OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ne?aeai Aiaoie?e Noaiaiiae/

OAeE 334.75

?ICAEOIE IAOIAe?A AECIA*AIIss AEO?AO OA ?O ?ACA?A?A IA I?IIENEIAO
I?IAeOEOe?TH

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.01 — aeiiii?ea i?iieneiaino?

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio ?iaeono??aeueiiio nithc? oa
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Caneoaeaiee i?aoe?aiee ia?iaeii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

sseiae?a Aiaoie?e ?aaiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
aeiiii?ee oa ia?eaoeiao

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Ia?a?aa Iao?i A?eai?iae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee

iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa oa oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii;

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,

A?ao’?a Ieaa A?eoi?iae/, Oe?a?inueea ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ia Aeaaeai?y,
i. Oa?e?a,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee i?aei?e?inoa oa iaiaaeaeiaioo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee oa ia?eaoeiao, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “14” aeiaoiy1999 ?ieo i 14 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.050.02 o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 310002, i.Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica,
21

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “10”aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aaa?enue I.I.

7

1. CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

1.1. Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue
oaoi?/ieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue, i?aai?caoe?eieo caoiae?a, iaoeiaeo
?ic?iaie, aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo aeae?a iaoa??ae?a oa ne?iaeie,
iaa?oioiaai?noue ?o aeai?o ? iniiaith ?aoe?iiaeueii? ae?iaie/i?
ae?yeueiino?, caii?oeith eiia?oe?eiiai oni?oo, oeyoii aei ?icaeoeo oa
i?ia?ano. Ana oea iiaeeeaa o?eueee ca oiiae aeinyaiaiiy aeinoaoiuei?
a??ia?aeiino? ?ic?aooieo aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??.
Oiio i?iaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? aecia/aiiy aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai
i?iaeoeoe?? oa ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy ieie ? iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeaith oa aeooaeueiith. Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy aiia iaaoaa? a oiiaao
o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee c aeanoeaeie ?e aeaiaioaie e?eciaeo yaeu.
Cia/iee aeao?oeeo ?ano?n?a, ?iceaaiaeaeai?noue ae?iaie/eo ca’yce?a,
canoa??e?noue oa o?ce/ia ciioai?noue iaoa??aeueii? aace, neeaaeia
iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y iaaea? oe?e i?iaeai? aeiaeaoeiai? aeooaeueiino? oa
cia/ouino?.

Ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy aeo?ao oa oi?aae?iiy ieie i?eaa?oathoue aei naaa
oaaao aaaaoueio a?aeiieo a/aieo. Iaoeia?e a?iiaaenueeino? aeia?a a?aeii?
?iaioe ca?oa?aeieo oa a?o/eciyieo aeiiii?no?a I.I.Aenaiaiea,
I.I.Aaea?aa, ?.A.Aaniaiiaa, I.N.Ai?iaee?ia, A.E.Aeeeaiy, E.Ae?o??,
TH.N.?aoiiiaa, N.?.Ee?eeiaa, A.A.Eanoiaeoeueeiai, ?.A.E?ineoey,
E.O.Eo/aiei, Ae.N.Eueaiaa, A.O.Ia?aoe?na, ?.N.Iaoeeaa?/ona,
N.A.I?eiea?ai?, I.I.Iia?/aiea, A.A.Iiaiaeeeiaa, A.N.I?i/eiiaa,
I.A.I?eiaa, A.O.Iae?y, A.?.Iao?iai?, I.Ii?oa?a, ?.E.Nae?iaeaiiaa,
Ae.A.N?aaea, A.A.Niiea, A.E.Noaiaithea, A.Ae.O?oniaa, I.A.*oia/aiea,
Ae.E.O?ia, A.?.sseiae?aa oa ?i., o ?iaioao yeeo ?icaeyioo? ??ci?
oai?aoe/i? ? i?eeeaaei? caaea/? oi?ioaaiiy oa aecia/aiiy aeo?ao a
i?iieneiaino?. ?acii c oei, ia no/aniiio aoai? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee
?yae aaaeeeaeo caaea/ ae??oaii ia iiai?noth.

