OA?IIIIEUeNUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeAAIAI*IEE OIIAA?NEOAO

IIAII AIEIAeEIE?A AIAOTHEA

AeAEAIAI Oaiiea Aieoi?iaia

OAeE — 37.01.(09)

?ICAEOIE IA?IAeII? INAIOE IA AIEEII

(OVIII — OIO NO.)

13.00.01 — oai?iy oa inoi?iy iaaeaaiaiee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiai/ieo iaoe

Oa?iiiieue — 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?i iaaeaaiaiee ?iaiainueeiai
aeiiiiiei-aoiaiioa?iiai iinoeoooo, Iiiinoa?noai inaioe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee – aeieoi? iaaeaaiai/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

EENAIEI Iaeei Aaneeiaia, I?eea?iaonueeee oiiaa?neoao iiaii Aaneey
Noaoaieea, caaiaeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeioeieueii? iaaeaaiaiee, i.
Iaaii-O?aieianuee.

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe – aeieoi? iaaeaaiai/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AEO?OU Aiaoieie Aieiaeeie?iae/, Oa?iiiieuenueeee aenia?eiaioaeueiee
iinoeooo iaaeaaiai/ii? inaioe, i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe, caaiaeoaa/
eaoaae?e iaaeaaiaiee, i. Oa?iiiieue;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaiai/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

IAAA*AANUeEA Ciiiaiy Iaaiiaia, I?eea?iaonueeee oiiaa?neoao iiaii Aaneey
Noaoaieea, eaoaae?a inoi?i? iaaeaaiaiee oa oe?a?iiciaanoaa,
i.Iaaii-O?aieianuee.

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa — Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao iiaii Eani
Oe?a?iee, Iiiinoa?noai inaioe Oe?a?ie, i.Eooeuee.

Caoeno aeena?oaoei? aiaeaoaeaoueny 25 /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeeii ia
caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.58.053.01 i?e
Oa?iiiieuenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaiai/iiio oiiaa?neoaoi iiaii
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea ca aae?anith: 282027, i.Oa?iiiieue,
aoe.I.E?eaiiina, 2.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o aiaeiioaoei Oa?iiiieuenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaiai/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo iiaii Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea ca
aae?anith: 282027, i.Oa?iiiieue, aoe.I.E?eaiiina, 2.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaii » 24 » o?aaiy 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.I.IAOI*OE

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie i nooiiiue aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeaie. Aiae?iaeaeaiiy
iaoeiiiaeueii? noaa?aiiinoi Oe?a?ie, ?icaoaeiaa ?? aea?aeaaieoeueeeo
canaae coiiaeththoue iio?aao a aeeaieiio i anaai/iiio aea/aiii
inoi?e/iiai ieioeiai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Aiaeoae iaaoaathoue
aeooaeueiinoi inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy ?aaiiiaeueieo i?iaeai
noaiiaeaiiy ia?iaeii? inaioe, ui aiaee?eaa? oe?iei iiaeeeainoi aeey
aiae?iaeaeaiiy iaoeiiiaeueii-aeoiaieo o?aaeeoeie i ni?ey? iiaeaeueoiio
?icaeoeo inaioyinueei? aaeoci, aiaeiiaiaea? no?aoaai/iei caaaeaiiyi,
aecia/aiei Aea?aeaaiith iaoeiiiaeueiith i?ia?aiith «Inaioa» («Oe?a?ia
OOI noieiooy»), yea aecia? inaioo «aaaeeeaei iino?oiaioii
iaoeiiiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo i aa?iiiicaoei? iaoeiiiaeueieo aiaeiinei».

Inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy i?ioeano ?icaeoeo
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeia Aieeii o OVIII — OIO noieiooyo noaiiaeoue
cia/iee iioa?an aeey oai?i? oa i?aeoeee aio/eciyii? iaaeaaiaiee.
Aeiyeueiinoue inaioiio caeeaaeia ia Aieeii ai?iaeiaae aeaio iiia?aaeiio
noieioue aeiieii ua ia ia? aeinoaoiueiai iaoeiaiai aenaioeaiiy, ui
cia/ii caiaeith? iaoi oyaeaiiy i?i cacia/aiee ia?iiae ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai oeieueieoeoaa, iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia iiaeeeainoyo
eiai e?eoe/ii? ioeiiee i canoinoaaiiy iayaieo caeiaooeia o no/aniie
i?aeoeoei iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? aeiyeueiinoi. Iniiao i?iaeaie
aeineiaeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue noia?a/iinoi iiae iaiaoiaeiinoth iaoeiaiai
caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai ae?ioaiiy aaaaoueio ?aaiiiaeueieo i?iaeai
no/anii? inaioe i iaaeinoaoiueith iiiioi?iiaaiinoth iaoeiaoeia,
i?aeoeeia noiniaii inoi?e/ieo oaiaeaioeie, niaoeeoiee, aeanoeaeo ??
?icaeoeo; iaaaeueiith iio?aaith nenoaiaoecaoei? a?oiaieo iaoa?iaeia,
iaoeiaeo aeaea?ae uiaei aeiyeueiinoi iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeia
Aieeii o XVIII-XIX noieiooyo i aiaenooiinoth aiaeiiaiaeieo iiaeoiaeia
aei ?? caeieniaiiy.

Aiaeii/an, caaaeueii iaoeiai iieiaeaiiy, ui iinoyoueny o i?aoeyo
aiaeiieo oe?a?inueeeo inoi?eeia I.A?ooaanueeiai, Ae.Aei?ioaiea,
I.E?ei’yeaae/a i iaaeaaiaia-iaoeiaoeia I.Oaiaei?iae/a, A.Oieiaoeueeiai
aeathoue ciiao aecia/eoe eiioeaioeith aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Ie?aii aniaeoe aeineiaeaeoaaii? iaie i?iaeaie o ?icii /ane aea/aee
A.Ioeaeia, I.Eaaeoeueeee, I.Aaothoeia, I.Oaeianueeee, A.Naiaeoeuenueeee,
I.Naioi?a, ss.Ooeueaei, A.Aioeeii-*eeoinueeee oa iioi. Aiaeoae,
ineieueee cacia/aia i?iaeaia ia aoea iniiaiei i?aaeiaoii aeineiaeaeaiue
caaaeaieo aaoi??a, o ?oiio i?aoeyo aiia aenaioeaia eeoa /anoeiai.

O 80-90-o ?ieao iaoiai noieiooy aio/eciyia inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/ia iaoea
caaaaoeeany aeineiaeaeaiiyie A.Ai?uaae/a, Ae.Aa?oethea, I.?aoooa,
A.Caeoey, N.Eaaoi, A.Nooia?eea, I.Oaoaiea oa iioeo, yei aeathoue ciiao
aecia/eoe iaoiaeieiai/ii i iaoiaee/ii iiaeoiaee aei aea/aiiy inoi?i?
?icaeoeo inaioe ?icieo ?aaiiiia iaoi? e?a?ie.

Iaeiae aei oeueiai /ano ua ia caeieniaii eiiieaeniiai
inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/iiai aea/aiiy ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii
ai?iaeiaae OVIII — OIO noieioue. Ioaea, ia iiaenoaai aeuaiaaaaeaiiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/ii? cia/ouinoi e aeooaeueiinoi
i?iaeaie, iaaeinoaoiueiai ?? aea/aiiy, a oaeiae aaaeeeainoi ia’?eoeaii?
ioeiiee inoi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? inaioe ?icieo ?aaiiiia Oe?a?ie ia
iniiai aeei?enoaiiy a?oiaieo iaeiaiaeiieo aeaea?ae oaiith aeineiaeaeaiiy
ia?aii «?icaeoie ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii (OVIII – OIO no.)».
O?iiieiai/ii iaaei aeineiaeaeaiiy ioiieththoue XVIII-XIX noieiooy.
Ieaeith iaaeo aeineiaeaeaiiy caii/aoeiao? 1714 ?ie, aiae yeiai i aei
eiioey XVIII noieiooy Aieeiue aoea iiae aeaaeith ?a/i Iiniieeoi?.

Aa?oiy iaaea aeineiaeaeaiiy o?iiieiai/ii caiaa?oueny ic caaa?oaiiyi OIO
noieiooy, oi?iaeiaae yeiai Aieeinueea aoaa?iiy ia?aaoaaea a neeaaei
?inienueei? iiia?i?. Niaoeeoiea ?icaeoeo inaioe ia Aieeii
aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ia?iiaeo ca aeuacacia/aieie o?iiieiai/ieie iaaeaie ua
ia aoea i?aaeiaoii niaoeiaeueieo inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue.
Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoeieia
aeineiaeaeaiiy aeeiiaii aiaeiiaiaeii aei eiiieaeniiai ieaio iaoeiai?
i?ia?aie ?iaiainueeiai aeiiiiieiaoiaiioa?iiai iinoeoooo «Nenoaia
aeoiaaiiy o/iia oa nooaeaionueei? iieiaei ia iaeayo ie?o o
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiie i?aeoeoei oeiee i aoco» (i?ioieie caniaeaiiy a/aii?
?aaee ? 4 aiae 25 aeiaoiy 1995 ?ieo ).

Ia’?eo aeineiaeaeaiiy — ?icaeoie ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii a OVIII —
OIO noieiooyo.

