Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

IIOI*IE ?aee

OAeE: 371.302

?ICAEOIE INA?OE AeI?INEEOA AAEE*EI? (1867-1918 ??.)

13.00.01 – caaaeueia iaaeaaia?ea oa

?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a I?eea?iaonueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.A.Noaoaieea (Oe?a?ia)
oa Aeu?e Oeie? Iaaeaaia?/i?e i.AEaooa (Iieueua).

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio – aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-

ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie Nooia?ee Aiaaeai Ieoaeeiae/, I?eea?iaonueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi???
iaaeaaia?ee oa oe?a?iiciaanoaa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaeai?iaea
Aaneeue Eaeaieeiae/, Aeaaeai?y oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie,
a/aiee nae?aoa?;

— aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeo?ou Aiaoie?e Aieiaeeie?iae/,
Oa?iii?euenueeee aenia?eiaioaeueiee ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe,
i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe;

— aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Cieiooo?ia Na?oeaia O?ioei?aia,
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? A?eai??y
Neiai?iaee, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?iii?eue.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “02” ethoiai 2000 ?. i 14.00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.16 o Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252601, i.Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60,
aoae.317).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252601, aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58,
e?ii. 10).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 30 a?oaeiy 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.I.Ei?i?a

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O?ainoi?iaoe?y noni?eueiiai ono?ith a Iieueu?, ye ?
a Oe?a?i?, aeeeeeaea ci?io aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei oa oe?ii?nieo
i???ioaoe?e, ia?aioe?ieo aa?oinoae, iiyao aac?ia?ooy, iaiao?aei?noue
inai?iiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e, ui aeiaaa? iaieiae?iiy ethaeeiith iiaeie
ciaiiyie, ci?ie i?ioan?? ? o.i. Oiio iniaeeai? aino?ioe iaaoaathoue
ieoaiiy ina?oe aei?ineeo ye caniao aeoiaeo noni?euenoaa ?c neeaaeii?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??.

Aacia?a?aia ina?oa ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio ?ie?a i?eaa?oa? oaaao
oai?aoee?a ? i?aeoee?a iaaeaaia?ee. Ina?oa aei?ineeo, ye ?? neeaaeiaa, —
iaeia c iaea?eueo iioe?aieo yaeu no/aniino?, yea ie?aneeeiny ua a /an?
i?iieneiai? ?aaiethoe??. Ca ia?oo eiai iai?oanoaoe?th iaeaaeeoue
aeciaoe “oe?eueio ?aaiethoe?th”, aeey yei? oa?aeoa?ia cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
caaaeueiiiaia’yceiaiai iaa/aiiy, oa iania? aeoe?? iioe?aiiy ciaiue
na?aae aei?ineeo o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O ? ia ii/aoeo OO no.

Iaa?iiaaeaeai? oai?aoe/i? iaaeaaiiy oa aeina?ae ieioeiai iiaeooue
noaoe aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey ?icaeoeo no/anii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee
ina?oe aei?ineeo. Iniaeeai? oaaae o oeueiio ieai? caneoaiaothoue
iaaeaaiiy iaaeaaia?a ? i?ina?oi?o ae?y/?a Aaee/eie, aea a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no. noai?aia nenoaia ina?oe aei?ineeo,
?ic?iaeai? oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/i? iniiae ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Aiae?coth/e no/anio iaaeaaia?/io (aiae?aaia?/io) oai??th ? i?aeoeeo
iiaeia c iiaiith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui no/ania ina?oa
aei?ineeo /anoi ?aii?o? naith ?noi??th ? nai? o?aaeeoe??. Oiio ?nio?
iio?aaa ii?aoethaaiiy ? iioe?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue oa
a?aeiia?aeiiai aeina?aeo a oe?e noa?? a ieioeiio, ia’?eoeaii? ?o ioe?iee
oa aea/aiiy iiaeeeainoae ?o oai?/iai aeei?enoaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao.

Aea/aiiy ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo oa e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae na?ae/eoue, ui
noai aeine?aeaeaiue ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? o aecia/aiee
ia??iae ? iaaeoi ne?iiiei. Ia iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiaoth? i?aoey Aaeaie
?aaee?inueei?, yea ia ii/aoeo OO no. cae?enieea aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi???
ina?oe aei?ineeo ia iieuenueeeo caieyo. Aiia ia?oith c?iaeea ni?iao
iieacaoe noai ina?oe aei?ineeo a?ae 1870 ?. aei ia?oeo ?ie?a OO no. Iath
a?oioiaii aena?oeaii ina?oith i?aeoeeo, iiae ?icaeoie iaaeaaia?/ii?
oai??? ?ice?eaa?oueny iia?aeii. Oe?ii? iaoa??aee c i?iaeaiaoeee
iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe, ieoaiue ?aeaeiiai aeoiaaiiy ?icaeyiooi a i?aoe?
E.Aieoeao?anueeiai “Oswiata ludowa w Krolewstwie Polskim i Galicji
(1863 – 1905)”, aea a i?e iieiathoueny ieoaiiy ?o ae??oaiiy a
iaoiaee/iiio ieai?.

Aea/aiith ?noi??? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie ina?oe aei?ineeo a Oe?a?i?
i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy E.Aiae, I.A?euaiea, A.Aeaieeaanueeiai,
I.Iaco?eaae/, A.Iaaeeinueeiai, N.?oniai?, N.N??iiieea, A.Oaa/oea oa ?i.
Iaeiae ?c a?aeiieo i?e/ei aeina?ae ? iaaeaaia?/i? ciao?aeee a noa??
ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? iaeaea ia aea/aeeny.

Iaaio ?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei ?icaeoeo ina?oe a e?a? aeathoue ioae?eaoe??
iieuenueeeo aaoi??a A.Aaiueeianueeiai, ?.A?i/einueeiai, *.Iaei?ea,
N.I?oaeuenueeiai, A.I?aeao?nueei?, E.Naieiaa, A.Noii?iuenueei?-Iayie oa
?i. Aiaeii/an a oe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? cae?eniaii
/eiaei aiae?oe/ieo iai?aoethaaiue c ?noi??? oe?eueieoeoaa. Aei ieo
a?aeiinyoueny i?aoe? E.Aa?ea, A.Aaoueiaia, A.Eiiae?aothea, A.Naaeioey,
Ae.Na?aeieea oa ?i. A inoaii? ?iee ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? iaaeaaia?ee
caaaaoeeany i?aoeyie, A.Aeo?oua, I.Aeoiaanueeiai, Ae.Aa?oethea,
O.Eiia?eioey, ?.Eo?eye, N.Eaae, ?.Iaeueieea, A.Na?aaeiye, A.Nooia?eea oa
?i. I?iaeaiaoeea ina?oe aei?ineiai oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae /anoeiai ciaeoea nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy ? a
no/ani?e iieuenuee?e ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? a i?aoeyo
E.Aeuea?ia, N.Eicaea, E.Eic?ea, ?.?aaec?ea, O.O?ey?a, E.O?iea,
E.Oiaeaeianueei?, A.ssi?iaeea oa ?i.

Iaeiae aeeaieee aiae?c ii?aoeueiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e c aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aeuaiacaai? i?aoe? a cia/i?e i???
o?aeoothoue icia/aio i?iaeaio o?aaiaioa?ii ? aocueeici?noiai. Aei
oeueiai /ano a?aenooi? eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ina?oe
aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? ? cie?aia ia ii??aiyeueiiio oe? (i?eiaeii?
iieuenueei? e oe?a?inueei? oai??? ? i?aeoeee aeoiaaiiy oa ina?oe
aei?ineeo).

O ca’yceo c iio?aaaie no/anii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee aaeoeaoe?? aei?ineeo
(aiae?aaia?ee) ?nio? iaaaeueia iio?aaa caa?iaiiy aei iaaeaaia?/ii?
niaaeueie, ye aaaeeeaiai aeaea?aea aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
aiae?aaia?/ii? aeoiee.

Iacaai? i?e/eie ? iayai? i?iaaeeie a e?oa?aoo?? uiaei aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie niiioeaee aei aeai?o oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy “?icaeoie ina?oe
aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? (1867-1918 ??.)”.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/iiai
ieaio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Aaneey
Noaoaieea ? ? neeaaeiaith aeine?aeieoeueei? i?iaeaie “?noi??y ina?oe e
aeoiaaiiy a Aaee/ei?”oa Aeui? oeiee iaaeaaia?/ii? a AEaoia? (Iieueua)
i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaie “Aaee/eia ? ?? niaaeueia”.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?noi??y ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? ina?oe a Aaee/ei?.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ina?oe
aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? o 1867-1918 ??.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia aecia/eoe ia??iaee, aeyaeoe ?
i?iaiae?coaaoe ci?no, iniaeeaino? e i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? i?ioeano
?icaeoeo ina?oe aei?ineeo, ?? ??ciiiai?oieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i o
1867-1918 ??.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
ia?aaeoiiae ?icaeoeo ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei?;

— aeine?aeeoe aaiaco ?icaeoeo ina?oe aei?ineeo ;

— aecia/eoe ia??iaee noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo, oaiaeaioe?? ? iniaeeaino?
i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ina?oe aei?ineeo;

— aeyaeoe aeeaae oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o, ainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa ? ina?oi?o ?inoeoooe?e o
?icaeoie oai??? ? i?aeoeee ina?oe aei?ineeo oa ?o aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ianaeaiiy Aaee/eie;

— ioe?ieoe ?aaeuei? aeinyaiaiiy o ?icaeoeo oai??? ? i?aeoeee ina?oe
aei?ineeo oa iaa?oiooaaoe iiaeeeaino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao.

Eiioeaioe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aai?ciaoth/e aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaoi?
aeoiaeea c iieiaeaiiy, ui ina?oa aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? noaiiaeea aaaeeeao
neeaaeiao /anoeio oiae?oiuei? ina?oiuei? nenoaie, a ye?e ooieoe?iioaaee
aea?aeaai? ? i?eaaoi? ina?oiuei-aeoiai? ?inoeoooe?? ??cieo oei?a ?
??ciiai ??aiy ina?oe oa ae?yee ?ic??ciai? ?aeaeii ? i?ia?aiiai
eoeueoo?i?, ina?oi? ? ainiiaea?nuee? oiaa?enoaa. Aiaeii/an ina?oa
aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? ia aoea a?ae??aaiith ? a?aeiniaeaiith a?ae aieea?a
cao?aeiuei?a?iiaenueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee. Aiia
aeei?enoiaoaaea iaoeiaee aei?iaie a/aieo ? ina?oi?o ae?y/?a ?ioeo
oe?a?inueeeo oa iieuenueeeo caiaeue, a oaeiae non?aei?o e?a?a (i?ioe?a,
/ao?a, neiaae?a, aano??eoe?a). Iaeiae ?iiiaaoe??, ye? aeioiaeeee aei
Aaee/eie, aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ia iaoai?/ii, a i?enoiniaoaaeenue aei
iniaeeainoae e?ath, iio?aa ? caoe?eaaeaiue ie?aieo noni?eueieo a?oi.

Niaoeeo?ea ?icaeoeo ina?oe aei?ineeo o Aaee/ei? oaeiae aeieeaaea c oiai,
ui oeae e?ae canaeyee i?aaenoaaieee ??cieo iaoe?e (iieyee, oe?a?ioe?,
i?ioe?, ?a?a?), ye?, ni?aaeeao/e ? ni?ai?aoethth/e i?ae niaith,
ia?aaeaaaee aai anei?ethaaee aeaye? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie, i?ia?aie,
ci?no ? iaoiaee ina?oe aei?ineeo ethaeae. Nai i?ioean ina?oe iaa
ae?aeaeoe/iee oa?aeoa?, aoa aeeiai?/iei ? iaiaeii??aeiei ca ci?noii. O
iueiio ?aae?ciaoaaeenue ??ci? oe?e? ? caaaeaiiy, aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
??ciiiai?oi? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie oa iaoiaee, ye? ci?ithaaeeny, aai
cieeaee /e aeieeaee iia? oiui.

Nenoaiii-?noi?e/iee i?aeo?ae aeaaaa ciiao aea/eoe ieioea nenoaie ina?oe
aei?ineeo, iniaeeaino? ?? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo, a?aee?eaaa iiaeeeaino?
aeey i?iaiinoe/ieo aeniiae?a uiaei i?ioean?a ? yaeu, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo.

Iniiai? aeaea?aea aeine?aeaeaiiy. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?
i?aoethaaa o a?aeiieo aea?aeaaieo ? caei?aeiiieo a?ae?ioaeao oa a?o?aao
(Aa?oaaa – Aieiaiee A?o?a Aeaai?o Aeo?a: oiiaee 7u, 93u, 206u, 275u,
290u, 292u, 293u, 301u, 302u, 303u, 310u, 311u, 324u, 372u, 454u, 3024u;
A?o?a Iiaeo Aeo?a: oiiaee 23/4, 305/V/2; Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?ioaea oa
a?ae?ioaea Aa?oaanueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo; E?ae?a – a?ae?ioaee:
ssaaeeiinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Iieuenueei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe, Aeui? Oeiee
iaaeaaia?/ii? oa a?ae?ioaea ?i. A.*a?oi?eenueeiai; Euea?a –
Oeaio?aeueiee Aea?aeaaiee ?noi?e/iee a?o?a Oe?a?ie o Eueaia?, cie?aia,
oiiaee iai?nieoeoaa, e?a?ai? oe?eueii? ?aaee, “I?ina?oe” (oiiaee: 178,
ii. 1, ni?. 129, 426, 558, 631, 683, 741, 1083, 1098, 1140, 1372, 2579,
4629, 4662, 4663, 4778, 4779, 4805, 4872, 4931, 5073, 5570, 5844; 178,
ii.2, ni?. 101, 105, 106, 203, 4277, 4417, 4505, 4618, 4787, 5009,5757;
178, ii.3, ni?. 1-107; 178, ii.4, ni?. 38; 206, ii.3, ni?.1029);
?oeiiene ? e?oa?aoo?i? oiiaee iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i.A.Noaoaieea
(cie?aia iaoa??aee, ui noinothoueny aeaeaaie/i? ae?yeueiino? Oiaa?enoaa
Ina?oe Ethaeiai? oa oiaa?enoaa “I?ina?oa”, ae?yeueiino? ina?oi?o ae?y/?a
?iiaiiae/a, Aa?aiianueeiai oa ?i.); AEaooa – a?ae?ioaea Aeui? Oeiee
Iaaeaaia?/ii?; ai?aiaenueea iaaeaaia?/ia a?ae?ioaea; iocae ie?oae,
ai?aiaenueeee a?o?a (oiiaee 8686, 8687, 8697, 8700, 8743); Ia?aieoeue –
a?ae?ioaea oiaa?enoaa i?eyoae?a iaoe; ai?aiaenueeee ?noi?e/iee a?o?a;
ie?oaeiee iocae; a?o?a ?eii-eaoieeoeueei? ae??oeac??; ?aaii-O?aie?anuee
– aea?aeaaiee a?o?a ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaeano?).

?ica’ycaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie aeiaaaei a?ae aaoi?a cae?eniaiiy
oe?ieiai, a?oioiaiiai ? o?oaeii?noeiai iiooeo a?o?aieo, ?oeiienieo ?
ae?oeiaaieo aeaea?ae. Ia?aaeon?i ooo iaeaaeeoue aeacaoe ia i?ano. Aaoi?,
aeei?enoiaoth/e /aniiene, a ianaiia?aae ia??iaee/io i?ano, aeieaa
iiaaaei? o?oaeiiu? ye oaoi?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, oae ? o?, ui eaaeaoue a
noa?? na?oiaeyaei?e, oiaoi a iio?aa? aeyaeaiiy eeaniai? e ?aeaieia?/ii?
iiceoe?? ni?a?ia?oiee?a aeaeaiue oa ?? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ci?no? a ??ciee
/an iaienaieo oaeno?a. I?e oeueiio aaoi? cia/io oaaao caa?oaa ia
ii?aoethaaiiy ioae?eaoe?e iaaeaaia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o a
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo, e?oa?aoo?ieo oa iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, ui aeaaaei
iiaeeea?noue iiai?oiai ie?aneaiiy noni?eueii? ? iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi, aeiiiiaaaei aeeaoa i?ciaoe niiniae
oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii? ii?i?? uiaei ina?oi?o ni?aa. Oaeoe/ii, e??i
iaaeaaia?/ieo, aeei?enoaii iaeaea an? iieuenuee? ? cia/io /anoeio
oe?a?inueeeo /aniien?a, ui aoee i?aaiaie ie?aieo iieuenueeeo ?
oe?a?inueeeo noni?eueieo a?oi (eiina?aaoi??a, ia?iaeiaoe?a,
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a ? o.?i.). I?iaiae?ciaaii oaeiae noaoooe
oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo a?iiaaenueei-ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa; noaoooe
?ia?oie/eo ? naeyinueeeo i?aai?caoe?e; ??/i? ca?oe; i?ioieiee c’?cae?a
ea??aieo i?aai?a ? a?aeae?eaiue ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa; ?ae?a?eieo
ia”?aeiaiue; noaiia?aie ? ca?oe i?i ?iaioo e?a?aiai naeio; i?aoe? ?
niiaaaee aeaeaoieo ina?oi?o ? a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oae? iaoiaee: o?iiieia?/iee,
yeee aeaa ciiao ?icaeyaeaoe i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ina?oe
aei?ineeo o e?a? a aeeiai?oe?, ci?iao ? /ania?e iine?aeiaiino?; aea/aiiy
? i?iaeaiii-oe?eueiaee aiae?c iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e c aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie; aea/aiiy, oai?aoe/iee oa ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c caeii?a
Aano?i-Oai?ueie, e?a?aeo caeii?a, ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/ii? aeieoiaioaoe??,
noaoenoe/ieo ca?o?a, aeieoiaioaoe?? oa ca?o?a eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a, a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a; aea/aiiy oa aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ii? ?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? i?ane; nenoaiaoecaoe?y, eeaneo?eaoe?y oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo c i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai ocaaaeueiaiiy.

O?iiieia?/ii aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieth? ia??iae 1867-1918 ??. Eiai ieaeith
iaaeo coiiaeei i?eeiyooy a Aano?i-Oai?uei? eiinoeoooe??, iaaeaiiy
Aaee/ei? aaoiiii?? oa iia’ycai? c oeei ci?ie. Aa?oiy iaaea ca?aa?oueny c
a?aeiiaeaiiyi Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeiny o 1984-1998 ??. a e?eueea aoai?a.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1984-1990 ??.) aoei aecia/aii iai?yi aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aea/aeanue ?noi?e/ia, o?einionueea, iaaeaaia?/ia e?oa?aoo?a,
cae?enithaaeiny oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy i?iaeaie, eiie?aoecoaaeeny
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aeenue a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee,
aea?aeaai? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, aiae?coaaeeny ca?oe ??ciiiai?oieo ina?oi?o
?inoeoooe?e oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o onoaiia, noaoenoe/i? ca?oe oiui.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1991-1993 ??.) i?iaeiaaeoaaeiny aea/aiiy aeinooiieo
a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a oa iaeiia?oi? e?oa?aoo?e c
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. Iaea?aeai? aeaea?aeuei? iaoa??aee
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? i?ae /an
iaa?noa?nueeeo oa aeeieiiieo nai?ia??a, o ?iaio? c o/eoaeyie,
i?aoe?aieeaie ina?oi?o ?inoeoooe?e oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o onoaiia,
a?iiaaenuee?noth, o aenooiao oa aeiiia?aeyo ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1994-1998 ??.) i?iaeiaaeoaaeiny aea/aiiy iaoeiai?
e?oa?aoo?e, a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a c oiiae?a niaoe?aeueiiai caa??aaiiy,
ocaaaeueithaaeenue oa ioi?ieyeenue iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oi?ioaaeenue aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ioae?eoaaeenue iiiia?ao??,
noaoo?, a ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio,
ui:

— aia?oa cae?eniaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo ina?oe oe?a?inueeiai ? iieuenueeiai aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy a
Aaee/ei? o 1867-1918 ??.;

— ?ice?eoi ci?no, oi?ie ? iaoiaee ina?oe aei?ineeo a e?a?, caaaa/aii
iaaeaaia?/io oai??th iaoeiaeie iieiaeaiiyie ? aeniiaeaie uiaei iai?yi?a
? aoaeoeaiino? ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? a oe?e noa?? aea?aeaaieo ?
a?iiaaenueeeo ?inoeoooe?e;

— aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo aiae?aaia?ee a
Aaee/ei?, aeeaae oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa oa ?ae?a?eieo i?aai?caoe?e a ?ic?iaeo
oai?aoe/ieo iniia ina?oe aei?ineeo, a ?icaeoie ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a
?? cae?eniaiiy;

— aeyaeaii oaiaeaioe?? ? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ina?oe aei?ineeo oa
ae?yeueiino? ??ciiiai?oieo ?inoeoooe?e, ye? a?aee o/anoue a ??
i?iaaaeaii?;

— a iaoeiaee ia?a aaaaeaii cia/io e?euee?noue iiaeo aeieoiaio?a,
oaeo?a, oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae, ui aacothoueny ia aeyaeaieo a?o?aieo
iaoa??aeao ? i?noyoue cia/iee iaa?aeiiee ?ai?oa oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae c
oe?a?inueei? ? iieuenueei? iaaeaaia?ee, ui ni?eyoeia a?aeoai?aiith
i?aaaeeai? ?noi???, iaaeaoi?iiaaii? ?aeaieia?/ieie aee?eaeaiiyie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a oiio, ui
eiai aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ni?eythoue a?ae?iaeaeaiith o?aaeeoe?e,
caa?aaeaiith ? ia?aaea/? aeina?aeo ieioeeo iieie?iue oa oi?ioaaiith
oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo iniia no/anii? iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe
aei?ineeo, caaaa/othoue i?aeoeeo ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy aei?ineeo,
ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith caoe?eaaeaiino? a?iiaaenueeeo oi?ioaaiue
ni?aaaie ina?oe aei?ineeo; aeiiiiiaeooue caeo/eoe aei oe??? noni?eueii
aaaeeeai? ni?aae ?ioaeaeooaeueiee ? iaoa??aeueiee iioaioe?ae
noni?euenoaa, aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo ina?oe aei?ineeo a no/anieo
oiiaao; ?ic?iaeai? iin?aieee ? iiiia?ao?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
i?ae /an /eoaiiy eo?n?a eaeoe?e c ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee Oe?a?ie ? Iieueu?,
i?e ?ic?iaoe? niaoeeo?n?a ? niaoenai?ia??a aeey nooaeaio?a oa neooa/?a
eo?n?a i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? i?aoe?aiee?a eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o
onoaiia, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? eaiaeeaeaonueeeo aeena?oaoe?e oa
iaa?noa?nueeeo i?aoeue.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao
i?no AEaoiaa (aeia?aeea Aeui? Oeiee Iaaeaaia?/ii? a?ae 20 eenoiiaaea
1998 ?.), *ainoioiai? (aeia?aeea ?inoeoooo noni?eueii? iaaeaaia?ee Aeui?
Oeiee Iaaeaaia?/ii? a?ae 30 aeiaoiy 1998 ?.), E?aeiaa (aeia?aeea
eaoaae?e ?noi??? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy Aeui? Oeiee Iaaeaaia?/ii? a?ae 18
eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. oa aeia?aeea ?inoeoooo ?noi??? a?ae 11 eenoiiaaea
1998 ?.), a I?eea?iaonueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. Aaneey Noaoaieea
(aeia?aeea a?ae aeiaoiy 1999 ?.), Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?aaia O?aiea (aeia?aeea a?ae 30 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.),
*a?i?aaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a
(aeia?aeea a?ae 29 aeiaoiy 1998 ?.).