?nioth/? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie iio?aaothoue oaeineiiaeaiiy ye c
oi/ee ci?o i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?, oae ? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Iaiao?aeii oaeiae ?icaeaaoe iaoiaee ieaioaaiiy
aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??. A oiiaao
o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee cia/iee aieea ia ?o aaee/eio ia? nooi?iue
caaaioaaeaiiy ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae i?aei?e?inoa, no?oeoo?a ?
?ioaineai?noue ?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee, ui aei oeueiai /ano iaaeinoaoiuei
a?aoiao?oueny i?e ieaioaaii? aeo?ao. Aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith no/anii?
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ? oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a oe?iiooai?aiiy ia i?iieneiao
i?iaeoeoe?th. Oea iia’ycaii oaeiae c a?ae/ooiei aeao?oeeoii aeayeeo
aeae?a ?ano?n?a, iniaeeai iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo (IA?). O oie aea /an a
Oe?a?i? ? cia/iee iioaioe?ae aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy. A ca’yceo c oeei
iaiao?aeii i?iaiae?coaaoe ?aca?ae cieaeaiiy aeo?ao IA? o i?iieneiaino?,
oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee i?iaaaeaiiy oaeeo
caoiae?a. Ana oea ? coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue aeeiiaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia a ?aieao “I?ia?aie ?icaeoeo aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo
Oa?e?anueeiai ?aa?iio aei 2010 ?ieo”, ?ic?iaeaii? ca?aeii Iinoaiiae EIO
a?ae 18.05.1998?., ?675 ? “Eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy
Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?”.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ?ic?iaea eiie?aoieo
niinia?a oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ? ieaioaaiiy aeo?ao,
oi?aae?iiy ieie, a oaeiae aeyaeaiiy oa aiae?c ?aca?a?a aeiiii?? iniiaieo
aeae?a ?ano?n?a a i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie ia no/aniiio aoai? aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oa ae??oai? oae?
caaea/?:

· oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie;

· ?icaeoie iaoiae?a ieaioaaiiy aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iieneiai?
i?iaeoeoe??;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiae?a aeei?enoaiiy oe?iiaiai iaoai?cio a oi?aae?ii?
aeo?aoaie o i?iieneiaino?;

· ?ic?iaea a?eueo oi/iiai niiniao ioe?iee aeeiai?ee aia?aiaoaeoeaiino?;

· oaeineiiaeaiiy niiniao i?iaiicoaaiiy iaeeaaeieo aeo?ao i?iieneiai?
i?iaeoeoe??;

· ?icaeoie iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo a?ae
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy;

· ?ic?iaea niinia?a aecia/aiiy caeoe?a a?ae ia??iaee/ieo a?aeeeth/aiue
aeaeo?iaia?a??.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeaii? ?iaioe ? aeyaeaiiy
iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iieneiai?
i?iaeoeoe?? a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee, oai?aoe/ieo ?
i?aeoe/ieo aniaeo?a oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie oa ?o aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee.
Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue a noa?? oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie ia
ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoe?? a i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie.

Caaaeueia iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith ? iaoiaeieia?/iith
aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
aeiiii?no?a o noa?? oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie oa ?o aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee,
niaoe?aeueia aeiiii?/ia e?oa?aoo?a, caeiiiaeaa/? ? ii?iaoeai? aeoe
Oe?a?ie, iaoa??aee iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e ? neiiic?oi?a, aeai?
iia?aoeaiiai iae?eo ? noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino?. I?e ae??oaii? iinoaaeaieo
caaea/ aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?eioeeie nenoaiiiai aiae?co,
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/i? iaoiaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe iieyaa? o oaeiio:

— oaeineiiaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iieneiai?
i?iaeoeoe?? aeey oiia ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee;

— ?ic?iaeaii no?oeoo?ii-eia?/io noaio (iiaeaeue) neoaeae oi?aae?iiy
aeo?aoaie i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa nenoaio caaacia/aiiy
?ioi?iaoe??th ?? ?iaioe a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee;

— oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaee ieaioaaiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy aeo?ao ia iniia?
aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a;

— cai?iiiiiaaii oe?iiaee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie a i?iieneiaino?
ia iniia? o?ainoa?oieo oe?i ? ia?aeeiaeueiiai i?eaooeo;

— ?ic?iaeaii a?eueo aeinoia??iee o ii??aiyii? c ?nioth/ei niin?a ioe?iee
aeeiai?ee aia?aiaoaeoeaiino? ia iniia? ?iaeaen?a ci?ie ianyao
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? oa iieaciee?a iaeeai-oa aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy;