I?aaeiao aeineiaeaeaiiy — inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/ia nooiinoue i?ioeano
?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii o OVIII — OIO noieiooyo.

Iaoa aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? o anaai/iiio aiaeici nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ieo
oiia, aeyaeaiii iaaeaaiai/ieo canaae ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii
ai?iaeiaae OVIII — OIO noieioue.

Nooiinoue eiioeaioei? aeineiaeaeaiiy. Inaioa Aieeii OVIII — OIO noieioue
aeineiaeaeo?oueny ye oeieinia nenoaia, ui neeaaea?oueny ic
aca?iiiia’ycaieo /anoei. O oaeiio ?icoiiiii nenoaio ia?iaeii? inaioe
Aieeii cacia/aiiai ia?iiaeo noaiiaeoue noeoiiinoue onio oeiia
aea?aeaaieo i i?eaaoieo iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeia, ?icaeoie yeeo
coiiaethaaany aaaaoueia iiceoeaieie i iaaaoeaieie /eiieeaie.

?icaeoie iaaeaaiai/ii? oai?i? i i?aeoeee Aieeinueei? aoaa?ii?
?icaeyaea?oueny ye aeiaeaeoe/iee ca oa?aeoa?ii, noia?a/eeaee i
aeeiaii/iee ca ciinoii i?ioean, ia ?icieo aoaiao yeiai aeieeathoue
iaea?, eaoaai?i? i iaoiaee, ui ooai?ththoueny, aeaeiciiiththoueny aai ae
cieeathoue.

Iniaeeainoi aaiethoei? nooiinoi i no?oeoo?e ciinoo, oi?i i iaoiaeia
inaioe Aieeii aoee aeeeeeaii, cie?aia, oei, ui ia noniieueia aeeooy
e?ath caaaeaee aieeaaee nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ii i?ioeane, ui aiaeaoaaeeny
a Iieueui oa o ?inienueeie iiia?i?. Cacia/aii ianoaaeie ni?e/eieee iiyao
niaoeeoi/iiai inaioiueiai i?inoi?o ia Aieeii, a yeiio aiaeaoaaany
?icaeoie ia?iaeii? inaioe. Canoinoaaiiy nenoaiii-inoi?e/iiai iiaeoiaeo a
aeineiaeaeaiii aeaei ciiao eiiieaenii aea/aoe aaaaoioaeoi?ii
aaiethoeieii i?ioeane ieioeiai inaioe Aieeii, iniaeeainoi ?? ?icaeoeo,
aiaee?eei iiaeeeainoi aeey i?iaiinoe/ieo aeniiaeia uiaei i?ioeania i
yaeu, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey aeineiaeaeoaaii? aeiae.

Aiaeiiaiaeii aei iaoe iinoaaeaii oaei caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy:

1.Aecia/eoe inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/io nooiinoue i?iaeaie aeineiaeaeaiiy ia
iniiai aiaeico iaoeiai? eioa?aoo?e.

2.C’ynoaaoe i?iaiaeii oaiaeaioei? inaioiuei? iieioeee ia Aieeii.

3.Ia??oiooaaoe iniaeeainoi ?iaiaaiai c?inoaiiy ia?iaeii? inaioe ia
Aieeii.

4.Aeyaeoe iaaeaaiai/ii aniaeoe ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii
aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ia?iiaeo.

5.Ia??oiooaaoe nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/io coiiaeaiinoue ia?iiaeia
aaiethoei? ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii.

Iaoiaeieiai/io iniiao aeineiaeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue oai?iy iaoeiaiai
iiciaiiy c ?? aeiiaaie ia’?eoeaiinoi, iaoeiainoi, aeieaciainoi;
iieiaeaiiy oieinioi? uiaei aeiaeaeoe/iiai aca?iica’yceo i
aca?iicoiiaeaiinoi yaeu o noniieuenoai oa iaiaoiaeiinoi ?o aea/aiiy a
eiie?aoii-inoi?e/ieo oiiaao; iieiaeaiiy i?i ?aeiinoue iaoeiiiaeueiiai i
caaaeueiiethaenueeiai; i?eioeeie inoi?ecio, aeiaeaeoecio, aeaoa?iiiicio,
ia’?eoeaiinoi, aeieaciainoi, nenoaiiinoi, iaoeiainoi; iaea? aeooiaiiai
aiae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; ca’ycie inoi?i? c no/aniinoth.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeineiaeaeaiiy noaiiaeee oiiaee AEeoiie?nueeiai,
Aieeinueeiai oa ?iaiainueeiai iaeanieo aea?aeaaieo a?oiaia,
Oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai? aiaeiioaee iiaii A.Aa?iaaenueeiai, aiaeiioae
Ee?anueeiai, Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaieo oiiaa?neoaoia, e?a?ciaa/eo ioca?a
iino Ee?aa, ?iaiiai, Eooeueea; iiiaae aeainoi eioa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, o
oiio /enei i’yoiaaeoeyoue aeaea?ae iieuenueeith iiaith; caeiiiaeaa/i
aeoe ?ini?, Iieueui, Oe?a?ie; o?yaeiai aeieoiaioe i noaoenoe/ii
cai?ieee; caioe ea?iaieo i?aaiia inaioe, iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia oa
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aaiicaoeie; iaa/aeueii-i?ia?aiiaa aeieoiaioaoeiy;
iaoa?iaee iaoeiaeo oa ia?iiaee/ieo aeaeaiue aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ia?iiaeo,
aeiaiaeeiaiaiaeiia?aoi/ia eioa?aoo?a, aaoi?aoa?aoe aeena?oaoeie oa
aeena?oaoeieii aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Iaoiaee aeineiaeaeaiiy: oai?aoe/iee: o?iiieiai/iee aiaeic, ui aeaa ciiao
aea/aoe i?ioean ?icaeoeo inaioe ia Aieeii a XVIII — XIX noieiooyo o
aeeiaiioei, ciiiao i /aniaie iineiaeiaiinoi; i?iaeaiii-oeieueiaee aiaeic
iaoeiai? eioa?aoo?e uiaei ?icaeoeo oeieueieoeoaa Aieeii;
ii?iaiyeueii-cinoaaiee aiaeic caeiiia ?inienueei? iiia?i?,
ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/ii? aeieoiaioaoei?, noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, caioia
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia, a?oiaieo aeieoiaioia i iaoa?iaeia; aiaeic
iaaeaaiai/ii? oa noniieueii-iieioe/ii? i?ane caaaeaiiai ia?iiaeo;
neioaoe/iee: eeaneoieaoeiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy oaeoe/iiai iaoa?iaeo i
nenoaiaoecaoeiy. Iniiaiee iaoiae aeineiaeaeaiiy — oai?aoe/iee
aeiao?iiiee aiaeic inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/ii? eioa?aoo?e, neioac i
oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy inoi?e/ieo oaeoia ic a?oiaieo iaoa?iaeia,
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aio/eciyieo i ca?oaiaeieo aaoi??a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia oa oai?aoe/ia cia/ouinoue aeena?oaoeieiiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o oiio, ui ia iniiai caeieniaiiai aiaeico
/eneaiieo a?oiaieo i iaoeiaeo aeaea?ae ia??oioiaaii:

– iieiaeaiiy uiaei aca?iicoiiaeaiinoi caaaeueiiai oa niaoeeoi/iiai o
?aoi?ioaaiii inaioe ia Aieeii a XVIII-XIX noieiooyo i aiaeoai?aii
oeieinio ea?oeio oa caeieniaii ia?iiaeecaoeith inoi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo
oeieueieoeoaa e?ath;

– aecia/aii i?iaiaeii oaiaeaioei?, oa?aeoa?ii iniaeeainoi ?icaeoeo
ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii o aeineiaeaeoaaiee ia?iiae;

– oaaaeaii aei iaoeiaiai iaiao iiaeo aeieoiaioia, inoi?e/ieo oaeoia,
yei aeathoue ciiao noai?eoe ia’?eoeaia oeieinia oyaeaiiy i?i inaioo
Aieeinueeiai e?ath XVIII-XIX noieioue.

E?ii oiai, ocaaaeueiaii inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/ii aniaeoe ?icaeoeo inaioe
Aieeinueei? aoaa?ii?, oeieinii i?iaiaeiciaaii iaeiaiaeiii oaeoe
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a oeieao Aieeii o XIX noieiooi.

Ia iniiai aea/aiiy aaaaoueio eioa?aoo?ieo oa a?oiaieo iaoa?iaeia
anoaiiaeaii iinoea i ?ieue ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii o XVIII — XIX
noieiooyo a inoi?i? iaaeaaiaiee Oe?a?ie, o iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo oai?i?
oa i?aeoeee iaa/aiiy i aeoiaaiiy o/iia ia aoaii noaiiaeaiiy i
ooaa?aeaeaiiy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ouinoue ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeineiaeaeoaaiee
iaoa?iae, iniiaii iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee caaaa/othoue oai?ith
iaoeiiiaeueii? inaioe e aeoiaaiiy, ? aeaea?aeii iioi?iaoei? c ieoaiue
iieiioaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano caaaeueii-inaioiuei? oeiee oa
aoco. Iaoa?iaee aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii ia
naiiia?nueeeo oa i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo oi?iaeiaae aea/aiiy inoi?i?
iaaeaaiaiee ye oeiiiee iaoa?iae c ieoaiue iaa/aiiy i aeoiaaiiy
nooaeaionueei? iieiaei, a oaeiae anii?aioaie, aeineiaeieeaie,
i?aeoe/ieie iaaeaaiaaie c iaoith iiaeaeueoiai oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
iaa/aiiy i aeoiaaiiy, aeey iaienaiiy iiniaieeia i aeena?oaoeieieo ?iaio.