Iaa?oioiaai?noue ? a??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a ? aeniiae?a
aeena?oaoe?? caaacia/othoueny iaoiaeieia?/iith iaa?oioiaai?noth eiai
aeo?aeieo iiceoe?e; iii?ith ia ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o
aaeoc? ?noi???, aiae?aaia?ee oa ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee; canoinoaaiiyi
eiiieaeno aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaeaeaaoieo
iao?, i?aaeiaoo ? caaaeaiiyi ?iaioe; aeei?enoaiiyi cia/iiai ianyao
a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a oa niaoe?aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeai
aeine?aeaeaiiy; nenoaiiei aiae?cii aeyaeaieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo
iaoa??ae?a.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui iei aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e ?
iieuenuee?e ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe? eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaii
?icaeoie ina?oe oe?a?inueeiai ? iieuenueeiai aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy
Aaee/eie, aeyaeaii oaiaeaioe?? ? iniaeeaino? oeueiai i?ioeano, a?aeiinii
iiaii a?aeoai?aii eiai ?noi??th, aeine?aeaeaii aeeaae oe?a?inueeeo ?
iieuenueeeo oiaa?enoa, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ? ia?o?e a ?ic?iaeo
oai?aoe/ieo iniia oa i?aeoeeo ina?oe aei?ineeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aeniiae?a oa iniiaieo iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
cae?enithaaeeny o Aeu?e oeie? iaaeaaia?/i?e (AEaooa, Iieueua) oa
I?eea?iaonueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. Aaneey Noaoaieea, a oaeiae oeyoii
ioae?eaoe?? iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, iia?aeiieaiue ? aeiiia?aeae ia
Anaiieuenueeeo, Anaoe?a?inueeeo oa i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo, cie?aia
“Aeaiie?ao?y ? aeoiaaiiy” (??-e Anaiieuenueeee iaaeaaia?/iee c’?cae,
Oi?oiue, 1995), “Iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea Aaee/eie: ianooii?noue ? ci?ie”,
AEaooa, 1995), “?aeay iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe? O?O – OO no.” (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1997),
“Iaaeaaia?ea iiaiai aeoiaaiiy a Iieueu? a e?ioe? O?O – a ia?o?e iieiaei?
OO no.” (AEaooa,1998), “Oe?a?inueea nenoaia aeoiaaiiy: iiooee,
ia?niaeoeae” (?aaii-O?aie?anuee,1998) oa ?i.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeai? o
35 i?aoeyo, c ieo 29 iaeiiin?aieo. Caaaeueiee ianya iniaenoiai aianeo
neeaaea? iiiaae 90,4 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

Aeena?oaoe?y (ianyaii 410 n.) neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo iniiaii? aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa a?o?aieo aeaea?ae.
Aiia i?noeoue 12 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Iai?yie ?icaeoeo iicaoe?eueii? aaeoeaoe??
aei?ineeo o Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? ia ia?aeii? O?O ? OO noie?oue”
i?iaiae?ciaaii ?icaeoie oai??? ? i?aeoeee ina?oe aei?ineeo o e?a?iao
?a?iie oa Niieo/aieo Ooaoao Aia?eee, iieacaii ?? aieea ia ?icaeoie
aaeeoeueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ? i?aeoeee ina?oe aei?ineeo o O?O-OO
no., ?ice?eaathoueny iaoa, ci?no, iaoiaee ? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie ??
cae?eniaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui nenoaia ina?oe aei?ineeo a ?a?ii? ? aiaeinaenueeeo
e?a?iao noi?ioaaeany a ia?o?e iieiaei? O?O no. i?ae aieeaii ia?ai?i o
iaoa??aeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?, caii/aoeiaaieo o ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO??? no.
a Aiae??, a oaeiae aiane?aeie ai?ioueae oe?ieeo ia?iaeieo ian ca
noni?eueio aiaineiaoe?th. Oaeaeeee ?icaeoie iaoee ? oaoi?ee i?ea?a aei
nooo?aeo ci?i a noni?eueieo a?aeiineiao. Aiane?aeie oaeaeeeo oaii?a
c?inoaiiy /enaeueiino? i?ieaoa??aoo ? e?eueeino? caiyoeo a i?iieneiaino?
i?aoe?aiee?a a?aeaoany oaeaeeee ??no i?no ? i?iieneiaeo oeaio??a, ui, a
naith /a?ao, ni?e/eieei aeeaie? ci?ie a no?oeoo?? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa. A iiaeo oiiaao oae caaii? i?iieneiai? ?aaiethoe?? ?
aiane?aeie oaeaeeeo ci?i noni?eueieo ? ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei aeieeee iia?
ina?oi? iio?aae. Aaaaoi ieneeoae?a (ss.Eiiaei?na, ?.Ioai, ss.Eaieanoa?,
A.Eiaaoo, I.A?oiaeoa?a oa ?i.) aeioiaeyoue aeniiaeo, ui ?ia?oiee, yeee
ianeoaiao? iaoeie, ioneoue iaoe i?i?ioi ina?oiuei-i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee, uia, ye eaae?o?eiaaiee ?ia?oiee, a?aeiia?aeaa aeiiaai /ano.
Aiae?co?oueny aianie o ?ic?iaeo oai??? ina?oe aei?ineeo ssia Eiiaei?na,
?iaa?oa Ioaia, Oiiana Iaeia oa ?i. ieneeoae?a.

Aeine?aeaeaii, ui aiane?aeie iacaaieo ia?ai?i noi?ioaaany ? ?icaeioany
?oo ca ina?oo aei?ineeo, yeee iaae?aa ??cieo oi?i ? neoaeea
??ciiiai?oiei oe?eyi. Ina?oith aei?ineeo o aaaaoueio e?a?iao caeiaeeny
iicao?yaeia? ?inoeoooe??, iacaeaaei? a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??
(oiaa?enoaa, iie?oe/i?, ?ae?a?ei? oa i?ioan?ei? ia’?aeiaiiy oiui),
i?eaaoi? iniae, ae?yeuei?noue yeeo /anoi caai?iiyeany o?yaeii. Aei
noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo ?inoeoooe?e aeey ina?oe, iaa/aiiy oe?ieeo
noni?eueieo e?e a?aeaoaaeiny a a?iiaaenueeeo ina?oi?o oiaa?enoaao ?
iaoeiaeo ao?oeao. Oea a cia/i?e i??? noinoaaeiny ? ae?iie, ye?, aoaeo/e
iicaaaeai? iiaeeeaino? iaa/aoeny a na?aaei?o oeieao oa oi?aa?neoaoao,
iiaee a aaeoeaoe?eieo oiaa?enoaao caeiaoaaoe ? iiaeeaethaaoe iaoeia?
ciaiiy. Aeey ina?oe aei?ineeo noai?thaaeany ia?aaea aeeneon?eieo eeoa?a,
ina?oi? oiaa?enoaa, iaae?euei? oeiee, i?aai?ciaoaaeeny a?ae/eoe
(eaeoe??), aan?aee ia i?ioan?eio, noni?eueio ? iie?oe/io oaiaoeeo. C
/anii noai?aii ?inoeoooe iaoai?e?a, e?oa?aoo?i? ? o?einionuee? ?inoeoooe
oiui. A ?icae?e? ?ice?eaa?oueny ae?yeuei?noue /a?oeno?a, a?iiaaenueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue a Aiae??, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?ioean noai?aiiy ia?iaeieo
oi?aa?neoao?a a Aeai??, i?inoaaeo?oueny iioe?aiiy ?ooo ca ina?oo
aei?ineeo o e?a?iao ?a?iie oa a Niieo/aieo Ooaoao Aia?eee.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoa, ci?no, oi?ie ? iaoiaee ina?oe aei?ineeo aoee
??ciiiai?oieie, a i?ae aieeaii noni?eueieo ia?ai?i a?aeaoaaeany iino?eia
?o aaiethoe?y.

O NOA ? Eaiaae? o aaeeeeo i?aai?caoe?yo ina?oe aei?ineeo aeieeee
ea??ai? ?aaee oa ?inoeoooe??, ye? noaee iaoe?iiaeueiith aacith
?ioi?iaoe?? aeey aaeoeaoe?eieo i?aai?caoe?e uiaei ae?iaeaiiy ni?eueii?
no?aoaa?? ? ina?oiuei? iie?oeee. Aaaaoi c ieo o iaeaooiueiio (ia?iaei?
a?ae?ioaee, oi?aa?neoaoe ? aeu? oeiee oiui) i?iaiaeeee ina?oith i?aoeth
na?aae aaouee?a, ae?iie, ?ia?oiee?a ? naeyi, a oaeiae o noa?ao
iie?oe/ii?, aeiiii?/ii?, ?ae?a?eii?, i?ioan?eii? aaeoeaoe??. Oea aeaaaei
i?aenoaae aeey eeaneo?eaoe?? aaeoeaoe?eieo ?inoeoooe?e aeey aei?ineeo,
ye? ia caaaeaee aoee iia’ycai? c iaeiei ia?iaeii /e aea?aeaaith.

Aaaaoi aaeoeaoe?eieo ??oaiue i?iieeaee c iaeii? aea?aeaae aei ?ioi? ?
anei?ethaaee aoi?/i? ? eoeueoo?i? iciaee ia?iaeo, a ai?iaiaaiee aeina?ae
noaaaa iniiaith aeey i?aeia?iaeii? ni?ai?aoe?. Ia oe?e i?aenoaa?
noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui iaaeaaia?/i? yaeua a noa?? iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe
aei?ineeo, ye? noinothoueny iaei??? aea?aeaae /e iaeiiai ia?iaeo,
iathoue ii??aiyeueiee oa?aeoa?, ? aca?iicaeaaeieie ? oiio ?o
aeioe?eueii aeine?aeaeoaaoe ? aiae?coaaoe ?aa?iiaeueii, eiioeiaioaeueii
oa a caaaeueiina?oiaiio eiioaeno?, ?icaeyaeaoe ?o nenoaiii, ye yaeua
ii?aeiai? c iie?oeeith, ainiiaea?noaii ? noni?eueiei aeeooyi e?ath.

Aiae?c aeaea?aeueii? aace aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a
i?ioean? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo a?aeaoeany oaeiae ae?acia aaiethoe?y
ci?noo iaa/aiiy aei?ineeo. Iai?eeeaae, ina?oa ia?iaeo a aiioo
i?ina?oieoeoaa i?eaaea aei ?aaiethoe?? a ina?o? /a?ac oaeinooiiaiiy an?i
noni?eueiei noa?ai oeo ciaiue, ye? ?ai?oa aoee i?ecia/ai? o?eueee aeey
aea?aieo. A aiioo ?iiaioecio ina?oa ni?e/eieeany aei ?icaeoeo
caoe?eaaeaiue o?aaeeoe?yie, ia?iaeieie i?niyie, eaaaiaeaie, cae/ayie,
eaceaie, i?ene?a’yie, a oaeiae aoe/ii-?ae?a?eieie i?iaeaiaie. A ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O no. aaeoeaoe?ei? oiaa?enoaa ?iciianthaeaeoaaee na?aae
?ia?oiee?a, ?ai?niee?a ? naeyi ianaiia?aae i?aeoe/i? ciaiiy ?c noa?e
i?ioan?eiiai ? noni?eueiiai aeeooy oa ciaiiy i?i ia?iae, ye? ni?eyee
ona?aeiieaiith eiai iie?oe/ii? aeeoo?caeaoiino? ? iioaioaaiith aeanieo
aa?oinoae.

Na?eicio aaiethoe?th i?ieoee oaeiae iaoiaee iaa/aiiy ? o/?iiy aei?ineeo.
A aiioo i?ina?oieoeoaa aiie iaaaaeoaaee iaoiaee, ye? canoiniaoaaee a
oeieao ? oi?aa?neoaoao. A ianooii? /ane iiyaeeeny iia? iaoiaee iaa/aiiy
? o/?iiy. O/eoaeue ye iiia?aea/ ia?aaeaaaa ciaiiy /a?ac ?iciia?aeue ?
ni?a, ?icaoaeaeoaaa aiooc?aci neooa/a iie?ath/enue ia oe?iiinoyo ?
c?aceao aeeooy. A OO noie?oo? iaoiaee ianiai? aaeoeaoe?? iiaie? ao?a/aee
naith i?eaaaeea?noue i?e i?aoe? a a?oiao ? eo?niaiio iaa/aii?, a
o/anieee ina?oiuei? i?aoe? noaaaee noa”?eoii i?aeaioiaee, ?icaeaaee
caoe?eaaeai?noue ? noni?eueio aeoeai?noue. Iaoiaee o?aaeeoe?eiiai
oe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy iiaie? a?aeie?aee, caaaeyee /iio iaa/aiiy ? o/?iiy
aei?ineeo noaaaei a?eueo caoiiethth/ei ? i?aeeyaaei ci?iai. I?i oea
yne?aai na?ae/aoue neaiaeeiaanuee? c?acee, eiee o ao?oeao aa/??iueiai
iaa/aiiy o/anieee aeeiioaaee ?ieue o/eoaey a?aeiia?aeii aei eicoiao
“eiaeiee iaa/a?oueny nai”. A oaeiio na?oe? iaa/aiiy ? o/?iiy aei?ineeo a
e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie ? NOA iaeaaeeoue ?ioa?i?aooaaoe ye ?noi??th
aiaineiaoe??.

Ia iniia? aiae?co aeaea?aeueii? aace iieacaii, ui aeina?ae Aiae?? ?
Aeai?? c?iaea aaee/aciee aieea ia ?icaeoie aaeoeaoe?? aei?ineeo o an?e
?a?ii?, a oiio /ene? ? a Aaee/ei?, iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, ui ?icaeoie
iai?yi?a ? oi?i a eiaei?e aea?aeaa? eoia aeoaea /anoi ?ioeie, aeanieie
oeyoaie. ? oi/a a na?o? i?ieoee cia/i? ci?ie i?ia?ai iaa/aiiy,
neaiae?iaanuee? ia?iaei? oi?aa?neoaoe ia ao?aoeee aei oeueiai /ano nai?o
iniiaieo oe?iiinoae, iaeaieiai?o? na?aae yeeo: aoiinoa?a ?iaeeiiiai
aeiio; iniaenoee eiioaeo a/eoaey c o/iai; a?aee?eoee ae?aeia i?i
ina?oo, noni?eueio ae?yeuei?noue, a oaeiae i?aeaeaoeea?noue ia ci?ie a
i?aaeiaoao ? iaoiaeao iaa/aiiy.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Aaeoeaoe?ei? eiioaenoe ?aeaeieo i?ia?ai aea?aieo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e Aaee/eie” ?ice?eaathoueny i?ia?aiia? aeiiae uiaei
ina?oe aei?ineeo aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo eiina?aaoi??a,
aeaiie?ao?a, ia?iaeiaoe?a oa nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a, aecia/aiiy ieie i?noey
? ?ie? ina?oe aei?ineeo a ?o iie?oe/i?e aiaineiaoe??.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o i?ia?aiao ??cieo iie?oe/ieo oa?oioaaiue iaeiaeiaith
aoea eeoa iiceoe?y uiaei iio?aae iioe?aiiy ina?oe a ?ia?oie/iio ?
naeyinueeiio na?aaeiaeu?. Caoa a ieo i?iyaeyeany aaee/acia ??cieoey
uiaei oeyo?a ? iaoiae?a ?? ?aae?caoe??. Aeiiae i?ia?aneaieo nee
i?eioeeiiai a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae iiaeyae?a eiina?aaoi??a uiaei ianyao,
??aiy oa ci?noo ina?oe. ?ica?aei?noue iiceoe?e ??cieo oa/?e ?
noni?eueieo eean?a uiaei aeiia oa i?aeoiae?a aei iioe?aiiy ia?iaeii?
ina?oe ae?acii i?iyaeyeany a ?aeaeieo i?ia?aiao, o a?aeicaao,
i?iaieioaieo o oi?i? aeaeea?aoe?e, noaoooao, ioae?oeenoe/ieo noaooyo, a
oaeiae ciaoiaeeea nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueoee aieea ia iie?oe/iee, ainiiaea?nueeee ?
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e ono??e Aaee/eie a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. iaee
eiina?aaoeai? ia?o?? (noai/eee, iiaeieyee, aoai/eee), ui a?ae??ciyeeny
i?ia?aiiai oa ?aeaieia?/ii ? i?aaenoaaeyee ?ioa?ane aaaaoeo
caieaaeaniee?a oa i?uai. A noni?eueieo ni?aaao aiie aaneee anye? ni?iae
iinooio a eiaei?e ae?eyioe? noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Oi/a ? i?iaieiooaaee
aanea i?i iioe?aiiy ina?oe na?aae ianaeaiiy, aea a?aeeeaeaee an? ni?iae
? i?aaiaiiy aaeeoeueeeo naeyi ? ?ia?oiee?a uiaei iiaeaaaeaiiy
iie?oe/iiai ? ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy. A ?acoeueoao? aeiaaee aei
eaoano?io?/iiai oiaaeeo ainiiaea?nueeiai, ina?oiueiai ? eoeueoo?iiai
aeeooy e?ath. Ei?enooaaeeny i?aeo?eieith aeuiai eaoieeoeueeiai eea?o ?
aeayeeo aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a c iaeaeueo iaoeiaeo noa?.

Iie?oeea cao?aeiueiaaeeoeueeeo eiina?aaoi??a oi?ioaaea ?o aioaaii?noe/ia
noaaeaiiy aei ia?iaeo, ye c iiaeyaeo aeiiii?/iiai, oae ?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai, ui aeieeaaei c ?o aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua. ?o no?ao
ia?aae ao?aoith caiaeueieo ia?oe?a ia oa?aiao, canaeaieo oe?a?inueeith
a?eueo?noth, aoa ae??oaeueiei o aecia/aii? ?oiuei? iie?oeee, yea aaea
aei oo?eiaiiy “noaoon eai”, a c /anii ia?aoiaeeea a oaiaoe/iee
eiina?aaoeci, ui aeioiaeea aei ianeo?aoecio. Aiie aeneiaethaaeeny ca
iiaio aaoiiii?th Aaee/eie, aea a noni?eueieo ? iie?oe/ieo ni?aaao,
iniaeeai a ii/aoeiaee ia??iae, ai?ieeny c oe?a?inueeei iaoe?iiaeueiei
?ooii, ui ca?iaeaeoaaany.

