1

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

IAEUeIEE EAOA?EIA IEEIEA?AIA

OAeE 001.1 (477) “19”

?ICAEOIE IAOEE A OE?A?I?

O 50-o? ?iee OO no.

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ?noi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (i.Ee?a).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — Nethna?aiei Aiaoie?e Aiaoiae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, aeaeai ?noi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea .

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Oaa/oe Aaneeue Iao?iae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
?noi??? aeey aoiai?oa?ieo oaeoeueoao?a Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaeaia?/oe I?ia ?aai?aia, eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Ee?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai??
iaoe Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e ?noi??? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo (i. Ee?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 26 ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.20 Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252033, i.Ee?a, aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea,
60, aoae.349.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (i.Ee?a, aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 26 aa?aciy 199 ?ieo.

A/aiee na?eoa?a? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, e.?.i., aeioeaio Aiaeei I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?? ianya noaiiaeoue 204 noi??iie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e
(14 noi??iie, 140 iiceoe?e) oa aeiaeaoe?a (9 noai).

Anooi. Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A no/anieo oiiaao no?oeoo?ii?
ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie iaoeia? onoaiiae ooieoe?iiothoue o
neeaaeieo ? iani?eyoeeaeo oiiaao. Aeiiii?/ia e?eca iaaaoeaii aieeioea ia
noaa?euei?noue ?iaioe a?eueoino? iaoeiaeo onoaiia, ui i?ecaaei aei
ciaioaiiy ianyao iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ??ceiai iia??oaiiy oiia
i?aoe? iaoeiaoe?a. Oiio aaeeeiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? aeina?ae ii
iiaeieaiith iayaieo e?eciaeo yaeu, ui iaee i?noea a ?aaeyinueeiio
noni?euenoa? a i?neyai?iiee ia??iae, ? aoee iiaeieai? ai?iaeiaae
1950-o ?ie?a, eiee a?aeaoaaeany ?ai?aai?caoe?y noa?e iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?eeiaeenue caoiaee ii iineeaiith ca’yce?a iaoee c
ae?iaieoeoaii. Iaeiae i?e i?iaaaeai? eo?no e?aa?ae?caoe?? a ia??iae oae
caaii? «o?ouianueei? a?aeeeae» ia aoei iine?aeiaiino? oa
oe?eani?yiiaaiino? oa ia ii?oooaaeanue eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaia
nenoaia. Aea/aiiy ? aiae?c aeina?aeo ieioeiai iiaea cia/ii iieaaoeoe
ae??oaiiy aaaaoueio i?iaeai nueiaiaeaiiy, a oiio /ene? e i?iaeai,
iia’ycaieo c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi iaoeiaeo onoaiia a Oe?a?i?.

Ana oea aea? i?aenoaae oaa?aeeoe, ui aea/aiiy ? aiae?c ?icaeoeo iaoee
o 1950-o? ?iee aeooaeueia ? a no/anieo oiiaao, eiee ia?aae oe?a?inueeei
noni?euenoaii iinoaee i?iaeaie, aeaui noiae? ia o?, ye? aeaeiny
iiaeieaoe i?ioyaii 1950-o ??.

Aea/aiiy ? aiae?c ?icaeoeo iaoee o 1950-o? ?iee aeicaiey? e?aua
c?icoi?oe neooaoe?th a noni?euenoa?, ui neeaeany o oie /an. Oea
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icoe?th? iaoa??ae c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie aeacaiiai ia??iaeo.

Aaaaeaiiy aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao iiaeo a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a oa iiyaa iiaeo
a?aeiiinoae a ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aeicaieythoue c iiaeo iiceoe?e
?icaeyiooe i?iaeaie, ui iinoaee ia?aae oe?a?inueeith iaoeith o
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae.

E??i oiai, iio??aii a?aooaaoe, ui i?aeia?iaei? iaoeia? ca’ycee, ye? aoee
iaeaaiaeaeai? ? i?aeo?eioaaeeny o oie /an, caeeoathoueny iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeaeie ? nueiaiaei?, eiee aaea iacaeaaeia Oe?a?ia ?ioaa?o?oueny o
na?oiao aeiiii?/io nenoaio.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? ca’ycie c iaoeiaith oaiith “?noi?e/i? oa aoi?/i?
canaaee ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? o OO noie?oo?” (aea?aeaaiee
?a?no?aoe?eiee iiia? 97173), yea ?ic?iaey?oueny ia ?noi?e/iiio
oaeoeueoao? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

0a`?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie iaoee a Oe?a?i? o 50-o? ??. OO no.
I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoeiaeo onoaiia O?N?,
ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a i?ioyaii 1950-o ??.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ia`?eoeaiee aiae?c noaio ?icaeoeo iaoee a Oe?a?i? a
icia/aiee ia??iae, ?? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace, iaoeiaiai
iioaioe?aeo, ca’yceo iaoee c ae?iaieoeoaii oa i?aeia?iaeieo ?
i?ae?anioae?eainueeeo ca`yce?a. O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe o
aeena?oaoe?? ae??oothoueny ianooii? iaoeia? caaaeaiiy:

i?iaiae?coaaoe noai i?aeaioiaee ? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaoeiaeo oa
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a;

aeine?aeeoe iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy iaoeiaeo ?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiia Oe?a?inueei? ?N?;

?ice?eoe iniiai? i?iaeaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo aeinyaiaiue o
ae?iaieoeoai;

cynoaaoe ?ieue ? i?noea iaoee Oe?a?ie o iaoeiaiio eiiieaen?
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco;

i?iaiae?coaaoe aeina?ae ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa iaoeiaoe?a Oe?a?ie ?c a/aieie
?ioeo ?anioae?e oa ca?oa?aeieie iaoeiaeie ni?a?ia?oieeaie.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/athoueny ei?aeiiaie
Oe?a?inueei? ?N? ca noaiii ia 1950 ??e.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae 1950-o ??. Ia
ii/aoeo 1950-o ?ie?a aoea caaa?oaia a?aeaoaeiaa c?oeiiaaiiai i?ae /an
a?eie c I?ia//eiith ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ui aeicaieeei caa?iooe
a?eueoa oaaae ia iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia iia’ycai? c iio?aaaie
a?enueeiai-i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno. Ae?oaa iieiaeia 1950-o ?ie?a aoea
i?eii ?aoi?iaoi?nueei? ae?yeueiino? iiaiai ea??aieoeoaa e?a?iith, ui
aeaei ciiao iie?aueoe iaoa??aeueii-o?iainiao aaco iaoeiaeo caeeaae?a oa
eaae?o?eaoe?th iaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a, ni?eyei aeoea?caoe?? i?aeia?iaeieo
ca`yce?a oiui. O e?ioe? 1950-o ?ie?a ana a?eueoa ? a?eueoa noa? iii?oiei
aiethioa?eci I.N.O?ouiaa o i?eeiyoo? aaaeeeaeo ??oaiue ia aea?aeaaiiio
??ai?, ui noaei iii?oiei aaea c 1959 ?ieo, eiee aoa i?eeiyoee iiaee,
naie??/iee ieai ?icaeoeo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. Oea iaaaoeaii
a?aeaeeiny ia ae?yeueiino? iaoeiaeo caeeaae?a ia i?noeyo, ye? iinooiiai
ao?a/aee ?i?oe?aoeao a ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo iaoeiaeo i?iaeo?a ? ia??aeei
ciooai? aoee ?ic?iaeyoe yaii ia?aaeuei? i?iaeoe, ye? ia ciaoiaeeee
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeoe?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? oi?aa?naeuei? i?eioeeie
iaoeiaino?, ?noi?ecio oa ia`?eoeaiino?. O aeine?aeaeaii? aaoi?
aeei?enoiaoaaa oae? iaoiaee: i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee, ii??aiyeueiee,
iaoiae eia?/iiai aiae?co, ocaaaeueiaiiy, noaoenoe/iee iaoiae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny ianooiiei:

aia?oa eiiieaenii i?iaiae?ciaaii noai eaae?iai? iie?oeee a iaooe?
Oe?a?ie;

ocaaaeueiaii oi?ie ? iaoiaee i?aeaioiaee iaoeiaeo eaae??a /a?ac
ani??aioo?o;

aeine?aeaeaii aianie oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a a ?ic?iaeo
caaaeueiinithcieo iaoeiaeo oai ? i?ia?ai;

i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoa??aeueia oa o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy iaoeiaeo onoaiia
Oe?a?ie;

aena?oeaii ni?a?ia?oieoeoai oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo ?c a/aieie ?ioeo e?a?i
na?oo oa i?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe oeueiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai c iia?oiuei? ?noi???
Oe?a?ie, i?aeaioiaoe? ii?iaoeaieo oa niaoe?aeueieo eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a,
iaienaii? i?ae?o/iee?a oa iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie,
cie?aia ?noi??? iaoee ? oaoi?ee. Aeaye? ocaaaeueiaiiy, c?iaeai? aaoi?ii,
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey ni?aae
?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo. Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeany ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?e i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue c
eo?no “?noi??y Oe?a?ie” oa “?noi??y eoeueoo?e” o Ee?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Aieiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a noaooyo, a?ioo??, aeeeaaeai? a oacao
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Ia?oee ?icae?e “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy”
i?enay/aiee aiae?co noaio ?ic?iaee icia/aii? oaie oa ?icaeyaeo
aeaea?aeueii? aace aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ia no/aniee iiiaio iaeiie/aii cia/iee ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iioaioe?ae
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui ioiieth? ??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?,
ine?eueee ye a?o/eciyi?, oae ? ca?oa?aei? aeine?aeieee oe?eaaeeeny
i?iaeaiaie ?icaeoeo iaoee Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae a?eueo?noue iiiia?ao?e oa
iaoeiaeo noaoae aoei aeaeaii a 1960-o? — 1980-o? ?iee, eiee aeine?aeieee
iiaeii? aoee aeiaiaeeoe “ia?aaaae nioe?ae?cio”, ui i?aeoe/ii aeeeth/aei
iiaeeea?noue e?eoe/ii i?ae?eoe aei aena?oeaiiy iaaaoeaieo yaeu o
?aaeyinueeiio noni?euenoa?, a ioaea ? a noa?? iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?.