Ai?iaiaeiinoue oa ia??oioiaaiinoue ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy
caaacia/o?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeia, aaeaeaaoieo iaoi oa caaaeaiiyi
aeineiaeaeaiiy; iii?ith ia i?eioeei inoi?ecio, ia’?eoeaiinoi; iaoeiaei
aiaeicii oaeoieiai/iiai iaoa?iaeo a inoi?eei-aaiaoe/iiio,
ii?iaiyeueii-inoi?e/iiio, eiai/iiio i i?iaeaiiiio aniaeoao.

Ai?iaaoeiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy caeienithaaeany
oeyoii ?o iioaeieoaaiiy a iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o nenoaio aeui? i iineyaeeieiiii? inaioe. Iniiaii
iieiaeaiiy i ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy aeiiiaiaeaeeny e iaaiai?thaaeeny
ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioeiyo, oaeeo ye «Aca?iica’ycie
ineoieiaiiaaeaaiai/ii? iaoee i oeieueii? i?aeoeee ye oaeoi?
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaaeaaiai/ii? aeiyeueiinoi» (?iaia, 1998?.),
«Iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean o aoci i oeiei oa oeyoe eiai ?icaeoeo e
oaeineiiaeaiiy» (?iaia,1999?.); ia caniaeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaiaiee
?iaiainueeiai aeiiiiiei-aoiaiioa?iiai iinoeoooo (1995-1999??.).
?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii a ?iaiainueeiio
aeiiiiiei-aoiaiioa?iiio iinoeoooi (aeiaiaeea ?17 aiae 28 aeiaoiy
1998?.), ?iaiainueeiio iinoeoooi iiaeaeuaiiy eaaeioieaoei? (aeiaiaeea ?
13 aiae 21 eenoiiaaea 1997?.), ?iaiainueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iaaeaaiai/iiio iinoeoooi (aeiaiaeea ?194 aiae 13 eenoiiaaea 1998?.),
Aieeinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoaoi ii. Eani Oe?a?iee (aeiaiaeea ?
5/2410 aiae 17 a?oaeiy 1998?.), o i?ia?aie aeeeaaeaiiy eo?nia i
niaoeeo?nia c inoi?i? iaaeaaiaiee. No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. ?iaioa
neeaaea?oueny ci anooio, aeaio ?icaeieia, aeniiaeia aei eiaeiiai
?icaeieo i caaaeueieo aeniiaeia, nieneo aeaea?ae oa iniiaii?
aeei?enoaii? eioa?aoo?e (295 iiceoeie, c ieo 15 iiicaiiith iiaith), 6
aeiaeaoeia. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoei? — 202 noi?iiie, iniiaia
/anoeia — 173 noi?iiee.

INIIAIEE CIINO AeENA?OAOeIEIIAI AeINEIAeAEAIIss

O anooii iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeueiinoue aeineiaeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie,
aecia/aii o?iiieiai/ii iaaei, ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo e iniiaii
caaaeaiiy, cacia/aii iaoiaee, ?ice?eoi eiioeaioeith, aeaea?aeueio aaco,
aeiaaaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/io oa i?aeoe/io cia/ouinoue
aeineiaeaeaiiy, iaaaaeaii aeaii i?i ai?iaaoeith iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoaoia.

O ia?oiio ?icaeiei «Nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ii oiiae ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii?
inaioe ia Aieeii a OVIII — OIO noieiooyo» iiaeaii aiaeic eioa?aoo?e c
i?iaeaie aeineiaeaeaiiy, i?iaiaeii oaiaeaioei? iieioe/ii? ni?yiiaaiinoi
?icaeoeo inaioe ia Aieeii, nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
ia?iiaeia aaiethoei? ia?iaeii? inaioe e?ath o aeineiaeaeoaaiee ia?iiae.

Aeyaeaii, ui o iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo c inoi?i? iaaeaaiaiee i?iaeaia ?icaeoeo
inaioe ia Aieeii a OVIII — OIO noieiooyo aeieeaaeii ia aenaioeth?oueny,
iayaii a?oiaii iaoa?iaee, noiniaii caii/aoeiaaiiai iaie aniaeoo
iio?aaothoue /ioei? nenoaiaoecaoei? oa ocaaaeueiaiiy. Ia iiaenoaai
aiaeico inoi?e/ieo oaeoia, acyoeo ic a?oiaieo iaoa?iaeia i?i inaioo ia
Aieeii aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ia?iiaeo, aecia/aii iiaeaeueoi iai?yie
aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iieacaii, ui caaaeueii oaiaeaioei? iieiiicaoei? i
?oneoieaoei? inaioe ia Aieeii aecia/aeeny, ianaiia?aae, eeaniaeie
iioa?anaie iaiiaiiai eieiiicaoi?nueeiai ?aaeeio.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o ieioei noieiooy aeineiaeieee aaeaaaeenue aei aiaeico
i?ioeania ooaa?aeaeaiiy anio ?iaiia ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii. I?ioeane
?icaeoeo ii/aoeiaiai oeieueieoeoaa aenaioethaaeeny a caaaeueieo i?aoeyo
c inoi?i? e?ath (E.E?ooeinueeee, A.Ia?iaianueeee, I.Aieoi?iae/,
I.Aiae?iyoaa, A.Ethaa-?aaeceiiinueeee, N.Aai/aiei, I.Eina/,
ss.ss?ioeueeee, I.O?eiieuenueeee. I.Oaiaei?iae/, A.Naiaeoeuenueeee), o
niaoeiaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiiyo (I.Aaothoeia, I.Naioi?a, ss.Ooeueaei,
I.Eaaeoeueeee, I.Ioeaeia). Iaoeiaoeyie ?icaeyiooi inoi?ith ie?aieo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia ia Aieeii (?.Ienaithe, I.Ieoaeethe, I.Ei/ee,
N.Eieyaeaiei), aea/aii aeiyeueiinoue a?iiaaenueei-iieioe/ieo oiaa?enoa
ia ieai inaioe (I.Oaiaei?iae/, I.Ia?aaa?c?a, I.Einoiia?ia, A.Ei?ieaiei).
Ieoaiiyi eoeueoo?iiinaioiueiai i?ioeano ia Iiaaeaiii-Caoiaeieo
oe?a?inueeeo caieyo ii/aoeo OIO noieiooy i?enay/aii iaoeiai ?iaioe
?inienueeeo inoi?eeia (I.Eiinoaioeiia, A.No?oieinueeee, I.I?o/aaei,
I.Neni?aa). Aaaiiee aianie c?iaea iieuenueeee a/aiee N.O?ooii,
o?aioeocueeee aeineiaeiee Ae.Aaaoa oa no/anii inoi?eee inaioe Aieeii
I.Eaaeiae/, E.Ieeoeuenueea, I.Niiyi, E.Niiyi, A.Eiaaeaiei,
A.No?oaeoeueeee, E.A?eoethe, I.Oii?oaiei, E.Iaaeieuenueeee,
A.Iaaeieuenueea. Aiaeii/an aacia?a/iith ? iio?aaa a
inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/iiio aeineiaeaeaiii, yea ia eeoa ioiieei a
aaiethoeith oeieueieoeoaa ye eoeueoo?iiinaioiueiai yaeua, a e aeaoaeueii
?ice?eei a nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ii oiiae, iaaeaaiai/ii aniaeoe ?icaeoeo
ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii, nenoaiii aenaioethaaei a iiceoeaiee aeinaiae
iaa/aiiy i aeoiaaiiy, i?ioeane oi?aaeiinueei-iaaeaaiai/ieo ?aoi?ioaaiue
oeieueieoeoaa, aeeaeaeoe/ii-ciinoiai iniaeeainoi ooieoeiiioaaiiy
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia e?ath.

O aeena?oaoei? aeaoaeueii aiaeicothoueny i?iaiaeii oaiaeaioei? ?icaeoeo
inaioiuei? iieioeee Aieeii: iieiiicaoeiy i ?oneoieaoeiy, ui aecia/aeeny
noaiii nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ii? neooaoei? a aea?aeaaao, aei neeaaeo yeeo
aoiaeeea oa?eoi?iy e?ath. Noiniaii aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ia?iiaeo,
i?ia?aneaii c?ooaiiy /e aaeueioaaiiy inaioiio i?ioeania caeaaeaee aiae
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai iinooio e iioa?ania ?inienueei? iiia?i?.