O a?iiaaenuee?e aeoioe? eiina?aaoi?e iaiaaaeeny i?eiaioeoe ?ieue
ia?iaeii? oeiee, aeiaanoe ?? aei aeaiaioa?iiai iaa/aiiy a i?ioan?eiiio
ia?yi?, nei?ioeoe /an iaia’yceiaiai iaa/aiiy c oanoe aei /ioe?ueio ?ie?a
? ciaioeoe eiooe ia oo?eiaiiy oe?e, ia?aaeaoe ?o o ?oee ?ae?a?eieo
i?aeai?a, aeciaaaee oeieo ca aeoaea aei?iao, aeaii?ae?coth/o noni?eueii
e iie?oe/ii.

Noai/eee oaeiae caeiaee ae?acii iaaaoeaio iiceoe?th o noaaeaii? aei
/enaeueieo oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa, ui
noai?thaaeeny i?ia?aneaieie ae?y/aie ? a?oiaie, iaiaaaeeny i?eieieoe aai
i?i?iae?coaaoe ?o ae?yeuei?noue. Iiceoeaiei aeaiaioii ?o i?ia?ai aoei
oa, ui aiie aeciaaaee iio?aao iioe?aiiy ina?oe aeey aeoiaaiiy c?aceiaiai
i?aeaeaiiai, a iaaaoeaiei – iaiaaeaiiy oi?i ina?oiuei? i?aoe?.

A iiiceoe?? aei ina?oi?o i?ia?ai eiina?aaoi??a noiyee oa?oioaaiiy
aaeeoeueeeo aeaiie?ao?a, ia?iaeiaoe?a ? nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a, ye?
?ai?acaiooaaee ?aaeeeaeuei? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? i?ia?aie ? i?iaiaeeee
a?aeiia?aeio aei ieo ae?yeuei?noue. Iai?eeeaae, ai?iaeiaae n?iaeanyoeo
?ie?a O?O no. aeaiie?aoe o?aeooaaee iioe?aiiy ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e na?aae
ia?iaeieo ian ye ia?oi/a?aiao i?iaeaio, i?iaieiooaaee iiaeia
iiceoea?noe/ia aanei – iaaeeaeaiiy aei ia?iaeo.

I?ia?aneaia ?ioae?aaioe?y ? ae?y/? ?ia?oie/iai ?ooo a ina?o? aa/eee
iiaeeea?noue ?aae?caoe?? aa?iii?? ia?iaeii? i?aoe? ? iie?auaiiy oiia
aeeooy iaea?aei?oeo aa?noa aaeeoeueeiai noni?euenoaa, ianaiia?aae
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, ca?eueiaiiy eiai a?ae aieeao aeai?o ?
aeooiaainoaa.. Aiie noiyee ia iiceoe??, ui ina?oa naeyi iiaeiia
aeia?aaeaeoaaoe i?aeoe/i? ae?? uiaei canioaaiiy ina?oi?o, eoeueoo?ieo ?
ainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa, o o./. e e?aaeeoieo ?inoeoooe?e. Ai?y/enue ca
caaaeueiiaeinooii?noue ina?oe ??cieo ??ai?a, o?aeooaaee icia/aio aeiiao
ye i?aai?/io neeaaeiao caaaeueii? ai?ioueae c ieoiaioaie. A ina?o? aiie
aaa/aee iaia’yceiao oiiao ia?aoai?aiiy ia?iaeieo ian o neeo, caeaoio aei
?acoeueoaoeaii? ai?ioueae ca iaoe?iiaeueia ? noni?eueia aecaieaiiy.

Iniaeeao ?ieue aeaiie?aoe a?aeaiaeeee oeie?, eiec? ? aacao?. Ia ?o
aeoieo, oe? /eiieee iaee ia eeoa i?aeiineoe ii?aeuei?noue n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy oeyoii aeei??iaiiy e?ieanoaa, ieyoeoaa, oaiiioe ? caaiaii?a,
aea, ia?aaeon?i, ooaa?aeeoe a na?aaeiaeu? iaae/ee noie?iii? i?aoe?,
caiiiaaeeeaino? ? iuaaeiino?. Iaeiae ?aae?caoe?th oe?eeii iiceoeaii?
i?ia?aie a?aeaeaaaee a ?oee oeyoaonueeeo aeai??a ? i?nueei?
?ioae?aaioe??. Caeeeeaee aei noai?aiiy a?ae?ioae, /eoaeaiue, caoi?iiie ?
cae?eniaiiy ii?ee iaae n?euenueeei ?aianeii. Aaaaeaee, ui oaea
ae?yeuei?noue ia? e?ea?aeoaaoe i?iianoue i?ae noaiaie, a oaeiae
caaacia/eoue aeiiii?/ia, ii?aeueia ? ?icoiiaa i?aeianaiiy iaea?aei?oeo
ia?iaeieo ian. Iaeiae oai?oe? oi? i?ia?aie ia iaaeeceeeny i? aei
naeyi, i? aei i?nueeeo ?ia?oiee?a, ye? ui?ac c a?eueoei aaaeaiiyi
i?aai?ciaoaaee ?ia?oie/? ? naeyinuee? oiaa?enoaa, eio?? i?eeiaee aanea
ia?iaeiiai ?ooo ? nioe?ae?cio, ui ca?iaeaeoaaany.

I?ia?aneaiee oa?aeoa? iaea ina?oiy i?ia?aia ia?iaeieo aeaiie?ao?a.
Iaeiae ?? ?aae?caoe?y aeeeeeaea na?eici? canoa?aaeaiiy c aieo
?aaeeeaeueieo nee Aaee/eie. A ?acoeueoao? aioo??oi?o ?aeaeii-i?ia?aiiaeo
ia?ai?i ia?iaei? aeaiie?aoe ia?aeoee ia ?aaeoe?ei? iiceoe??, iaiaaaeeny
ae?yoe a aeon? iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? ?aeaieia??, yea i?iiecoaaea oaeiae an?
ii/eiaiiy uiaei iioe?aiiy ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e.

I?ia?aneai? oa?oioaaiiy aino?i e?eoeeoaaee ?aeaei? i?ia?aie aaeeoeueeeo
aeaiie?ao?a (aiaeae?a) ? eiina?aaoeaieo nee, ?o ?ieiee
iaoe?iiae?noe/iee, ?aaeoe?eiee ? eea?eeaeueiee oa?aeoa?.

Aaaeeeao ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?inueeeo ?
iieuenueeeo naeyi a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. a?ae?a?aaaee ina?oi?,
eoeueoo?i? ? ainiiaea?nuee? oiaa?enoaa (Oiaa?enoai Oe?e Ethaeiaeo,
Oiaa?enoai Ina?oe Ethaeiai?, ?onueea Oiaa?enoai Iaaeaaia?/ia,
“I?ina?oa”), ye? cina?aaeaeoaaee nai? coneeey ia ?icoe?aii? /eoaiiy eiea
? iiioey?ecaoe?? ciaiue. ?o ae?y/? a i?ecia/ai?e aeey ia?iaeo i?an?
ioae?eoaaee noaoo? ia o?eueee ?ae?a?eii-ii?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, aea e
?ice?eaaee iie?oe/i?, ainiiaea?nuee? oa ina?oi? i?iaeaie, ?ioi?ioaaee
i?i iaeaaaeeea?o? iiae?? a e?a? ? na?o?. Caeeeeaee noni?euei?noue aei
canioaaiiy /eoaeaiue ? ia?iaeieo a?ae?ioae, i?aai?caoe?? ??eueie/eo
ao?oe?a, ina?oi?o ? ainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa, aeaeaaaee ii?aaeieee aeey
ae?y/?a ? i?aai?caoi??a ina?oiuei? i?aoe? a n?euenueeiio na?aaeiaeu?,
iioe?thaaee ina?oo ? e?ea?aeiaoaaee iaienueiaii?noue, /ei ni?eyee
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiio, iie?oe/iiio oa ainiiaea?nueeiio ?icaeoeo naea.

Cia/i? i?aai?caoe?ei? ? i?ia?aiia? ci?ie a?aeaoeeny a naeyinueeeo
iie?oe/ieo oa?oioaaiiyo. ?o naeiia? iinee ? ia?iaei? ae?y/? aoee
ia?aeiiai? a oiio, ui ina?oa ? aaaeeeaei /eiieeii ainiiaea?nueeiai ?
eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo aaeeoeueeiai naea, a oiio aeiiaaaeeny ?aoi?i
aeaiaioa?iiai ? na?aaeiueiai oe?eueieoeoaa, i?aeaioiaee ? aeaeaiiy iiaeo
i?ae?o/iee?a, ci?ie i?ia?ai iaa/aiiy a iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeon? oa
i?aeaeuaiiy noaoono a/eoae?a ia?iaeieo oe?e.

I?ae oeei iiaeyaeii caneoaiao? ia oaaao i?ia?aia iieuenueei? ia?iaeii?
ia?o??, oai?oe? yei? aaaaeaee, ui aac oe?iei? ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?ii?
ae?yeueiino? ia iiaeia i?aeiyoe iaoe?iiaeueii-noni?eueio ? iie?oe/io
na?aeii?noue ia?iaeieo ian. Aiie aeneiaethaaeeny ca
caaaeueiiaeinooii?noue ina?oe aeey an?o iaoeaioe?a Aaee/eie aac ??cieoe?
iaoe?iiaeueiino?, noao? ? ??aiy caiiaeiino?. Ia ?o aeoieo, ina?oa
iiaeiia i?euaieoe iieiae? ii/oooy a?aeaeaiino? i?aaae?, e?an? ? aeia?o,
a ?? ci?no ia? ii?aeioaaoe a nia? caaaeueiiethaenuee? ?aeaaee ?c oeie
i?ia?aneaieie aeaiaioaie iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, ye? ae?iaeai?
ai?iaeiaae a?e?a. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oeueiai aeiaaaee ?aoi?ie
oe?eueieoeoaa ? iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe, i?aai?caoe?? a eiaei?e ai?i?
aeia?i? oeiee ? eo?n?a aeey iaienueiaiieo c a?aeiia?aeii i?aeaioiaeaieie
a/eoaeyie, ?icoe?aiiy i?ia?ai caaaeueiiina?oi?o ? oaoiaeo oe?e c
aaia?ao?? oa ?noi???. Iacaai? i?aaeiaoe iaee ia iao? aeoiaaoe iieiaeue
aeey Aaouee?aueie ? e?ath. I?aee?anethaaeiny, ui oeiea ia? aooe caoeuaia
a?ae aieeao oea?eae, c ia? iathoue aooe onoioo? anye? i?ea?ea?, a
iacaiiaei?e iieiae? ia? aooe aa?aioiaaia aeiiiiiaa a iaea?aeaii? ina?oe.

Aaeeeo ?i?oe?aoeao a iiaeaaaeaii? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai ?
ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy ia nae? i?iyaeyee a?aeae?eaiiy oiaa?enoa
“I?ina?oa”, Oe?e Ethaeiaeo, ??eueie/eo Ni?eie oa ?i.. ?o
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiy i?aoey eiioeaio?oaaeany iaaeiei ?i?oe?thaaiiy
aoae?aieoeoaa ia?iaeieo aeii?a oa ia?iaeieo oe?e, canioaaiiy /eoaeaiue
oa a?ae?ioae. A ieo a?aeaoaaeeny eaeoe?? ? aan?aee, eo?ne aeey
aei?ineeo aiaeueoaaao?a (iaienueiaiieo), c aa?iiii?/ieo ciaiue oiui.
Aaeeeo iiioey?i?noue a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? iaa aiaoi?nueeee ?oo a
oi?i? n?euenueeeo oaao??a oa oi??a, iaoith yeiai aoei eoeueoeaoaaiiy
ia?iaeieo ? iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e. A?i a cia/i?e i??? ni?eya
?icaoaeaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? aaeeoeueeiai naeyinoaa.

A noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio ?icaeoeo aaeeoeueeiai naea cia/io ?ieue
a?ae?a?aa naiiae?yeueiee naeyinueeee iie?oe/iee ?oo, yeee oi?ioaaa
naeyieia-iao??ioa ? na?aeiiiai a?iiaaeyieia, aeoeaiiai a aeeoo? e?ath.
Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy a oeueiio i?ioean? iaea ia?iaeieoeueea i?ana ?
e?oa?aoo?a, yea ni?e/eieeany aei ?icaoaeaeaiiy ina?oi?o caoe?eaaeaiue ?
eoeueoo?ieo iio?aa n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. Aiae?c aeaea?aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ia?iaeieoeueeee ?oo ia nae? ia
aoa ?aeeiei i?aai?caoi?ii ??cieo oi?i ina?oe aei?ineeo ? iiaeaaaeaiiy ?o
eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy. Ua aei iueiai ia nae? ae?yee ??ciiiai?oi?
ainiiaea?nuee? ao?oee ? i?aai?caoe?? c aeineoue aaaaoith aaeoeaoe?eiith
? aeoiaiith ae?yeuei?noth oa /eneaii? ina?oi? ? eoeueoo?i? oiaa?enoaa.
Iaeiae aeeaae ia?iaeieoeueeiai ?ooo a ina?oo aei?ineeo oa ae?yeuei?noue
ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?ieo ?inoeoooe?e aoa cia/iee.

Iioe?aiiy ina?oe a aaeeoeueeiio ?ia?oie/iio ?on? aaaaeaeiny iaeiei c
ia?oi/a?aiaeo caaaeaiue. A ina?o? aa/eee /eiiee oi?ioaaiiy oaei?
iniaenoino?, yea ci?ieoue noni?eueiee ? iie?oe/iee ono??e e?ath.

I?ia?aie ??ciiiai?oieo ina?aaee?a ?ia?oie/iai ?ooo ?icaeyaeaee ni?aao
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? i?aoe? ?ioaa?iaaii c ae?yeuei?noth aeey caeiaoooy
iacaeaaeiino? ? naiaiaee. ?aei?noue iiceoe?e oeeo ina?aaee?a a ni?aa?
iioe?aiiy ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e ciaoiaeeea i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a /eneaiieo
oi?iao ae?yeueiino?, yeo i?iaiaeeee ina?oi? oa ?ia?oie/? oiaa?enoaa,
i?ioan?ei? ni?eee, ina?aaeee ia?o?eieo i?aai?caoe?e oa ?inoeoooe??
iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe (ia?iaei? ? ?ia?oie/? aeiie, /eoaeuei? ?
a?ae?ioaee, ioca?, aaea?a? ienoaoeoa, eo?ne ? aeaiaioa?i? oeiee aeey
aei?ineeo, ?ia?oie/? oaao?e ? o.i.).

Na?aae yaeu iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a a
O?O-OO no. ia iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiao? i?ioean iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a. Aiae?c c?a?aiiai iaoa??aeo aeicaiey?
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui noeioethth/o ?ieue a oeueiio i?ioean? a?ae?a?aee
ia?iaeiaoe?, ae?yeuei?noue yeeo i?eaaea aei aeoea?caoe?? ?ioeo
oe?a?inueeeo ia’?aeiaiue. Aeoiaey/e c iio?aae i?aeaioiaee naeyi aei
?aoe?iiaeueiiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy, a ?ia?oiee?a aei oni?oii? i?aoe? a
i?iieneiaino?, ia?iaeiaoe? i?aaioee i?aeianoe iaoe?iiaeueio na?aeii?noue
? ?aei?noue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo oeyoii ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ciaiue,
eoeueoo?e ? e?oa?aoo?e, noai?aiiy ina?oi?o, eoeueoo?ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo
oiaa?enoa, i?aai?caoe?? a?/, cai??a, c’?cae?a oiui.

Aiae?c iieaco?, ui a 1900-1914 ??. oe?a?inueea noni?euei?noue aeinyaea
cia/iiai iinooio a noa?? naiiaeiiiiiae ? aeiiii?ee. Iath/e iacia/ia
/enei aea?aeaaieo na?aaei?o oe?e, oe?a?ioe? noai?eee ia?aaeo i?eaaoieo
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a an?o oei?a, aeoeaii ai?ieeny ca
oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao o Eueaia?.

I?ioe iie?oe/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai, a o./. e ina?oiueiai,
oiine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a Aaee/eie aenooiaee aaeeoeuee?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe. I?iaieiooth/e aanea ??aiii?aaiino? an?o ia?iae?a
Aano???, aiie caoeuaee i?aaa oe?a?ioe?a ia ina?oo ? iie?oe/io
ae?yeuei?noue. Aenooiaee ca ie?io ni?ai?aoeth iieye?a ? oe?a?ioe?a ia
canaaeao aca?iii? iiaaae, ?i coi?iiy aeanieo iio?aa ? aeciaiiy i?aaa ia
?icaeoie aeanii? eoeueoo?e oeyoii ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai oe?eueieoeoaa
? eoeueoo?ieo ?inoeoooe?e. A na?aaeiaeu? iieuenueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??
iniaeeaa oaaaa caa?oaeanue ia yaio aeene?ei?iaoe?th oe?a?ioe?a a noa??
aeuiai ? na?aaeiueiai oe?eueieoeoaa. Ia noi??ieao oe?a?inueeeo ?
iieuenueeeo /aniien?a ?ia?oie/iai ?ooo iaaiai?thaaeeny aaaeeea? i?iaeaie
ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e ia?iaeo, i?aeaeaaaeany e?eoeoe? i?aeaioiaea
?ia?oiee?a, a?ae ia?iaeieo oe?e, noaaeeeny aeiiae ?aoi?ioaaiiy ae?th/i?
nenoaie oe?eueieoeoaa.

Ae?y/? nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?ooo aa/eee oaeiae aaeeeo iio?aao a i?aeianaii?
??aiy ina?oe ia nae?. Aeacoaaee, ui i?e/eie ?? iecueeiai noaio
ei??ieeeny ianaiia?aae o ai?iae?e ae?yeueiino? eiina?aaoeaieo nee, ye?
i?aaioee aeoiaaoe aiaoe/iiai, aacaeoiiiai ? oaiiiai oeiia, yeee aoa ae
iii?ith ?nioth/iai eaaeo ? noni?eueiiai ii?yaeeo a aano??enuee?e
aea?aeaa?. Aino??e e?eoeoe? i?aeaeaaaee ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?io
ae?yeuei?noue i?uainueeeo oiaa?enoa ? oa?oioaaiue na?aae naeyi. Neooii
noaa?aeaeoaaee, ui iiioey?ecaoe?y ? iioe?aiiy ciaiue a n?euenueeiio
na?aaeiaeu? i?ina?oieeaie “c-ciai?” iiaeii? iie?aoeny ia aeeaieiio
ciaii? na?aaeiaeua, naeyinueei? ineo?ee oa ia aeineiiae?e iaoiaee/i?e
i?aeaioiaoe?.

Cae?eniaiee aiae?c aeaa i?aenoaae c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
?acoeueoaoii ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo oiaa?enoa, ia?o?e
? ia’?aeiaiue, iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e a noa?? ina?oe aei?ineeo,
iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o i?ia?aiiaeo a?aei?iiinoae, noaei i?aeaeuaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ianaeaiiy Aaee/eie, c?inoaiiy eiai aeoeaiino?
a ai?iouea? ca iie?oe/io ? iaoe?iiaeueio naiaiaeo, ca aeanio
aea?aeaai?noue.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Oai??y ? i?aeoeea aeaiaioa?ii? ina?oe aei?ineeo”
?ice?eaa?oueny noai oe?a?inueeiai ? iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae oa ii/aoee i?aai?caoe?? aeaiaioa?iiai
oe?eueieoeoaa aeey aei?ineeo, aiae?cothoueny iiaeyaee aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a
ieioeiai ia iiaeeea?noue iaa/aiiy aei?ineeo, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ina?oiuei?
i?aoe?, i?ae?o/ieee e iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?enueeia? iaaaea/? Aano???, iaiao?aei?noue
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?ai?i i?eaaee aei
aaaeeeaeo ?aoi?i, a o./. e o noa?? oe?eueieoeoaa. A 60-o ?ieao O?O no.
i?eeiyoi eiinoeoooe?th, ?yae oe?eueieo caeii?a, ui ni?eyei iiaeaaaeaiith
ina?oiuei? ni?aae: c?inei /enei ia?iaeieo oe?e, cai?iaaaeaeaii
“oe?eueiee i?eion”, noai?aii e?a?ao oe?eueio ?aaeo, caniiaaii caeeaaee
aeey i?aeaioiaee o/eoae?a, a?aee?eoi oe?a?inuee? eaoaae?e a oi?aa?neoao?
oiui.