Aeaye? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo iaoee a Oe?a?i? o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae
?icaeyaeaeeny o i?aoeyo a?aeiieo aeine?aeiee?a A.A.Naioeaae/a oa
ss.N.Eaeaeo?e, ye? i?enayoeee nai? ?iaioe ?icaeoeo ?noi??ia?ao?? ?noi???
?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa.11 Naioeaae/ A.A. Oe?a?inueea ?aaeyinueea
?noi??ia?ao?y 1945-1982. — E., 1987; Eaeaeo?a ss.N. Eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y
Oe?a?ie a ai?iouea? ca ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue aoae?aieoeoaa eiioi?cio.
?noi??ia?ao?/iee ia?en.-E., 1976. O ?oi?o i?aoeyo aeine?aeaeothoueny
i?iaeaie ?noi??? O?N? i?neyai?iiiai ia??iaeo, oiiae ?icaeoeo ?noi?e/ii?
iaoee a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae aeeaae oe?a?inueeeo ?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?ee?a o
aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue ae?oaeae ia?iae?a N?N? oa ca’yce?a O?N? ?c
ca?oa?aeieie e?a?iaie.

A oiiaao, eiee iaaeie?ee ? i?i?aooiee ?aaeyinueeiai ea??aieoeoaa aoee
caai?iiaiith oaiith, ae?yeuei?noue EI?N aena?oethaaeanue iaia’?eoeaii.
Oe?aeioeaa A.Ae. EINN-i?aaiecaoi? ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey aunoae
oeiee.-I.,1963; Ao?eaae?e I. Ca ?aeaieia?/ia ica?i?iiy ian. Ieoaiiy
?aeaieia?/ii? ?iaioe EIO 1966-1961??.-Euea?a,1968. Iaeiae a ?aaeyinuee?e
?noi??ia?ao?? ?nio? oe?eee ?yae ?ia?o, ye? aeathoue ciiao ?icaeyiooe
oe?ieee niaeo? ieoaiue ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iaoee. Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae,
yeee iaaiaeeoueny o oeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, aeicaiey? c iiaeo iiceoe?e
ioe?ieoe aeinyaiaiiy ?aaeyinueei? iaoee o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae.
Oaeeie ?iaioaie ? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? i?aoe? c ?noi??? Aeaaeai?? iaoe O?N?,
a yeeo aena?oeaii iniiai? oaeoe c ?noi??? i?aai?caoe?? ? ?icaeoeo
Aeaaeai?? iaoe, a, e??i oiai, iai?yiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe
iaoeiaeo onoaiia aeaaeai??. ?noi??y Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?inueei? ?N?: A 2
/anoeiao.-E.,1967; Oiieaeue A.TH., Iaeeo A.I., Noiai?e A.N. Aeaaeai?y
iaoe Oe?a?inueei? ?N?.-E.,1980; Iao/iua oeaio?u Aeaaeaiee iaoe
Oe?aeineie NN?: Iiuo e ia?niaeoeau / ?.I.Aeia?ia, A.O.Ia?ouae,
A.A.Aaeaeaeia oa ?i.-E.,1986; Aeaaeaiey iaoe Oe?aeineie NN?. Enoi?ey e
nia?aiaiiinoue / A.I.Oiae, A.I.Oeaiei, A.Ae.Iiaeeia e ae?./Iiae ?aae
A.N.Noiaiey.-E.,1990; ?noi??y Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie.1918-1993 /I?ae
?aae. A.?.Iaoiia.-E., 1994; Aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie /I?ae ?aae.
A.I.Oiaea.-E., 1983. E??i oiai, oe? ?iaioe i?noyoue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
ae?yeuei?noue ie?aieo aeaaeai?/ieo ?inoeooo?a, eaai?aoi??e, eaoaae?, i?i
o?iainoaaiiy oeeo iaoeiaeo caeeaae?a, i?i ??aaiue caaacia/aiiy ?o
eaae?o?eiaaieie eaae?aie.

Ie?aii ne?ae aeae?eeoe iaoeia? ?iaioe, ye? aena?oeththoue ieoaiiy
?noi??? noai?aiiy ?inoeooo?a oa oi?aa?neoao?a, ?oiuei? no?oeoo?e,
i?aeaioiaee eaae??a, aeaeaaie/i? ae?yeueiino?, ca’yceo ?c
i?iieneia?noth, oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o
aaaeeeaeo ?acoeueoao?a. Oiae I.O., Iaeueiee A.E. Einoeooo
oeceee.-E.,1979; Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao
1805-1980.-Xa?ueeia,1980; Einoeooo iaoaiaoeee/AI ONN?.-E.,1981; Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao aeieoiaiou e iaoa?eaeu. 1934-1984.-E.,?984; Einoeooo
oeceieiaee ei. A.A.Aiaiiieueoea. Enoi?ey nicaeaiey, no?oeoo?a, iniiaiua
iao/iua iai?aaeaiey, aaaeiaeoea ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey e ia?niaeoeau
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey.-E., 1984; Einoeooo aeae?iaeieiaee. Enoi?ey
einoeoooa.-E.,?984; Einoeooo yeaeo?inaa?ee ei. A.I.Iaoiia AI ONN?
(Enoi?ey nicaeaiey).-E.,1985; Enoi?ey Aeiai?iiao?ianeiai
oieaa?neoaoa.-Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1993.

Caneoaiao? ia oaaao iiiia?ao?y A.?.Iiii???iea «?noi??y oe?a?inueei?
iaoee O?O-OO noie?oue”. Iiii???iei A.?. ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? iaoee O?O —
OO noie?oue. Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee.-E., 1998. O i?e aaoi? iaiaaa?oueny
iieacaoe oe?e?nio ea?oeio noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iaoee. A
iiiia?ao?? aena?oeaii iane?aeee iaioaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? iiaeae? iaoee ?
ia?niaeoeae ?? o?ainoi?iaoe??. Iaeiae o ?iaio? i?/iai ia neacaii i?i
?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ina?oi?ie onoaiiaaie, ui cae?enithaaeiny
o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae.

Aeine?aeaeaiith ??ciiiai?oieo i?iaeai iaoeiaeo eaae??a o ?aaeyinueeiio
Nithc? i?enay/aii aaaaoi iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?ee?a,
i?aaiciaaoe?a oa aeiiii?no?a, na?aae yeeo iiaeia aeae?eeoe ?iaioe
A.I.Aeia?iaa, A.?.*ooea?aoa?e?, A.Ae.Eaa?ia, A.A.Oii/??aa, E.O.Aaee?ia,
A.I.Eeeiaithea. A.A.Oii/eaa. Iao/iua eaae?u a NNN?. Nai?iee aeieoiaioia
e ni?aai/iuo iaoa?eaeia.-I.,1959; A.I.Aeia?ia. Iaoea i iaoea.-E.,1966;
A.A.*ooea?aoaeee. Eaae?u aeey iaoee. — I.,1968; Aeia?ia A.I. Iioaioeeae
iaoee.-E.,1969; Eeeiaithe A.I. Oi?aaeaiea ?acaeoeai e eniieueciaaieai
iao/iiai iioaioeeaea.-E., 1974; Eaaei A.Ae. Iiaeai?, iiaeaioiaea e
aoanoaoeey iao/iio eaae?ia a NNN?.-I.,1986; Eeeiaithe A.I. Oi?aaeaiea
?acaeoeai e eniieueciaaieai iao/iiai iioaioeeaea.-E., 1974.. Ieie
aea/aeenue ieoaiiy aeeiai?ee ? no?oeoo?e iaoeiaeo eaae??a
(eaae?o?eaoe?ei?e, aaeocaa?e, a?eia?e), i?aai?caoe?y i?aoe? a iaoeiaeo
oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eieaeoeaao, i?ioan?eia iia?euei?noue, ieoaiiy
i?aeaioiaee iaoeiaeo eaae??a aeey iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
onoaiia ? o.ae. O i?aoeyo oeeo iaoeiaoe?a, ie??i A.I.Aeia?iaa, a
iniiaiiio eoea iiaa i?i ae?yeuei?noue AI N?N?, a ae?yeueiino? AI
nithcieo ?anioae?e, a oiio /ene? e AI O?N?, aoei i?eae?eaii iaaaaaoi
iaioa oaaae. Iaeiae i?e aea/aii? i?iaeaie ?ici?uaiiy iaoeiaeo eaae??a,
iaaiaeeeenue aeai? eeoa i?i caaaeueio e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a
ii nithcieo ?anioae?eao, a i?iaeaie iaoeiaeo eaae??a ie?aieo
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae N?N? ia ?icaeyaeaeeny.

Na?aae iacaaieo iiiia?ao?e nai?ie i?aeoiaeaie aei aiae?co eaae?iai?
i?iaeaie aeae?ey?oueny iiiia?ao?y A.I.Aeia?iaa «Iaoea i iaoea». Aaoi?
aeine?aeaeoaaa i?iaeaio iaoeiaeo eaae??a Aeaaeai?? iaoe O?N?
ii??aithth/e ?? ?c caaaeueiinithcieie iieacieeaie, a oaeiae iiaeaa
aiae?c eaae?o?eaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e iaoeiaeo eaae??a a AI Oe?a?ie,
i?iaiae?coaaa a?eiao no?oeoo?o a/aieo ?anioae?eainueei? aeaaeai??,
aeeiai?eo ?o ?ici?uaiiy. Aea o nai?e i?aoe?, ye e aaaaoi ?ioeo
iaoeiaoe?a, ia aeei?enoiaoaaa iaoa??aee, ye? noaee aeinooiieie i?ney
?iciaaeo ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco. A oiio aena?oeaiiy i?iaeai

caaacia/aiiy ?anioae?eainueeeo aeaaeai?e iaoeiaeie eaae?aie, ?o
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy iaia’?eoeaia.

