo aoiai?no?a ia Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?.

Iaeiei ?c yne?aaeo i?iya?a i?iieeiaiiy ?aeae ?aoi?iaoe?? oa
A?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie? aoei aeieeiaiiy a neeo
?noi?e/ieo oiia ia oeeo caieyo i?ioanoaionueeeo oe?e. I?ioanoaionuee?
oeiee noai?thaaeenue i?e aeai?ao iaaiao?a ? oeyooe, ye? i?aeo?eioaaee
?aoi?iaoe?th, oo?eioaaeenue i?e i?ioanoaionueeeo iaueiao. ?o caniiaieee
iieeaaeaee ia oe? oeiee caaaeaiiy ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?aoi?iaoe?eieo ?aeae
? i?aeaioiaeo i?ioanoaionueeeo i?iiia?aeiee?a.

I?ioanoaioeci iioe?thaaany ia?aaaaeii a na?aaeiaeu?
aioeo?aaeeoe?iiae?no?a — ethaeae, noeeueieo aei ?ic?eao ?c cae/ayie
i?aaee?a. Aei oaeeo ia?aaeon?i iaeaaeaee oe?a?inuee? oeyooe/?, ye?
caeiaoee ina?oo a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo oi?aa?neoaoao aai a yeeenue
?ioee niin?a i?eeo/eeenue aei oe?iiinoae eaoeinueei? eoeueoo?e .

Aioeo?aaeeoe?iiae?ci i?ioanoaio?a cae/aeii iaa aeey oe?a?ioe?a o
oiai/anieo oiiaao aioeiaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo. I?ioanoaioe aeiiiiaaath/e
oe?a?inueeei oeyooe/ai a?ae?eoe a?ae “iaeoeueoo?iiai” i?aaineaa’y ?
i?eeo/eoenue aei iiaeiiai ?ae?a?eiiai ?ooo, /anoi ooiaoaee ?o ia oeyo
iieii?caoe??, a a ia?niaeoea?- e iieaoiee/aiiy .

I?ioa, ia iaoo aeoieo, aoei a iani?aaaaeeeai iaeiicia/ii ioe?ithaaoe
?ieue i?ioanoaioecio a ni?aa? iiiey/aiiy e iieaoiee/aiiy oe?a?inueei?
oeyooe. Na?aae i?eoeeueiee?a aioeo?ei?oa?ecio aoee ethaee, ui io?oe?eii
ia ii?eaaee c i?aaineaa’yi, ye iai?eeeaae, eiycue E.Ino?icueeee,
caniiaiee neaaiica?nii? Ino?icueei? oeiee-aeaaeai??. C ?ioiai aieo,
na?aae aioeo?ei?oa???a /anoi niinoa??aa?ii aeyae iiceoeaiiai noaaeaiiy
aei oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, a eiioan?eia ?iaeeoa?aioi?noue
i?aaenoaaiee?a oe??? oa/?? aeicaieyea ?i a?aoe o/anoue o iieai?oe? c
eaoieeeaie, aenooiath/e ia caoeno oe?a?inueeeo i?aaineaaieo.

E??i oiai, ia caaaeaee ia?ao?ae aei i?ioanoaioecio oe?a?inueeeo iaaiao?a
noi?iaiaeaeoaaany iieaoiee/aiiyi oa iieii?caoe??th. A?aeii? aeiaaeee,
eiee oe?a?inuee? iaaiaoe, i?eeiath/e eaeuea?i?ci /e aioeo?ei?oa?eci,
aeiaaee /an aenooiaee ?aaieie i?eoeeueieeaie aeaii? a??e, i?ioa a /an
aecaieueii? ai?ioueae a ia?o?e iieiaei? XVII noie?ooy ciiao iiaa?ioeenue
aei i?aaineaa’y.

I?ioanoaionueeee ?oo ? i?ioanoaionuee? oeiee ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo o oie /an c?a?aee aeoaea aaaeeeao ?ieue. Aiie ia o?eueee
iioe?thaaee ?aea? ?aoi?iaoe??, a e ni?eyee ?iciianthaeaeaiith ina?oe
acaaae?, ui iaei aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e oa ina?oe.