Iaeiae Aaee/eia i?iaeiaaeoaaea caeeoaoeny na?aae oeo e?a?a Aano???, aea
aoa iaea??oee noai oe?eueieoeoaa. Oeieo a?aea?aeoaaea iacia/ia /anoeia
ae?oae oe?eueiiai a?eo, a aaaaoueio ianaeaieo ioieoao acaaae? ia aoei
oe?e (iai?., o 1908 ?. o 1208 ai?iao ?c 6243), a ?o a?eueo?noue,
iniaeeai oe?a?inuee?, — aoee iaeieeaniaeie. Aieiaieie i?e/eiaie oaeiai
noaio aoea a?aei?noue ianaeaiiy, a?aenooi?noue iioeaaoe?? aei iaa/aiiy,
iaaaoeaia ?ieue eiina?aaoeaieo ia’?aeiaiue, iaaeinoaoi? o?iainoaaiiy
oe?eueieoeoaa, iiae?e oe?e ia i?nuee? oa n?euenuee?, a?aenooi?noue
iio??aii? e?eueeino? eaae?o?eiaaieo o/eoae?a ( o 1908 ?. ia iaeiiai
a/eoaey i?eoiaeeeinue 100 ? a?eueoa o/i?a i?e ii?i? 80), ?o iecueeee
noaoon o noni?euenoa? oa ia?ane?aeoaaiiy c aieo oe?eueieo aeanoae, a?ae
oe?eueieo aoaeeie?a oa ?aaeoe?eia iie?oeea iieuenueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??.

Oiae?oiy i?ana i?aeaeaaaea aino??e e?eoeoe? i?ia?aie oa ci?no
i?ae?o/iee?a, ye? cai?noue iaa/aiiy, iia?oiai ia aeinyaiaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee, oa aeoiaaiiy iiaeo iieie?iue o iaoe?iiaeueiiio
aeon?, a oeie? ooaa?aeaeoaaee oaeee aeoo, yeee noia?a/ea i?e?iae?
aeeoeie. Iniaeeai neeaaeiei aoei noaiiaeua oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy, yea
ia iaei aeiaeii? aeae?eiai? oeiee ? ca /enaeuei?noth na?aaei?o oe?e
cia/ii a?aenoaaaei a?ae iieuenueeiai ianaeaiiy.

O ca’yceo c oeei iia?eueii ciaiooaaeany /anoea iaienueiaiiiai ianaeaiiy
(o 1880 ?. 76,79 %, a a 1900 – 63,80%). Na?aae iieuenueeiai ianaeaiiy
a?eii iiiaae o?noue ?ie?a 52,8 % aoee iaienueiaiieie, a na?aae
oe?a?ioe?a oeae iieaciee aoa aeuei ia 27%.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy aeaea?aeueii? aace iieacaii, ui ?noi??y aeaiaioa?iiai
aaeeoeueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa (oe?a?inueeiai ? iieuenueeiai) – oea ?noi??y
ai?ioueae aeaio oa/?e, c yeeo iaeia aaeueioaaea, a ae?oaa — ?icoe?thaaea
ia?iaeio ina?oo. Ia?oo c ieo ?ai?acaiooaaa oaa?? ia?o?e
eea?eeaeueii-eiina?aaoeaiiai ni?yioaaiiy, aaa/ath/e a iioe?aii? ina?oe
caa?ico ?nioth/?e ???a?o?? ? noni?eueiei i?ea?eayi. Ae?oaa an?ia neeaie
iaiaaaeany oeueiio ia?aoeiaeeoe. A ?? eieao aenooiaee iaea?eueo
i?ia?aneai? iniae e oiaa?enoaa, ui noiyee ia a?oio? aeaiie?aoecaoe??
ina?oe, aaa/ath/e a i?e iiaooi?e /eiiee noni?eueiiai iinooio ?
ia?iaeiiai aeia?iaooo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oi/ ia?iaeia oeiea ia noaea aae aei ii/aoeo Ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie ?inoeoooe??th caaaeueii? ina?oe, a oe?eueiee iaia”ycie ia
aoa a iiai?e i??? ?aae?ciaaiee, aiia a?ae?a?aea aaeeeo ?ieue a noa??
e?ea?aeaoe?? eoeueoo?ii? a?aenoaeino? oa oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii?,
iie?oe/ii? ? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a ? iieye?a. Oi/a
iaienueiaii?noue, yea ? iaaeae? caeeoaeany ianiaei yaeuai, iniaeeai
na?aae oe?a?ioe?a, ? ia aoea e?a?aeiaaiith, aea na?aae iieiaeiai
iieie?iiy aiia nooo?ai ciaioeeany.

Aenieee ??aaiue aiaeueoaaaoecio (iaa?aiioiino?) ?
nioe?aeueii-ainiiaea?nuee? iio?aae caaino?eee i?iaeaio ina?oe aei?ineeo
a e?a?. Aei aeoe?? ai?ioueae c iaienueiaii?noth aeeth/eeeny
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? oiaa?enoaa ? iie?oe/i? ia?o?? c ??cieie ?aeaeieie
i?ia?aiaie oa oea?eiaia aeaaea. Aiie iiioey?ecoaaee ciaiiy, oi?ioaaee
noni?eueii-iie?oe/io na?aeii?noue, a/eee ? aeoiaoaaee a?iiaaeyi a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeon?. ?o ae?yeuei?noue a?ae/ooii aieeioea ia ?icaeoie
ia?iaeiiai oe?eueieoeoaa, i?aai?caoe?th ina?oe aei?ineeo oa i?aeianaiiy
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? iaoe?iiaeueieo a?oi e?ath.

?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui a ?acoeueoao? ina?oi?o ciaaaiue ??ci? iaoe??, a
ia?aaeon?i oe?a?ioe? ? iieyee, a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO
no. ae?acii aeyaeee nai? aea?aeaaieoeuee? oa iaoe?iiaeuei? ono?aie?iiy,
ye? ooaa?aeaeoaaeeny a iie?oe/i?e e /anoeiai ainiiaea?nuee?e
ae?yeueiino?, a cie?aia a iioe?aii? iaoee, ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e.
Oe?a?ioe?, iath/e ia iao? iio?aao cao?ooaaiiy iaoe?? ? noai?aiiy aeanii?
aea?aeaae, aei?aoethaaee caaaeueio ?noi??th e ?noi??th iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e, i?aai?coaaee na?aaei? e oaoia? i?eaaoi? oeiee,
?icaoaeiaoaaee ia?iaeia oe?eueieoeoai, aiooaaee nai?o a/eoae?a ?
oe?euei? i?ae?o/ieee, a oaeiae ?icaeioee oe?ieiianooaaio ae?yeuei?noue
noni?eueii-eoeueoo?ieo ? ina?oi?o i?aai?caoe?e. A oie aea /an iieyee a
?acoeueoao? oe?ieiai caeo/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ?ioae?aaioe??, aeniei?
aeoeaiino? a/eoae?a, ae?yeueiino? e?aeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe??, i?eeiyooy
e?a?aei naeiii aea?aeieo aeey iieye?a caeii?a (caaaeyee a?eueoino? a
e?aeiaiio naei?) noai?eee a Aaee/ei? iieio iieuenueei? iaoee, ina?oe ?
eoeueoo?e.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeaea?aeii ?icaeoeo ?aea? ina?oiuei? i?aoe? a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O no. aoee oaeaee? noni?eueii-ainiiaea?nuee? ia?ai?ie, a
oaeiae i?aaiaiiy iaoe?e aei iacaeaaeiino?. Aaeeea a?aenoae?noue
aaeeoeueei? oe?eueii? nenoaie, ?? neaaea i?aeaioiaeai?noue aei
?aae?caoe?? ina?oi?o iio?aa iaeoe?oeo noni?eueieo aa?noa, oaeaeeee
?icaeoie ia?iaeiiai ?ooo i?eaaee aei iiaeaaaeaiiy noni?eueieo ?i?oe?aoea
a noa?? ina?oe aei?ineeo.

Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeaiue noaea ai?ioueaa c iaienueiaii?noth
ia?iaeieo ian. Aei ia?oeo ni?ia iaa/aiiy aei?ineeo a?aeianaii noai?aiiy
oe?e ? eo?n?a aeaiaioa?iiai iaa/aiiy, oae caaieo “oe?e aeey neoa”,
ae?yeuei?noue yeeo a ianooii? ?iee iaaoea iino?eiiai oa?aeoa?o. A
i?ioean? iaa/aiiy o/aniee?a iaiaaaeeny ia o?eueee iaa/eoe /eoaoe ?
ienaoe, aea ia?aaeon?i ?icaoaeeoe a ieo aaeoeaoe?ei? iio?aae ?
i?aeaiooaaoe aei naiiina?oiuei? i?aoe?. ?aeay ina?oiuei? i?aoe? c /anii
ia?aianeanue a e?a?aee naei ? ni?e/eieeany aei caaaeueii?
caoe?eaaeaiino? noni?euenoaa i?iaeaiaie ina?oe aei?ineeo.

?aae?caoe?y i?ia?aie “aeueoaaaoecaoe??” (iaa/aiiy a?aiioe)
aaeeoeueeiai noni?euenoaa cono??/aeany c aaee/acieie o?oaeiiuaie, a oiio
oey i?aoey ia i?eiineea a aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ia??iae? i/?eoaaieo
e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo ?acoeueoao?a. Na?aae iaeaieiai?oeo o?oaeiiu?a
aecia/aii oae?:

— cia/ia c?inoaiiy /enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy e?ath, ui iaiaaeoaaei
o?iainia? iiaeeeaino? uiaei aeaeaoe?a ia ina?oi? oe?e?;

— ?aaeoe?eia iie?oeea eiina?aaoeaieo oa?oioaaiue, i?i?noa?nueei? oa
e?a?aeo ina?oiuei? ? caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaae, yea i?eaaea aei iaiaaeaiiy
aeo?ao ia ina?oith ae?yeuei?noue, a ia?aaeon?i ia ina?oith i?aoeth
na?aae aei?ineeo;

— a?ae iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a ? a?aeiia?aeieo cania?a, oiaoi a/eoae?a,
i?aeaioiaeaieo aei i?aoe? c aei?ineeie, iaoeiai? aeiiiiiae, iaoiaee/ieo
iaoa??ae?a, aoeaa??a oa i?ae?o/iee?a aeey aeaeueoi? ina?oe. Oaea
neooaoe?y i?eaaea aei oiai, ui aoaeoeai?noue ina?oe aei?ineeo ia
a?aeiia?aeaea a?iiaaenueeei coneeeyi, a o?, ooi i?ieoia ina?oith
i?aeaioiaeo, noaaaee aoi?eiieie aiaeueoaaaoaie;

— aaaaoinoi?iiiy ? ?icae??aiaia, /anoi ianeii?aeeiiaaia, iie?oeea oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-ina?oiy i?aoey ??ciiiai?oieo ?inoeoooe?e ? ia?o?e
(Oiaa?enoai iaaeaaia?/ia, Oiaa?enoai oe?e ethaeiaeo, “I?ina?oa” oa ?i.);

— ia?aaeuei? caaaeaiiy, ui noaaeeeny aeey aeeiiaiiy ae?y/aie,
ea??aieoeoaii ?inoeoooe?e ? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o oa ainiiaea?nueeeo
ia”?aeiaiue, aaee aei caaeaeoae?iiy, c /anii ia?ae?coaaee aieth aei
iiaeaeueoeo ae?e.

E?eoeea a ia??iaee/i?e i?an?, nii?aaee/i? ae?? aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a,
oiaa?enoa ? ia?o?e a noa?? ina?oe aei?ineeo ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
e?a?aiio caeii? a?ae 23 o?aaiy 1895 ?., yeee ia?aaeaa/aa noai?aiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieie oiaa?enoaaie eo?n?a aeey iaa/aiiy /eoaiiy ? ienueia
iaienueiaiieo aei?ineeo i?e ia?iaeieo oeieao. ?i?oe?aoeaa oiaa?enoa
eiioeaio?oaaeany iaaeiei aeaiaioa?iiai iaa/aiiy, iiioey?ecaoe?? ciaiue
oa naiiina?oe aei?ineeo. Oe?a?inuee? oiaa?enoaa c?i?oe?thaaee oaeiae
noai?aiiy oaoiaeo eo?n?a, ye? c /anii aoee ia?aoai?ai? a caeeaaee
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. Aeey n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a noai?thaaeeny eo?ne
??eueieoeoaa ? aeiiaoiueiai ainiiaea?noaa. Aaaeeeao ?ieue a ina?o?
aei?ineeo a?ae?a?aei oe?a?inueea oiaa?enoai “I?ina?oa”, yea ?i?oe?thaaei
noai?aiiy ?yaeo oiaa?enoa. Ia?aae Ia?oith na?oiaith a?eiith “I?ina?oa”
iaea o?e oaoia? oeiee c eo?naie aeey aei?ineeo. A ??cieo i?noeaainoyo
/eaie oiaa?enoaa i?e /eoaeueiyo noai?thaaee eo?ne aeey iaienueiaiieo,
i?iaiaeeee ina?oiuei-aeiiii?/i? oa aa?iiii?/i? eo?ne, i?aai?coaaee o?e
ia?iaei? oi?aa?neoaoe (Euea?a, *a?i?aoe?, *a?/a). Oiaa?enoai iaei
eaae?o?eiaaieo “iaiae??aieo o/eoae?a”, i?iaaei ia?oee oe?a?inueeee
ina?oiuei-aeiiii?/iee eiia?an ? o.i..

Iaeiae ae?yeuei?noue a ae?eyioe? ina?oe aei?ineeo aeaaaea iecuee?
?acoeueoaoe ianaiia?aae /a?ac a?aenooi?noue eioo?a. O?eueee a 1909 ?.
aia?oa ia oeth ni?aao aoei aeae?eaii 1000 ei?ii.

Aeoeaii ae?yee a noa?? ina?oe aei?ineeo oiaa?enoaa oe?e ethaeiaeo e
ina?oe ethaeiai?, ye? noai?thaaee ??ciiiai?oi? eo?ne, ia?iaei?
oi?aa?neoaoe, a?ae?ioaee, /eoaeuei?, i?aai?ciaoaaee eaeoe?? aeey
ianaeaiiy oiui.

Eo?ne aeey iaienueiaiieo ia?aae a?eiith o?aeoiaaii ye ii/aoeiaee aoai, a
aeey ?o aeioneiee?a i?aai?ciaoaaeenue eo?ne c aeaui oe?oith i?ia?aiith
iaa/aiiy. Oi?iaeiaae 18 ?ie?a i?aoe? aoei i?aai?ciaaii 1203 eo?n?a aeey
iaa/aiiy ienueia, /eoaiiy oa ?aooie?a. Niinoa??aa?oueny oaeiae i?ioean
?icaoaeiae nooiaiaaiai iaa/aiiy aeey aei?ineeo. Ii/aaoe a?ae
aeiiiaiyeueiiai ia?iaeiiai oe?eueieoeoaa caaaeueiiina?oiueiai ?
i?ioan?eiiai i?io?eth, ina?oa aei?ineeo ?icaeaaeany a iai?yi? aei eo?n?a
? oe?e caaaeueiiina?oiueiai ? iie?oaoi?/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Iiaeeo?eaoe??
i?aeeyaaee oaeiae ieaie iaa/aiiy ? ci?no i?ia?ai. Aeieeaaei oea
ia?aaeon?i c caoe?eaaeaiue ? noni?eueieo iio?aa o/aniee?a iaa/aiiy, a
oaeiae caeaaeaei a?ae ?icaeoeo oai??? aeaiaioa?ii? ina?oe aei?ineeo.
I?aenoiiaoth/e ?noi??th eo?niaiai ? nenoaiaoe/iiai iaa/aiiy aei?ineeo o
ia?oiio, anooiiiio ia??iae?, iaeaaeeoue aeacaoe, ui ina?oiy i?aoey
na?aae aei?ineeo Aaee/eie a oiio ia??iae? iaea a?iiaaenueeee oa?aeoa?.
Ina?o? aeiiiiaaaea ?aaeeeaeueia ?ioae?aaioe?y, yea aa/eea iio?aao
o??aiyiiy a aeinooi? aei ciaiue iaea?aei?oeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy e?ath.
Aiia oaeiae aecia/aea iai?yi ae?yeueiino? i?ia?aneaieo i?ina?oiee?a
i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo.

I?iaeaiaoeea ina?oe aei?ineeo ciaeoea nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?aoeyo
oiai/anieo oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo iaaeaaia?a, oe?iei aena?oethaaeany
ia noi??ieao iaaeaaia?/ieo oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo /aniien?a. Iath
caeiaeeny I.Aeoiaanueeee, E.Ae?oe, N.Ea?iiae/, N.I?oaeuenueeee,
N.Iicia?, A.Oe?oeianueeee, A.A?aoeueiia, A.?eueieoeueeee,
I.Aaeoueinueeee, A.Aaoiyiei, I.Ia?oeoeueeee oa ?i. Ioae?eaoe??
ooaa?aeaeoaaee aeoieo i?i iaiao?aei?noue oe?eiaeeoo?aiai iaa/aiiy,
?ice?eaaee aeina?ae ? oai?aoe/i? iniiae ina?oe aei?ineeo a
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao, aeaaaee iaoiaee/i? ii?aaee uiaei
aeei?enoaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i ia i?aeoeoe? oiui.
Iniaeeaa oaaaa caa?oaeany ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueio ? ianiao naiiina?oo
aei?ineeo. Ia ii/aoeo OO no. ?icaeoeia? oai??? ina?oe aei?ineeo ni?eyee
oni?oe ineoieia?/ii? iaoee, ye? noaee iniiaith aeey iiaeaeueoeo
iaaeaaia?/ieo iiooe?a. Iaaeaaiae ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui eiaeiiai iiaeia
a/eoe aac iaiaaeaiiy a?eo, a ?icoi ethaeeie ?icaeaa?oueny aei i?ciuei?
noa?ino?. I?e oeueiio iaaieiooaaeiny, ui ina?oa aei?ineeo ia ia?
cai?iyoe oe?eueio, a iiaeiia aooe ie?aiei ina?oi?i aiaieuai, yea
oiiaeeeaeth? caeiaoooy caaaeueii? ina?oe eiaeiith ethaeeiith.

Iaa/aiiy aei?ineeo iaei neoaoaaoe i?ciaiith yaeu ? caeii?a i?e?iaee ?
noni?euenoaa, aooe “iioi?ii” aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy ? oeea?e?caoe?eiiai
i?aeianaiiy oe?ieeo ian, iiceoeaii aieeaaoe ia ?icoi, ii?aeuei?noue ?
anoaoe/i? niaee, ooeyoaoithaaoe ii/oooy aeoiaaioe?a. Aiaeii/an iaa/aiiy
iiaeiii aoei ?icaoaeeoe iio?aao ciaiue, naiiina?oe ? naiiaeoiaaiiy,
noi?ioaaoe oi?iiy ei?enooaaoeny ??ciiiai?oieie oi?iaie ? ina?aaeeaie
ina?oe.

Iiaee i?aeo?ae aei o?aeooaaiiy ina?oe aei?ineeo ciaeoia a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
/enaeueieo i?aoeyo oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo ina?oi?o ae?y/?a. ?o
i?aoe?, c iaeiiai aieo, caaa?ooaaee ia?aae?inoeoooe?eiee aoai a ?icaeoeo
aiae?aaia?/ii? aeoiee, a c aeoaiai aieo, ?icii/eiaee iiaee aoai, ui
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noai?aiiyi ?inoeoooe?eieo iniia ?icaeoeo
aiae?aaia?/ii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee. I?i oea ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue noai?aieo a e?ioe? O?O no. oiaa?enoa,
ye?, e??i ina?oiuei? i?aoe?, aaee aeine?aeieoeueeo, aeaeaaie/o ?
iiioey?ecaoi?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue a ae?eyioe? oai??? aiae?aaia?ee. Oaeei
/eiii aiie noaaaee cai?iieeaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?inoeoooe?e,
ye? a ia??iae iaoe?iiaeueii? iaaie?, aa?o/e ia naaa iaia’ycee aea?aeaae,
a cia/i?e i??? ni?e/eieeeny aei ?icaeoeo oai??? ? i?aeoeee ina?oe
aei?ineeo. Ia oaaao aeine?aeiee?a caneoaiao? ia?oee i?ae?o/iee
aiae?aaia?ee “Praca o?wiatowa. Jej zadania, metody i organizacja”,
noai?aiee c ?i?oe?aoeae ina?oi?o ae?y/?a ??cieo oiaa?enoa ?
i?aeaioiaeaiee a ia?iaeiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.A.I?oeeaae/a a E?aeia?. Oeae
i?ae?o/iee a?aeia?aaea? aei?iaie a noa?? ina?oe aei?ineeo ? ? a?ioeai
coneeue aaaaoueio aac?iaiieo a/eoae?a, aeina?ae yeeo aeicaieea noai?eoe
?? oai?aoe/i? iniiae.