Ie?ai? ieoaiiy i?aeaioiaee iaoeiaeo eaae??a oaeiae aeine?aeaeoaaeenue,
oi/a e ia caaaeaee ia’?eoeaii, o caaaeueieo i?aoeyo c ?noi??? eoeueoo?e,
iaoee. O?aaa cacia/eoe, ui oey i?iaeaia aoea ?icaeyiooa a i?aoeyo
i?aaiaee?a, cie?aia o iiiia?ao?? A.?.Oaaeuee?ia. Oey ?iaioa aeeth/a? a
naaa aiae?c caaaeueiinithcieo i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ye? noinoaaeeny iaoeiaeo
i?aoe?aiee?a. Aiia i?enay/aia aieiaiei /eiii ?noi??? i?aeaioiaee ?
i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaiith i?aoe? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai ia?niiaeo
aeui? oeiee. A iaio?e i??? oey ?iaioa ?ice?eaa? ?noi??th caaacia/aiiy
iaoeiaeie eaae?aie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo caeeaae?a. Oaaeueeei A.E.
I?aaiaua aii?inu i?aaiecaoeee iao/iie ?aaiou a NNN?. — I.,1958.

Aeaye? i?aoe? ?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?ee?a i?noyoue caaaeueiee iaeyae ?icaeoeo
eoeueoo?e ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, a oaeiae aaaeeea? ocaaaeueiaiiy i?i
aeinyaiaiiy iaoee o ?aaeyinuee?e e?a?i?.Eei I.I. 40-eao niaaoneie
eoeueoo?u.-I.,?957; ?acaeoea nioeeaeenoe/aneie eoeueoo?e a nithcieo
?anioaeeeao.-I.,1962; Eoeueoo?iay aeeciue a NNN?. 195?-1965:
O?iieea.-I., 1979. Oaeiae i?eeeaaeii iiae?aii? ?iaioe iiaea aooe i?aoey
“?icaeoie iaoee a Oe?a?inuee?e ?N? ca 40 ?ie?a”. Oea ca??iee noaoae, a
yeiio i?ia?aei? ?aaeyinuee? a/ai? (A.?.Iaoii, I.A.Iaeeaae?i,
I.I.Ua?aaiue) ?iciia?aeathoue i?i aeinyaiaiiy iaoee a Oe?a?i?. ?icaeoie
iaoee a Oe?a?inuee?e ?N? ca 40 ?ie?a.-E.,1957. O ie?aieo ?iaioao
?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?ee?a i?noeoueny aiae?c ?icaeoeo ia?aae? iaoeiaeo
caeeaae?a ? onoaiia Oe?a?ie oa ?o iaoa??aeueii-o?iainiai? aace a 1950-o
?ieao. Iaeiae aaoi?e oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue ioe?iththoue iaaeaaiiy iaoee
Oe?a?ie, ia ii??aithth/e ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo
iaoeiaoe?a ?c a?aeiia?aeieie ?acoeueoaoaie ae?y/?a iaoee ?ioeo e?a?i,
cian?i i?/iai ia aiai?eoueny i?i a?aenoae?noue iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai
iaeaaeiaiiy iaoeiaeo onoaiia ?anioae?ee a ii??aiyii? c iaeaaeiaiiyi
iaoeiaeo onoaiia ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i. ?ino?eon ?.I. ?icaeoie ? ci?oeiaiiy
aeui? oeiee a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie a i?neyai?iee
ia??iae.-*a?i?aoe?, 1957; Aunoea o/aaiua caaaaeaiiy NNN?. Oieaa?neoaou,
yeiiiie/aneea e th?eaee/aneea aocu.-I.,1962; Ieoia A.E. Aunoay oeiea
Oe?aeineie NN? ia?eiaea ia?ano?ieee.-E., 1962; Aeua oeiea Oe?a?inueei?
?N?: O 2-o /anoeiao.-*. 2.-E., 1968; Iaoea Nithca NN?.-I.,1972; ?icaeoie
iaoee a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?inueei? ?N? ca ?iee ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee.
1939-1989.-E.,1990.

Aaaeeea? aeai? i?noyoueny o i?aoeyo A.A.Nethna?aiea, I.?.Iethua,
A.I.Oaa/oea, I.N.Oaaei?/aea, aea aeine?aeaeo?oueny aieea
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ia ci?io nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e i?aoe?aiee?a
i?iieneiaino?, aena?oeaii ca’ycie i?ae a/aieie ? ae?iaie/eie
eieaeoeaaie, i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee ? ia?ai?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a
aeey i?ia?aeieo aaeocae aaaeei? ?iaeono???, ?ieue ?ia?oie/iai eeano
Oe?a?ie o i?enei?aii? oaii?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, iieaco?oueny
aeeaae ?ia?oiee?a ?anioae?ee o ?icaeoie i?iieneiaino?. Nethna?aiei A.A.
EINN e i?ia?an iaoee a ?acaeoii nioeeaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa. Ec iiuoa
?aaio ia?oeeiuo i?aaiecaoeee Oe?aeiu ii ?acaeoeth iaoee e aiaae?aieth aa
aeinoeaeaiee a i?iecaiaenoai.-E., 1978; Oaa/oe A.I. Ia ae??oaeueiiio
iai?yi?. Eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y Oe?a?ie a ai?iouea? ca iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee
i?ia?an o aaaee?e i?iieneiaino?(1959-1965 ??.).-E., 1970; Oaaei?/ae I.N.
Oeyoii o?oaeiaeo iiaeaea?a. (Eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y Oe?a?ie – i?aai?caoi?
ai?ioueae ca aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue o aaeoc? aaaeei? i?iieneiaino?
(1951-1971 ??.).-Euea?a,1974; Iethu I.?. Aeeaae ?ia?oie/iai eeano
Oe?a?inueei? ?N? o i?enei?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano a
i?iieneiaino? (50-70-o? ?iee).-E.,1981.

O ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aena?oethaaeeny ie?ai? ieoaiiy o/ano?
iaoeiaoe?a Oe?a?ie a i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo ca’yceao. ?o aaoi?e
aeacoaaee, ui a ?ica’ycai? aaaaoueio iaoeiaeo i?iaeai aaaeeeaa
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy iaei ni?a?ia?oieoeoai i?ae a/aieie
??cieo e?a?i, ui o oea ni?a?ia?oieoeoai iii?oiee aeeaae aiineee
oe?a?inuee? a/ai?. Oaeiae ?iciia?aea?oueny i?i aoaie, oi?ie, oa?aeoa? oa
iniaeeaino? oeeo ca`yce?a. Aea a ?iaioao caiia/oaaeeny o?oaeiiu?, ye?
iaee i?noea a i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo ca`yceao, a oaeiae ?o
iaiaaeai?noue, ine?eueee ieaioaaiiy ? ea??aieoeoai ieie cae?enithaaeiny
c Iineae. Eoe?ie/ ?.I., Iaoa?n ?.A. Aeiiii?/ia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai
Oe?a?inueei? ?N? c e?a?iaie nioe?ae?cio.-E., 1962; Aiaei Ae. Oe?a?ia a
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo cayceao N?N?.-E., 1966; Nioaiue I. Aiaiiue
a?/ii? ae?oaeae.-E., 1966; Eaeaie/aiei I.I. Ni?a?ia?oieoeoai
?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie oa ia?iaeii? Iieueu? (1944-1969).-E., 1969; Aeeaae
Oe?a?inueei? ?N? o iaoeiai-eoeueoo?ia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco c ?a?iiaenueeeie nioe?ae?noe/ieie e?a?iaie.-E., 1970; Nioaiue
I.N., Aeaieeaiei A.I. Oe?aeineay NN? a iao/ii-oaoie/aneii
nio?oaeie/anoaa no?ai nioeeaeecia. 1945-1970.-E., 1970; Ciaiaineay I.A.
Ae?oaeaa ieeeeiiia.-E.,1974.

Aaaaoi i?aoeue ?aaeyinueeeo aeine?aeiee?a i?noyoue ia?ae?o/aiiy oaeo?a,
iaaeiiiaee, iini?oi? aeniiaee, Oieaethe A.E. Nio?oaeie/anoai niaaoneeo
?anioaeee a iiaeaioiaea niaoeeaeenoia aunoae eaaeeoeeaoeee
(1951-1958aa.)//A?aoneia nio?oaeie/anoai niaaoneeo ?anioaeee a
oicyenoaaiii e eoeueoo?iii no?ieoaeuenoaa.-I. 1971; ?aaeyinueea e?a?ia
a a?aoi?e n?i’? ia?iae?a ?N?.-E.,1972; A?aoneia nio?oaeie/anoai nithcieo
?anioaeee a ?acaeoee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa NNN?. 19?7-1971.-I., 1973;
Aaeeeee niaaoneee ia?iae.-E., 1976; Ia?ooeiay ae?oaeaa oe?aeineiai e
aaei?onneiai ia?iaeia a ia?eiae nioeeaeecia.-E.,1978. ine?eueee
?aaeyinuee? ?noi?eee 1950-o — 1980-o ?ie?a ia iiaee anaa?/ii aena?oeeoe
oo /e ?ioo i?iaeaio c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo iaoee a ia?oo /a?ao /a?ac
a?aenooi?noue ia’?eoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??, coiiaeaio