Aeoeaia aioeia?iaeia iieioeea ieaoiee/aiiy i aeaiaoeiiiaeicaoei?
oe?a?ioeia, ?icai?iooa c iiiiaeaiiyi ia ii/aoeo OVIII noieiooy
iieuenueei? aeaaee ia Aieeii caeienithaaeany, ianaiia?aae, coneeeyie
iieuenueeiai aeooiaainoaa. Caiaeii c «I?iaeoii i?i cieuaiiy i?aaineaaii?
oa oiiaonueei? ai?e o iaei?inienueeeo iaeanoyo», oeeaaeaiei iieuenueeei
aeooiaainoaii o 1717 ?ioei, ia?aaeaa/aeeny iieaiceoi?nueei caoiaee a
caeeaaeao inaioe: ani i?aaeiaoe aeeeaaeaeeny eeoa iieuenueeith iiaith;
o/iia i?eioniai caeo/aee aei eaoieeoeueei? ai?e; aeeeaaea/ai iieuenueei?
a?aiaoeee iaaeaaaeeny i?eaiea?. Iieyee niiaeiaaeeny, ui /a?ac inaioo
iieiaei aiie ciiaeooue aiae?iaeeoe aaeeeo Iieueuo, aei neeaaeo yei?
aoiaeeoeia Aieeiue. O oeueiio ?i aeoeaii ni?eyei eaoieeoeueea
aeooiaainoai. Cie?aia, oiaa?enoaii ?co?oia aoee caniiaaii oeiee oa
eieaaioie o Ethaa?i, E?aiaioei, AEeoiie?i, Eooeueeo, Ino?ici, Ia?o/i.
Nenoaia ?co?onueei? inaioe iaea aeai?iaiaao no?oeoo?o. Aei ia?oiai ?iaiy
iaeaaeaee oeiee, yei iaee ieae/ee, na?aaeiie, noa?oee eeane oa eean
?eoi?eee. Ae?oaee — neeaaeaee eieaaioie, aea aeeeaaeaeeny oieinionueeee
i oaieiai/iee eo?ne.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui /a?ac iaaecae/aeio aieiaie/inoue i iai?eeiyooy
nenoaie iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy, i?iiiiiaaieo iioeie eaoieeoeueeeie
oiaa?enoaaie, aeiyeueiinoue ?co?oia aoea caai?iiaia oeacii iaie
Eeeiaioiy, ?oii inaioii caeeaaee ia?aeoee aei aea?aeaaiiai oi?aaeiiiy.

Iieioe/ia ni?yiiaaiinoue ?icaeoeo inaioe ia Aieeii coiiaethaaeany oei,
ui iai?eeiioei OVIII noieiooy ai?ioueaa iiae Iieueuath i ?ini?th ca
aieeae ia oe?a?inueei caiei iaaoea inoaoi/iiai caaa?oaiiy ia’?aeiaiiyi a
«?aeeiie i iaiiaeieueiie» iiia?i? ?inienueeeo naiiaea?aeaaoeia ia i?aaao
ie?aieo aoaa?iie. Aiaeoae ?inienueeee o?yae caeeoea iaeaea aac ciii
iiia?aaeiie nioeiaeueiiaeiiiii/iee ono?ie iiaii?e?aeiaieo aieiaeiiue,
aeicaieea iieuenueeie iaioth/ie aa?noai iaoe iiaio aaaaiiiith a noa?i
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaioieoeueeiai aeeooy, o oiio /enei e a inaioiie ni?aai.

Iiney ii?acee iieuenueeiai iianoaiiy 1832 ?ieo iniaeeai i?iyaeeany
oaiaeaioeiy aei ?oneoieaoei? ?icaeoeo inaioe ia Aieeii. Iieuenueei
aieeae a inaioiie ni?aai e?ath ?icei iaiaaeeeeny: aoei cae?eoi
E?aiaiaoeueeee eioeae, iieuenueei ii/aoeiai oeiee ii/aee
eieaiaeiaoaaoeny, caiinoue ieo ianaaeaeoaaeeny oea?eiaii ?inienueeiiiaii
i?aaineaaii oeiee, iaa/aeueii caeeaaee cae?eoiai oeio aeey aeioae
aeai?yi. Ioioeieii i?iaieiooaaeiny, ui I?aaiaa?aaeia Oe?a?ia — noa?ee
?inienueeee e?ae, oieueee, niieiiiciaaiee. Oiio aoei aaeeoi ?ioo/eo
caoiaeia aeey iineaaeaiiy a inaioi e?ath iieuenueeiai aeaiaioo,
iiaeoaa?aeaeoth/e iaoiiinoue aeaiaio «?onueeee» (/eoae ?inienueeee).

Aeooiaia e iaoeiiiaeueia oe?a?inueea aeeooy iaaeiaai caeeoaeiny o
aaci?inaioiie oai?yai: aeioe iaa/aeeny ?inienueeith iiaith, ae?oeoaaiiy
oe?a?iiiiaieo eiea aoei noai?i caai?iiaii, iaae o/iyie i a/eoaeyie
anoaiiaethaaany noai?ee oa?iiee iaaeyae. I?ioeane iieiiicaoei? oa
?oneoieaoei? ia?iaeii? inaioe Aieeii i?ecaaee aei iiaiiai cieuaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai oeieueieoeoaa o e?a?.

Oi?iaeiaae aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ia?iiaeo ?icaeoie ia?iaeii? inaioe ia
Aieeii aiaeaoaaany iaiaeiaeiai. Ia iiaenoaai aiaeico aca?iicaeaaeiinoi
?iaiy ?icaeoeo inaioe aiae nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ieo oiia o aeena?oaoei?
aecia/aii e?eoa?i? nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaeo aei noai?aiiy iaoeiai?
ia?iiaeecaoei?. C o?aooaaiiyi yeinieo i eieueeinieo oa?aeoa?enoee,
ia’?eoeaieo caeiiiii?iinoae, iniaeeainoae i oaiaeaioeie aaiethoei?
i?ioeano ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii, ye i?aaeiaoa aeineiaeaeaiiy, aoea
caeieniaia ianooiia ia?iiaeecaoeiy ?? inoi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo a OVIII — OIO
noieiooyo:

1714-1793 ??. — iiaia i?iiieuenueea aaaaiiiiy a oi?aaeiiii oa
ooieoeiiioaaiii inaioiio caeeaaeia;

1793-1831 ??. — ?inienueei-iieuenueea ai?ioueaa ca iaioaaiiy o noa?i
inaioe;

1831-1864 ??. — iioaineaia ?oneoieaoeiy aieeinueeiai oeieueieoeoaa;

1864-1900 ??. — ooaa?aeaeaiiy i?ii?eoaoo oeaio?aeiciaaiiai iiia?nueeiai
?inienueeiai oi?aaeiiiy iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie Aieeii.

Aieiaieie iciaeaie ia?oiai ia?iiaeo aoea aeiyeueiinoue, caniiaaieo
iieyeaie ia oa?aiao Aieeinueeiai e?ath ii/aoeiaeo oeie aeey aeioae ic
niiae iaiiaiiai i?ioa?eo ianaeaiiy, noai?aiiy aeooiaii-eaoieeoeueeeo
inaioiio caeeaaeia, i?eioniaa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaiiy i?aaeiaoia
iieuenueeith iiaith.

Iniaeeainoth ae?oaiai ia?iiaeo noaea ai?ioueaa ca aieea ia inaioo iiae
?inienueeeie i iieuenueeeie iiaeiiaeaaeoeyie, ?aeiaieieie eiinenoi?iyie.
Iaa/aeueiei caeeaaeai Aieeii aiaeaiaeeeany aooa?ia ?ieue o
i?iiiia?nueeie aiaioeieiie a?i.

Oi?iaeiaae o?aoueiai ia?iiaeo caeienithaaeeny iioaineaii ?aoi?ioaaiiy,
?oneoieaoeiy inaioe ia Aieeii, aiaee?eaaeeny oea?eiaii-ia?aoiyeueii
oeiee i oeiee a?aiioe, ii/aoeiai oa aeui iiaioiai o/eeeua, aeooiaii
naiiia?i?, iaa/aeueii caeeaaee i?ioanieii? inaioe.

Iiaia ooaa?aeaeaiiy iiia?nueeiai i?ii?eoaoo oeaio?aeiciaaiiai oi?aaeiiiy
c aieo ?inienueeiai Iiiinoa?noaa inaioe aniia iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie
Aieeinueei? aoaa?ii? aiaeaoeiny oi?iaeiaae /aoaa?oiai ia?iiaeo. O oeae
/an c iaeaieueoith neeith i?iyaey?oueny eieiiicaoi?nueea inaioiy
iieioeea oea?aoo o aeeeaaeaiii i?aaeiaoia ?inienueeith iiaith,
noai?ththoueny ?aeeii i?ia?aie aeey oea?eiaii-ia?aoiyeueieo o/eeeu,
ae?oeothoueny aeayei iiae?o/ieee i iaa/aeueii iiniaieee.

O ?acoeueoaoi aiaeico nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ieo oiia ?icaeoeo inaioe ia
Aieeii a aeineiaeaeoaaiee ia?iiae o aeena?oaoei? c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui
iniiaia iana aeioae caeeoaeanue iainai/aiith. Na?aae oe?a?ioeia, yei
neeaaeaee 70 aiaenioeia ianaeaiiy e?ath, a?aiioieo aoei eeoa 17,2
aiaenioeia, a ienaiieo — 9,3 aiaenioeia.

O ae?oaiio ?icaeiei «Iaaeaaiai/ii aniaeoe ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? inaioe
Aieeinueei? aoaa?ii?» ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean
oi?aaeiinueei-iaaeaaiai/iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy oeieueieoeoaa e?ath,
aeeaeaeoe/iiciinoiai iniaeeainoi ooieoeiiioaaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo
caeeaaeia, oi?ie i iaoiaee aeiyeueiinoi inaioiuei-aeoiaieo iinoeoooeie
Aieeinueei? aoaa?ii?.