Aaoi?e i?ae?o/ieea, aeoiaey/e c a?aei?iiino? ineo?ee aei?inei? ethaeeie
a?ae ineo?ee ae?oae ? iieiae?, aeiaiaeeee iaiao?aei?noue ?
iaia’yceia?noue canoinoaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae iio?aa ? ?icoiiaeo
aeanoeainoae aei?ineeo o/i?a a?aeiia?aeieo aeeaeaeoe/ieo iaoiae?a,
i?ia?ai, i?ae?o/iee?a ? aeeaeaeoe/ieo cania?a, a oaeiae aeei?enoaiiy
?ioi? i?aai?caoe?? aeeaeaeoe/iiai i?ioeano. Aeo/ii caoaaaeoaaee, ui
aei?ine? iathoue iniaeeao iioeaaoe?th, a ia?aaeon?i ?io? i/?eoaaiiy
uiaei iane?aee?a iaa/aiiy, ye? iaiao?aeii iaia’yceiai a?aoiaoaaoe ?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a eiai i?aai?caoe??.

I?aai?caoi?e ina?oe aei?ineeo noaaeee ia?aae niaith caaaeaiiy aeoiaoaaoe
oiae?oi? iieie?iiy ia na?aeiieo nai?o iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aa ? iaia’yce?a
a?iiaaeyi, i?aaioee ae?iaeoe i?ea’ycai?noue ? ethaia aei ??aeii? iiae,
e?ath, iaoe??, aeiaeoeny, uia eiaeia iaeeieoey oi?ea a?ae/oaaoe naaa
/anoeith aaeeei? oe?e?niino?, iieeeeaiith aeeiioaaoe ?ieue a?iiaaeyieia,
caeaoiith aei ai?ioueae ca i?aaa ? aei caoenoo eiaeiiai ina?aaeeo, yeiio
caa?iaeo? iaaaciaea. Ina?oa ? aeoiaaiiy iaee i?eaanoe aei aeoiaaiiy
ethaeeie na?oei?, /ooeeai? aei e?ane, ia aaeaeoaei? aei e?eaae ie?aii?
iniaenoino? ? noni?eueieo a?oi, ethaeeie, yea aoea a caeaoiith aei
e?ea?aeaoe?? aoaeue-yei? iani?aaaaeeeaino? a no/aniiio ?e noni?eueiiio
aeeoo?. Ia ?o aeoieo, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ina?oe aei?ineeo iiaee aooe
?aae?ciaai? o?eueee i?e ?ioaa?aoe?? ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i ? iaoiae?a
ae?yeueiino?. Oey iiceoe?y ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?aeoeoe? aaaaoueio
ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa Aaee/eie, ye? cai?iaaaeaeoaaee ??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie
i?aoe?, ye, iai?eeeaae, /eoaiiy eieaeie, iiioey?ecaoe?y ciaiue c
aeiiiiiaith aeeaiai neiaa, iioe?aiiy ioce/ii? eoeueoo?e oeyoii
i?aai?caoe?? ?ino?oiaioaeueieo ? aieaeueieo ao?oe?a, i?aai?caoe?y
aenoaaie /e aeneo?n?e aei ooaeiaei?o aaea?ae ? ioca?a. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a
uiaeaiio i?aeoeeo ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino?
iaei a e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? i?eaanoe aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia?iaeieo ian.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe ? caaaeaiue oiaa?enoaa ? ia?o?? ?ic?iaeyee
iaa/aeuei? ieaie ? i?ia?aie ina?oe aei?ineeo. Aiie aeeth/aee (caeaaeii
a?ae i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i) ??cia /enei i?aaeiao?a ? ia?aaeaa/aee ??ciee
/an ia ?o aea/aiiy. Iai?eeeaae, iaa/aeuei? ieaie eo?n?a aeey
iaienueiaiieo ia?aaeaa/aee aea/aiiy ?ae?a??, ienueia ? /eoaiiy,
?aooie?a, eae?a?ao??, /eoaiiy ? iiyniaiiy o?aaiaio?a c ?noi??? ?
aaia?ao??, aeaieioaiiy ei?ioeeo iao??ioe/ieo i?iiia, canai?iiy aeaiaio?a
i?e?iaee c a?a??iith, i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy caeiaooeo ciaiue aeey
caiiaiaiiy oaeaa?ai, ii/oiaeo ia?aeac?a, eaeoaioe?e, iaienaiiy eeno?a ?
o.i. A aeena?oaoe?? aiae?cothoueny c?acee iaa/aeueieo ieai?a ? i?ia?ai,
?o ci?ie ai?iaeiaae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, a oaeiae i?ae?o/ieee,
iaoiaeeea oa i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aiiy aei?ineeo.

C iiiaioo ii/aoeo ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaiaioa?ieo oe?e ? eo?n?a aeey
aei?ineeo aeieeea i?iaeaia aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, noai?aiiy
niaoe?aeueieo aoeaa??a, i?ae?o/iee?a ? aeeaeaeoe/ieo cania?a, a oaeiae
i?aeaioiaee a?aeiia?aeieo iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a, aeoea?caoe?? iaoeiaeo
iiooe?a o oe?e ae?eyioe? ina?oe. O ae??oaii? oeeo caaaeaiue
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iai?aoethaaiiy iaoeiaoe?a ? i?aeoee?a
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i.

Ia iniia? aiae?co aeaea?aeueii? aace c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ?
iaaeaaiae, ? ioae?oeenoe i?aaioee aei noai?aiiy a e?a? ?aeeii? nenoaie
ina?oe aei?ineeo. Aiia iaea ioiiethaaoe ae?yeuei?noue an?o ?inoeoooe?e,
ui caeiaeeny oeeie i?iaeaiaie. Noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui ia ia?aeii? O?O ? OO
no. ina?oa aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? noaea yaeuai ianiaei, aei?aoethaaii
aaaaoi ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i ? iaoiae?a ina?oiuei? i?aoe?, iaa?iiaaeaeaii
aaeeeee iaoiaee/iee aeina?ae, a oaeiae c?i?oe?eiaaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoe/i? ?icaeoie iaae aiae?aaia?/ieie i?iaeaiaie.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – “Ia?iaei? /eoaeuei? ? /eoaoeoai ye iaoa ?
i?aaeiao ae?yeueiino? iieuenueeeo ? oe?a?inueeeo ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa”
?ice?eaathoueny aieiai? ci?ie a ci?no? oa i?aai?caoe?? ina?oiuei? i?aoe?
i?ae aieeaii noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?ai?i, ??
?ieue o iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? oe?a?ioe?a ? iieye?a,
aiae?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa ? ia?iaeieo
aeaeaaieoeoa, /aniien?a, c?iaeaii ni?iao ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/ieo
i?iaeai iiioey?ecaoe?? /eoaoeoaa.

Aeaco?oueny, ui ia?aeiiiei iiiaioii a ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo a
Aaee/ei? noaee 1846-1848 ?iee, eiee noai?aii Aieiaio ?onueeo ?aaeo,
i?ia?aia yei? aeeeeeaea noaaeaiiy a ianaeaiiy ? ia’?aeiaea an?
iao??ioe/i? neee e?ath. Aiae?cothoueny i?e/eie niaaeo ? i?ci?oiai
i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo, ioe?ith?oueny ?ieue
ina?oiuei? i?aoe? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o ? iieiae?aeieo oiaa?enoa, oea?eae
oa oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a ?.O?aiea, A.Aaoiyieia, I.Ia?oeoeueeiai, I. ?
A.Aa?a?inueeeo Ae.Oaiy/eaae/a, I.Iaiiianueeiai, I.Iaaeeea,
I.Oa?eaoeueeiai oa ?i. a oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? ? noni?eueii?
na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a, iane?aeeii /iai aoa iaeaeuee ?iciao ?o
ina?oiueiai ? a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy ia iaae? O?O ? OO no. ? eiai
ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie aei aeaooo Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie.

Iaaieioo?oueny, ui ia ii/aoeo OO no. Euea?a noaa aieiaiei ina?aaeeii
oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?iiai ? iaoeiaiai aeeooy, a oai?oe? oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e, ioceee, a?o?oaeoo?e ? iaey?noaa caiyee iaeaaeia ?i i?noea
na?aae aaeeeeo neia’yinueeeo oai?oe?a. Cae?enieeeny i?i?i/? neiaa
A.Aioiiiae/a, I.Eoe?oa, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I.A?ooaanueeiai oa ?i., ye?
ia?oeie c?icoi?ee, ui oe?a?inueea Aaee/eia iiaeiia ? ciiaea a?ae?a?aoe
?ieue oeaio?o iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe??.

?ice?eaa?oueny ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a
aeaeaaieoeoa Aaee/eie ? Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie: aeaeaaieoeoaa
Iaoeiaiai Oiaa?enoaa ?i. Oaa/aiea, aeaeaaieoeoaa “Ee?anueea Noa?iaeia”,
aeaeaaieoeoaa Ia?iaeieo Eiea, ?oneinueei? aeaeaaie/i? ni?eee,
Naeyinueei? a?ae?ioaee, a?ae?ioaee “Ae?ea” ? “Iieiaei? Oe?a?ie”,
aeaeaaieoeoaa A.A??i/aiea oa ?i.

Noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui i?ciaiiy /a?ac i?ina?oo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e,
iia?oi? ia ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?yo ? ia?yaeao, noaei aaaeeeaei /eiieeii
iai?iie oe?a?inueei? ethaeiino? a?ae aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe?? oa ??
cao?ooaaiiy, ona?aeiieaiiy oe?a?ioeyie nai?? iaoe?iiaeueii?
i?eiaeaaeiino?, oi?ioaaiiy ?o aea?aeaaieoeueeeo ono?aie?iue.

Aiae?co?oueny ina?oiy i?aoey na?aae ia?iaeieo ian iieuenueei?
noni?eueiino?, yea cae?enithaaeany oiaa?enoaaie, oea?eaith, iaaeaaiaaie
? a?iiaaenueeeie ae?y/aie oeyoii i?aai?caoe?? a?ae?ioae aeey ia?iaeo
i?e oeieao ? ia?ao?yo, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o ? ainiiaea?nueeeo
oiaa?enoaao, iioe?aiiy /eoaoeoaa, canioaaiiy /eoaeaiue, iiioey?ecaoe??
ciaiue oiui.

A?aecia/athoueny caneoae E?ae?anueeiai ? Euea?anueeiai oiaa?enoa ina?oe
a ?icaeoeo /eoaoeoaa, ye? a?ae 1882 ?. iioe?thaaee na?aae ia?iaeo
ina?oo a ?ae?a?eiiio aeon?. Aeey oeueiai caniiaoaaee /eoaeuei?,
a?ae?ioaee, i?aai?ciaoaaee aieinia /eoaiiy /aniien?a, aeaeaaaee ?
?iciianthaeaeoaaee aeinooii? oe?ieiio caaaeo oai?e, i?ai?thaaee
iaeaeoeai?oeo a iioe?aii? ina?oe a/eoae?a, ae??ooth/e ianaiia?aae
caaaeaiiy noni?eueii-ii?aeueiiai ? anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

?ice?eaa?oueny ae?yeuei?noue Oiaa?enoaa oe?e ethaeiaeo, yea ia’?aeiaei
oe?iea eiei i?ia?aneaii? ?ioae?aaioe??, nooaeaionueei? iieiae? ? naeyi,
noaaoe c /anii ?icaaeoaeaiith ina?oiueith i?aai?caoe??th, ui iaea cia/i?
o?iainia? eiooe oa aenieee aaoi?eoao. Eiai a?ae?ioaee ? /eoaeuei? noaee
aiaieuaie, aea eieaeee e /aniiene noaaaee cia?yaeaeyi ai?ioueae ca
iie?oe/i? i?aaa, ?ino?oiaioii aeey iie?auaiiy oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
canai?iiy ciaiue, i?ciaiiy eoeueoo?ieo caeiaooe?a ia?iaeo.

O 1898 ?. ?aaeeeaeueia nooaeaionueea iieiaeue c oeueiai oiaa?enoaa
canioaaea a E?aeia? Oiaa?enoai oi?aa?neoaoo ethaeiaiai ?i.A.I?oeeaae/a,
yea ae?yei ca c?aceii a?eoainueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a ? ?aae?ciaoaaei
na?onueeo i?ia?aio ina?oe, oi?ioaaei a ia?iaeieo ian ii/oooy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ? noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?, aeoiaoaaei ?ioaeaeooaeueii,
ii?aeueii, anoaoe/ii ? o?ce/ii nioi? oeny/ ethaeae, iicaaaeaieo
aea?aeaaii? iieuenueei? oeiee ? ?icaeaaei a ieo i?aaiaiiy iiaeaeueoiai
iaa/aiiy.

Aiae?co?oueny aeaeaaie/a ae?yeuei?noue oiaa?enoa “I?ina?oa”, “Macierz
Polska”, “Komitetu Wydawnictwa Dzielek Ludowych”. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey
iaeieo aiia aoea aeyaii oo?aioe i?i e?ea?aeaoe?th iaienueiaiiino?, aeey
?ioeo iaea ia iao? aeei?enoaiiy naeyinoaa a ai?iouea? ca iacaeaaei?noue,
a ua aeey ?ioeo – neoaeeea aeoiaaiith naeyi, oe?eeiaeoi a?aeaeaieo a???
? aeai?ia?. Cacae/ae oe? iioeae aenooiaee a ?aeiino? ? iaoiiaeee
i?aeaioiaeo ? aeaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?e aeey ia?iaeo, yea ia iaae? O?O ? OO
no. noaea iacai?ieiith oi?iith aaeoeaoe?? a oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo
n?euenueeeo na?aaeiaeuao.

Aiae?c aeaea?aeueii? aace oa a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a aeaa i?aenoaae
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iniaeeao ?ieue a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae o
oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? ? noni?eueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?inueei? ?
iieuenueei? noni?eueiino? a?ae?a?aea i?ana ??cieo iie?oe/ieo oa?oioaaiue
? i???ioaoe?e. Aiia aoea aieiaiei caniaii ia?aaea/?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? eoeueoo?ieo a?aeiiinoae. Ci?no
e?oa?aoo?e ? /aniien?a, i?ecia/aieo aeey ia?iaeo, aoa ia caaae
iaeiaeiaee. An? iie?oe/i? oa?oioaaiiy ? aeaeaoi? ae?y/?, ui i?aoethaaee
aeey naea, i?aaioee i?aeaeuaiiy ina?/aiino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, aea
iaoa, ci?no ? ianya iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy cia/ii a?ae??ciyeeny. A
oiae?oi?e i?an? ? e?oa?aoo??, caeaaeii a?ae iie?oe/ii? iiceoe??,
caaaeaiiy caiaeeeeny a iniiaiiio aei aeoiaaiiy aeia?iai ? i?aoeueiaeoiai
ainiiaea?y, a??oth/iai ? i?aeoeeoth/iai eaoieeea, caaeiaieaiiai nai?th
aeieath ? noaiiaeuai.

Aieiaiith a a?eueoino? ii/eiaiue aoea ?aeay i?ina?oe iaeoe?oeo
noni?eueieo aa?noa ??cieo iaoe?e, ni?yiiaaia ia ?icaoaeaeaiiy ?
ci?oeiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ? oioiaeiino? oeo aa?noa, ye?
iiaeii? noaiiaeoe iniiao ? iaeaooi? iaoe??. A oe?e ae?yeueiino? iniaeeai
aeae?eyeeny i?aaenoaaieee aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo, ye? i?aaioee i?aeianaiiy
??aiy aeeooy i?nueeiai ? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. Oea ciaeoei nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ia?aaeon?i o ae?yeueiino? ia?iaeaeoaaiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
? ?ia?oie/iai ?ooo.

Iieacaii, ui eeth/iaei i?iyaii aaeoeaoe?eieo ?i?oe?aoea, ye? eoee a?ae
iieuenueeeo ? oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo ian Aaee/eie, noaei a?aee?eooy
a?ae?ioae ? /eoaoeoai, yea noaiiaeei iaoo ae?yeueiino? iaeaea an?o
aaeeoeueeeo ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o iaoe?iiaeueii?,
eeaniai? /e ?ae?a?eii? i???ioaoe??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiae
iiioey?ecaoe?? /eoaoeoaa eiioeaio?oaaeeny iaaeiei oaeeo /ioe?ueio
aniaeo?a i?iaeaie: 1) iaoa ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?; 2) ?? i?aai?caoe?y;
3) iniaa iiioey?ecaoi?a (ea??aieea, i?aeaaaioa) oa 4) iaoiaee ? oi?ie
i?eeo/aiiy aei eiea ? /aniien?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui ?icaeoie ina?oe aei?ineeo coiiaea
aeoea?caoe?th oai?aoe/ieo iiooe?a o oe?e noa??. Oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee
aeieeaaee c ?acoeueoao?a i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? aaeeoeueeeo ina?oi?o
oiaa?enoa. Aaaaoi c ieo ia ao?aoeee nai?? aeooaeueiino? aei oeueiai /ano
? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? no/anieie i?aai?caoi?aie
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? i?aoe? na?aae aei?ineeo.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? – “Aeeaae aaeeoeueeeo ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa o ?icaeoie
oai??? ? i?aeoeee iiioey?ecaoe?? ciaiue na?aae aei?ineeo” ?ice?eaa?oueny
ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo oiaa?enoa uiaei iiioey?ecaoe??
ciaiue ye iaeiiai c iae?noioi?oeo oaiiiai?a iiceoea?noe/iiai ia?aco
iaa/aiiy, iinooio ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai noaaeaiiy aei ae?eniino?.
Aiae?co?oueny ?o aei?iaie a oe?e noa??.. I?e oeueiio caa?iooi oaaao ia
oai?/o ?ieue aeayeeo aaeeoeueeeo ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa uiaei iioe?aiiy
eoeueoo?e, a ia eeoa ina?oe. Iieacaii, ui oe? iaeaea? noa?e
ethaenueei? oai?/ino? ? i?aaiaiue naiiae?aaeaiiy aoee a oie /an o?nii
aca?iiiia’ycai?. ?iaeoueny ni?iaa a?aeoai?aiiy canaae ?o aca?iiiai
ca’yceo.

A?aecia/aii, ui a ?a?ii? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. iniaeeaa oaaaa a
noa?? ina?oe aei?ineeo a?aeaiaeeeanue ia?iaeiei oi?aa?neoaoai, ye? aoee
?inoeoooe?yie ia aeey caeiaoooy na?aeioeoaa, aea ia?aaeon?i aeey
caaeiaieaiiy aeanieo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo caoe?eaaeaiue /a?ac eaeoe??,
a?ae/eoe ? aan?aee. Oea aoa a?aee?eoee caeeaae aeey an?o oeo, ui oio?ee
iiaeeaeoe nai? ciaiiy ia caaaeath/e ia a?e, i?noea i?aoe? ? ??aaiue
ina?oe.

?aeay i?aai?caoe?? ia?iaeieo oi?aa?neoao?a a No?aei?e Aaee/ei? ia
oai?aoe/iiio ??ai? ca?iaeeeany aeineoue ?aii. Ia?oei, ooi ii/aa
caeiaoeny ni?aaith ia?iaeieo oi?aa?neoao?a aoa A.Einaae/, yeee
iioae?eoaaa a “E?oa?aoo?ii-Iaoeiaiio A?nieeo” noaooth “Ethaeia?
oi?aa?neoaoe”, ?ice?eaoe a i?e aeina?ae neaiae?iaanueeeo e?a?i. I?ci?oa
oea ieoaiiy i?aei?iaa C.Neaa?ei, aea o?eaaeee /an ni?aaa ia?iaeieo
oi?aa?neoao?a ia ciaoiaeeea i?aeoe/iiai ae??oaiiy. Eeoa c ?i?oe?aoeae
“I?ina?oe” ii/aany iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae a?ae oai??? aei i?aeoeee. Oe??th
ni?aaith caeiaeiny niaoe?aeueii noai?aia “Oiaa?enoai Oi?aa?neoaonueeeo
Aeeeaae?a ?i. Iao?a Iiaeee” c in?aeeii o Eueaia? ? o?e?yie ii anueiio
e?ath.

Iniiaith aeey ?icaeoeo ia?iaeieo oi?aa?neoao?a noaee noai?thaai? ii an?e
Aaee/ei? ??ciiiai?oi? eo?ne: oi?aiaaeuei?, eiiia?aoeai?, aaoa?eia?i?,
ye? caaithaaee aaeeeo iiioey?i?noue ? ia i?aeoeoe? ia?aeiioaaee a nai?e
ei?eno? a uiaeaii?e ai?iouea? ca ?nioaaiiy. Caaaey/oth/e ?i, ?aeay
ia?iaeieo oi?aa?neoao?a ciaoiaeeea ana a?eueoa i?eoeeueiee?a. Ia?aae
Ia?oith na?oiaith a?eiith a e?a? ae?yee o?e ia?iaei? oi?aa?neoaoe, ye?
iineee iacao “aeu? eo?ne ia?iaeii? ina?oe”.