Ii-ia?oa, aiie aenooieee ia caoeno i?aaineaaii? oea?eae ye
iaoe?iiaeueii? “?onueei?”, oiaoi oe?a?inueei?, iaoe?iiaeueii?
?inoeoooe??. Ii-ae?oaa, anooiath/e o iieai?eo c eaoieeoeueeith oea?eaith
aiie ni?eyee noaiiaeaiith oe?a?inueeiai ienueiaiieoeoaa. Ii-o?ao?,
an?eyei aeiiiiaaaee noaiiaeaiith oe?a?inueei? ?iciiaii? iiae ye iiae
e?oa?aoo?ii?. Ii-/aoaa?oa, ?i iaeaaeeoue oe?eee ?yae iaoeiaeo aeaeaiue,
o oiio /ene? e oe?a?inueeith iiaith, ye? noaee aaaiiei iaaeaaiiyi
oiai/anii? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e . ? oi/a, ii noo?, oe? oeiee
ia?ane?aeoaaee ianaiia?aae o?eueee nooi nai? ?aeaieia?/i? oe?e?, i?ioa
aiie ni?eyee ooaa?aeaeaiith ?aoe?iiae?noe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?ciaiiy
na?oo, oi?ioaaee o aeoiaaioe?a iao??ioeci, ethaia aei ??aeii? iiae, aei
?noi??? naiai ia?iaeo, aeiiiiaaaee ?icaeoeia? oe?a?inueei? ina?oe ?
eoeueoo?e.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeine?aeaeaiiy “Ii?aeiaiiy e?aueo caeiaooe?a
oe?a?inueei? aoiiiaaeaaia?ee oa na?oiai? iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo a?aonueeeo oeieao” neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio
i?ae?icae?e?a.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Iniiai? canaaee oa ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo a?aonoa ? a?aonueeeo oe?e” coieiy?iiny ia
?noi??ia?ao?? iioiaeaeaiiy a?aonoa oa a?aonueeeo oe?e, ?ice?eaa?ii
ia?aaeoiiae oa iniiai? canaaee ?o aeieeiaiiy, aeiaiaeeii, ui oea aoee
o?aaeeoe?ei? ?inoeoooe?? ie?yi, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o eeaniai?
i?eiaeaaeiino?, ui oea aoee ina?aaeee iaoe?iiaeueii? naiii?aai?caoe??,
ye?, ii?yae c ?ae?a?eieie, aeeiioaaee oaeiae iaaeaaia?/i?, ina?oi?,
iie?oe/i?, th?eaee/i? oa ?io? noni?euei? ooieoe??.

Ae?yeuei?noue cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo a?aonoa, iniaeeai
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia e a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/ia, aoea aaaaoia?aiiith.
Iaeiei c aieiaieo cania?a ai?ioueae i?ioe iieii?caoe?? oa iieaoiee/aiiy
aoea i?aai?caoe?y a?aonueeeo oe?e. Ii/eiath/e c na?aaeeie XVI ? iniaeeai
ia ii/aoeo XVII noie?oue, a?aonoaa noai?eee aaeeeo e?euee?noue nai?o
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a — o Eueaia?, ?iaaoei?, Ia?aieoe?, Eiia?ii, Aaee/?,
Aeoaaoeueeo, Eooeueeo, Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiio, Iaie?ia?, E?aiaioe?
? ?ioeo i?noao. Aiie c?a?aee i?ia?aeio ?ieue ia o?eueee a
?iciianthaeaeaii? a?aiioiino?, a ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia
Oe?a?i?, aea ? a i?iiaaaiae? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia Oe?a?i?.