canae?a/aiiyi aaeeei? e?eueeino? a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? noaee
aeinooiieie aeey aeine?aeiee?a o?eueee i?ney ?iciaaeo ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco. Oae, ie?ai? ieoaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie ciaeoee nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a eaiaeeaeaonueeeo ? aeieoi?nueeeo aeena?oaoe?yo.
Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe eaiaeeaeaonueeo aeena?oaoe?th A?aec?ey I.I., a
ye?e aaoi? aeine?aeaeo? ?icaeoie iaoee a Oe?a?i? o 1950-o? ?iee. Aea
aeeeaaeaiee aaoi?ii oe??? ?iaioe oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae ii?aeioaaany ?c
noaiaoe/iei ia?aeacii ?aeaieia?/ieo ianoaiia ia?o?eiiai ea??aieoeoaa.
Oiio oey ?iaioa ia iiaea i?aoaiaeoaaoe ia iiaiioo ?ice?eooy oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oe?eaaee iaoa??ae oaeiae i?noeoueny o aeena?oaoe??
Ai?ae??iea I.E., a naia — ieoaiiy ca’yceo iaoee c ae?iaieoeoaii,
i?iaeaia a?aenoaaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? iaoee a?ae iaoeiaeo aeinyaiaiue
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, aiae?c ?noi??ia?ao??, i?enay/ai?e ?icaeoeo iaoee a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae. A?aec?eue I.I. Ae?yeuei?noue ia?o?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie ii aeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo iaoee ? ci?oeiaiiy ??
ca`yce?a c i?iieneiaei ae?iaieoeoaii: Aeen… eaiae. ?no. iaoe:
07.00.01.-E., 1972; Ai?ae??iei I.E. Aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie 50-o ia?oi?
iieiaeie 60-o ?ie?a o i?iieneiaino? O?N?: Aeen… eaiae. ?no. iaoe:
07.00.02. -E.,1994.

Oaeei /eiii, aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e, i?enay/ai?e ?icaeoeo iaoee Oe?a?ie a
1950-o? ?iee, iieaco?, ui aaea cia/ia ?iaioa c aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie
i?iaaaeaia, noai?aii iaaiee oiiae iiiia?ao?/ii? oa ia??iaee/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e. Aea a?i noi?ioaaany ia?aaaaeii a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 1960-o oa
1980-o ?ie?a, a ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae, oiio i?noeoue niaoeeo?/i? ?ene
noni?euenoaiciaa/i? e?oa?aoo?e o??? aiioe.

Aeaea?aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeieoiaioe aea?aeaaieo onoaiia, ia?o?eieo
i?aai?a, ye? caa??aathoueny o Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a?
a?iiaaenueeeo ia?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie, Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a?
aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie, A?o?a? I?aceae?? Aeaaeai??
iaoe Oe?a?ie, Ee?anueeiio i?nueeiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a?. E??i oiai, i?e
?iaio? iaae aeena?oaoe??th aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ??ciiiai?oi? noaoenoe/i?
ca??ieee, ioae?eaoe??, ?ici?uai? o oeaio?aeueieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo
aacaoao oa aeo?iaeao.

Iaea?eueoa iaoa??ae?a c aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie aaeaeiny a?aeooeaoe o
A?o?a? I?aceae?? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie. O oiiae? I?aceae??
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie (O. ?-251) caa??aathoueny
aeieoiaioe, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ae?yeuei?noue iaoeiaeo onoaiia
Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie. Oea ??ciiiai?oi? ca?oe ? aeiiia?aei? caienee.
Iai?eeeaae, ca?oe i?i iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? onoaiia
AI O?N?, i’yoe??/i? i?iaeaii? ieaie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ieaie
?icaeoeo oeeo onoaiia, i?i /enaeuei?noue ? neeaae iaoeiaeo eaae??a ca
??ci? ?iee, iinoaiiae, ??oaiiy oa eenooaaiiy ii eii?aeeiaoe??
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, eenooaaiiy c OeE EIO, ?aaeith I?i?no??a O?N?,
AI N?N? i?i aeeiiaiiy o?yaeiaeo caaaeaiue, i?i ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiai? oa
i?aai?caoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? onoaiia AI O?N? oiui.

Oaeiae aaaeeea? iaoa??aee caa??aathoueny o oiiae? OeE EI/a/O (O.1)
Oeaio?aeueiiai Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie.
Oea aeiiia?aei? caienee a?aeae?eo iaoee ? eoeueoo?e OeE EIO ? a?aeiiino?
?inoeooo?a i?i ?acoeueoaoe iaai?o ? ?iciiae?eo ani??aio?a; ca?oe
iaeii?a, Oi?aae?iiy a ni?aaao aeui? oeiee i?i iaoeiai-aeine?aeio ?iaioo
aeueo o/aiaeo caeeaae?a; i?ioieiee ? aeienee ?c i?ioieie?a can?aeaiue
ia?o?eiiai eii?oaoo AI O?N?; aeia?aeee AI O?N? i?i iaai?iaeaeaiiy ,
i?enai?iiy caaiue, i?i oa?eia?/aiiy iai’yo? iaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a;
i?iiiceoe?? a?aeae?eo iaoee ? eoeueoo?e OeE, iaeii?a EIO noiniaii
iie?ioaiiy i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a oa i?i ae?iaie/o i?aeoeeo ?
?iciiae?e iieiaeeo niaoe?ae?no?a; i?i iane?aeee i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e.

O Oeaio?aeueiiio Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee Oe?a?ie
caa??aathoueny ??ciiiai?oi? o?iainia?, noaoenoe/i? ca?oe, noaiia?aie
ia?aae aee?aeoi??a aeueo oaoi?/ieo caeeaae?a. Ui??/i? ca?oe aeueo
o/aiaeo caeeaae?a i?i i?iaaaeaio ?iaioo, ieaie iaeaaaeeea?oeo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o aoc?a caa??aathoueny o oiiae? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe O?N? (O.166), o oiiae? I?i?noa?noaa aeui? ina?oe Oe?a?inueei? ?N?
(O. 4621) oa o oiiae? Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
I?i?noa?noaa eoeueoo?e Oe?a?inueei? ?N? (O.4849). Eenooaaiiy Aea?aeieaio
O?N? c i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeie onoaiiaaie; noaiia?aie
eii?aeeiaoe?eieo ia?aae iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeooo?a, aoc?a ii
iaaiai?aiith ieai?a a aaeoc? iaoeiaeo ?ia?o i?noyoueny o oiiae?
Aea?aeaaii? ieaiiai? eii?n?? ?aaee i?i?no??a Oe?a?inueei? ?N? (O. 337).

O oiiae? Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea (O.
?-1246) Ee?anueeiai i?nueeiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao caa??aathoueny ca?oe
i?i ?iaioo oaeoeueoao?a, eaoaae? oeueiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo, a oaeiae
noaoenoe/i? aeai? i?i neeaae i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai ia?niiaeo,
i?i e?euee?noue nooaeaio?a, ani??aio?a oa aeieoi?aio?a, ca?oe i?i
o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue oi?aa?neoaoo, i?i iiaoo oa
oa?/oaaiiy nooaeaio?a ? ani??aio?a, i?i iaoeiai-aeine?aeio ?iaioo
nooaeaio?a ? ani??aio?a. Iaeiae aaoi?e iiae?aieo aeieoiaio?a ia??aeei
iaiaaaeeny i?ee?aneoe ae?eniee noai ?a/ae. Aiai?y/e i?i aeinyaiaiiy
nai?o iiia?aaeiee?a, aiie iaiaaaeeny ia aiai?eoe i?i iiaooia? oiiae, a
yeeo aeeee iaoeiaoe? c? nai?ie n?i’yie, i?i ?o nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua.
I?/iai ia aiai?eeiny e i?i oa?aeoa? iieaoe i?aoe? iaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a.
E??i oiai, o a?o/eciyieo aeieoiaioao aaaeei ciaeoe ?ioi?iaoe?th noiniaii
oa?i?i?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai oeo /e ?ioeo iaoeiaeo
aeinyaiaiue. O ca?oao iaoeiaeo onoaiia iae/ano?oa aiai?eeiny i?i o?
i?iaeoe, ui aaea aoee ai?iaaaeaeai? o ae?iaieoeoai, a i?i ?io? /eneaii?
?ic?iaee oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a, ye? c oeo /e ?ioeo i?e/ei ia aoee
?aaeueii ao?eai? o aeeooy, a?aeooeaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th aeineoue aaaeei.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui eiie?aoi? aeai? aeey aiae?co ?icaeoeo iaoee
ciaoiaeyoueny a iaoa??aeao aea?aeaaii? noaoenoeee. Iaoa??aee ?aaoey?iiai
noaoenoe/iiai iae?eo ?niothoue o aeaio iniiaieo oi?iao. Ia?oith c ieo ?
noia?i? noaoenoe/i? ui??/i? caaaeaiiy, ye? ocaaaeueiththoue aeai? i?i
iaoeia? eaae?e, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/io aaco iaoeiaeo onoaiia an??? e?a?ie
oa ie?aii? ?anioae?ee, iaeano?, i?noa ? o.ae., ye? ae?oeoaaeeny a
io?oe?eieo noaoenoe/ieo ca??ieeao.11 Eoeueoo?iia no?ieoaeuenoai NNN?.
Noaoenoe/aneee n6i?iee.-I., 1956; Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a NNN?.
Noaoenoe/aneee nai?iee.-I., 1961; Ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea, iaoea e
eoeueoo?a a NNN?: Noaoenoe/aneee nai?iee.-I.,1977; Ia?iaeiia oicyenoai
NNN?. Noaoenoe/aneee cai?iee.-I., 1956; Ia?iaeiia oicyenoai NNN? a 1958
aiaeo. Noaoenoe/aneee aaeaaiaeiee.-I.,1959; Ia?iaeiia oicyenoai NNN? a
1959 aiaeo. Noaoenoe/aneee aaeaaiaeiee.-I.,1960; Ia?iaeiia oicyenoai
NNN? a 1960 aiaeo. Noaoenoe/aneee aaeaaiaeiee.-I.,1961; Ia?iaeia
ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. Noaoenoe/iee ca??iee.-E., 1957; Ia?iaeia
ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?inueei? ?N? a 1959 ?ioe?. Noaoenoe/iee
ui??/iee.-E.,1960; Ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?inueei? ?N? a 1960 ?ioe?.
Noaoenoe/iee ui??/iee.-E.,1961. Ia?aaaaa oeeo iaoa??ae?a iieyaa? a
oiio, ui aiie iiaeathoue oe?ieee oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae, yeee aeiiiaith?
caaaeueio ea?oeio ?icaeoeo iaoee. Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii ? ia?aeii?
noaoenoe/i? ca?oe ie?aieo iaoeiaeo caeeaae?a, ye? caa??aathoueny a
a?o?aao /e oa?eoi??aeueieo noaoenoe/ieo oi?aae?iiyo.