— oaeineiiaeaii niin?a i?iaiicoaaiiy iaeeaaeieo aeo?ao aeayeeo aeae?a
i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia iniia? aeyaeaieo ei?aeyoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae,
a oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii neeaae ? ?ic?aoiaaii no?oeoo?o iieacieea oe?ie
niiaeeaaiiy aeey ?yaeo ae?ia?a iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy;

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae aecia/aiiy ao?ao i?e a?aeeeth/aii? aeaeo?iaia?a?? ia
i?iieneiaeo ia’?eoao. Oaeineiiaeaii niin?a ioe?iee
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo a?ae aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui ?o
aeei?enoaiiy aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe i?iieneiaino?
ca ?aooiie: oaeineiiaeaiiy niinia?a aecia/aiiy aeo?ao oa ?o ieaioaaiiy;
iie?ioaiiy i?aai?caoe?? oa nenoaie ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie; aeyaeaiiy eiie?aoieo ?aca?a?a aeiiii?? ?ano?n?a,
ia?o ca ana – iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo; oaeineiiaeaiiy niiniao aecia/aiiy
ao?ao i?e a?aeeeth/aiiyo aeaeo?iaia?a??. Cai?iiiiiaai? a aeena?oaoe??
iaoiaee ? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ia
i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? c iaoith caaacia/aiiy ae??
iioeiaeueiiai aa?o?niiai iaoai?cio ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy io?eiaee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia
?yae? i?aei?e?inoa Oa?e?anueeiai ?aa?iio, cie?aia, AeI “OAIC”.
Iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee ii aecia/aiith aoaeoeaiino? aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy,
?ic?aooieo aaee/eie aeiiii?/ieo caeoe?a a?ae aeao?oeeoo aia?ai?ano?n?a
aeei?enoai? i?e ?aae?caoe?? “Eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy
Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?”.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. I?iaaaeaii e?eoe/iee aiae?c no/aniiai noaio
aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai a i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie ? iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy
ieie oa aecia/aii iniiai? iai?yiee ?o oaeineiiaeaiiy; aeyaeaii ?
i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai? /eiieee oi?ioaaiiy aeo?ao oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoai?ci
ioe?iee ?o aieeao ia iiaeeeao aaee/eio aeo?ao; ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i?
iniiae oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie ia iniia? o?ainoa?oieo oe?i oa
ia?aeeiaeueiiai i?eaooeo, oaeineiiaeaii niiniae aecia/aiiy aaee/eie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo a?ae i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?a ii
aia?aicaa?aaeaiith.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? aoee noaaeai? ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (i. Oa?e?a, 1998
? 1999 ??.), ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iioei?caoe?y aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a” (i.Oa?e?a, 1998
?.), ia III I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ia?eaoeia:
oai??y ? i?aeoeea” (i. sseoa, 1999?.), i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??: iaoea, oaoi?ea, oaoiieia?y, ina?oa,
caei?ia’y” (i. Oa?e?a, 1999?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeai? a
6 ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao aaoi?a caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,5 ae.a. Iniaenoi
aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 1,4 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Aeena?oaoe?y
i?noeoue 197 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, a oiio /ene? 38 oaaeeoeue,
13 ?enoie?a, a?ae?ia?ao?th c 119 iaeiaioaaiue oa aeiaeaoie c 9
oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aea?aii? oaie, aecia/aii iaoo oa
caaea/? aeena?oaoe??, ia’?eo oa caaaeueio iaoiaeeeo i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, ?o
oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Aiae?c ioe?iee aeo?ao oa ?aca?a?a ?o cieaeaiiy o
i?iieneiaino?” i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai, ye
iaeaaaeeea?oiai oaeoi?o a ae?yeueiino? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa,
cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th oaeoi??a cieaeaiiy aeo?ao oa iai?yie?a
aeiiii?? iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao.