Aiae?c ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeaea?ae aea? iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe
aeiiaie, ui a XVI — XVII noie?ooyo aeey aeieeiaiiy a?aonoa ? a?aonueeeo
oe?e neeaeenue oae? ia?aaeoiiae: ?ae?a?ei?, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/i?,
ii?aeueii-aoe/i?, ?aeaieia?/i? oa ineoieia?/i?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “Ooaa?aeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie i?eioeei?a aoiai?cio
oa aeaiie?aoecio a ci?no? ina?oe oa a no?oeoo?? i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy a
a?aonueeeo oeieao” aeiaiaeeii, ui cao?aeiioe?a?inueeei a?aonoaai ?
a?aonueeei oeieai iaeaaeaoue aaeee? caneoae a ni?aa? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
ina?oe ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o XVI — XVII noie?ooyo. A?ao/eee
?icoi?ee, ui caiaaeaaiiy oe?a?inueeei ia?iaeii “iaoee” (oiaoi oe?eueii?
ina?oe) aeeeeea? e caiaiaae naiiai ia?iaeo, oiio aiie aaeeeo oaaao
i?eae?eyee canioaaiith a?aonueeeo oe?e c iaoith iioe?aiiy ina?/aiino?
na?aae i?inoiai ethaeo.

?ice?eaath/e ci?no ina?oe a a?aonueeeo oeieao Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie oa
no?oeoo?o i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy a ieo, a?aecia/a?ii, ui iaa/aiiy oa
aeoiaaiiy a a?aonueeeo oeieao ianaiia?aae a?oiooaaeenue ia i?eioeeiao
ia?iaeiiai iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy, ui ci?no ina?oe a a?aonueeeo oeieao
Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie a?oiooaaany ia i?eioeeiao aoiai?cio oa aeaiie?aoecio,
ui a?aeia?aaeaeinue ye a noaoooao oa ?ioeo i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaioao
a?aonueeeo oe?e, oae ? a naiiio ci?no? ina?oe oa a no?oeoo??
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy a ieo.

E??i oiai, a?ao/eee aeia?a ?icoi?ee, ui ??aeia iiaa — oi aeooa ia?iaeo ?
yeui ??aeia iiaa caaeia — oi caaeia ? ia?iae. Aea/ath/e a?aoeueeo,
eaoeinueeo ? iieuenueeo iiae, aiie aaeeeo oaaao i?eae?eyee ? aea/aiith
oea?eiaii-neia’yinueei? oa i?inoi? ia?iaeii? iiae. A?ao/eee ia o?eueee
canoiniaoaaee i?inoiia?iaeio iiao a oe?eueiiio iaa/aii?, aea ? ienaee
iath eieae c iaoith a?eueoi? aeinooiiino? .

Ai?iae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo an?ia caniaaie iaiaaaeenue aeiaanoe, ui
i?inoa iiaa ia aeicaiey? ?icaeaaoe iaoeo . Aea c aiae?co oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo aa/eii, ui ai?ioueaa a/eoae?a a?aonueeeo oe?e ca iaa/aiiy
??aeiith oe?a?inueeith iiaith iaea ?noi?e/ii-i?ia?aneaiee oa?aeoa?.
??aeia iiaa aeaaaea iiaeeea?noue a/aiei oiai /ano aeeoe ca ?aiee
?ae?a?eii? aeiaiaoeee oa noieanoe/ii? iaiaaeaiino? ? caeo/eoe oe?ie?
ia?iaei? iane aei iaoee oa eoeueoo?e.

E??i aea/aiiy i?inoiia?iaeii? oe?a?inueei? oa oea?eiaii-neia’yinueei?
iia iiaioaaeenue a?aoeueea, eaoeinueea, iieuenueea iiae, iniiae
iaoaiaoeee oa ano?iiii??, aeaiaioe i?e?iaeie/i-iaoeiaeo ciaiue, ?eoi?eea
oa ae?aeaeoeea, ioceea, ni?ae oa a??oineeaaeaiiy. Iio??aii a?aei?oeoe,
ui iaa/aiiy oeei iaoeai i?iaiaeeeinue c o?aooaaiiyi i?noeaaeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, aeoaea /anoi i?aeii?yaeeiaoth/enue iaei?e iao?
— aeoiaaoe ethaeae, ye? oaa?aei noiyee a ia caoeno? ?ioa?an?a naiai
ia?iaeo, aeoeaii aeeth/aeenue o iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueio ai?ioueao i?ioe
iieuenueeeo caaieiaiee?a .