Aeey anaa?/iiai aena?oeaiiy ia?aii? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaeiny
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ? ii??aithaaoe ??ci? aeaea?aea.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “I?aeaioiaea oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaoeiaeo
oa iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a” ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie iiiaeaiiy
iaoeiaeo eaae??a o 1950-o? ?iee.

Aea/aiiy no?oeoo?e iaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a ia? iniaeeai aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy,
ine?eueee iioeiaeueia no?oeoo?a ? aaaeeeaith oiiaith iie?ioaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? cae?eniaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe. C iniaeeaith
aino?ioith i?iaeaia iaoeiaeo eaae??a, ?o i?aeaioiaea, no?oeoo?a ?
iia?euei?noue iinoaea c e?ioey 1940-o — ii/aoeo 1950-o ?ie?a, aaeaea
i?ae /an Aaeeei? A?o/eciyii? a?eie cia/ia e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo
i?aoe?aiee?a caaeioea ia o?iioao.

An? ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo iaoee o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ae??ooaaeenue o
Oeaio?aeueiiio Eii?oao? Eiioi?noe/ii? Ia?o?? ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco.
Ieoaiiy caaacia/aiiy iaoeiaeie eaae?aie aaeoc? iaoee oaae aoee i?ae
eiio?ieai eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??. ?nioaaiiy oaeiai noai?iai eiio?ieth
i?ecaiaeeei aei ciaioaiiy ?ie? iaoeiaeo onoaiia nithcieo ?anioae?e o
ae??oaii? eaae?iaeo ieoaiue. I?i aaci?aai?noue ?anioae?eainueeeo
Aeaaeai?e iaoe na?ae/eoue oaeee oaeo: eaiaeeaeaoe a ae?eni? /eaie ?
/eaie ei?aniiiaeaioe iaia`yceiai iaee aooe aecia/ai? aeueie ia?o?eieie
i?aaiaie ? eeoa i?ney oeueiai i?iaiaeeeinue oi?iaeueia ia?aiiy. Nieiaae
Ae. Oe?a?inueea iaoea a eieii?aeueieo iooao. — Iueth-Ei?e, 1963. — N.
10.

O nenoai? i?aai?caoe?? ?aaeyinueei? iaoee a 50-o? ?iee OO no. iniaeeaa
i?noea iin?aeaea Aeaaeai?y ?anioae?ee. Iaeiae Aeaaeai?y iaoe O?N? ia
aoea o aeinoaoi?e i??? caaacia/aia aenieieaae?o?eiaaieie eaae?aie. Ia
1954 ?. ?c 95 ae?enieo /eai?a ? 107 /eai?a-ei?aniiiaeaio?a, ye? aoee
caoaa?aeaeai? a 1951 ?ioe?, ia?aoiaoaaeinue, aiane?aeie aeaoooy an?o
?ioeo, 86 ae?enieo ? 103 /eai?a-ei?aniiiaeaio?a. I?e?iaeii, ui a
no?oeoo?? iaoeiaeo eaae??a aieiaia i?noea iaeaaeaei aeieoi?ai iaoe, aea
a?aeiinii iaaaeeea /enaeuei?noue aeieoi??a ia iiaea iiai?noth
caaeiaieueieoe aeiiae aaeeei? e?eueeino? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo caeeaae?a ?
aoc?a, aea a?eueo?noue iinaae ea??aiee?a iaa/aeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a, ia
aiai?y/e aaea i?i iaoeiaeo ni?a?ia?oiee?a ? aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a, caeiaee
i?aoe?aieee ieae/i? iaoeiai? eaae?o?eaoe??.

Aieiaia ae i?noea o i?aeaioiaoe? nooaeaio?a iaeaaeaei oi?aa?neoaoai. Aea
a O?N? ye?noue i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a cai/ii? oi?ie iaa/aiiy aoea cia/ii
ieae/ith ca ??aaiue i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a noaoe?iia?o. Aieiaiith
i?e/eiith oaeiai yaeua aoea iacaaeia?eueia i?aai?caoe?y i?aeaioiaee o
i?aenan?eiee ia??iae.

Caaaeueia /enaeuei?noue iaoeiaoe?a a N?N? ?c 162,5 o 1950 ?. c?inea aei
284,0 o 1958 ?., oiaoi ca?eueoeeany o 1,7 ?ace. Ieoiia aaaa
iaoeiaoe?a-oe?a?ioe?a aei??aithaaea 9 % a 1950 ?., a 1955 ?. — 9,7 %, ?
a 1958 — 9,7 %. Uiaei ieoiii? aaae iaoeiaoe?a, ye? iaeaaeaee aei ?ioeo
ia?in?enueeeo aoi?/ieo a?oi, oi o 1950 ?. ?oiy ieoiia aaaa a
?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? aei??aithaaea 30 %, i?ioa aaea a 1955 ?. aiia
cieaeo?oueny aei 25,8 %, a o 1959 — aei 25,9 %. Iaoii?noue ieoiia aaaa
an?o iaoeiaoe?a-?in?yi iinooiiai ca?eueooaaeanue: a 1950 ?ioe? — 60,9 %
a 1955 ?ioe? — 64,4 %, a 1958 ?ioe? — 64,3% Ia?iaeiia oicyenoai NNN?.
Noaoenoe/aneee nai?iee.-I., 1956.-N. 234; Ia?iaeiia oicyenoai NNN? a
1959 aiaeo. Noaoenoe/aneee aaeaaiaeiee.-I., 1960.-N. 757; Aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea a NNN?. Noaoenoe/aneee nai?iee.-I.,1961.-N.210-211,213;
Ia?iaeiia oicyenoai NNN? a 1958 aiaeo. Noaoenoe/aneee aaeaaiaeiee.-I.,
1959.-N. 846.. Ieoiia aaaa iaoeiaoe?a-?in?yi aoea a?eueoith a 1959 ?. ia
9,9 % ca ieoiio aaao ?in?enueeiai ianaeaiiy a N?N? oeueiai ae ?ieo. A
ieoiia aaaa iaoeiaoe?a-oe?a?ioe?a aoea ia 8,1 % iaioa ca ieoiio aaao
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy a ?aaeyinuee?e e?a?i?. Ia?iaeiia oicyenoai NNN?
a 1960 aiaeo. Noaoenoe/aneee aaeaaiaeiee.-I., 1961.-N. 14, 785. Oaeei
/eiii, oe?a?inueea iaoe?y aoea iinoaaeaia o iaea??oa noaiiaeua o ni?aa?
ca?eueoaiiy /enaeueiino? nai?o iaoe?iiaeueieo eaae??a.

Caaaeii i?e i?aeaioiaoe? eaae?o?eiaaieo eaae??a aeey iaoee ia?aaaaa
iaaeaaaeany e?eueeino? i?aeaioiaeaieo i?aoe?aiee?a, ui ia caaaeaee
iiceoeaii aieeaaei ia ye?noue oe??? i?aeaioiaee. E??i oiai, ieaiiaa
nenoaia i?aeaioiaee iaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a ia caaaeaee aei?aaaeiaoaaee
naaa. Iiaa eaea, ianaiia?aae, i?i na?aeiia caaeuaiiy ieai?a i?aeaioiaee
iieiaeeo niaoe?ae?no?a ea??aieie i?aoe?aieeaie a?aeiia?aeieo
i?i?noa?noa. Aea ?nioth/a nenoaia i?aeaioiaee iaoeiaeo eaae??a a oie aea
/an caaacia/oaaea iiaeeea?noue iaa/aoeny iniaai, ye? ia iaee a?aeiinii
aaeeeeo noaoe?a, ye oea aoei o cao?aeieo e?a?iao, aea ca iaa/aiiy
iio??aii aoei ieaoeoe. Oea aeaaaei ciiao a?aeooeaoe a?eueoa oaeaiiaeoeo
iieiaeeo niaoe?ae?no?a. Iaeiae ia??aeei o?aieyeiny, ui
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaia nenoaia neiaoaaea ?oith ?i?oe?aoeao.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia oa o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy
iaoee” ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiaeo onoaiia Oe?a?ie.