C ii/aoeo XVIII noieiooy oi?aaeiinueei-iaaeaaiai/ia ea?iaieoeoai
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieie caeeaaeaie caeienithaaeiny eaoieeoeueeei
aeooiaainoaii ca aeiiiiiaith i?aeaio ?co?oia, c 1773 aei 1793 ?ieia —
Aaeoeaoeieiith eiiini?th Iieueui, a iiciioa — Iiiinoa?noaaie inaioe,
aea?aeaaiiai iaeia, Iaenayoioiio Neiiaeo ?ini?. Aaeoeaoeieia eiiiniy
i?iaaea ieceo oeieueieo ?aoi?i, iaaeeceea aei aeeooy i?ia?aie
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia, iiioeithaaea iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy i?e?iaeie/eo
iaoe, a/eoaeyie oeie i?ecia/aeeny naionueei iniae. Iaeiae eiiiniy
iaii?oaaea i?aaiaiiy iinoeaaiai ianaeaiiy iaa/aoe aeioae ?iaeiith
iiaith, cie?aia i?iaiaeeea eo?n ia cai?oaiiy inioth/eo oe?a?inueeeo
oeie, iaoiiinoue, caniiaoth/e oea?eiaii-ia?aoiyeueii (aeaiaioa?iee
?iaaiue), ieae/i oa aeui iinueei oeiee (na?aaeiie ?iaaiue) c
iieuenueeith iiaith aeeeaaeaiiy. Aeiyeueiinoue Aaeoeaoeieii? eiiini?
aoea ia?oith ni?iaith ii?aeiaiiy ?aeiaieii? ii/aoeiai? inaioe ci
naionueeith.

Ciiie a a?iiaaenueei-iieioe/iiio aeeooi iiney neanoaaiiy e?iiiniiai
i?aaa, oene aeaiie?aoe/ii iaeaooiaaii? iioaeiaaioei? noeioethaaee
ooaaeaiiy Iiiinoa?noaii inaioe ?ini? o 1864 ?ioei «Iieiaeaiiy i?i
ii/aoeiao ia?iaeio inaioo». Aiaeii/an i?aaey/i /eiiaieee ia noaaeee ca
iaoo neanoaaoe noaiiainoue inaioe, aaaaeaee, ui aiia ia iiaeiia
aiae?eaaoe ia?iae aiae eiai o?oaeiai? aeiyeueiinoi, ni?eeiaee oeieo ye
nai??iaeio «aioo?ioith ioi?iio oea?noaa». Ca «Iieiaeaiiyi» oeiieiaith
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia neeaaeaee: a) ?aaeueii aiiiaci?; a)
o/eeeua c iiaeaeuaiei eo?nii ii/aoeiai? inaioe; a) o/eeeua,
iiaeii?yaeeiaaii Iiiinoa?noao inaioe; a) ii/aoeiai oeiee, noai?aii
a?iiaaenueeinoth. Ani oeie oeie oi?iaeueii iaieiooaaeeny
caaaeueiiia?iaeieie i iaee «ciioeithaaoe a ia?iaei ?aeiaieii-ii?aeueii
iiiyooy i ?iciianthaeaeoaaoe ii/aoeiai caaaeueiiei?enii ciaiiy». Aei
iniiae inaioiuei? iieioeee ?inienueeiai oea?ecio aoa iieeaaeaiee
noaiiaee i?eioeei, i?ioa aiaee?eoi ?aaeicoaaoe eiai ia oie /an o?yae ia
iaa iiaeeeainoi.

O aeena?oaoei? iieacaii, ui ooieoeiiioaaiiy ia?iaeieo oeie e?ath
?aaeaiaiooaaeiny caaaeueii-?inienueeei caeiiiaeaanoaii, a yeiio /ioei
aecia/aany aioo?ioiie ?icii?yaeie, i?ia?aie, i?eioeeie aeeeaaeaiiy
i?aaeiaoia, no?oeoo?a iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo i aeiy. Cie?aia, ?aeeiith aeey
anio ii/aoeiaeo o/eeeu o?e?i/iiai oa?iiio iaa/aiiy i?ia?aiith
ia?aaeaa/aeiny aea/aiiy oaeeo i?aaeiaoia: Caeii Aiaeee, /eoaiiy eiea
a?iiaaenueeiai i oea?eiaiiai ae?oeo, ienueii, ia?oi /ioe?e aei?
a?eoiaoeee, oea?eiaiee niia. I?i inaioo naeyi o cacia/aiiio aeieoiaioi
ia caaaeoaaeiny cianii. Oiiainoaaiiy ia?iaeieo o/eeeu ia?aaeaa/aeiny ca
?aooiie iinueeeo i nieuenueeeo a?iiaae, aeooiaainoaa. O i?aaey/eo
i?iiiia?nueeeo noa?ao aaaaeaee, ui inaioiy ni?aaa ia? aooe «aeia?ith
aieath» noniieuenoaa, a o?yae iiaea eeoa /anoeiai caioi/oaaoe ??.
I?ioanieiee aiaeai? iaaeaaiai/ieo eaae?ia caeienithaaany, ianaiia?aae,
ca i?eioeeiaie «ii?aeueiinoi i aeaaiiaaeieiinoi». Ani i?aaeiaoe
aeeeaaeaeeny aeiyoeiai ?inienueeith iiaith, ei?enooaaoeny ?iaeiith
noai?i caai?iiyeiny.

Iaeii?th c oaiaeaioeie, aeanoeaeo aaiethoei? inaioiueiai ?ooo Aieeii
iiney ?aoi?ie 1861 ?ieo i?i aiaeiiio e?iiiniiai i?aaa, aoei iineeaiiy
ai?ioueae oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy i?ioe o?yaeiai? caai?iie caniiaoaaoe
ia aieueoa iaeii?? aeaieeanii? oeiee ia iiaio. O aiaeiiaiaeue ia
aiaeiiao aeanoae a aneaioaaiiyo ia?iae a?aa ia naaa oo?eiaiiy
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia ii/aoeiai? inaioe. Ineieueee oea?eiaia inaioa ia
caaeiaieueiyea aaaeaiiy ia?iaeieo ian, iac?iea iio?aaa a ?aoi?ioaaiii
inaioe. O ii?aoi?iaiee ia?iiae oea?nueeee o?yae aoa ciooaiee c?iaeoe
iaaii iinooiee i?ia?aneaiei neeai e?a?ie uiaei ?icoe?aiiy oeieueii?
ia?aaei, iaeii/anii iineeeaoe eiio?ieue ca iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiei
i?ioeanii.

O ?icaeiei aeiaiaeeoueny, ui iacaaaeath/e ia eieueeinia c?inoaiiy
oeieueieo caeeaaeia ia Aieeii, aieueoinoue aeioae ?iaioieeia i naeyi
/a?ac iaoa?iaeueia coaiaeiiiy ia iaee ciiae iaa/aoeny. Oea?eci ia
iaaeaaaa iaeaaeii? oaaae oai?aoe/iie iiaeaioiaoei a/eoaeia, aeoiaoaaa ?o
o ai?iiiiaeaeainueeiio aeoni i no?eioaaa iiioeiaoeao iioaeiaaioei? uiaei
canioaaiiy iiaeo iaaeaaiai/ieo caeeaaeia. O/eoaei ia?aaoaaee o
iaaecae/aeii ne?ooieo iaoa?iaeueieo oiiaao, iieioe/iiai aaci?aa’y i
iiaii? caeaaeiinoi aiae oea?nueeeo aeanoae.

I?aaiicaoeiy iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a ii/aoeiaeo oeieao aoea
iacaaeiaieueiith, caeaaeaea aiae iaoa?iaeueiiai noaio oeiee,
eaaeioieaoei? a/eoaeia. Iiae /an aaniyii-iieueiaeo ?iaio caiyooy /anoi
ia?a?eaaeeny e o/ii aiaei?aaeyeeny ia ?icii ainiiaea?/i ?iaioe. O
iaeieiiieaeoieo oeieao a/eoaei ciooaii aoee canoiniaoaaoe i?eeiie
iaeii/aniiai ii/a?aiaiai iaa/aiiy ca nenoaiith ?iciiaieiaeo
aiaeaeieaiue, ui iaaaoeaii iicia/aeiny ia aoaeoeaiinoi
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. Ciino i i?aaiicaoeiy iaa/aiiy iinoieii
ia?aaoaaea iiae eiio?ieai aeooiaainoaa e inaioiio /eiiaieeia, yei
iaaeaaaee ia?aaaao eeoa oei oi?iai i iaoiaeai, ui ni?eyee
caiai’yoiaoaaiith, aacaeoiiiio cao/oaaiith iaa/aeueiiai iaoa?iaeo
?aeiaieiiai ni?yioaaiiy, aeio?eiaiith o/iyie noai?i? aeenoeeieiie. Ca
ciinoii iaa/aiiy oeiea ia aiaeaeca?eaethaaea iaioaeueiinoi oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo. O oeiei aeeoeia iio?aieyea aei /oaeeinueei? aeey ia? aeooiaii?
aoiinoa?e, ii/iai ?iaeiiai aiia ia aa/eea e ia /oea. ?acoeueoaoaie oaei?
inaioiuei? iieioeee aoee neaaeee ?icaeoie aeeoeie a oeiei, iecueeee
?iaaiue ciaiue i /anoi ?aoeeaeeae iaa?aiioiinoi na?aae ianaeaiiy Aieeii.