Ci?no oa i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aiiy a a?aonueeeo oeieao Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie
na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ??aaiue ina?oe ia ii/aoeo ?o ae?yeueiino?
i?aeiyany ia aeoaea aenieee uaaaeue, yeee iaa?oue aeoaea /anoi
ia?aaeuoaaa ??aaiue ina?oe a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo oeieao oaeiai oeio .

Ia iaoo aeoieo, oea caeaaeaei a?ae oiai, ui cao?aeiioe?a?inuee?
a?aonuee? oeiee aoee ia no?eueee iii?ith i?aaineaaii?
i?oiaeienaeueiino?, ye oea iaiaaaeenue cia?aceoe aeaye? aeine?aeieee,
ne?eueee aiaieuaie a?eueiiethaeaeo ?aeae, ni?yiiaaieo i?ioe oaiaeaeueieo
ii?yaee?a, ui a?aeiia?aeaei aeiiaai oiai /ano. A/eoae? a?aonueeeo oe?e
i?aoethaaee a na?oe? oeeo aeiia ? aoee aeoeaieie o/anieeaie ai?ioueae ca
iie?ioaiiy aeeoo?aeo oiia oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo .

Ie ia caia?a/o?ii, ui iaaiee ei?eniee aeina?ae cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo
oe?e ia ?aii?oaaany i?aai?caoi?aie ? ea??aieeaie cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
a?aonueeeo oe?e. Ii?yae c oeei aaaaea?ii, ui ie?ai? aeaiaioe ca?oa?aeieo
oe?e canoiniaoaaeenue a?aonueeeie oeieaie a ia?a?iaeaiiio aeaeyae?,
aeei?enoiaoth/e eeoa oa, ui aeiiiiaaaei ?aeaei?e ai?iouea? a?aonueeeo
oe?e i?ioe iieaoiee/aiiy oa iieii?caoe??. Aea, ia iaoo aeoieo, iniiaa
iaa/aiiy a ieo aoea iaoe?iiaeueia. A iniia? oe??? nenoaie iaa/aiiy
eaaeaei aeaa aieiaieo aeiee. O ia?oee aoiaeeee caaaeueiiina?oi?
i?aaeiaoe, iaia’yceia? a on?o e?a?iao na?oo ? a?aeii? c /an?a Ee?anueei?
?on?. An? oe? i?aaeiaoe aea/aeenue ia iniia? a?o/eciyiiai aoooy. O
ae?oaee aeie aoiaeeee oai?aoe/i?, caaaeueiiina?oi?, aoi?/ii-o?einionuee?
aeenoeeie?ie, ye? oaeiae iin?aeaee /?eueia i?noea ua a ina?o? Ee?anueei?
?on? e aoee o?nii iia’ycai? c aeanieie iaaeaaia?/ieie o?aaeeoe?yie ?
iaaeaaia?/iei aeina?aeii aaaaoueio e?a?i Noiaeo ? Caoiaeo. A
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo a?aonueeeo oeieao, ye ie aa/eii, ceeaathoueny
iioiee ia?iaeii? oa aeaaeai?/ii?, a?o/eciyii? e na?oiai? ina?oe ia
a?oio? ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? iai’yo?, aea?aeaaiiai ieneaiiy oa
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?, caaacia/aiiy ?aeiino?, ianooiiino? ?
niaaeei?iiino? iieie?iue ieioeeo, no/anieo, iaeaooi?o .