Aeey aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo oa?aeoa?iee aaeeeee ?iciao aoae?aieoeoaa
iaoeiaeo caeeaae?a a Oe?a?i?, ca?eueoaiiy eioo?a ia iaoeia? ?iaioe,
iie?auaiiy iaoa??aeueii? aace eaai?aoi??e aoc?a ? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?inoeooo?a. I?aai ieaioaaiiy e ?icii?yaeaeaiiy i?noeaaeie ?ano?naie aoei
ia?aaeaii a?ae -oeaio?aeueieo a?aeiinoa i?noeaaei ?aaeai ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Aiane?aeie oeueiai Oe?a?ia ianiiae?aaii io?eiaea iaaa/aio
aein? aeiiii?/io naiino?ei?noue. Iaeiae ia?o?eii-ainiiaea?nueea
ath?ie?ao?y ?anioae?ee ia aoea aioiaa aei oaeiai ia?aa?ao iiae?e.
Aeecueei 50% an?o aeo?ao ia iaoeiai-aeine?aeio ?iaioo, ye? aeeiioaaeeny
ia Oe?a?ie, niea/oaaeeny ?c caaaeueiinithciiai athaeaeaoo. Aeia?ia A.I.
Iioaioeeae iaoee. — E., 1969. — N. 93. Aeaea?aeaie o?iainoaaiiy
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo, aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ?ia?o
a N?N? aoee caaaeueiinithciee athaeaeao, athaeaeao ?anioae?e;
aneaioaaiiy ia iaoeiai-aeine?aei? ?iaioe ca ?aooiie oiiae?a i?iieneiaeo
? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ae?iaie/eo i?aei?e?inoa. Oi?aae?iiy iaoeith
noaei ia’?eoii aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ? a?aecia/eeiny ianooiieie ?enaie:
ea??aieoeoai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith ae?yeuei?noth, ?? eii?aeeiaoe?y,
ieaioaaiiy ? o?iainoaaiiy; eii?aeeiaoe?y ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiaeeeany aeaaeai?yie iaoe ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e;
i?eeeaaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy eii?aeeioaaee ? a aeaye?e i??? o?iainoaaee
i?i?noa?noaa a?aeiia?aeieo ?anioae?e; ea??aieoeoai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith
?iaioith a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao cae?enithaaeiny a?aeiia?aeieie
aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie ina?oe.

Iaeiae aeey aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo aoa aeanoeaee ? ?yae iaaeie?e?a,
iia’ycaieo c iacaaeia?eueiei noaiii iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace aeayeeo
aoc?a, iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeooo?a ? onoaiia. Aaeeeei iaaeie?eii o
?iaio? ye I?i?noa?noaa aeui? ina?oe O?N?, oae ? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?caoe?e
aoei oa, ui ia a?aoiaoaaeeny iio?aae ?inoeooo?a. Ia aoea ae??oaia oaeiae
i?iaeaia caaacia/aiiy aeeoeii iaoeiaeo ni?a?ia?oiee?a ? aeeeaaea/?a.

Ioaea, i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiia ? aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a,
iie?auo?oueny iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia aaca oa a?aeaoaa?oueny ?yae
iiceoeaieo ci?i o ia?aae? ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?ici?uaiiy iaoeiaeo onoaiia.
Aiae?coth/e ?icaeoie iaoa??aeueii-o?iainiai? aace iaoee O?N? iio??aii
i?aee?aneeoe, ui iaoea Oe?a?ie aoea /anoeiith iaoeiaiai iioaioe?aeo N?N?
? oiio oaeoe/ii eii?thaaea no?oeoo?o, i?eioeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy,
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae naeoi?aie iaoee caaaeii o N?N?. AEi?noea
ieaiia?noue, oeaio?ae?caoe?y, iie?oe/ia caeaaei?noue, i???ioaoe?y ia
i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy, iecueeee ??aaiue naiii?aai?caoe?? yaeyeenue
oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith iaoee a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “?ieue iaoeiaeo aeinyaiaiue o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie” iniiaia oaaaa caa?oa?oueny ia
ca’ycie iaoee ?c ae?iaieoeoaii, eiai i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae.

O aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae oe?a?inuee? a/ai? i?iaaee aaeeeo ?iaioo ii
?icoe?aiith oa iiaeeaeaiith ooiaeaiaioaeueieo oa i?eeeaaeieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aeinyaee cia/ieo oni?o?a o aaaaoueio aaeocyo iaoee, ui
noai?eei ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeiiii?ee. Aei iniiaieo
aeinyaiaiue oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo iaeaaeeoue noai?aiiy ia?oi? o N?N?
ia/enethaaeueii? iaoeie: o 1948-1951 ?ieao a ?inoeooo? aeaeo?ioaoi?ee
Aeaaeai?? iaoe O?N? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aeaaeai?ea N.I.Eaaaae?aa aoea
neiino?oeiaaia ? aeaioiaeaia iaea aeaeo?iiia e?/eeueia iaoeia «ICNI». Ia
aac? eaai?aoi??? ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee ?inoeoooo iaoaiaoeee o 1957 ?.
aoei noai?aii Ia/enethaaeueiee oeaio? AI O?N?, aea i?iaeiaaeoaaeany
?iaioa ii noai?aiith niaoe?ae?ciaaii? aeaeo?iiii-e?/eeueii? iaoeie
«NCNI» o 1957 ?. aoei aaaaeaii a aenieoaoaoe?th oi?aa?naeueio
aeaeo?iiii-ia/enethaaeueio iaoeio «Ee?a». Caaaeueia aeciaiiy ae?noaee
?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeai yaea?ieo i?ioean?a,
a?aee?eooy ? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?cioiiiiai aoaeoo i?e ?icn?thaaii? i?ioii?a;
a?aee?eooy ia??iaee/iinoae o aeanoeainoyo yaea? o i?ii?aeiiio noai?
uiaei ?icn?yiiy ? iiaeeiaiiy iaeo?ii?a na?aaei?o aia?a?e; anoaiiaeaiiy
yaea?ieo eiinoaio aca?iiae?? iaeo?ii?a na?aaei?o aia?a?e aeey aaaaoueio
eiino?oeoeaieo iaoa??ae?a, iaiao?aeieo aeey iiaoaeiae ?aaeoi??a ia
oaeaeeeo iaeo?iiao; iaea?aeaiiy eaaioiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee aoiiieo yaea?;
?ic?iaea oai??? yae?a ? yaea?ieo i?ioean?a oa oai??y i?enei?thaa/?a;
i?aoe? a aaeoc? o?ceee ? oaoi?ee ?aaeoi??a. Ca iaoeiao ?iaioo
oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo aoei iaai?iaeaeaii i?aeaiaie iaaeaeyie N?N?. Caaiiy
Aa?iy Nioe?ae?noe/ii? i?aoe? aoee oaeinoi?i? aeaeaoi? a/ai? AI O?N?
A.ss. TH?`?a (1954 ?.), I.A.Iaeeaae?i (1955 ?.), N.I.Eaaaae?a (1956 ?.),
Ae.?.Aeio?ioeaa (1956 ?.), A.I.E?eaeai?anueeee (1957 ?.). ?yae
o/aieo aoee oaeinoi?i? ii/anieo

caaiue caneoaeaiiai ae?y/a iaoe Oe?a?inueei? ?N?: A.A.Oieueai?o (1953
?.), I.A.Aeanthe (1956 ?.), I.A.?ciaeeia (1955 ?.), I.O.Aoeee (1956 ?.),
I.I.Naiaiaiei (1957 ?.), I.TH.Eo?`? (1958 ?.), A.?.Ao?iuaiei (1958 ?.).

Iaeiae c ?ioiai aieo aeinyaiaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a iaoee ia caaaeaee
aeinoaoiuei oaeaeei ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny o ae?iaieoeoai. C iaeiiai aieo oea
iiaeia iiynieoe neaaeei ??aiai ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee o ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc?,
ui ia aeicaieyei oaeaeei ia?aiaeaaeiaoe ae?iaieoeoai o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
iiaeie iaoeiaeie aeinyaiaiiyie. A c ?ioiai – iecueeei ??aiai
iaoa??aeueii? caoe?eaaeaiino? i?aoe?aiee?a iaoee o ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo
iaoeiaeo i?iaeo?a. ?aaeyinuee? iaoeiaoe?, cie?aia iaoeiaoe? Oe?a?ie, ia
aoee iinoaaeai? a oiiae aei?noei? eiieo?aioe??, ye oea aoei c ?oi?ie
cao?aeieie eieaaaie. Oea oaeiae ia noeioethaaei ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaeiia?oeo iaoeiaeo aeinyaiaiue o ae?iaieoeoai.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “I?aeia?iaei? ca’ycee oa i?ae?anioae?eainueea
ni?ai?aoey oe?a?inueei? iaoee” ?icaeyaea?oueny ni?a?ia?oieoeoai
iaoeiaoe?a Oe?a?ie ?c ?o ca?oa?aeieie eieaaaie oa iaoeiaoeyie ?ioeo
?anioae?e N?N?.

Ni?a?ia?oieoeoai iaoeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco c
a?aeiia?aeieie onoaiiaaie ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i caeiaei /?eueia i?noea a
na?aaeei? 1950-o ?ie?a o ciai?oi?o ca’yceao N?N?, iniaeeai c e?a?iaie
oae caaiiai nioe?ae?noe/iiai oaai?o – iaea?eueoa — c /eaiaie ?aaee
Aeiiii?/ii? Aca?iiaeiiiiiae.