O aeena?oaoei? aecia/aii ye iaaaoeaio iniaeeainoue ?icaeoeo inaioe e?ath
oa, ui c ii/aoeo i aei 70-o ?ieia OIO noieiooy o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao
Aieeii (e?ii oea?eiaii-ia?aoiyeueieo oeie) ia aoei ?aeeieo ieaiia i
i?ia?ai. Ie?ii oiai ?icii oeie ii/aoeiaeo oeie iiaeii?yaeeiaoaaeeny
ie?aiei ?inienueeei aiaeiinoaai: Iiiinoa?noaai inaioe, aioo?ioiio ni?aa,
aea?aeaaiiai iaeia, Iaenayoioiio Neiiaeo oiui. Ii/aoeiai oeiee XIX
noieiooy aoee ia?aaaaeii oea?eiaii-ia?aoiyeueieie, a ?oi? inioaaiiy
caeaaeaei aiae aianeia coaiaeieiai naeyinoaa. O ca’yceo c oei, ui aaeeea
eieueeinoue naeyi ia iaea ciiae ieaoeoe ca iaa/aiiy, aaaaoi aeioae
oeieueiiai aieo caeeoaeeny iica oeieith.

Aeineiaeaeaiiyi aeyaeaii aeeiaii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee oaeeo aeaio ?iaiia
?icaeoeo inaioe ia Aieeii o OVIII — OIO noieiooyo: a) ii/aoeiaee; a)
na?aaeiie. Ii/aoeiaee ?iaaiue inaioe noaiiaeee: ?co?onueei,
oea?eiaii-ia?aoiyeueii, iaaeieueii, ia?iaeii oeiee, oo?eioaaii naeyiaie,
oeiee a?aiioe. Ia ii/aoeo OIO noieiooy ia?aaaaeia aieueoinoue oeie
Aieeii aoea oea?eiaii-ia?aoiyeueieie; e?ii oiai, o iinoao aoee iiaioiai
ii/aoeiai oeiee, eieueeinoue yeeo iinooiiai caieueooaaeany. Na?aaeiy
inaioa, oi/ i aoea oi?iaeueii aeicaieaiith aeey anio noaiia, caeeoaeany
aeinooiiith eeoa aeey aaaaoeo i caiiaeieo naeyi, oiio ui aoea ieaoiith.
O XVIII-XIX noieiooyo ia?aaea caeeaaeia na?aaeiuei? inaioe neeaaeaeany
aieiaiei /eiii ic ?co?onueeeo eieaaioiia, aiiiacie oa ?aaeueieo o/eeeu.
O aoaa?inueeiio e o aaaaoueio iiaioiaeo iinoao Aieeii aoee caniiaaii
aiiiaci? aai ?aaeueii o/eeeua. Aiiiaci? ooieoeiiioaaee ye caeeaaee
eeane/iiai oeio, o yeeo aea/aeeny a?aoeueea, eaoeinueea iiae i eiaiea.
?aaeueii o/eeeua aeoeaiooaaee oaaao ia oi/ieo i i?e?iaeie/eo iaoeao.

«Iieiaeaiiy i?i ii/aoeiao ia?iaeio inaioo» 1864 ?ieo aeaaaei aieueoa
naiaiaee ?iciei aiaeiinoaai, aeooiaainoao, i?eaaoiei iniaai, yei iaee
i?aai aiaee?eaaoe ia?iaeii oeiee, i?enoiniaoth/e ?oii i?ia?aie aei
iinoeaaeo iiaeeeainoae i oiia. I?aaenoaaieee iinueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy,
aeooiaainoai aoee aeiiouaii aei ea?iaieoeoaa oeieueieie ni?aaaie.

Anoaiiaethaaeiny aeaa oeie ii/aoeiaeo oeie: iaeiieeanii, c iaa/aiiyi
oi?iaeiaae o?ueio ?ieia, i aeaieeanii — c oa?iiiii iaa/aiiyi i’youe
?ieia.

Iii?e caaaeueiee yne?aai ae?aaeaiee ?oneoieaoi?nueeee oa?aeoa? onueiai
oeieueieoeoaa, o oiai/aniiio noniieueii-iieioe/iiio ?oni
aeiaeueiao?oueny i?ia?aneaia oaiaeaioeiy: oo?aioeeaa noaaeaiiy
i?ia?aneaii? iioaeiaaioei? aei ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? inaioe. Oae, neaaeiii,
na?aae ii/aoeiaeo oeie ia Aieeii a OIO noieiooi aaaiio ?ieue
aiaeia?aaaee iaaeieueii oeiee, ui ca oa?aeoa?ii aeiyeueiinoi aoee
aeia?iaeieieie.

Aieueoinoue na?aaeiuei-niaoeiaeueieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia
iiaeii?yaeeiaoaaeeny Iiiinoa?noao ia?iaeii? inaioe oa aeayeei iioei
aiaeiinoaai. Oa?iii iaa/aiiy o cacia/aieo caeeaaeao anoaiiaethaaany aiae
/ioe?ueio aei oanoe ?ieia. Na?aaeiy inaioa e?ath oaeiae aoea
cina?aaeaeaia o ia?iaeieo o/eeeuao i aeooiaieo naiiia?iyo. Aei
na?aaeiio niaoeiaeueieo oeie iaeaaeaee: oaeueaeoa?nueei, eiia?oeieii,
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei, ioce/ii oeiee. Aeey aeia/ao ic niiae
aeooiaainoaa inioaaee ?ia?oiaeueii oeiee c i?ia?aiith aiiiacie, a oaeiae
aoaa?inueei aiiiaci?, o/eoaeuenueei naiiia?i? oa iinoeoooe.
Iaoeiiiaeueii iaioeie caniiaoaaee aeanii oeiee i aiiiaci?.

O aeineiaeaeaiii i?iaiaeiciaaii nioeiaeueii aeaoa?iiiaioe, i?e/eie i
ianeiaeee oi?aaeiinueeiiaaeaaiai/ieo ?aoi?ioaaiue ia?iaeii? inaioe
Aieeinueei? aoaa?ii?. Aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo inaioe ia Aieeii o
OVIII — OIO noieiooyo aeaei ciiao aecia/eoe oaei aeeaeaeoe/ii-ciinoiai
aniaeoe ooieoeiiioaaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeia e?ath: a)
ni?yioaaiiy ciinoiaeo eiioeaio?ia iaa/aiiy ia?aaaaeii ia
?aeiaieii-ii?aeueiee iai?yiie; a) canoiniaoaaiiy oi?i i iaoiaeia o
aeeeaaeaiii aeenoeeieii, aeanoeaeo aeey iaeieiiieaeoieo oeie; a)
oaiaeaioeiy aei oeaio?aeicaoei? oi?aaeiiiy inaioith;

a) iaaiaeiiaiaeiinoue iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy aeiyeueiinoi
caeeaaeia inaioe iio?aaai i aeiiaai /ano; ae) oi?ioaaiiy ia?aaei
iaaeieueieo oeie, aa/i?iio i iiaoi?ieo eeania aeey aei?ineeo.

Ia ii/aoeo OIO noieiooy ani oi?aaeiinueei ?aoi?ie ?inienueeiai o?yaeo
caeienithaaeeny ca o/anoth aeooiaainoaa, oiio ?icaeoie ia?iaeii? inaioe
ia Aieeii coiiaethaaany ieceith iniaeeainoae: iiia?oi/ii-eea?eeaeueiei
ni?yioaaiiyi iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano; aiaenooiinoth eaaeioieiaaieo
o/eoaeuenueeeo eaae?ia; iecueeei eoeueoo?ii-inaioiii ?iaiai ia?iaeo, ui
ia ocaiaeaeoaaany c iioa?anaie ?eieiaeo aiaeiinei o ?inienueeie iiia?i?.

Ia?aaeo inaioe ia Aieeii aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ia?iiaeo neeaaeaee iaa/aeueii
caeeaaee ?icieo oeiia: ?co?onueei oeiee oa eieaaioie,
oea?eiaii-ia?aoiyeueii oeiee, o/eeeua, aiiiaci?, i?iaiiiaci?. I?ioa,
ineieueee eieueeinoue cacia/aieo caeeaaeia aoea iaaeinoaoiueith i ciino
iaa/aiiy o ieo iicia/aany aeeaieith ?aeiaieiinoth, ioiae caeaaieueoiai
?iaaiue naionueei? inaioe oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy caeeoaany iecueeei.
Iaa/aiiy a o/eeeuao i aiiiaciyo aoei aeinooiiei eeoa aeey aeioae ic
caiiaeieo niiae. O ?icaeiei iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy
caeaaeiinoi ?iaiy a?aiioiinoi o/iia o oeieao aiae iaoa?iaeueiiai noaio
niiae, iayaiinoi a ieo ?iai/i? neee, iaeiaieo ?iaioieeia, aaee/eie
iiniaii? ieiui oiui.