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo ia?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy
oa aeoiaii? ?iaioe cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo oe?e o a?aonueeeo oeieao
Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie” iieaco?ii, ui a?aonuee? oeiee Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie aoee
ii?iaeaeai? a??ciith aiioith aecaieueieo ciaaaiue oa ni?eyee
eiinie?aeaoe?? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? e a?aeia?aaeaee o nai?e aeoiai?e
ae?yeueiino? i??? oa niiae?aaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ii?aeioth/e ?o
c ia?aaeiaeie aeinyaiaiiyie ethaenoaa a aaeoc? aeoiaaiiy. ?icaeaath/e a
nai?e aeoiai?e ?iaio? iaai? o?aaeeoe?? ieioeiai, aiie aeoeaii aieeaaee
ia ?icea?o iiaeo ?aeae ? nai? noai?thaaee iia? o?aaeeoe??. Naia oiio,
aiae?coth/e noai aeoiaii? ?iaioe a a?aonueeeo oeieao, ia o?eueee
a?aoiao?ii iaoa??aee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeoiaio ?iaioo a ieo, aea
aa?aii aei oaaae ? o? aeeaiei iao??ioe/i? oa a?eueiiethaea? iano?i?, ye?
i?iiecoaaee niaith ana aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo XVI — XVII noie?oue.

?ice?eaath/e ci?no ?ae?a?eiiai, ii?aeueiiai, iao??ioe/iiai, anoaoe/iiai,
o?oaeiaiai oa o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, o ia?oo /a?ao aiaeth?ii aei /enoeo
aeaea?ae ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?, iieaco?ii, ui aeoiaia ?iaioa a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo a?aonueeeo oeieao a?oiooaaeanue ia ia?iaei?e
iaaeaaia?oe?, ia i?eioeeiao ia?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy, aae?ath/e a naaa
oaeiae ana oa iaee?aua, ui ae?iaeei ethaenoai a e?a?iao Caoiaeo ?
Noiaeo.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “A?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo a?aonoa oa aeaeaoieo eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o ae?y/?a”
aeiaiaeeii , ui i?i aenieee ??aaiue ina?oe e eoeueoo?e ia Cao?aei?e
Oe?a?i? a XVI — XVII noie?ooyo na?ae/aoue ia o?eueee aaeeea e?euee?noue
??ciiiai?oieo oe?e (? a?aonueeeo, ? eaoieeoeueeeo, ? oi?aonueeeo, ?
i?ioanoaionueeeo), aea ? iayai?noue ae?oea?aiue, aaeeea e?euee?noue
aeaeaoieo ina?/aieo ethaeae e aace?/ iaienaieo oa aeaeaieo ieie
iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a oa aino?iiieai?/ieo ? ooaeiaei?o oai??a.

Cae?enithth/e iaaiee aiae?c aeayeeo oai??a oa iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a
oiai /ano, iieaco?ii, ui ? i?ae?o/ieee, ? iaaeaaia?/i? oa
ooaeiaeiuei-iieai?/i? oai?e oiai /ano iineee yne?aai ae?aaeaiee
iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Aiie a?aeia?aaeaee i?aaiaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai aecaieaiiy, aoee i?ieiyo? aoiai?noe/ieie oa
aeaiie?aoe/ieie iano?iyie oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

AENIIAEE

Ia iniia? aiae?co e ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie
ie ae?eoee aei oaeeo aeniiae?a:

1. O XVI — XVII noie?ooyo ia Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?, ye ? a Oe?a?i? a
oe?eiio, ina?oa oa iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea aeinyaioee iaaiiai i?ia?aneaiiai
?icaeoeo. Iinooiiaee, i?ioa iaooeeueiee aeiiii?/iee i?ia?an
ae?iaieoeoaa, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?aeae aoiai?cio, ?aoi?iaoe?? oa
eiio??aoi?iaoe??, aeoea?caoe?y aioeoaiaeaeueii? e
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae noai?eee iiaeeea?noue aeey ye?nieo
ci?i a ina?o? oa iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe?. Noai?thaaeanue iaaii aecia/aia
nenoaia oe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy, iineethaaeanue ?ieue oeiee a
a?iiaaenueeiio oa eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ?? ca’ycie
c a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iei ? aecaieueiei ?ooii .