Aiae?c ?o ae?yeueiino? aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aiie iaee ??ci?
iaa/aeuei? ieaie, ye? neeaaeaeeny c o?aooaaiiyi iio?aa neooa/?a aeaii?
i?noeaaino? ? aeicaieyee aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeinooii? aeeaeaeoe/i? caniae,
iaee na?e ie?aiee ?aaeei oa o?eaae?noue iaa/aiiy. Ni?eueiei aeey an?o
aoea i?aeoe/ia ni?yiiaai?noue iaa/aiiy, a aieiaia, ni?yiiaai?noue ia
iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? a
neooa/?a, iniiaith /iai aoei aea/aiiy ?noi??? ? o?aaeeoe?e ia?iaeo,
ona?aeiieaiiy naiai iaia”yceo ia?aae iei.

O ?icae?e? cae?eniaii aiae?c iiooe?a uiaei ?ic?iaee iaoe, caaaeaiue,
ci?noo, cania?a, iaoiae?a ? i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i ina?oe aei?ineeo,
aecia/aiiy ?ie? ? i?noey i?aeaaaioa (iaaeaaiaa-i?aai?caoi?a) oa
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?ane a oe?e ni?aa?. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i ae??oaeueio
?ieue i?aeaaaio?a o iioe?aii? ciaiue, aiae?cothoueny aeiiae aei ieo oa
ae?yeuei?noue oiaa?enoa uiaei ?o i?aeai?o, i?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino? Oe? ieoaiiy iino?eii iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
noi??ieao i?ane ? c”?caeao oiaa?enoa. ?acoeueoaoii oai?/iai iiooeo
aaeeoeueeeo eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa noaea ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo
iniia aiae?aaia?ee oa iiaeae? iaaeaaiaa-i?aai?caoi?a, a?ae iniaenoeo
yeinoae ? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee yeiai caeaaeeoue oni?o
ina?oiuei? ni?aae na?aae aei?ineeo.

Aeine?aeaeaii ?ieue ia?iaeieo (/eoaeueiyieo) aeii?a (ia?ao?yeueieo,
?ia?oie/eo, ina?oi?o), ye? aoaeoaaee naith ae?yeuei?noue ia aaaaoi??/ieo
o?aaeeoe?yo aaeeoeueeiai eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai ?ooo, a iioe?aii? ?
iiioey?ecaoe?? ciaiue. ?i?oe?aoi?aie ?o noai?aiiy aenooiaee “I?ina?oa”,
oea?eaa, iieuenuee? oa oe?a?inuee? oiaa?enoaa, iie?oe/i? i?aai?caoe??,
ai?ie, i?eaaoi? iniae ? o.i. I?e oeeo ina?aaeeao i?aoethaaee e?a?ciaa/?,
ae?aiaoe/i?, oi?ia?, nii?oeai? ao?oee, oi?a?aaeuei?, ainiiaea?nuee?,
iiei/a?nuee?, e?aaeeoi? ? i?ioan?ei? ni?eee, eiiia?aoeae, iie?oe/i?
i?aai?caoe??, a?ae?ioaee, a oaeio caoi?iiee ? aeaiaioa?i? oeiee aeey
ae?oae ? aei?ineeo, i?aai?ciaoaaeeny aan?aee, eaeoe?? oiui. Anoaiiaeaii,
ui ia?iaei? aeiie a?ae?a?aaaee i?ia?aeio ?ieue a ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio
?icaeoeo oa ooaa?aeaeaiith na?aae ianaeaiiy noni?eueii-ii?aeueieo ii?i
aeeooy.

I?aenoiiaoth/e, noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui aaeeoeuee? ina?oi? oiaa?enoaa, ye?
caeiaeeny iioe?aiiyi ? iiioey?ecaoe??th ciaiue na?aae ia?iaeieo ian,
noai?eee oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeey ?icaeoeo aiae?aaia?ee a i?aeai?iiee
ia??iae, a oaeiae aeey no/anii? ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aaaaoi??/iiai ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai
iaoeiaiai iiooeo, aiae?c oe?iei? aeaea?aeueii? aace oa a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a aea? i?aenoaae c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee.

1. Noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie nenoaie ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei?
(1867-1918 ??.) coiiaeai? ia’?eoeaieie noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieie oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie iio?aaaie ?icaeoeo e?ath oa aieeaii i?ioean?a,
ye? a?aeaoaaeeny a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao.

A Aaee/ei? ia oa?eoi??? 80 oen.ea.ei. i?iaeeaaei iiiaae 7,3 iei. in?a,
a o./. 80% a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?. E?ae aoa ne?iaeiiei aeaea?aeii
aeey i?iieneiaino? Aano???. ?acoeueoaoii eieii?caoi?nueei? (a
aeiiii?oe?) oa aeaiaoe?iiae?caoi?nueei? (a ina?o? e eoeueoo??) iie?oeee
ieoiaio?a aoei iaioaaiiy a e?a? i?aneaaooi? “aaeeoeueei? oaiiioe” ?
caaaeueiiai aiaeueoaaaoecio (iaienueiaiiino?). Ia ii/aoeo ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O no. iaienueiaiieie aoee iiiaae 70%, a a aeayeeo
i?noeaainoyo iaa?oue a?eueoa 90% a?ae caaaeueiiai /enea aeeoae?a.

Ia ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a a Aaee/ei? ?icii/aany aeaaaee ?oo uiaei ina?oe
aei?ineeo, a yeiio a?aee o/anoue ? aea?aeaaa, ? a?iiaaenuee? oi?ioaaiiy.
Ia?aaeoiiaaie eiai ?icaeoeo c iaeiiai aieo aoee cia/i? ainiiaea?nuee?
ia?ai?ie, aeeeeeai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith ?aaiethoe??th, a c ae?oaiai –
?icaeoe oi?i aeaiie?aoe/iiai aeeooy oa i?e?iaeie/i-iaoaiaoe/ieo ?
noni?eueieo iaoe (nioe?ieia??, iaoaiaoeee, o?ceee, a?ieia??, ineoieia??,
iaaeaaia?ee), ye? aeine?aeaeoaaee noni?euei? i?ioeane a
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yceao.

2. Aaaeeeao ?ieue a ?icaeoeo ina?oe aei?ineeo a?ae?a?aea
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueea ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea, yea ??cieie oeyoaie
iioe?thaaeany ia aaeeoeueeeo caieyo. Oea ni?eyei oiio, ui nenoaia, yea
neeaeany a e?a?, i?aai?/ii ii?aeiaea a nia? ia?aaeia? aiae?aaia?/i?
?aea? ?a?iiaenueei? iaaeaaia?ee, iaoe?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe?? ia?iae?a, ui
canaeyee Aaee/eio, oa aeaniee aeina?ae cae?eniaiiy ina?oe aei?ineeo.

3. Iaecaaaeuei?oeie oaiaeaioe?yie a ?icaeoeo ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei?
aoee: ??aiaaa i?aeianaiiy ina?oe; ?? nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ia
aeooae?caoe?y oa iaoe?iiaeueii-aeoiaia ni?yiiaai?noue; ?icoe?aiiy
ia?aae? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o ?inoeoooe?e aeey ?? cae?eniaiiy, caaaa/aiiy
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i, ioiieaiiy iaa/aiiyi ana a?eueoi? e?eueeino?
ianaeaiiy; c?inoaiiy aeoeaiino? ??cieo noni?eueieo a?oi a ai?iouea? ca
iioe?aiiy ciaiue.

4. I?ia?aeio ?ieue a ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiaeo iniia i?aai?caoe?? ina?oe
aei?ineeo a e?a? a?ae?a?aaaee eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?, iieiae?aei?, ?ia?oie/?
oa ainiiaea?nuee? oiaa?enoaa, oea?eaa, oeiea, iie?oe/i? ia?o??, ye?
aeiiiaithaaee neaaea ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie. An?o ?o
ia’?aeioaaea ni?eueia iiceoe?y uiaei iio?aae i?aeaeuaiiy ina?/aiino?
ia?iaeo, oi/a ??cieie aoee eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy ??
iaoe, ci?noo oa i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i.

5. Oe?a?inuee? ? iieuenuee? oiaa?enoaa, i?iaiaey/e eoeueoo?ii-ina?oith
i?aoeth a oiiaao iaoe?iiaeueiiai iiiaaieaiiy, iine?aeiaii ?aae?coaaee
iaoo i?aeianaiiy nai?o iaoe?e aei oaeiai ??aiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-a?iiaaeyinueei? e iao??ioe/ii? na?aeiiino?, yea ia o?eueee
caoenoeoue ?o a?ae aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a, aea ci?oeieoue ?
?icaeia a ieo ii/oooy iaoe?iiaeueii?, a a ?acoeueoao? – aea?aeaaii?
?aeiino?. Aieiaio ?ieue a oe?e ae?yeueiino?, ye ?? iniiaa, a?ae?a?aaaee
??aeia iiaa oa ?noi??y aeaniiai ia?iaeo, iaoe?iiaeueia e?oa?aoo?a ?
ia?iaeia eoeueoo?a, ienoaoeoai, oieueeei?, a oaeiae ni?eueia aeey
eiaeii? iaoe?? ?ae?a?y. I?aai?ciaoth/e ina?oith i?aoeth, iacaai?
oiaa?enoaa nenoaiaoe/ii a?aeiiaethaaee ineaaeaio iaoe?iiaeueio
?aei?noue, iaa/aee ? aeoiaoaaee iieiae? iieie?iiy a iaoe?iiaeueiiio
aeon?, i?aee?anethaaee naith aoi?/io ? eoeueoo?io a?aei?ii?noue e
ie?ai?oi?noue. A ia??iae a?aenooiino? aeanii? aea?aeaae ?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aiiaeaiiy an? oiaa?enoaa ina?oiueiai ? eoeueoo?iiai
oa?aeoa?o ai?ieeny ca iaoe?iiaeueia ? noni?eueii-eoeueoo?ia aecaieaiiy.
?o iiioey?ecaoi?nueea ? ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue, ianaiia?aae a
na?aaeiaeuao i?ieaoa?nueeeo, aoea aieiaiei caniaii ?aae?caoe?? oe???
iaoe.

6. Oe?a?inuee? oa iieuenuee? ina?oi? oiaa?enoaa Aaee/eie, ai?ei
aeei?enoiaoth/e aeoiai? iiaeeeaino? iiioey?ecaoi?nueei? i?aoe? ?
i?aaio/e c ?? aeiiiiiaith aeinyaoe a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?ii? aiaineiaoe??
n?euenueei? noni?eueiino?, c?iaeee nooo?aee aianie o oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? aaeeoeueeiai naeyieia oeyoii ?i?oe?thaaiiy naiiina?oiuei?
i?aoe?, ?icaoaeaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeeo canaae, aeoiaaiiy i?aaiaiiy aei
noni?eueii? ae?yeueiino?, ona?aeiieaiiy, ui oai?/a i?aoey a iaeaooiueiio
i?eiana aaaii? ?acoeueoaoe a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio aeeoo? ? ni?eueiiio
aeeoo? noni?euenoaa.

A?eueo?noue oiaa?enoa aeei?enoiaoaaee ??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie ??eueie/i?
aaeoeaoe?? naeyi oa i?ioan?eii? aaeoeaoe?? i?nueeeo ?ia?oiee?a. Oeyoii
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ? a?iiaaeyinueei? aeoeaiino? i?nueeiai ?
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy aiie a?aee o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? no/aniiai
??eueieea ? ?ia?oieea-?ai?nieea, ye? iathoue, c iaeiiai aieo,
iaiao?aeiee ??aaiue caaaeueiiina?oi?o ciaiue, a c ae?oaiai –
niaoe?aeuei? ciaiiy, iio??ai? aeey ?aoaeueiiai aeeiiaiiy i?ioan?eieo
iaia’yce?a, noni?eueii? ae?yeueiino?, o/ano? a ai?iouea? ca
a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?io aiaineiaoe?th.

7. Iaea?eueoo ?ieue a ?icaeoeo ina?oe aei?ineeo a?ae?a?aee: oiaa?enoai
“I?ina?oa”, oe?a?inueea ? iieuenueea iaaeaaia?/i? oiaa?enoaa, Iaoeiaa
Oiaa?enoai ?i. O.Oaa/aiea, oiaa?enoaa oe?e ethaeiaeo ? ina?oe ethaeiai?,
ina?aaeee yeeo aoee ?iciianthaeaeai? ii an?e oa?eoi??? e?ath ?
ioiithaaee /eainoaii cia/io /anoeio ianaeaiiy, oaeiae oiaa?enoai
oi?aa?neoaoo ethaeiaiai a E?aeia?.

8. Oeaio?aeueieie ina?aaeeaie a nenoai? ina?oe aei?ineeo, a yeeo
eiioeaio?oaaeany ae?yeuei?noue a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, ia?o?e,
oea?eae, aoee ia?iaei? aeiie (/eoaeuei?), a?ae?ioaee, ia?iaei? oaao?e,
ioca?. I?e ieo i?aai?ciaoaaeeny eo?ne aeey iaienueiaiieo, ia?iaei?
oi?aa?neoaoe, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?, ainiiaea?nuee? oa i?ioan?ei? eo?ne,
ia?iaei? /eoaiiy, ienoaoeuee? ao?oee, eaeoe??, aan?aee, aeeneon??,
eiiia?aoeae, iuaaei? ? iice/eia? eane oa ?io? oi?ie iioe?aiiy ?
iiioey?ecaoe?? ciaiue. Aiae?c ?o ae?yeueiino? aea? i?aenoaae
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aaeeoeueea nenoaia ina?oe aei?ineeo iaea nooiaiaaee
oa?aeoa? ? aeeth/aea: oeiee ? eo?ne aeey aei?ineeo, a?ae?ioaee ?
/eoaeuei?, aeaeaaieoeoaa iiioey?ieo i?aoeue, ia?iaei? ? ?ia?oie/? aeiie,
ia?iaei? oi?aa?neoaoe, oiaa?enoaa ina?oiueiai ? eoeueoo?iiai oa?aeoa?o.

Ae?yeuei?noue oeeo ina?aaee?a iaea e?ea?aeoaaoe iaaeie?ee oe?eueii?
ina?oe oa i?iaaeeie a iaoe?iiaeueiiio oe?a?inueeiio ? iieuenueeiio
aeoiaaii? oeyoii iioe?aiiy eoeueoo?e ? iiioey?ecaoe?? ciaiue i?i na?o,
ethaeeio ? noni?euenoai. ?acoeueoaoii ina?oe e aeoiaaiiy iaei aooe
noai?aiiy oaei? iiaeae? aaeeoeueeiai noni?euenoaa, yea ia’?aeio? c
iaeiiai aieo, iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay, oiaoi na?aeii?noue ni?eueii?
?noi?e/ii? ? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??, aioiai?noue aoaeoaaoe aeanio
aea?aeaao, a c ae?oaiai aieo – i?oei? aeooiai? ca’ycee.

9. O ?aae?caoe?? cacia/aieo caaaeaiue aaaeeeao iiceoeaio ?ieue a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae a?ae?a?aea aeooiaia ? na?onueea ?ioae?aaioe?y,
yea a?aea ia naaa ia o?eueee i?aai?caoe?eiee oyaa?, aea ianaiia?aae
ni?aao ae?iaeaiiy no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee ae?yeueiino?, ui iaea ia iao?
ooaa?aeaeaiiy ? i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?icii/aoeo ae?e a ina?o? e aeoiaaii?
aei?ineeo.

Iniaeea? caneoae a ?icaeoeo ina?oe aei?ineeo iaeaaeaoue aeooiai?e
?ioae?aaioe??, yea i?aai?ciaoaaea ina?oiuei-/eoaeueiyi? aeoe??
ia?aaeian?i ia n?euenueeeo oa?aiao, aeei?enoiaoth/e c oe??th iaoith ye
na?e iniaenoee aaoi?eoao, oae ? aaoi?eoao oea?eae.

Aaee/acio ?ieue a ina?o? aei?ineeo a?ae?a?aei o/eoaeuenoai, ?icaeaath/e
a o/i?a-neooa/?a caoe?eaaeaiino? oa oiiaeiaaiiy, ooaa?aeaeoth/e iniiae
naiiina?oe ? naiiaeoiaaiiy. I?i ?acoeueoaoeai?noue oaei? ae?yeueiino?
na?ae/aoue oaeoe ianiai? o/ano? naeyi ? ?ia?oiee?a a ae?yeueiino? uiaei
iioe?aiiy ciaiue, a oaeiae a aiaoi?nueeiio ienoaoeueeiio ?on? (oi?ao,
i?eano?ao, oaao?aeueieo ao?oeao oiui).

Aeey iaeaaeiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy an?o oei?a ina?aaee?a ina?oe aei?ineeo
a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie i?iaiaeeeanue oe?eani?yiiaaia i?aeaioiaea
i?aeaaaio?a (iaaeaaia?a-i?aai?caoi??a), iniaeno?nii-i?ioan?eia iiaeaeue
yeeo ?ic?iaeaia a ?acoeueoao? iaoeiaiai iiooeo aaeeoeueeeo
a?iiaaenueei-ina?oi?o ae?y/?a.

10. Aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo ia?aae? ina?aaee?a ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei?
coiiaeaia aeoeai?noth ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o, ?ae?a?eieo oa ainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa ?
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, yea ia’?eoeaii a?aeia?aaeaea ??aaiue noni?eueiiai
ona?aeiieaiiy ?ie? ? cia/aiiy ina?oe aei?ineeo a
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? nai?o ia?iae?a.

11. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth ?icaeoeo ina?oe aei?ineeo ? caaino?aiiy
ai?ioueae ca iiaeeea?noue iaa/aiiy, i?eeo/aiiy aei ia? ui?ac oe?oeo e?e
ianaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio ai?iaeiaae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo c?inoaea ia
o?eueee e?euee?noue ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?ieo, ainiiaea?nueeeo, nii?oeaieo
oiaa?enoa, aea ia?aaeon?i a?aecia/a?oueny cia/ia c?inoaiiy /enea /eai?a
oeeo i?aai?caoe?e, ui iae/ano?oa noai?thaaeeny c ?i?oe?aoeae ia?aaeiai?
i?uainueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, iia’ycaii? c aeaiie?aoe/iei ? iaoe?iiaeueiei
?ooii, aeooiaainoaa iaio ia?yae?a, nooaeaio?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a, a a e?ioe? O?O no. – ia?iaeiaoe?a ? ?ia?oiee?a.

12. Aiaeii/an ?c e?euee?niei ?icaeoeii iacaaieo ?inoeoooe?e a?aeaoaaany
cia/iee ye?niee ?icaeoie o noa??: i?ia?ai ae?yeueiino? (uiaei aeecueeeo
? aeaeaeeo oe?eae); ci?noo iaa/aiiy (nii/aoeo iaa oa?aeoa?
caaaeueiiina?oi?e, aeaui i?ci?oa – niaoe?aeueiee, i?ioan?eiee);
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i (aeaeaaieoeoaa, a?ae?ioaee ? /eoaeuei?, eo?ne ?
oeiee aeey aei?ineeo, ia?iaei? e ?ia?oie/? aeiie, ia?iaei? oi?aa?neoaoe,
ia?iaei? oaao?e ? o.i.), iaoiae?a ? cania?a eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? i?aoe?
(iia?oeo ia: naiiina?oo, aieini? /eoaiiy, naiiae?yeuei?noue a iaa/aii?,
aan?aee, aeeeaaee ? eaeoe?? c aeei?enoaiiyi ia?oeo aoae?ia?coaeueieo
cania?a, aeoeai?noue ioce/io, ieanoe/io, e?oa?aoo?io, oaao?aeueio ?
o.ae.). Oey ??ciiiai?oia, aaaaoinoi?iiiy ? /anoi ianeii?aeeiiaaia
ia?iaeia i?aoey na?aae iieye?a ? oe?a?ioe?a iaea aanoe eiaeio iaoe?th
aei caeiaoooy noni?eueii?, iie?oe/ii?, iaoe?iiaeueii?, a a ?acoeueoao? –
aea?aeaaii? naiaiaee.

13. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ?noi??? oa iaoe ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei?
i?iiiio?ii oaeo ia??iaeecaoe?th ?? ?icaeoeo:

1867 ?. – e?iaoeue O?O no. – noai?aiiy nenoaie ina?oe aei?ineeo,
?icoe?aiiy ia?aae? ?inoeoooe?e oa ina?aaee?a aeey ?? cae?eniaiiy,
o??ciiiai?oiaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i ina?oiuei? i?aoe?. Ae?yeuei?noue
oiaa?enoa oeueiai ia??iaeo iineea /enoi ina?oi?e oa?aeoa?. Iaoa ina?oe
aei?ineeo a oeueiio ia??iae? – aeoiaaoe ac??oeaaiai a?iiaaeyieia
aano??enueei? aea?aeaae, yeee ae ia i?aaioa ci?ie ?nioth/iai eaaeo;

E?iaoeue O?O no. – 1918 ?. – ia??iae, eiee i?ae aieeaii
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy cia/ii c?inea
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue ia?iaeieo ian ? iaoith ina?oe aei?ineeo
noaei aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo /eai?a naiai ia?iaeo, ai?oe?a
ca iie?oe/io ? iaoe?iiaeueio naiaiaeo, aioiaeo aoaeoaaoe aeanio
aea?aeaao. Iniiaith ?icaeoeo e i?aoe? oiaa?enoa noathoue naiino?ei? ?
naiioi?aai? /eoaeuei?, ye? iaee i?aai ia o?eueee aanoe ina?oith, aea e
oe?ieo aeiiii?/io ae?yeuei?noue (noai?thaaoe e?aiieoe?,
??eueie/i-ainiiaea?nuee? ni?eee, iice/eia? eane oa eane iuaaeiino?,
ca?aeaa? oieoe??? oiui).