Iaa/aeueia aeiyeueiinoue o oeieao noai?i eiio?iethaaeany iiiinoa?nueeeie
/eiiaieeaie, oai?/ei o/eoaeyi caai?iiyeiny ?icoe?thaaoe ianyae oeieueieo
i?ia?ai. Na?aae oi?i i iaoiaeia iaa/aiiy ia?aaaaeaee oi, ui ni?eyee
aacaeoiiiio cao/oaaiith iaa/aeueiiai iaoa?iaeo i aeio?eioaaiith o/iyie
noai?i? aeenoeeieiie. O iaeieiiieaeoieo oeieao a/eoaei /anoi
aeei?enoiaoaaee niinia ?iaioe iaeiiai a/eoaey c aeaeieueeiia
aiaeaeieaiiyie, ui ia ni?eyei aoaeoeaiinoi iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano.

I?iaaaeaia inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy aea? iiaenoaae aeey
oaeeo oai?aoe/ieo aeniiaeia:

1. ?icaeoie ia?iaeii? inaioe ia oa?aiao Aieeii oi?iaeiaae OVIII — OIO
noieioue coiiaethaaany aaaaoueia nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ieie /eiieeaie, ui
iaoiiaeaii eiieo?aioiith ai?ioueaith iiae iieuenueeeie i ?inienueeeie
eieiiicaoi?aie ca noa?o iieioe/iiai aieeao. C?aooith, o ?acoeueoaoi
ciaiioiuei-iieioe/ieo iaiiioeyoeie eiioey OVIII noieiooy Aieeiue
iieieeany a iani?eyoeeaie aeey ?icaeoeo iaoeiiiaeueii? nenoaie inaioe
nioeiaeueii-iieioe/iie neooaoei?.

2. I?iaiaeieie oaiaeaioeiyie inaioiuei? iieioeee ia Aieeii aoee
iieiiicaoeiy i ?oneoieaoeiy, ui aiaeia?aaeaeeny a ciinoi, oi?iao i
iaoiaeao aeiyeueiinoi inaioiuei-aeoiaieo iinoeoooeie.

3. Nooo?aeie iniaeeainoyie ?iaiaaiai c?inoaiiy, oa?aeoa?ieie aeey
ooieoeiiioaaiiy oeieueieoeoaa Aieeii ai?iaeiaae aeineiaeaeoaaiiai
ia?iiaeo, aoee: iieuenueei-eaoieeoeueea ni?yiiaaiinoue iaa/aiiy oa
aeoiaaiiy o XVIII noieiooi; ii?aeiaiiy aieeaia Iieueui oa ?ini? ia
inaioith iieioeeo a e?a? o ia?oie iieiaeii OIO noieiooy; iioaineaia
?aoi?ioaaiiy inaioe iiney eieaiaeaoei? e?iiiniiai i?aaa; aaeueioaaiiy
?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? inaioe o OIO noieiooi /a?ac aiaenooiinoue
aeinoaoiuei? eieueeinoi iaaeaaiai/ieo eaae?ia; aeei?enoaiiy aaaeaeia
aieeao ia iaoa?iaeueia noaiiaeua a/eoaeia (aea?aeaaii /eiiaieee i?aaioee
c?iaeoe ?o iaaeieieie i?iaiaeieeaie iiia?nueei? iieioeee a aaeoci
inaioe); oo?aioa oea?ecio i?i iioe?aiiy inaioe na?aae naeyi o ca’yceo c
ia’?eoeaieie nioeiaeueieie iio?aaaie eiioey OIO noieiooy; iinooiiaee
caiaiaae oea?eiaii-ia?aoiyeueieo oeie ye ?acoeueoao
oi?aaeiinueei-iaaeaaiai/ieo ?aoi?ioaaiue; iioe?aiiy ia?aaei ia?iaeieo
o/eeeu, aiiiacie i i?iaiiiacie; ?inienueei inaioii /eiiaieee ia a?aee
aei oaaae iiaeyaee oa aaaeaiiy nai?o ia?inienueeeo iiaeaeaieo, ioiae
oe?a?inueeiio ia?iaeiai aeiaiaeeeiny aeieeaaeaoe aaaaoi coneeue aeey
oiai, uia aeiiiaoeny oeo /e iioeo iinooiie aiae oea?nueeiai o?yaeo;
iacaaaeath/e ia aeayea ?icoe?aiiy ia?aaei oeie, inaioa ia Aieeii ia
aiaeiiaiaeaea c?ineei aeiiaai aeiiiii/iiai i aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo e?ath.

4. Iaaeaaiai/ii aniaeoe ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii
aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ia?iiaeo oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny oei, ui ia ii/aoeo XVIII
noieiooy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean inaioiio caeeaaeia, caniiaaieo
i?aeaiii ?co?oia iiaeeyaaa /ioeie ?aaeaiaioaoei? i ?aeiaieiie
ni?yiiaaiinoi; c 1773 ii 1793 ?iee coneeeyie Aaeoeaoeieii? eiiini? aoei
caeieniaii ni?iao ii?aeiaiiy ?aeiaieii? oa naionueei? inaioe; o ia?oie
iieiaeii OIO noieiooy caeeaaee inaioe Aieeii ioiieea oaeey iieiiicaoei?,
ui aiaeaeeiny ia ei?enooaaiii ia?aaaaeii iieuenueei? iiaith o
aeeeaaeaiii i?aaeiaoia oa oi?ioaaiii iniaenoinoi aeoiaaioeia ia
iieuenueeeo o?aaeeoeiyo; aeiyeueiinoue inaioiuei-aeoiaieo caeeaaeia
Aieeii ae?oai? iieiaeii OIO noieiooy aacoaaeany ia aecia/aieo o
aea?aeaaiiio oa e?a?aiio caeiiiaeaanoai i?eioeeiao, iaeaaaeeeaioeie
c-iiiiae yeeo aoee: aea?aeaaia ea?iaieoeoai iina?aaeieoeoaii
niaoeiaeueii i?aaiiciaaieo i?aaiia — o/eeeuieo ?aae; iaia’ycie a?iiaae
caniiaoaaoe i oo?eioaaoe ia?iaeii o/eeeua; noaiiainoue inaioe; noai?aiiy
caeeaaeia i?ioanieii? inaioe.

5. O nai?io ?icaeoeo ia?iaeia oeieueieoeoai Aieeii i?ieoei /ioe?e
iniiaii nioeiaeueii-coiiaeaii ia?iiaee, eiaeiiio c yeeo i?eoaiaiii
yeinii i eieueeinii oa?aeoa?enoeee:

1714-1793 ??. — iiaia i?iiieuenueea aaaaiiiiy a oi?aaeiiii inaioiiie
caeeaaeaie;

1793-1831 ??. — ?inienueei-iieuenueea ai?ioueaa ca iaioaaiiy o noa?i
inaioe;

1831-1864 ??.- iioaineaia ?oneoieaoeiy aieeinueeiai oeieueieoeoaa;

1864-1900 ??. — ooaa?aeaeaiiy i?ii?eoaoo oeaio?aeiciaaiiai iiia?nueeiai
oi?aaeiiiy oeieueieoeoaii Aieeii.

Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioaeieaoeiyo:

1. Inoi?iy i i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo inaioe Aieeii // Iiaa iaaeaaiai/ia
aeoiea. –1998.-?4.- N.100-107.

2. ?aoi?ie ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii // Iiaa iaaeaaiai/ia
aeoiea.-1999.-?1.-N.115- 118.

3. Niaoeeoiea iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia Aieeii (eiiaoeue XXVIII-XIX no.) //
Iaoeiai caienee. O.2. *.I.-Ino?ia, 1999.-N.116.

4. Nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?iiaeia aaiethoei? ia?iaeii?
inaioe ia Aieeii (OVIII-XIX co.) // Iiaa iaaeaaiai/ia aeoiea.
-1999.-?2.-N.117-119.

5. Oi?aae?inueei-iaaeaaia?/ia ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?eueieoeoaa Aieeinueei?
aoaa?i?? // Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Aei.47:Iaaeaaia?ea oa ineoieia?y.- *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1999.-N.44-53.

6. Caeeaaee inaioe ia Aieeii o XVIII-XIX noieiooyo // Aa?iea.-
1998.-?1.-N 68.

7. ?oneoieaoeiy aieeinueeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia o OIO noieiooi //
Iiiaeaiiy ciinoo, oi?i oa iaoiaeia iaa/aiiy i aeoiaaiiy a caeeaaeao
inaioe.-?iaia:?AeAO, 1999.-?8.-N 69.

8. Nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ia noaiiaeua Aieeii o eiioei XVIII noieiooy //
?aoi?ioaaiiy inaioe i oeiee: nooiinoue, i?iaeaie, ia?niaeoeae.-?iaia:
Oaoin, 1997.-N.223-226.

9. Aeiiiiiea Aieeii iiney i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?ie 1861 ?ieo a eo?ni inoi?i?
?iaeiiai e?ath // Aca?iica’ycie ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii? iaoee i
oeieueii? i?aeoeee ye oaeoi? oaeineiiaeaiiy iaaeaaiai/ii? aeiyeueiinoi.
— Iaoa?iaee iiaeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei?.-?iaia: Oaoin,
1998.-N.63-65.

10. Iaa/aeueii-aeoiaia ?iaioa oeie Aieeii o ae?oaie iieiaeii OIO
noieiooy // Iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean o aoci i oeiei oa oeyoe eiai
?icaeoeo e oaeineiiaeaiiy.-Cai?iee i?aoeue Iiaeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei?. *.III. — ?iaia: Oaoin, 1999.-N.314.