O 1950-o ?ieao, i?eeiath/e o/anoue o ni?a?ia?oieoeoa? ?c ca?oa?aeieie
e?a?iaie, Oe?a?inueea ?N? ia iiaea naiino?eii anoaiiaethaaoe aoaeue-ye?
ciai?oi? ca`ycee, ine?eueee aoea neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco. Iniiaiith oi?iith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae aoa iai?i iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith aeieoiaioaoe??th.
C?inoaiiy iai?io aeieoiaioaoe??th ?icaeyaeaeinue ye niin?a aeiaaaeaiiy
ia?aaaa nioe?ae?cio ? iiaeieaiiy oaoi?/iiai a?aenoaaaiiy a?ae e?a?i
?ioi? nenoaie. O na?aaeei? 1950-o ?ie?a ?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i.
?.I.Iaoiia ia?aaeaa Aieaa???, IAe?, Iieueu?, Oai?uei? oa ?ioei e?a?iai
c?acee caa?thaaeueii? aia?aoo?e, oaoi?/io aeieoiaioaoe?th ia ??
aeaioiaeaiiy e oaoiieia?th iiaeo iaoiae?a caa?thaaiiy. Eiiieaeoe
oaoi?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? c aaoiiaoecaoe?? caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aoee ia?aaeai? ?inoeoooii ?i. ?.I. Iaoiia aei EI?. A?o?a I?aceae??
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, o. ?-251, ii. 1, ni?. 210,
N. 114. Ca 1953-1957 ?iee ?aaeyinueeee Nithc iaaeaa aeiiiiiao EI? o
aoae?aieoeoa? 166 aaeeeeo i?aei?e?inoa, a oaeiae 10 oeny/ eiiieaeo?a
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe??. Eoe?i?/ ?.I., Iaoa?n ?.A. Aeiiii?/ia
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai Oe?a?inueei? ?N? c e?a?iaie nioe?ae?cio. — E., 1962, —
N. 35.

O?N? iaea?aeoaaea ?iii?oia onoaoeoaaiiy. Oae, ia ?iii?oiiio onoaoeoaaii?
aoei caoaeiaaii a O?N? a?n?i caaiae?a ii ae?iaieoeoao
iiia?aaeiuei-iai?oaeaieo cae?ciaaoiiieo ieeo ia?ae?eooy: Caii??cueeee
?aaeia?aini iaea?aeaa c-ca ei?aeiio oaoi?/ia onoaoeoaaiiy aeey
aoae?aieoeoaa aaeeeiai oeaoo ii?enoiai aaoiio iiooaei?noth 30 oeny/ oiii
ia ??e. OeAeAAIO, o. 337, ii. 38, ni?. 23, a?e. 7.

O aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae oe?a?inuee? a/ai? caeo/aeenue aei ?iaioe o
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo, neiiic?oiao, nai?ia?ao ? ia?aaeao, ye?
i?iaiaeeeeny c oeo /e ?ioeo iaoeiaeo i?iaeai, o ?iaio? yeeo a?aee
o/anoue a/ai?, niaoe?ae?noe ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, i?aaenoaaieee
??cieo aaeocae iaoee ? i?iieneiaino?. Eeoa i?ioyaii 1953-1957 ?ie?a
a/ai? Aeaaeai?? iaoe O?N? a?aee o/anoue o ?iaio? 40 i?aeia?iaeieo
iaoeiaeo c`?caeao, nan?yo, eiioa?aioe?yo. O ?acoeueoao? a?ae?yaeaeaiue
oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo ? niaoe?ae?no?a aoei iaea?aeaii oe?ii? a?aeiiino?,
ui iaee aaeeea i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Ni?aae?oaei?noue nithcieo ?anioae?e
i?iyaeyeanue o ni?eueiiio ?ica`ycaii? eiiieaenieo iaoeiaeo i?iaeai oa a
i?iaaaeai? iaoeiaeo aeniaaeeoe?e oiui. Ioaea, ieoaiiy i?i i?aai?caoe?th
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ca`yce?a i?ae ?anioae?eaie N?N? ?icaeyiooa a aniaeo?
?aeeii? e?a?ie, ine?eueee ?icaeoie iaoee a eiaei?e ?c ?anioae?e neeaaeaa
iaa?ae`?iio /anoeio ?icaeoeo caaaeueiiai o?iioo iaoee a ?aaeyinuee?e
aea?aeaa?. Iaa?oue o ia??iae o?ouianueei? «a?aeeeae» — ia??iae ?aoi?i —
nithci? ?anioae?ee iaee i?i?iaeuei? i?aaa.

E??i oiai, ni?ai?aoey iaoeiaoe?a Oe?a?ie c ?o ca?oa?aeieie eieaaaie aoea
o cia/i?e i??? iaiaaeaia ?nioaaiiyi oae caaii? “cae?cii? caa?ne” i?ae
?aaeyinueeei Nithcii ? e?a?iaie Caoiaeo. Oea ia aeaaaei ciiae
iaeaaiaeeoe no?ee? noinoiee c iaoeiaoeyie i?ia?aeieo e?a?i, cie?aia oeo,
ye? aoiaeeee aei aeieo IAOI, aaeaea i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae e?a?iaie
Aa?oaanueei? oaiaee ? /eaiaie IAOI o /ane “oieiaeii? a?eie” ia ni?eyei
?icaeoeo ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa iaoeiaoe?a oeeo e?a?i. ?aeaieia?/i?
?ica?aeiino? ia?aoeiaeaeaee aea/aiith aeinyaiaiue ca?oa?aeieo o/aieo,
iai?eeeaae, o aaeoc? noni?eueieo iaoe. Aaeaea oae? aeinyaiaiiy
iaeiicia/ii iaieiooaaeeny “ao?aeoacieie ia?ae?o/aiiyie” /e
“oaeueneo?eaoe?yie”.

Oe?a?inuee? o/ai? ni?ai?aoethaaee a iniiaiiio c? nai?ie eieaaaie c
eieeoiueiai nioe?ae?noe/iiai oaai?o. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui oea
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai aoei iaea?eueo ie?aeiei c? a/aieie oeo e?a?i, ye? aoee
?icoaoiaai? iiaeeco ei?aeii?a N?N?, ? aea ?aaeyinueeee Nithc iaa
iaea?eueoee aieea (Iieueua, Oai?ueia, *aoi-Neiaa//eia, IAe? oa ?i.). A
oie aea /an ni?a?ia?oieoeoai, iai?eeeaae, c EIAe?, Aeaai??th aoei
cia/ii iaioei.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? i?eeoia aei aeniiae?a,
iniiai? c yeeo aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

Ieaiiaa nenoaia i?aeaioiaee iaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a ia caaaeaee
aei?aaaeiaoaaee naaa, ine?eueee ooo/ii caaeuoaaeeny ieaie i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a. Caaaeii i?e i?aeaioiaoe? eaae?o?eiaaieo eaae??a aeey
iaoee ia?aaaaa iaaeaaaeany e?eueeino? i?aeaioiaeaieo i?aoe?aiee?a, ui ia
caaaeaee iiceoeaii aieeaaei ia ye?noue oe??? i?aeaioiaee;

Oe?a?inueea iaoe?y aoea iinoaaeaia o iaea??oa noaiiaeua a ii??aiyii? c
?ioeie iaoe?yie N?N? o ni?aa? ca?eueoaiiy /enaeueiino? nai?o
iaoe?iiaeueieo eaae??a, ine?eueee ieoiia aaaa iaoeiaoe?a-oe?a?ioe?a aoea
iaaaaaoi iaioith ca ieoiio aaao oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy a ?aaeyinuee?e
e?a?i?;

Caaaeueiee noai ?icaeoeo iaoee iai?ee?ioe? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?icoe?aiiyi aeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? iaoeiaeo onoaiia.
?aoi?ie, i?iaaaeai? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 1950-o ?ie?a, iaee iiceoeaia
cia/aiiy ? o cia/i?e i??? ni?eyee ?icaeoeo iaoee. Iio?aaa iiaeo aaeocae
i?iieneiaino? o iaoeiaeo eaae?ao coiiaeea, c iaeiiai aieo, c?inoaiiy
/enaeueiino?, a c ?ioiai — iiaeeaeaiiy ? ?icoe?aiiy iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo
ca`yce?a. Ca?eueoaiiy o?iainoaaiiy ia iaoeia? oe?e? ni?eyei iie?ioaiith
iaoa??aeueii? aace iaoeiaeo onoaiia Oe?a?ie. A ?anioae?oe? noi?ioaaeeny
iia? iaoeia? iai?yie ? oeiee a aaaaoueio aaeocyo iaoee;

Aoei aeinyaiooi cia/ieo ?acoeueoao?a, o oiio /ene? na?oiaiai ??aiy o
ae??oaii? iae?i?eii? iaoai?ee, oai??? aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue,
oai??? eiia??iino?, iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co, oai??? iaaeeaeaiiy iaoiae?a,
aaaeeea? ?acoeueoaoe iaea?aeaee aeine?aeieee a aaeoc? o?i??;
oa?aeoa?iith oaiaeaioe??th ?icaeoeo iaoee a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae
aoei iaaeeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo caeeaae?a, onoaiia aei ae?iaieoeoaa;

O aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ii?yae ?c ao?oeeaei ?icaeoeii iaoee
a?aecia/aeanue iaaecae/aeii iecueea aoaeoeai?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aeinyaiaiue iaoeiaoe?a o ae?iaieoeoai, ui coiiaethaaeiny a?aenooi?noth
no?eeeo ca’yce?a iaoee c i?aeoeeith.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ianooiieo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

A?ioo?a oa noaoo?:

Iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia oa o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy iaoeiaeo onoaiia
Oe?a?ie o 50-o ??. OO no. — E.: Ciaiiy, 1998 (1,5 ae?oe.
a?e.);

?icaeoie iaoee a Oe?a?i? o 50-o? ?iee OO noie?ooy // A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. ?noi??y.-1997.-Aei 35 (0,5 ae?oe. a?e.);

I?aeaioiaea iaoeiaeo eaae??a /a?ac ani??aioo?o a 1953-1960 ??. a Oe?a?i?
// A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. ?noi??y.-1998.-Aei 39 (0,5 ae?oe.
a?e.);

Oace:

?aoi?ia ina?oe a ia??iae “o?ouianueei? a?aeeeae” // A?niee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?/ii?
ina?oe.-Oa?iii?eue, 1996 (0,15 ae?oe. a?e.);

Iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia oa o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy iaoee a Oe?a?ie o 50-oeo
?ieao OO no. // A?niee Ee?anueeiai iie?oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo. Noi??iee
?noi???. -1996.-? 8 (0,15 ae?oe. a?e.).