2. ?iciianthaeaeaiiy eaoieeoeecio ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo,
i?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo a?aei-eaoieee?a, aeieeiaiiy
oa ?icaeoie i?ioanoaionueeeo oe?e c?a?aee iaaio iiceoeaio ?ieue o
?icaeoeia? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe, iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee oa
eoeueoo?e acaaae?. I?ioa ia?aa?eueooaaoe ?o ae?yeuei?noue ia ne?ae,
ine?eueee iniiaia ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie i?iaeiaaeoaaei aeio?eioaaoenue
i?aaineaaiiai a??ia/aiiy, yea iaei ooo no?ee? o?aaeeoe?? ? aoei
i?enoiniaaia aei i?noeaaeo oiia. ? naia a i?aaineaaiiio na?aaeiaeu?
caeaa?eueoiai oi?ioaaeanue oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ina?oa,
iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea, eoeueoo?a oa iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue.

3.

Naia a?aonoaa oa ?oi? oeiee aenooiaee ye ina?aaeee iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiii?aai?caoe?? oa ni?eyee i?ia?ano oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee ?
iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee. I?iaiae?coaaaoe ci?no ina?oe, i?aai?caoe?th
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo a?aonueeeo oeieao,
i?ae?o/ieee oa oai?e aeaeaoieo o/eoae?a oiai /ano, ?iaeii aeniiaie, ui
a?aonuee? oeiee ? oe?a?inueea iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea ciaoiaeeeenue ia
cia/ii aeuiio ??ai?, i?ae aiaeia?/i? oeiee Cao?aeii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie,
? aoee ia o?eueee iii?ith oe?a?inueei? i?aaineaaii? i?oiaeienaeueiino?,
a e aiaieuaie a?eueiiethaeaeo ?aeae, ni?yiiaaieo i?ioe oaiaeaeueieo
ii?yaee?a, ? a?aeiia?aeaee aeiiaai naiai /ano.

4. Iaa/aeueia ? aeoiaia ?iaioa a a?aonueeeo oeieao Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie,
ye ? a aiaeia?/ieo oeieao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, a?oiooaaeanue ia ?ae?a?ei?e
iniia?, i?ioa ia i?ioeaaao cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeei aiia aeoaea /anoi
aeoiaeeea ca ?aiee ?ae?a?eiino?, noaaaea ana a?eueo na?onueeith ?
iaa?oue aoiaeeea a i?yio noia?a/eea?noue ?c iia/aiiyie ?ae?a?eieo
aeiaiaoee?a. Ei?aiyie ae nai?ie iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy a a?aonueeeo oeieao
nyaaei a ia?iaeio iaaeaaia?eo, a aeina?ae ia?iaeii? ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy,
a naiiaooith oe?a?inueeo iaaeaaia?/io aeoieo , iaeii/anii aae?ath/e a
naaa ana iaee?aua, ui ae?iaeei a oe?e aaeoc? ethaenoai a e?a?iao Noiaeo
? Caoiaeo.

5. O ni?aao ?icaeoeo ina?oe e iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo aaeeeee aeeaae c?iaeee aeaeaoi? i?ina?oeoae?
oiai /ano, ye? caeiaeenue iaienaiiyi i?ae?o/iee?a, o?einionueeeo,
ioae?oeenoe/ieo, iieai?/ieo, ?ae?a?eieo oa ooaeiaei?o oai??a, caeiaeenue
aeaeaaie/ith ni?aaith. Oea oaeiae o aaeee?e i??? ni?eyei ?icoe?aiith
ina?/aiino? na?aae oe?a?inueeiai i?inoiai ethaeo oa c?inoaiith
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?. I?ia?aneai? iaaeaaiae,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? ae?y/? iaaeeoaee ia?iaei? iane ia ai?ioueao i?ioe
nioe?aeueiiai ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aiiaeaiiy, aenoaaee eiioeaioe?th
i?ina?oeoaeuenoaa, iioe?thaaee aoaeeoaeuenueeee ?oo. Nai?th
iaaeaaia?/iith ? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueith ae?yeuei?noth aiie ai?ieeny ca
ina?oo, ?icoi?iiy ia?iaeiino? o aeoiaaii?, ca oi?ioaaiiy iiai?
aaia?aoe?? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?ioae?aaioe??. O nai?o ?aeayo
aiie aaa/aee iaeaooi?e i?ia?an oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, oi?aeanoai ?icoio ?
ni?aaaaeeeaino?.