14. Aea/aiiy ina?oi?o i?ia?ai ia?o?e, oiaa?enoa ? oa?oioaaiue aeaco? ia
??ciiiai?oi?noue eiioeaioe?e ina?oe aei?ineeo, oi/a an? aiie c?iaeee
na?e aianie a caaaeueio ni?aao oi?ioaaiiy ina?oiuei? iie?oeee. Oae,
iiceoeaiei aeaiaioii a i?ia?aiao eiina?aaoeaieo oi?ioaaiue aoei aeciaiiy
iio?aae iioe?aiiy ina?oe na?aae ia?iaeo. Iaeiae aiie aeeth/aee o?eueee
o? aeaiaioa?i? a?aeiiino? ? oi?iiy, ye? aeoiaoaaee iineooiiai
a?iiaaeyieia aea?aeaae. Iaaaoeaiei a ?o i?ia?aiao aoei iaiaaeaiiy oi?i
ina?oiuei? i?aoe? na?aae iaeoe?oeo noni?eueieo aa?noa oa noa?aiiy caanoe
aei i?i?ioio aoaeue-ye? ?i?oe?aoeae ?ioeo oa?oioaaiue, cieceaoe oeei ?o
?ieue ? i?anoeae a na?aaeiaeu?. I?aaaea, i?ia?aie i?ia?aneaieo
i?aaenoaaiee?a noni?euenoaa, ui ni?oeee aei ?aae?caoe?? aanea
“i?aai?/ii? i?aoe?”, aoee i?eeiyo? oa ?aae?ciaai? eiina?aaoi?aie a ?i’y
caaaeueieo iniia oiai oaai?o, aea oei ia iaioa aiie i?aaioee aei
iiaioaaiiy an?ia aeoeaii i?aoethth/eie oiaa?enoaaie, yeei iaiaaaeeny
iaa”ycaoe aeani? iiaeyaee ia i?iaeaio iioe?aiiy ia?iaeiuei? oa
iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe.

A iiiceoe?? aei ina?oi?o i?ia?ai eiina?aaoi??a noiyee oa?oioaaiiy
aaeeoeueeeo aeaiie?ao?a, ia?iaeiaoe?a ? nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a, ye?
?ai?acaiooaaee a?eueo ?aaeeeaeuei? i?ia?aie ina?oe aaeeoeueeiai
noni?euenoaa ? cae?enithaaee a?aeiia?aei? aei ieo i?aeoe/i? ae??.
Iniaeeai aino?i aenooiaee i?ae oeei iiaeyaeii ae?y/? nioe?ae?noe/iiai
?ooo, ye? aaa/aee iaaaeueio iio?aao i?aeianaiiy ??aiy n?euenueei?
ina?oe, aee?eaaee i?e/eie iecueeiai ?? noaio oa ai?iae?noue ae?e
eiina?aaoeaieo nee, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeoiaaiiy aiaoe/iiai, aacaeoiiiai ?
oaiiiai naeyieia, yeee aoa ae iii?ith ?nioth/iai a aano??enuee?e
aea?aeaa? eaaeo. Aino??e e?eoeoe? i?aeaeaaaeanue ae?yeuei?noue
i?uainueeeo oa?oioaaiue ? ia?o?e, ye? i?aai?coaaee ina?oith i?aoeth
na?aae naeyi. Ni?aaaaeeeai noaa?aeaeoaaeiny, ui iiioey?ecaoe?y ?
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ciaiue a naeyinueeiio na?aaeiaeu? i?ina?oieeaie
“?c-ciai?” iiaeii? aoaeoaaoeny ia a?oioiaiiio ciaii? oeueiai na?aaeiaeua
? ineo?ee naeyieia.

15. Aiae?c noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo i?i o/anoue aei?ineeo a eo?nao ? oeieao
aeey ieo aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui noa?a ae?yeueiino?
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o ?inoeoooe?e aoea aeaeaei iaaeinoaoiueith. I?e/eia
oeueiai ia?aaeian?i a aaeaeoaeino? a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca aaeeoeueeo
ina?oo. Aaea oiae? iinoaea iio?aaa noai?aiiy aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueieo
?inoeoooe?e ina?oe aei?ineeo, ye? a ii?aeioaaee i?aoeth oe?e ? eo?n?a c
/enaeueieie oi?iaie iicaoe?eueii? ina?oiuei? i?aoe?, aeiiiaiaieie
ii?aaeieoeoaii oa aaeineiiaeaiiyi ina?oyi, iaee a aeani? iaa/aeuei?
ieaie, i?ia?aie, i?ae?o/ieee ? a?aeiia?aei? aeeaeaeoe/i? iaoa??aee. ??
oeaio?aeueiith eaieith iaa aooe a/eoaeue aei?ineeo – ina?oyiei, yeee
aeineiiaei aieiae?? ciaiiyie ineo?ee aei?ineiai, eiai iio?aa ?
caoe?eaaeaiue, ai?? aeei?enoiaoaaoe niaoeeo?/i? iaoiaee ? oi?ie
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? i?aoe?. Ioae?oeenoe oa a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?i?
ae?y/? aeiaaaee aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a, i?aoe?aiee?a
a?ae?ioae, /eoaeaiue, ia?iaeieo ? ?ia?oie/eo aeii?a oa ?ioeo ina?oi?o
?inoeoooe?e.

16. Aaaaoia?aiia, aeia?a i?aai?ciaaia ? ?acoeueoaoeaii ?aae?ciaaia
oiaa?enoaaie ananoi?iiiy ??ciiiai?oia ci?noiaia ina?oiy ? eoeueoo?ia
i?aoey na?aae aei?ineeo a ?ia?oie/iio ? naeyinueeiio na?aaeiaeu? iaea
a?oioiaiee oai?aoe/iee ? i?aeoe/iee aei?iaie.

Eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? ? ainiiaea?nuee? oiaa?enoaa Aaee/eie
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo nai?th oe?eani?yiiaaiith ae?yeuei?noth eoee
aei cae?eniaiiy caieaiiaaieo ci?i a eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o, iaoe?iiaeueieo
oa a?iiaaeyinueeeo canaaeao n?euenueei? ? i?nueei? noni?eueiino?, ye
aei?inei?, oae ? i?ae?inoath/i? iieiae?, ye a?aeiinii uiaeaiiiai
iinooio, oae ? uiaei oaoiai? i?aeaioiaee. A i?aeoeoe? ?o ae?yeuei?noue
ia caaaeaee aoea iiaiei a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iae?aneaieo caaaeaiue, iaeiae a
aniaeo? ooieoe?e, ?aae?ciaoaaieo a ae?eniino?, oiaa?enoaa c?iaeee
aaaiiee aianie ia o?eueee a ?icaeoie i?aeoeee, aea e oai??? iieuenueei?
? oe?a?inueei? iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe. Nai?th ae?yeuei?noth aiie aieeaaee
ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, iao??ioe/ii? ?
a?iiaaeyinueei? iiceoe?? oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? ia?aoai?aiiy iieuenueei?
? oe?a?inueei? noni?eueiino?.

Aaaaoi iieiaeaiue c oiai/anieo i?ia?aneaieo i?ia?ai ia ao?aoeee nai??
aeooaeueiino? aei oaia??oiueiai /ano. Aiie ciaoiaeyoue nai?
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy o no/anieo eiioeaioe?yo ina?oe aei?ineeo,
i?iaeiaaeoth/e o?aaeeoe?? ae?yeueiino? c ethaeueie aei?ineeie,
cae?enithaaii? oaeeie aeaeaoieie iaaeaaiaaie ieioeiai ye A.?aaee?inueea,
A.A?aoeueiia, I.Aaeoueinueeee, O.Aia?ianueeee oa ?io?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui aaaaoi ina?oi?o i?ia?ai ? i?aeoe/ieo ae?e a noa??
aaeoeaoe?? aei?ineeo iianoaaaee a aeoaea aaaee? /ane aeey oe?a?inueeiai
? iieuenueeiai ia?iaeo, aiie aeo?eiaee aei?iaoaaiiy /anii ? ? oe?iiei
aei?iaeii aiae?aaia?/ii? aeoiee a Oe?a?i? ? Iieueu?. Oai?/a aeei?enoaiiy
oeeo ia?aa??aieo /anii ?aeae ? aeina?aeo ? aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey
?icaoaeiae no/anii? nenoaie ina?oe aei?ineeo a Oe?a?i? ? Iieueu?.

17. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ae/a?io? an?o aniaeo?a ?icaeyiooi?
i?iaeaie. Iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy iio?aaothoue: oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i?
iniiae i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a aeey ina?oe aei?ineeo; nenoaia
ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a aeey ina?oe aei?ineeo o iaoe?iiaeueii-aeoiaiiio
eiioaeno?; niaoeeo?ea ooieoe?iioaaiiy caeeaae?a ina?oe aei?ineeo a
??cieo nioe?aeueieo ? eoeueoo?ieo na?aaeiaeuao, cie?aia ina?oa aei?inei?
n?euenueei? iieiae?; aca?iiae?y aea?aeaaieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e
o ae??oaii? i?iaeai ina?oe aei?ineeo.

C iaoith iie?auaiiy i?aeaioiaee aei ?iaioe a noa?? ina?oe aei?ineeo
iaiao?aeii: a) aaanoe a /enei aeenoeeie?i, ui aea/athoueny o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie, eo?n aiae?aaia?ee; a) c iaoith
aeei?enoaiiy iiceoeaiiai ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo oa caeiaooe?a
aiae?aaia?ee aeioe?eueii aeiiiaieoe i?ia?aie eo?n?a ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee
? i?iaeaiaoeeo niaoeeo?n?a aeey i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a; a)noai?eoe
o?anoiiao?th iaoe?iiaeueii? aiae?aaia?ee.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Iiiia?ao??:

1. Iioi/ie ?. Ina?oa aei?ineeo ? iiioey?ecaoe?y ciaiue a i?ieaoa?nueeeo
na?aaeiaeuao a Aaee/ei? eiinoeoooe?eii? aeiae (1867-1918). – AEaooa:
Aeaeaaieoeoai aeui? oeiee iaaeaaia?/ii?, 1998. – 360 n. Potoczny Jerzy.
O?wiata doros?ych i popularyzacja wiedzy w plebejskich ?rodowiskach
Galicji doby konstytucyjnej (1867-1918)//Galicja i jej dziedzictwo. Tom
10. Wydawnictwo Wy?szej Szko?y Pedagogicznej, Rzezow, 1998,ss.360.

2. Iioi/ie ?. ?icaeoie aeaiaioa?ii? ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei?
aaoiiii?/ii? aeiae (1867-1918). – AEaooa: Aeaeaaieoeoai aeui? oeiee
iaaeaaia?/ii?, 1986. – 254 n. (Aeaeaiiy ?). Potoczny Jerzy. Rozwoj
elementarnej o?wiaty doros?ych w Galicij doby awtonomscznej (1867-1918),
Wydawnictwo Wy?szej Szko?y Pedagogicznej, Rzezow 1986, ss.254, (wydanie
1).

3. Iioi/ie ?. ?icaeoie aeaiaioa?ii? ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei?
aaoiiii?/ii? aeiae (1867-1918). – AEaooa: Aeaeaaieoeoai aeui? oeiee
iaaeaaia?/ii?, 1988. – 254 n. (Aeae. ??). ). Potoczny Jerzy. Rozwoj
elementarnej o?wiaty doros?ych w Galicij doby awtonomscznej (1867-1918),
Wydawnictwo Wy?szej Szko?y Pedagogicznej, Rzezow 1988, ss.254, (wydanie
2).

4. Iioi/ie ?. A?ae aeueoaaaoecaoe?? aei iiioey?ecaoe?? ciaiue. ?oo
ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? (1867-1918). – AEaooa: Aeaeaaieoeoai aeui?
oeiee iaaeaaia?/ii?, 1993. – 120 n. (Aeaeaiiy ?). Potoczny Jerzy. Od
alfabetyzacji do popularyzacji wiedzy. Ruch o?wiaty doros?ych w Galicji
(1867-1918). Wydawnictwo Wy?szej Szko?y Pedagogicznej, Rzezow).,
1993,ss.120 (wydanie 1).

5. Iioi/ie ?. A?ae aeueoaaaoecaoe?? aei iiioey?ecaoe?? ciaiue. ?oo
ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? (1867-1918). – AEaooa: Aeaeaaieoeoai aeui?
oeiee iaaeaaia?/ii?, 1994. – 120 n. (Aeaeaiiy ??). Potoczny Jerzy. Od
alfabetyzacji do popularyzacji wiedzy. Ruch o?wiaty doros?ych w Galicji
(1867-1918). Wydawnictwo Wy?szej Szko?y Pedagogicznej, Rzezow,
1994,ss.120 (wydanie 2).

6. Eoa?e A., Iaenia? A., Iiaecaiue N., Iioi/ie ?., Ooeyeaae/ A., Oieaae
E. A?ae?ia?ao?y ?noi??? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy a Aaee/ei? 1772-1918./ I?ae
?aae. A.Iaenia?a ? N.Iiaecaiy. – AEaooa, 1992. – 250 n. (Aaoi?nueeeo 50
n.).Bibliografia dzieow o?wiaty i wychowania w Galicji 1772-1918 pod
redakcj? A.Majssnera i S.Vo?d?enia, Rzeszow 1992, ss.250. Materia?
zebrali: Flicja Kubik, Andrzej Vtissner, Stefan Mo?d?en, Jerzy Potoczny,
W?adys?awa Szulakiewicz, Joanna Tokarz. (Awt. 50 s.).

Noaoo? oa iaoa??aee eiioa?aioe?e

7. Iioi/ie ?.Iioeae iaa/aiiy a oeie? ei?aniiiaeaioe?eii-cai/i?e o/i?a ?c
n?euenueeiai na?aaeiaeua//No/ania naei.- 1976. — ? 6. –
N.122-127.Potoczny Jerzy. Motywy podejmowania nauki w szkole
korespondenczjnej-zaocznej przez uczniow ze ?rodowiska wiejskiego, “Wie?
Wspo?czesna” 1976, nr 6, s.122-127.

8.Iioi/ie ?. I?e/eie o?oaeiiu?a a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy o/i?a na?aaeiuei?
oeiee aeey i?aoethth/eo// Iaoeiai-aeeaeaeoe/iee ??/iee aeui? oeiee
iaaeaaia?/ii? a AEaoia?. Iaoee iaaeaaia?/i?. – AEaooa, 1978. – c.5/35. –
N.157-174. Potoczny Jerzy.Przyczyny trudno?ci w procesie uczenia sie
uczniow szko?y ?redniej dla pracuj?cych, “Rocznik Naukowo-Dydaktyczny
Wy?szej Szko?y Pedagogicznej w Rzeszowie”, Nauki Pedagogiczne, Rzeszow
1978, z.5/35,s.157-174.

9.Iioi/ie ?. Iioeae iaa/aiiy o/i?a a e?oeayo ei?aniiiaeaioe?eieo ? ?ieue
a/eoaey a ?o aeaeueo?e ina?o?//Iaoeiai-aeeaeaeoe/iee ??/iee AOI a
AEaoia?. Iaoee iaaeaaia?/i?. – 1975. – c.4/26. – N. 219-241.Potoczny
Jerzy. Motywy podejmowania nauki w liceachkorespondencyjnych i rola
nauczycieli w ich dalszym kszta?ceniu, “Rocznik Naukowo-Dydaktyczny
Wy?szej Szko?y Pedagogicznej w Rzeszowie”, Nauki Pedagogiczne, Rzeszow
1975, z.4/26, s.219-241.

10.Iioi/ie ?. ?aoeaic?y ia eieaeeo C.A?o?ianueeiai “Iaaaea/?
aeeaeaeoe/i? aei?ineeo”//Atheaoaiue OAAI :Ethaeeia a i?aoe? e i?noeth
i?iaeeaaiiy. – 1986. — ? 2. – N.130-135.Potoczny Jerzy. Recenzja rsi??ki
Z.Wiatrowskiego: Niepowodzenia dydaktyczne doros?ych, Biuletyn TWWP –
Czlowiek w pracy i w osiedlu, 1986, nr 2, s. 130-135.

11.Iioi/ie ?. Aeeaae aaeeoeueeeo ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa a ?icaeoie i?aeoeee
? oai??? iiioey?ecaoe?? ciaiue na?aae aei?ineeo//??/iee eii?n??
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe. – 1986. – O.OOOO?. – N.33-50. Potoczny Jerzy. Wk?ad
galicyjskich towarzystw o?wiatowych w rozwoj praktyki i teorii
popularyzacji wiedzy w?rod doros?ych, “Rocznik Komisji Nauk
Pedagogicznych” 1986, T.XXXYI, s.33-50.

12.Iioi/ie ?. Oai??y aeaiaioa?ii? ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? aeiae
aaoiiii?/ii? (1867-1918)//Iaoeiai-aeeaeaeoe/iee ??/iee AOI a AEaoia?. –
1989. – c.9/67. – N.141-171. Potoczny Jerzy. Teoria elementarnego
kszta?cenia doros?ych w Galicji doby autonomicznej (1867-1918), “Rocznik
Naukowo-Dydaktyczny, Nauki Pedagogiczne” 1989, z.9/67, s.141-171.

13.Iioi/ie ?., Ai?aianueeee A. O?aaeeoe?? ? no/ani?noue aeii?a
eoeueoo?e//Iaoeiai-aeeaeaeoe/iee ??/iee AOI a AEaoia?. – 1989. – c.9/67.
– N.171-191. (Aaoi?nueeeo 15 noi?.). Potoczny J., Horbowski A. Tradycje
i wspo?czesnj?ae domow kultury, “Rocznik Naukowo-Dydaktyczny, Nauki
Pedagogiczne”, Rzeszow 1989, z.9/67, s.171-191.(Awt. 15 s.).

14.Iioi/ie ?., Iaenia? A. Aeaea?aea aei ?noi??? aaeeoeueei? ina?oe o
oiiaeao oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao o
Eueaia?//?noi?e/ii-ina?oi?e iaeyae. – 1989. — ?4. – N.495-499.
(Aaoi?nueeeo 3 n.).Potoczny J., Majssner A.Zrod?a do dziejow o?wiaty
galicyjskiej w zbiorach centralnego archiwum historycznego panstwowego
we Lwowie, “Przegl?d Historyzno-O?wiatowy” 1989, nr 4, s.495-499 (Awt. 3
s.).

15.Iioi/ie ?. I?iaeaiaoeea ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e a i?ia?aiao aaeeoeueeiai
?ia?oie/iai ?ooo//?noi?e/i? nooae??. – 1989. — ? 1 — N.43-58.Potoczny
Jerzy. Problematyka o?wiaty i kultury w programach galicyjskiego ruchu
robotniczego, “Studia Historyczne” 1989 nr 1, s.43-58.

16.Iioi/ie ?. Aeeaae ina?oi?o oiaa?enoa Aaee/eie aeiae aaoiiii?/ii? a
?icaeoie /eoaoeoaa ? ia?iaeieo /eoaeaiue//??/iee Ia?aieoeuenueeee. –
Ia?aieoeue,1990. – O.OOO??. – N.251-281. Potoczny Jerzy. Wk?ad
towarzystw o?wiatowych Galicji doby autonomicznej w rozwoj czytelnictwa
i czytelni ludowych, “Rocznik Przemyski” 1990, t.XXYII, s.251-281.

17.Iioi/ie ?., Ayeee I. Ioce/ia oe?eueieoeoai a AEaooanueeiio
ai?aiaenoa?// A?aeaoaeiaa eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy a AEaooanueeiio
ai?aiaenoa? a ?ieao 1944-1949. – AEaooa, 1992. – N.57-85. (Aaoi?nueeeo
12 n.). Potoczny J.,Bia?y M.Szkolnictwo muzyczne w wojewodztwie
rzeszowskim, (w:) Odbudowa ?ycia kulturalnego w wojewodztwie rzeszowskim
w latach 1944-1949, Rzeszow 1992, praca zbiorowa pod red. A.Horbowskiego
i A.Majssnera, s.57-85. (Awt. 12 s.).