Aeaeaiai O.A. ?icaeoie ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii (OVIII — OIO no.).
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiai/ieo iaoe ca
niaoeiaeueiinoth 13.00.01 — oai?iy oa inoi?iy iaaeaaiaiee —
Oa?iiiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaiai/iee oiiaa?neoao iiaii Aieiaeeie?a
Aiaothea, Oa?iiiieue, 1999.

Aeena?oaoeiy i?enay/aia inoi?e/ii-iaaeaaiai/iiio aiaeico i?ioeano
?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? inaioe ia Aieeii a OVIII — OIO noieiooyo ia oei
iniaeeainoae nioeiaeueii-iieioe/iiai aeeooy e?ath, ui nii/aoeo aoa
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith Iieueui, a iiciioa — ?inienueei? iiia?i?. O
aeena?oaoei? aiaeoai?aii oeieinio ea?oeio, aeineiaeaeaii
nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ii oiiae, iaaeaaiai/ii aniaeoe aaiethoei? ia?iaeiiai
oeieueieoeoaa ia Aieeii.

Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe, iieiaeaiiy e aeniiaee aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoaii iaoeiaoeyie, iaaeaaiaaie c iaoith ae?ioaiiy oai?aoe/ieo oa
i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue ia no/aniiio aoaii ?aoi?ioaaiiy inaioe a Oe?a?ii,
ni?eyoeiooue caaaa/aiith i ia?aaea/i inoi?e/ii-iaaeaaiai/iiai aeinaiaeo.

Eeth/iai neiaa: ia?iaeia inaioa, Aieeiue, iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean,
oe?a?inueea oeieueieoeoai, aeeaeaeoe/ii-ciinoiai iniaeeainoi,
inoi?e/ii-iaaeaaiai/iee aiaeic.

Aeaeaiai O.A. ?acaeoea ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey ia Aieuie (OVIII — OIO
aa.). ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee —
Oa?iiiieueneee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao eiaie
Aeaaeeie?a Aiaothea, Oa?iiiieue, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enoi?eei-iaaeaaiae/aneiio aiaeeco i?ioeanna
?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey ia Aieuie a OVIII — XIX noieaoeyo ia
oiia iniaaiiinoae nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie e?ay, eioi?ue aia/aea
aue ninoaaeythuae /anoueth Iieueoe, a iicaea — ?inneeneie eiia?ee. A
?aaioa enneaaeiaaiu iniaaiiinoe e ii?aaeaeaiu yoaiu yaiethoeeiiiie
nouiinoe, no?oeoo?u niaea?aeaiey, oi?iu e iaoiaeu ia?aciaaiey ia Aieuie,
iaoneiaeaiiua aeeyieai ia iauanoaaiioth aeeciue Aieuie
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo a Iieueoa e
?inneeneie eiia?ee. Oeacaiiia ianoiyoaeuenoai noaei i?e/eiie nicaeaiey
ia Aieuie niaoeeoe/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa, a eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeei ?acaeoea
ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey. Eniieueciaai nenoaiii-enoi?e/aneee iiaeoiae,
eiiieaenii eco/aiu iiiaioaeoi?iua yaiethoeeiiiua i?ioeannu,
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu nioeeaeueiua aeaoa?ieiaiou, i?e/eiu e iineaaenoaey
oi?aaeai/aneiiaaeaaiae/aneeo ?aoi?ie?iaaiee ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey,
eco/aiu aeeaeaeoe/aneea aniaeou ooieoeeiie?iaaiey o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiuo
caaaaeaiee Aieuie.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea «Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea oneiaey ?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey ia Aieuie a XVIII-OIO aaeao» eceaaaaony aiaeec iao/iie
eeoa?aoo?u ii i?iaeaia enneaaeiaaiey, aeaaiuo oaiaeaioeee iieeoe/aneie
iai?aaeaiiinoe ?acaeoey ia?aciaaiey Aieuie, i?aaeinoaaeyaony
nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneia iainiiaaiea ia?eiaeia yaiethoeee ia?iaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey a enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae. Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca enoi?e/aneeo
oaeoia, acyouo ec a?oeaiuo iaoa?eaeia ia ia?aciaaiee ia Aieuie
enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea, ii?aaeaeaii aeaeueiaeoaa iai?aaeaiea
enneaaeiaaiey. Iieacaii, /oi iauea oaiaeaioeee iieiiecaoeee e
?oneoeeaoeee ia?aciaaiey ia Aieuie ii?aaeaeyeenue, i?aaeaea anaai,
eeanniauie eioa?anaie ainiiaenoaothuaai eieiiecaoi?neiai ?aaeeia;
aeooiaiay e iaoeeiiaeueiay aeeciue oe?aeineiai ia?iaea iaaeieai
inoaaaeanue a oiaaei/iii ninoiyiee: aeaoe iao/aeenue ia iieueneii eee
?onneii ycueao, ia/aoaiea oe?aeineeo eiea auei no?iai cai?auaii, ca
o/aueieny e o/eoaeyie onoaiaaeeaaeny oaeiue no?iaee iaaeci?. I?ioeannu
iieiiecaoeee e ?oneoeeaoeee i?eaaee e iieiiio oie/oiaeaieth oe?aeineiai
oeieueie/anoaa Aieuie. N o/aoii ea/anoaaiiuo e eiee/anoaaiiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee, iauaeoeaiuo caeiiiia?iinoae, iniaaiiinoae e oaiaeaioeee
yaiethoeee i?ioeanna ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey, inouanoaeaia ia?eiaeecaoeey
aai enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey, ?ane?uou aeaaiua iniaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai
ia?eiaea.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea » Iaaeaaiae/aneea aniaeou ?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey Aieuineie aoaa?iee» ?anniao?eaaaony i?ioeann
oi?aaeai/anei-iaaeaaiae/aneiai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey oeieueie/anoaa Aieuie,
aeeaeaeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiuo
caaaaeaiee, oi?iu e iaoiaeu aeayoaeueiinoe ia?aciaaoaeueiuo einoeoooeee
Aieuineie aoaa?iee. N ia/aea XVIII aaea oi?aaeaiea
o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie inouanoaeyeinue eaoiee/aneei
aeooiaainoaii i?e iiiiue i?aeaia eacoeoia, n 1773-1793 aiaeia —
Yaeoeaoeeiiiie eiienneae Iieueoe, a iicaeiaa — Ieienoa?noaaie
ia?aciaaiey, ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiouanoaa, Nayoaeoaio Neiiaeo ?innee.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaiaeece?iaaiu nioeeaeueiua aeaoa?ieiaiou, i?e/eiu e
neaaenoaey oi?aaeai/anei-iaaeaaiae/aneeo ?aoi?ie?iaaiee ia?iaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey Aieuineie aoaa?iee. Auyaeaiea iniaaiiinoae ?acaeoey
ia?aciaaiey ia Aieuie a XVIII-OIO aaeao aeaei aiciiaeiinoue auaeaeeoue
oaeea aeeaeaeoeei-niaea?aeaoaeueiua aniaeou ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiuo caaaaeaiee e?ay: a)iaoeaeaiiinoue
niaea?aeaoaeueiuo eiioeaio?ia iao/aiey a iniiaiii ia ?aeeaeicioth
noi?iio; a)eniieueciaaiea oi?i e iaoiaeia i?aiiaeaaaiey aeenoeeieei
iaeieiiieaeoiie oeieu;

a)oaiaeaioeey e oeaio?aeecaoeee oi?aaeaiey ia?aciaaieai;
a)ianiioaaonoaea o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneiai iaania/aiey aeayoaeueiinoe
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo caaaaeaiee ioaeaeai e o?aaiaaieyi a?aiaie;

ae)oi?ie?iaaiea naoe aine?aniuo oeie, aa/a?ieo e iiaoi?eoaeueiuo eeannia
aeey ac?ineuo.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou, iieiaeaiey e auaiaeu enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu o/aiuie, iaaeaaiaaie n oeaeueth ?aoaiey oai?aoe/aneeo e
i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/ ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ia?aciaaiey a
Oe?aeia, niinianoaotho iaiaauaieth e ia?aaea/a enoi?eeiiaaeaaiae/aneiai
iiuoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea, Aieuiue, o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiue
i?ioeann, oe?aeineea oeieu, aeeaeaeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe,
enoi?eei-iaaeaaiae/aneee aiaeec.

Dhzaman T.V. Development of people’s education in Volyn (XVIII-XIX
centuries). Manuscript.

The thesis is for a candidate of pedagogics’ degree, speciality
13.00.01 — the theory and history of the pedagogics. The V. Hnatyuk
State Pedagogical University of Ternopil, 1999.

The thesis is dedicated to historycal and pedagogical analysis of the
process of development of the people’s education in Volyn in XVIII-XIX
centuries at the background of the peculiarities of social and political
life of the territory, wrich primarily was a constituent part of Poland
and later of Russian empire.

The thesis for the first attempts to recreate an integral pisture with
investigation of social and political conditions, pedagogical aspects of
evolution of people’s education in Volyn.

The main results, concepts and conclusions may be wed by scientist and
educators with the aim of working out theoretical and practical problems
on the modern sage of reforming educational system in Ukraine, will
favour enrichment and transferring of historical and pedagogical
experience.

Key words: people’s education, Volyn, educational and upbringing
process, Ukrainian schools, didactic pithy peculiarities, historycal and
pedagogical analysis.

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