6. O XVI — XVII noie?ooyo cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? a?aonuee? oeiee aoee
iniiaieie ina?oi?ie, iaaeaaia?/ieie oa eoeueoo?ieie ina?aaeeaie Oe?a?ie,
?aeaieia?/ieie oeaio?aie oa iieioii ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo
i?ioe eaoieeoeueei-oeyoaonueei? aeniain??. Aiie a?ae?a?aee aaeeeo ?ieue
o aecaieuei?e ai?iouea? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, c?iaeee ia?o?, iiaeeeai,
iaeaaae/? oa iaeaaaeeea?o? e?iee ia oeyoo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ina?oiuei-iaaeaaia?/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a.
I?ci?oa, aiane?aeie ia’?eoeaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?e/ei, ?yae
a?aonoa ? a?aonueeeo oe?e ia ciiaee oo?eiaoe ca niaith caaieiaaieo
iiceoe?e. I?ioa ? a e?ioe? XVII ? o XVIII noie?ooyo oe?eee ?yae a?aonoa
? a?aonueeeo oe?e ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo i?iaeiaaeoaaee
caa??aaoe ca niaith aaaeeeaa i?noea a a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiio oa
eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ooaa?aeaeoth/e i?eioeeie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai iao??ioecio, aoiai?cio oa aeaiie?aoecio.

NIENIE ?IA?O , IIOAE?EIAAIEO II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aaeaiaoeue I.A. Ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo ia?iaeii?
iaaeaaia?ee o cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo a?aonueeeo oeieao // ??aeia
oeiea.-1997.-?7 -8. — N.21-22.

2. Aaeaiaoeue I.A. Aieea ?aeae ?aoi?iaoe?? ? A?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ? iaaeaaia?ee // Oeyo ina?oe.-1997.-?2.- N.
41-44.

3. Aaeaiaoeue I.A. ?noi??ia?ao?y oai?/ino? ?aaia Aeoainueeiai oa aieiai?
?aea? eiai ioae?oeenoeee // Iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee.- Eooeuee. — 1997.- ?7. — N.31-32.

4. Aaeaiaoeue I.A. O?oaeiaa aeoiaaiiy a a?aonueeeo oeieao Cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie ye i?iaeiaaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?e ia?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy //Iaoeia?
caienee ani??aio?a. — Ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.-Eooeuee. — 1997.-
?4.-N.8-10.

5. Aaeaiaoeue I.A. ?aea? aeaiie?aoe/ii? iaaeaaia?ee ia
cao?aeii-oe?a?inueeeo caieyo a XVI — XVII noie?ooyo // Iaoa??aee XXXVIII
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo EAeI? ?iai?
Ean? Oe?a?iee. — Eooeuee.-1992. — N. 263.

6. Aaeaiaoeue I.A. ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? iaaeaaia?ee ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo a XVI — XVII noie?ooyo // Iaoa??aee
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??.-Oiaiue. — 1993. — N.
221-223.

7. Aaeaiaoeue I.A. Aeeaae ?.Oaaei?iaa a ?icaeoie ina?oe oa ienaiiino? ia
Oe?a?i? // Iaoa??aee XXXVIII iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? nooaeaio?a ?inoeoooo. — *. 2.
— Eooeuee. — 1993. — N. 613.

8. Aaeaiaoeue I.A. Cia/aiiy eaoeinueeeo oe?e aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
ina?oe ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo a XVI — XVII noie?ooyo //
Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? e?a?ciaa/i? eiioa?aioe??. —
?cyneaa.-1994.-N.304-306.

9. Aaeaiaoeue I.A. Oe?a?inuee? iaoe?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe?? o aeoiaaii?
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a // Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??.-*.1.-Ee?a-??aia.-1995.-N.155-157.