18.Iioi/ie ?. Aiaoi?nueeee ioce/iee ?oo// A?aeaoaeiaa eoeueoo?iiai
aeeooy a AEaooanueeiio ai?aiaenoa? a 1944-1949 ?ieao. – AEaooa, 1992. –
N.85-105. Potoczny Jerzy.Amatorski ruch muzyczny, (w:) Odbudowa. ?ycia
kulturalnego w wojewodztwie rzeszowskim w latach 1944-1949, Rzeszow
1992, praca zbiorowa pod red. A.Horbowskiego i A.Majssnera,s. 85-105.

19.Iioi/ie ?. Aiaoi?nueeee oaao?aeueiee ?oo// A?aeaoaeiaa eoeueoo?iiai
aeeooy a AEaooanueeiio ai?aiaenoa? a 1944-1949 ?ieao. – AEaooa, 1992. –
N.115-141. Potoczny Jerzy.Amatorski ruch muzyczny, (w:) Odbudowa ?ycia
kulturalnego w wojewodztwie rzeszowskim w latach 1944-1949, Rzeszow
1992, praca zbiorowa pod red. A.Horbowskiego i A.Majssnera,s.115-141.

20.Iioi/ie ?. I?iaeaiaoeea ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e a i?ia?aiao aaeeoeueeiai
ia?iaeiiai ?ooo (1870-1918)// Iaoeia? cioeoe AOI a AEaoia?. Ineoieia?y ?
iaaeaaia?ea. – 1993. – c.1. – N.93-111. Potoczny Jerzy. Problematyka
o?wiaty i kultury w programach galicyjskiego ruchu ludowego (1870-1918),
“Zeszyty Naukowe WSP w Rzeszowie”. Psychologia i Pedagogika, Rzeszow
1993, z.1, s.93-111.

21.Iioi/ie ?. Ii/aoee eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? OOE o Eueaia?
(1892-1914)//??/iee Ia?aieoeuenueeee.?noi??y ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy. –
Ia?aieoeue, 1993/94. – O.29-30. – C. 5(1). – N.19-31. Potoczny Jerzy.
Pocz?tki dzia?alno?ci Kulturalno-o?wiatowej TSL we Lwowie (1892-1914),
“Rocznik Przemyski” Historia o?wiaty i wychowania. Przemy?l 1993/94, Tom
29-30, z.5(1), s.19-31.

22. Iioi/ie ?. Ii/aoee eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? Oiaa?enoaa
Oe?e Ethaeiaeo o Eueaia? (1892-1914)//Iaoeiai-aeeaeaeoe/iee ??/iee AOI a
E?aeia? 174. I?aoe? c ?noi??? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy. Ei.?O.I?ae ?aae. E.
E?oeianueeiai ? *.Iaei?ea. – 1995. – N.167-181. Potoczny Jerzy. Pocz?tki
dzia?alno?ci Kulturalno-o?wiatowej Towarzystwa Szko?y Ludowej we Lwowie
(1892-1914), (w:) “Rocznik Naukowo-Dydaktyczny WSP w Krakowie” 174,
Prace z historii o?wiaty i wychowania IY pod red. J.Krukowskiego i
Cz.Majorka, 1995,s.167-181.

23.Iioi/ie ?. Iaoeiaee aei?iaie a/eoae?a eeane/ieo a?iiac?e a Aaee/ei?
aaoiiii?/i?e// Aaee/eia ? ?? niaaeueia. Aaeoeaoe?eia aeoiea a Aaee/ei?
1772-1918. Ianooii?noue ? ci?ia. O.8. – AEaooa,1996. – N.59-73.Potoczny
Jerzy. Dorobek naukowy nauczycieli gimnazjow klasycznych w Galicji
autonomicznej, (w:) Galicja i jej dzedzictwo, Tom 8, My?l edukacyjna w
Galicji 1772-1918. Ci?g?o?ae i zmiana, pod red. Cz.Majorka i
A.Majssnera, Wydawnictwo Wy?szej Szko?y Pedagogicznej, Rzeszow 1996,
s.59-73.

24. Potoczny J. Teachers role in modernization of the sekondary school
curricula: case Galicia at the nine teenth and early twentieth centuries
( w:) ISCHE XYIII Abstract Book, Krakow 1996, s. 74-75. (Awt. 2 s.).

25.Iioi/ie ?. I?iaeaiaoeea ia?iaeii? ina?oe a i?ia?aiao aaeeoeueeiai
ia?iaeiiai ?ooo (1870-1918)// Naeyie-Ia?iae-Eoeueoo?a, o.4. Eoeueoo?a ?
ina?oa naea./ I?ae ?aae. A.Iaenia?a. – AEaooa,1996. – N.133-145.
Potoczny Jerzy. Problematyka o?wiaty ludowej w programach galicyjskiego
ruchu ludowego (1870-1918), (w:) Ch?opi – Narod – Kultura, T.4, Kultura
i o?wiata wsi, pod red. A.Meissnera, Wydawnictwo Wy?szej Szko?y
Pedagogicznej, Rzeszow 1996, s. 133-145.

26.Iioi/ie ?. Iaaeaaia?/ia aeciaiiy Ia/eneaaa O. Aa?aiianeiai
(1851-1898)//?noi?e/ii-a?o?aiee ??/iee. – 1996. – O.O?. – N.3-13.
Potoczny Jerzy. Pedagogiczne wyznania Mieczys?aw T. Baranowskiego
(1851-1898), “Rocznik Historyczno – Archiwalny” 1996, t. XI, s. 3-13.

27.Iioi/ie ?. Oai??y aeaiaioa?ii? ina?oe aei?ineeo, iiioey?ecaoe??
ciaiue ? /eoaoeoaa a Aaee/ei? aeiae aaoiiii?/ii? // C o?aaeeoe??
iieuenueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee. I?ae ?aae. A.Nai??-Ae?aaiye
? A.Noii?inueei?-Iayie. – Oi?oiue, 1997. – N.21-39. Teoria elementarnego
kszta?cenia doros?ych i czytelnictwa w Galicji doby awtonomicznej (w: )
Z tradycji polskiej teorii i praktyki pedagogicznej, pod red. Eleonory
Sapii-Drewniak i Agnieszki Stopinskiej-Paj?k, Torun 1997, s.21-39.

28.Iioi/ie ?. Iaaeaaia?/ia aeciaiiy Ia/eneaaa Oeoona
Aa?aiianueeiai//Aaee/eia ? ?? niaaeueia. Ane?ce aei ii?o?aoo aaeeoeueei?
iaaeaaia?ee. I?ae ?aae. N.Iaei?aea ? ?.Iioi/iiai. – AEaooa:
Aeaeaaieoeoai AOI, 1997. – N.103-111. Potoczny Jerzy.Pedagogiczne
wyznania Mieczs?awa Tytusa Baranowskiego, (w:) Galicija i jej
dzedzictwo. Tom 9, Biografie Pedagogiczne. Szkice do portretu
galicyjskiej pedagogii, pod red. C.Majorka i J.Potocznego, Wydawnictwo
Wy?szej Szko?y Pedagogicznej, Rzeszow 1997, s.103-111.

29.Iioi/ie ?. Iaoeiaa ? aeaeaaie/a ae?yeuei?noue Oiaa?enoaa ethaeoae?a
ss?ineaaa (1934-1992)// ?noi?e/ii-a?o?aiee ??/iee. – 1997. – O.O??. –
N.59-73. Potoczny Jerzy. Dza?alno?ae naukowa i wydawnicza Stowaryszenia
Mi?o?nikow Jaros?awia (1934-1992), “Rocznik Historyczno-Archiwalny”
1997, t.XII, s.59-73.

30.Iioi/ie ?. Iiioey?ecaoi?nueea ae?yeuei?noue ethaeoae?a ss?ineaaa
(1934-1994) // ?noi?e/ii-a?o?aiee ??/iee. – 1997. – O.O??. – N.73-91.
Potoczny Jerzy. Dzia?alno?ae popularyzatorska Stowarzyszenia Mi?o?nikow
Jaroslawia (1934-1994), t.XII, s.73-91.

31.Iioi/ie ?. E?a?a? ? ie?oaei? eiioa?aioe?? o/eoae?a ia?iaeieo oe?e
Aaee/eie aaoiiii?/ii? aeiae // Iaoeia? cioeoe aeui? oeiee iaaeaaia?/ii?
a AEaoia?. Na??y Noni?eueii-iaaeaaia?/ia ? ?noi?e/ia. Iaaeaaia?ea ?
ineoieia?y. – AEaooa, 1997. — ? 24. – N.117-127. Potoczny Jerzy. Krajowe
i okregowe konferencje nauczycieli szko? ludowych w Galicji doby
autonomicznej, Zeszyty Naukowe Wy?szej Szko?y Pedagogicznej w Rzeszowie.
Seria Spo?eczno-Pedagogiczna i Historyczna. Pedagogika i Psychlogia, pod
red. A.Majssnera, Rzeszow 1997, nr 24, s.117-127.

32.Iioi/ie ?. Caaaeaiiy a/eoaey a i?ioean? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a
iaaeaaia?/ieo iiaeyaeao Ethoe?aia Caaeaoeueeiai// ?aeay iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe? O?O-OO no.
Ca??iee noaoae ? aeiiia?aeae Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??. – Eieiiey,1997. – N.194-197.

33.Iioi/ie ?. Iaa/aiiy iieuenueei? iiae a aaeeoeuee?e ia?iaei?e oeie?
(1867-1918) // Iaoeia? cioeoe AOI a AEaoia?. Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y. –
AEaooa, 1998. — ? 4. – C.123-135. Potoczny Jerzy. Nauczanie jezyka
polskiego w galicyjskiej szkole ludowej (1867-1918), “Zeszyty Naukowe
WSP w Rzeszowie. Pedagogika i Psychologia” 1998, nr 4, s.123-135.

34.Iioi/ie ?. Iaa/aiiy ni?ao ? ioceee a nai?ia??yo Aaee/eie aeiae
eiinoeoooe?eii?// Aaeeoeueea ioceea. – 1998. — ? 2. – N.43-52. Potoczny
Jerzy. Nauczanie ?piewu i muzyki w seminariach Galicji doby
konstytucyjnej, (w:) “Muzika Galiciana”, Rzeszow 1998, nr 2, s.43-52.

35. Iioi/ie ?., Oaii?oo E. Ae?yeuei?noue ii?eoinueei-aeoiaieo oiaa?enoa
a Ia?aieoe? aaoiiii?/ii? aeiae // Ii?eoinueea iaaeaaia?ea uiaei
o?einionueei? i???ioaoe?? ? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee. – AEaooa, 1999. –
N.173-185. Potoczny Jerzy, Jolanta Szempruch. Dzia?alno?ae towarzystw
opiekunczo wychowawczych w Przemz?lu dobo autonomicznej//Pedagogika
opiekuncza wobec wspo?czesnej orientacji filozoficznej i praktyki
pedagogicznej. Tom I. Rzeszow, 1999. S.173-185.

Aiioaoe??

Iioi/ie ?aee. ?icaeoie ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? (1867-1918). ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 – caaaeueia iaaeaaia?ea oa ?noi??y
iaaeaaia?ee. – I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A. Noaoaieea ? Aeua oeiea
iaaeaaia?/ia a AEaoia? (Iieueua). — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1998.

O aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaii ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c i?ioeano
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo nenoaie ina?oe aei?ineeo a Aaee/ei? a 1867-1918
??. Aia?oa a?aeoai?aii oe?e?nio ea?oeio ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo ?
iieuenueeeo eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o ? ainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa, ia?o?eieo,
?ae?a?eieo oa i?ioan?eieo i?aai?caoe?e uiaei iiio?y?ecaoe?? ? iioe?aiiy
ciaiue, ?icaeoeo oai??? ? i?aeoeee ina?oe aei?ineeo.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, iieiaeaiiy e aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e aeeeaaeaii? ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee ? aiae?aaia?ee, a oaeiae
iaoeiaoeyie, iaaeaaiaaie a ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiaeo iniia no/anii? nenoaie
aaeoeaoe?? aei?ineeo a Oe?a?i? ? Iieueu?, ni?eyoeiooue caa?aaeaiith ?
ia?aaea/? iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ina?oa aei?ineeo, aiae?aaia?ea, Aaee/eia,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?, ainiiaea?nuee? oiaa?enoaa, ia?o?ei?, ?ae?a?ei?,
i?ioan?ei? i?aai?caoe??, ia?iaei? aeiie (/eoaeuei?), a?ae?ioaee, eo?ne,
ia?iaei? oi?aa?neoaoe, iaaeaaia?/ia oai??y ? i?aeoeea.

Iioi/iu Aaeu. ?acaeoea i?inaauaiey ac?ineuo a Aaee/eia (1867-1918).
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 – iauay iaaeaaiaeea e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee.-
I?eea?iaoneee oieaa?neoao ei.A.Noaoaieea e Aunoay oeiea iaaeaaiae/aneay
a AEaoiaa (Iieueoa). — Eaaii-O?aieiane, 1998.

O aeenna?oaoeee naeaeai enoi?eei-iaaeaaiae/aneee aiaeec i?ioeanna
noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey i?inaauaiey ac?ineuo a Aaee/eia a 1867-1918 aa.
Aia?aua ainnicaeaia oeaeinoiay ea?oeia aeayoaeueiinoe oe?aeineeo e
iieueneeo eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneeo e oicyenoaaiiuo iauanoa,
ia?oeeiuo, ?aeeaeiciuo e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee ii
iiioey?ecaoeee e ?ani?ino?aiaieth ciaiee, ?acaeoeth oai?ee e i?aeoeee
i?inaauaiey ac?ineuo..

A ?aaioa ?ane?uaaaony ea?oeia ?acaeoey oai?ee e i?aeoeee i?inaauaiey
ac?ineuo a no?aiao Aa?iiu e NOA, iieacaii a? aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea
iaaeaaiae/aneie iunee e i?aeoeee i?inaauaiey ac?ineuo a Aaee/eia a O1O –
OO a., ?ane?uaathony oeaeue, niaea?aeaiea, iaoiaeu e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua
oi?iu a? inouanoaeaiey. Ia iniiaa aiaeeca enoi/ieeia aeaeaaony auaiae,
/oi iiuo Aiaeee e Aeaiee naeaeae ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea
yaeoeaoeee ac?ineuo ai anae Aa?iia, iacaaeneii io oiai, /oi ?acaeoea
iai?aaeaiee e oi?i a eaaeaeii ainoaea?noaa o?e ae?oaeie e i/aiue /anoi
naieie iooyie.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ane?uaathony o?aaiaaiey aaeeoeeeo oe?aeineeo e
iieueneeo eiina?aaoi?ia, aeaiie?aoia, ia?iaeiaoeaa e nioeeae-aeaiie?aoia
a noa?a i?inaauaiey ac?ineuo, ii?aaeaeaiea eie ianoa e ?iee aaeoeaoeee
ac?ineuo a eo iieeoe/aneie yiaineiaoeee.

Aeieacaii, /oi caneoaie niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?aeineeo e iieueneeo
iauanoa, ia?oee e iauaaeeiaiee, iieiae?aeiuo i?aaiecaoeee, iacaaeneii io
i?ia?aiiiuo ioee/ee, noaei iiauoaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai niciaiey ianaeaiey
Aaee/eiu, ?ino aai aeoeaiinoe a ai?ueaa ca iieeoe/aneoth e
iaoeeiiaeueioth naiaiaeo, ca naith ainoaea?noaaiiinoue.

Iieacaii ninoiyiea oeieu a enneaaeiaaiue ia?eiae e ia/aei i?aaiecaoeee
yeaiaioa?iiai i?inaauaiey aeey ac?ineuo, aiaeece?othony acaeyaeu
auaeathueony aeayoaeae i?ioeiai ia aiciiaeiinoue i?inaauaiey ac?ineuo,
oeaeue e caaea/e i?inaauaiey, o/aaieee e iaoiaeeea iao/aiey.

Naeaeaii auaiae i oii, /oi e iaaeaaiae, e ioaeeoeenou no?aieeenue e
nicaeaieth a e?aa aaeeiie nenoaiu i?inaauaiey ac?ineuo, eioi?ay aeieaeia
auea ioaaoeoue aeayoaeueiinoue anao einoeoooeee, caieiathueony
i?iaeaiaie i?inaauaiey ac?ineuo e iiioey?ecaoeeae ciaiee.
Ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi ia ia?aeiia O1O-OO a. i?inaauaiea ac?ineuo a
Aaee/eia noaei yaeaieai ianniaui, au?aaioaii iiiai ?acee/iuo oi?i e
iaoiaeia yoie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea neieoeee?iaaii enneaaeiaaiey
i?iaeai aiae?aaiaeee.

Iieacaii aeaaiua ia?aiaiu a niaea?aeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee i?inaauaiey, aai
?ieue a iaoeeiiaeueiii aic?iaeaeaiee oe?aeioeaa e iieyeia,
aiaeece?oaony aeayoaeueiinoue “I?inaeou”, Iao/iiai Iauanoaa
ei.O.Oaa/aiei, Iauanoaa Ia?iaeiiai I?inaauaiey a E?aeiaa, Iauanoaa
Ia?iaeiuo Oeie, Iauanoaa Ia?iaeiiai oieaa?neoaoa ei.A.Ieoeeaae/a,
aeayoaeueiinoue ia?iaeiuo ecaeaoaeuenoa, naeaeaia iiiuoea iaiauaiey
oai?aoe/aneeo i?iaeai /eoaoaeuenoaa.

Aeieacaii, /oi ?acaeoea ?acee/iuo oi?i i?inaauaiey ac?ineuo
noeioee?iaaei oai?aoe/aneea iienee a noa?a aiae?aaiaeee, iainiiaaiea
iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiuo oi?i iao/aiey e ainieoaiey. Oai?aoe/aneea auaiaeu
iniiauaaeenue ia i?aeoeea aeayoaeueiinoe aaeeoeeeo iauanoa.

?ane?uaaaony aeayoaeueiinoue oe?aeineeo e iieueneeo iauanoa a noa?a
iiioey?ecaoeee ciaiee eae iaeiiai ec iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuo oaiiiaiia
iiceoeaenoneiai ia?aca iao/aiey, i?ia?anna e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ioiioaiey e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. I?e yoii ia?auaaony aieiaiea ia oai?/aneoth ?ieue
ioaeaeueiuo iauanoa a ?ani?ino?aiaiee eoeueoo?u, a ia oieueei ciaiee.
Aeaeaaony iiiuoea aiaeeca acaeiinayce eoeueoo?u e i?inaauaiey.
Ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi aaeeoeeea iauanoaa nicaeaee oai?aoe/aneea iniiau
aeey ?acaeoey aiae?aaiaeee a iaaeaeoaiaiiue ia?eiae e aeey i?aaiecaoeee
i?inaauaiey ac?ineuo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou, iieiaeaiey e auaiaeu enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu a i?ioeanna i?aiiaeaaaiey enoi?ee iaaeaaiaeee e
aiae?aaiaeee, a oaeaea o/?iuie, iaaeaaiaaie i?e ?ac?aaioea iao/iuo
iniia nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu yaeoeaoeee ac?ineuo a Oe?aeia e Iieueoa,
aoaeoo niinianoaiaaoue nio?aiaieth e ia?aaea/a iaaeaaiae/aneiai iiuoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?inaauaiea ac?ineuo, aiae?aaiaeea, Aaeeoeey,
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneea, oicyenoaaiiua iauanoaa, ia?oeeiua,
?aeeaeiciua, i?ioanneiiaeueiua iauanoaa, ia?iaeiua aeiia (/eoaeueie),
aeaeeioaee, eo?nu, ia?iaeiua oieaa?neoaou, iaaeaaiae/aneay oai?ey e
i?aeoeea.

Jezhy Potochny. Dewelopment of Edukation of Adults in Galicia
(1867-1918). Manuskript.

Thesis for doktor`s degree in Pedagogy, speciality 13.00.01 – General
Pedagogics and history of Pedagogics. – The Prekarpathian Uniwersity
named after V.Stefanyk and Higher School of Pedagogics in Zheshov
(Poland), Ivano-Frankivsk, 1998.

The paper presents historial-pedagogical ananysis of the process of
formation and development of the system of adults` education in Galicia
in 1867-1918. For the first time the thesis presents the aktivity of
Ukrainian and Polish cultural-edukational and ekonomic-societies, party,
religious and professional organizations on popularizing and spreading
knowledge, developing theory and practice of adults` education.

The principal results, statements and conclusions of the research can
be applied in teaching History of Pedagogy by scholars and teachers in
working auf the fundamentals of modern system of education of adults in
Ukraine and Poland. They will contribute to preserving and spreading
pedagogical experience.

The key words: education of adults, andragogy Galicia,
cultural-educational, economic socities, party, religous, professional
organizations, reading-halls, libraries, courses, people`s universities,
pedagogical theory and practice.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 27.12.1999 ?.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei??iee?a

Aeaeaaieoeoai “E?eay-IA”

i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee, aoe. A?ooaanueeiai, 18,

oae./oaen 55-91-70

Похожие записи