Aiioaoe?y

Iaeueiee E.I. ?icaeoie iaoee a Oe?a?i? o 50-o? ?iee OO no. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie.-Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.-Ee?a, 1999.

Aaoi? aeine?aeaeo? i?iaeaie ae?yeueiino? iaoeiaeo onoaiia Oe?a?ie o /ane
o?ouianueei? “a?aeeeae”, ?o iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia oa o?iainiaa
caaacia/aiiy, no?oeoo?o iaoeiaeo eaae??a, ni?a?ia?oieoeoai iaoeiaoe?a
Oe?a?ie ?c ?o ca?oa?aeieie eieaaaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoea, iaoeia? oa iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i? eaae?e, iaoeiaee
oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee iioaioe?ae, iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, Aeaaeai?y iaoe
O?N?.

Aiiioaoeey

Iaeueiee E.I. ?acaeoea iaoee a Oe?aeia a 50-a aiaeu OO a.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.-Eeaa, 1999.

Aaoi? enneaaeoao i?iaeaiu aeayoaeueiinoe iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee Oe?aeiu ai
a?aiaia o?ouaaneie “iooaiaee”, eo iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia e oeiainiaia
iaania/aiea, no?oeoo?o iao/iuo eaae?ia, nio?oaeie/anoai o/aiuo Oe?aeiu n
eo ca?oaaaeiuie eieeaaaie.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea eiaei ianoi oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo o/?aaeaeaiee e aunoeo iao/iuo caaaaeaiee,
e?iia oiai, auea oeo/oaia eo iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneay aaca. Iao/iua
o/?aaeaeaiey noaee cia/eoaeueii /aua noaee ?aciauaoueny a
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi nie?aoeei a?aiy
aiaae?aiey a i?iecaiaenoai ia?aaeiauo iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee. Iiaeiaiua
eciaiaiey a naoe ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?aciauaiey iao/iuo e
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo o/?aaeaeaiee auee a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
aucaaiu aeaeaieai ?oeiaiaenoaa no?aiu ia ionoaoue io ie?iaiai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Iaeiaei ieceee o?iaaiue iaoa?eaeueiie
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe iao/iuo ?aaioieeia a ?ac?aaioea iiauo i?iaeoia,
ionoonoaea oe?ieiianooaaiie eiieo?aioeee (a n?aaiaiee n oie, /oi
nouanoaiaaea a ia?aaeiauo no?aiao Caiaaea) ia noeioee?iaaei oaaee/aiey
nei?inoe aiaae?aiey iiaaeoeo iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee a i?iecaiaenoai.

Aiaeece?oy ?acaeoea iaoa?eaeueii-oeiainiaie aacu iaoee Oe?aeineie NN?,
iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi iaoea Oe?aeiu a oi a?aiy auea /anoueth
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai iioaioeeaea NNN? e iiyoiio oaeoe/anee eiie?iaaea
no?oeoo?o, i?eioeeiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, niioiioaiea iaaeaeo naeoi?aie
iaoee, eioi?ua auee oa?aeoa?iu aeey Niaaoneiai Nithca. AEanoeay
ieaiiainoue, oeaio?aeecaoeey, iieeoe/aneay caaeneiinoue, i?eaioaoeey ia
i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea, ieceee o?iaaiue naiii?aaiecaoeee auee
oa?aeoa?iuie /a?oaie iaoee a oio ia?eiae.

A nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee iaoee Oe?aeineie NN? a 1950-o aiaeao iniaia ianoi
ioaiaeeeinue Aeaaeaiee iaoe ONN?, a a no?oeoo?a iao/iuo eaae?ia aeaaiia
ianoi caieiaee niaoeeaeenou, eiathuea iao/iia caaiea “aeieoi? iaoe”.
Iaeiaei ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoia eiee/anoai aeieoi?ia iaoe ia iiaei
iieiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?eoue o?aaiaaiey aieueoiai eiee/anoaa
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo o/?aaeaeaiee e aunoeo iao/iuo caaaaeaiee,
aaea aieueoeinoai iano ?oeiaiaeeoaeae iao/iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee, ia aiai?y
oaea i iao/iuo ?aaioieeao e i?aiiaeaaaoaeyo aocia, caieiaee ?aaioieee
aieaa ieceie iao/iie eaaeeoeeaoeee.

Aeaaiui enoi/ieeii iiiieiaiey eiee/anoaa iao/iuo eaae?ia auei
nooaeai/anoai. Aeaaiia ianoi a nenoaia iiaeaioiaee nooaeaioia
i?eiaaeeaaeaei oieaa?neoaoai. Iaeiaei a ONN? ea/anoai iiaeaioiaee
nooaeaioia cai/iie oi?iu iao/aiey cia/eoaeueii onooiaei o?iaith
iiaeaioiaee nooaeaioia noaoeeiia?a. Aeaaiie i?e/eiie yoiai yaeaiey
iiaeii n/eoaoue iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth iiaeaioiaee a
iaaenanneiiiue ia?eiae. E?iia oiai, niaeanii ieaiiaie nenoaia
iiaeaioiaee iao/iuo ?aaioieeia ia?aaeei caauoaeenue niioaaonoaothuea
ieaiu iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia, /oi i?eaiaeeei e oooaeoaieth ea/anoaa
yoie iiaeaioiaee.

Iauaa eiee/anoai iao/iuo ?aaioieeia a ONN? auei iaiueoei, /ai ai iiiaeo
ae?oaeo ?anioaeeeao NNN?. Ieaiiaui ?acaeoeai iaoee, eioi?ia
aeeeoiaaeinue ec Iineau, oe?aeineay iaoeey auea iinoaaeaia a ooaeoaa
iieiaeaiea a aeaea oaaee/aiey eiee/anoaa naieo iaoeeiiaeueiuo iao/iuo
eaae?ia, /ai ?onneay iaoeey.

A 1950-o aiaeao, nio?oaeie/ay ni naieie ca?oaaaeiuie eieeaaaie, ONN? ia
iiaea naiinoiyoaeueii onoaiaaeeaaoue aiaoiea eiioaeou iioiio, /oi
yaeyeanue /anoueth NNN?. Iniiaiie oi?iie iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa n ca?oaaaeiuie no?aiaie a yoio ia?eiae aue iaiai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeeae. I?e/ai aic?anoaiea iauaia iaiaia
aeieoiaioaoeeae ?anniao?eaaeinue eae niinia aeieacaoaeuenoaa i?aeiouanoa
nioeeaeecia e i?aiaeieaiey oaoie/aneiai ionoaaaiey io no?ai ae?oaie
nenoaiu. Iaeiaei nio?oaeie/anoai iao/iuo ?aaioieeia Oe?aeiu n eo
ca?oaaaeiuie eieeaaaie auei a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ia?aie/aii
nouanoaiaaieai oae iacuaaaiiai “aeaeaciiai caiaaana” iaaeaeo Niaaoneei
Nithcii e no?aiaie Caiaaea. Eaeaieiae/aneea i?ioeai?a/ey i?aiyonoaiaaee
oeeaeeeciaaiiiio eco/aieth e iniuneaieth aeinoeaeaiee o/aiuo
“eaieoaeenoe/aneeo” no?ai, iineieueeo iiiaea ec yoeo aeinoeaeaiee
iaeiicia/ii i?iaicaeaoaeenue “ao?aeoaciuie oaeueneoeeaoeeyie”. Iiyoiio
oe?aeineea o/aiua nio?oaeie/aee a iniiaiii ni naieie eieeaaaie ec no?ai
oae iacuaaaiiai “nioeeaeenoe/aneiai eaaa?y”. I?e/ai neaaeoao ioiaoeoue,
/oi yoi nio?oaeie/anoai auei iaeaieaa ieiaeioai?iui n o/aiuie oaeeo
noai, eae Iieueoa, *aoineiaaeey, AAe?, Aaia?ey, Aieaa?ey, o.a. – n
ainoaea?noaaie Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu, aaea NNN? eiae aieueoia aeeyiea. A oi
aea a?aiy nio?oaeie/anoai n EIAe?, Aeaaieae, aaea aeeyiea Niaaoneiai
Nithca auei iaiueoei, nouanoaaiii ia?aie/eaaeinue.

Iao/iua neeu Oe?aeiu oniaoii ?aoeee iaiaei ?acee/iuo i?iaeai ?icaeoey
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ianiio?y ia nouanoaiaaiea nouanoaaiiuo i?aiyonoaee eo
?iaioa. Eaaeiaoiua, aeaaeaie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, eioi?ua ia o/eouaaee e
ia iaiauaee i?aeoeeo, iiuo ia?aaeiaeeia, iaiineee a?aae iaoea, oi?iiceee
aa ?acaeoea. Iiiaioaiiinoue ieaiia iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?iaiou
iiiaeo einoeoooia ia aeaaaea aiciiaeiinoe o/aiui nin?aaeioi/eoueny ia
aeeaieie ?ic?aaioea iaeaieaa aeooaeueiuo i?iaeai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoea, iao/iua e iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneea eaae?u, iao/iue
e iao/ii-oaoie/aneee iioaioeeae, iao/iua ?acoeueoaou, Aeaaeaiey iaoe
ONN?.

Annotation

Melnyk K.M. The Development of Science of Ukraine during 1950’s.

Thesis for Candidate’s Degree by speciality of the 07.00.01 – History of
Ukraine.- Kyiv University named after Taras Shevchenko, Kyiv, 1999.

The author investigates the problem of science of Ukraine during
Hrushov’s “thaw”, their material, technical and financial security,
structure of scientific personal, collaboration Ukrainian scientists
with their foreign colleagues.

Key words: science, scientific and educational specialists, scientific
and technical potential, the Science Results, the Academy of Scientific
of Ukraine.

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