10. Aaeaiaoeue I.A. Noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie Noaoooo oeiee aeuiai oeio i?e
Eooeueeiio a?aonoa? // Iaoa??aee XLII iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee.-*.2.-Eooeuee.-1996.-N.73-74.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aaeaiaoeue I.A. ?icaeoie ina?oe ? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia
cao?aeii-oe?a?inueeeo caieyo a XVI — XVII noie?ooyo .

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee.
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.I. Ae?aai-iaiiaa,
Ee?a,1998.

A aeena?oaoe?? eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeothoueny ? aiae?cothoueny oaeoi?e,
ye? coiiaeee aeoea?caoe?th ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo a XVI — XVII noie?ooyo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi anoaiiaeaii, ui naia a?aonoaa ? ?o oeiee aenooieee ye
ina?aaeee iaoe?iiaeueii? naiii?aai?caoe?? ? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
oeiee.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui ina?oa ? iaaeaaia?/ia
aeoiea ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo a XVI — XVII noie?ooyo
a?oiooaaeenue ia o?aaeeoe?yo ia?iaeiiai iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy,
aeei?enoiaoth/e ana i?ia?aneaia, ui iai?aoethaaei a oe?e aaeoc?
ethaenoai o e?a?iao Noiaeo ? Caoiaeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia oeiea, ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue,
iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy, ia?iaeia iaaeaaia?ea, cao?aeiioe?a?inueea
a?aonoai, a?aonueea oeiea.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aaeaiaoe A.A. ?acaeoea i?inaauaiey e iaaeaaiae/aneie iunee ia
caiaaeiioe?aeineeo caieyo a XVI — XVII aaeao.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee.
Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao eiaie I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee eiiieaenii enneaaeothony e aiaeece?othony oaeoi?u,
iaoneiaeaoea aeoeaecaoeeth ?acaeoey i?inaauaiey e iaaeaaiae/aneie iunee
ia caiaaeiioe?aeineeo caieyo a XVI — XVII aaeao.

Enneaaeiaaieai onoaiiaeaii, /oi eiaiii a?aonoaa e eo oeieu aunooieee
eae i/aae iaoeeiiaeueiie naiii?aaiecaoeee e oe?aeineie iaoeeiiaeueiie
oeieu.

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiey onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?inaauaiea e
iaaeaaiae/aneay iuneue ia caiaaeiioe?aeineeo caieyo a XVI — XVII aaeao
iniiauaaeenue ia o?aaeeoeeyo ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey e ainieoaiey,
eniieuecoy ana i?ia?anneaiia, /oi au?aaioaei a yoie noa?a /aeiaa/anoai a
no?aiao Ainoiea e Caiaaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oe?aeineay iaoeeiiaeueiay oeiea, i?inaaoeoaeueneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, iaoeeiiaeueiia ainieoaiea, ia?iaeiay iaaeaaiaeea,
caiaaeiioe?aeineia a?aonoai, a?aoneay oeiea.

ANNOTATION

Velemets A.V. The development of education and pedagogical idea in the
west Ukraine in the XVI — XVII th centuries.

Master’s thesis on the presentation thesis for the candidate’s degree
in the pedagogical sciences with the speciality 13.00.01 — theory and
history of pedagogic. University named afterM.P.Dragomanow,Kiew, 1998.

The factors, that stipulate the activisation of the development of
education and pedagogical idea in the west Ukraine in the XVI — XVII th
centuries are investigated and analised in the dissertation compositely.

The investigation ascerdains that had been fraternities and theis
schools came out as the centres for national selforganisation and
ukrainian national scool.

It is ascertained that education and pedagogical idea in the west
Ukraine in the XVI — XVII th centuries were based on the traditions of
the folk education and tringing up, using everything progressive, that
the mankind had alone in this sphere in the countries of Orient and
West.

Key words: Ukrainian national school, educational activity, national
education, folk pedagogics, West-Ukrainian fraternity, fraternal school.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 31.07.1998. Oi?iao 60×84.

Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1.0. Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

A?aeae?oeiaaii ia “Deskjet 690 C”

Eooeuee, AAeO ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee, Iioaiiaa, 9.

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