Iieacaii, ui ?nioth/? eeaneo?eaoe?? caaaeueiiai neeaaeo aeo?ao
i?aei?e?inoa cia/iith i??ith ia a?aeiia?aeathoue no/aniei ?aae?yi. Iaie
cai?iiiiiaaii a?aeiia?aeio oaeineiiaeaio eeaneo?eaoe?th. I?e oeueiio o
aeo?aoe, ui aoiaeyoue o nia?aa?o?noue i?iaeoeoe?? aeeth/athoueny ?yae
aeaiaio?a, ye? ia?aaeaa/aii caeiiaie oa iinoaiiaaie A?, EIO. A
nia?aa?o?noue o?aaa, cie?aia, aeeth/eoe aeo?aoe, iia’ycai? c
iiaea?i?caoe??th iniiaieo oiiae?a, ui a noi? ia?aaeuothoue i’youe
a?aenioe?a ?o noeoiii? aaeainiai? aa?oino?, iieaoo iineoa
e?aaeeoii–o?iainiaeo onoaiia, aeo?aoe ii ai?n?? oe?iieo iaia??a oa ?i. A
a?oio aeo?ao, ye? a?aeoeiaeiaothoueny c i?eaooeo, aeiaeathoueny aeo?aoe
ii aeieao? iiaeaoeo ia ia?ooii?noue, aeea?aeaiaee, aeo?aoe ia oo?eiaiiy
i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy, aeeth/ath/e oo?eiaiiy oieaeeiaiaeo eiiiai?e, ui ?
ie?aieie th?eaee/ieie iniaaie, aeaye? aeieaoe o?ce/iei oa th?eaee/iei
iniaai oa ?i.

A oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee cia/aiiy oi/iino? ?ic?aooie?a aeo?ao oa
nia?aa?oino?, ?o cieaeaiiy ??cei c?inoa?. A ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao ia?aeoee
a?ae ?ic??ciaieo caoiae?a ii cieaeaiith aeo?ao aei oe?eani?yiiaaiiai,
eiiieaeniiai oi?aae?iiy ieie. Aeniea aoaeoeai?noue cieaeaiiy aeo?ao
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oei, ui, iai?eeeaae, aeey aeaeo?iaeaeaoia 2AE100 a
1998 ?ioe? i?e??no i?eaooeo i?e cieaeaii? nia?aa?oino? ia 1% aoa a 5,12
?ac a?eueoee, i?ae i?e ca?eueoaii? ia’?io ae?iaieoeoaa oeeo ae?ia?a ia
1%. Iiaeaoie aea ia i?eaooie neeaaea? a inoaii? ?iee 24-29% aeioiaeii?
/anoeie athaeaeaoo. I?iaiae?ciaaii ? aeyaeaii oaeiae iaea?eueo aoaeoeai?
a no/anieo oiiaao iaoiaee iae?eo aeo?ao.

Aaoi?ii aeeiiaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aaee/eie oa aeeiai?ee aeo?ao o
i?iieneiaino? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?. Ii ?o ?acoeueoaoao i?iaiae?ciaaii
?aioaaaeuei?noue oa no?oeoo?o aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iieneiai?
i?iaeoeoe?? ? i?iaeoeoe?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy a 1994-1997 ??. Ci?ie a
no?oeoo?? aeo?ao o i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, iniaeeai o ii??aiyii? c
aeaieie e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a, aeeeeeai? ia?o ca ana ??ceei ca?eueoaiiyi
oe?i ia iaoa??aee, iniaeeai ?iii?oi?, ? aeoaea iecueeei ??aiai iieaoe
i?aoe?. Ii?yae c oeei, ia no?oeoo?o aeo?ao ? ?aioaaaeuei?noue cia/iee
aieea ia? ?ioeyoe?y oa ?? oaiie, ci?ie a aii?oecaoe?ei?e iie?oeoe?.

A ?iaio? aeeiiaii aiae?c oaeoi??a cieaeaiiy aeo?ao, aeaii oi/i?oo, ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, ?o eeaneo?eaoe?th. ?icaeyiooi iniiai? ?aca?ae cieaeaiiy
aeo?ao, a o. /. iaoa??aeueieo. ?nioth/? iieacieee ieaioaaiiy aeo?ao
ne?ae, ia iaoo aeoieo, aeiiiaieoe oaeeie: aeeneiioiaai? aeo?aoe ca
aeeoo?aee oeeee ae?iao, aeeneiioiaai? aeo?aoe ca aeeoo?aee oeeee a
?ic?aooieo ia 1 a?i. oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe??. Na?aae iaeaaaeeea?oeo
?aca?a?a cieaeaiiy iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao ? aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y
iinoa/aeueiee?a oa aea?? ia oe?e iniia? i?eeiyoieo oe?i. Ca?ac aea,
iai?eeeaae, oe?ia aaiceio A95, ae?iaeaiiai a E?aiai/ooe? c
iecueeiye?nii? n??/enoi? oaoa?nueei? iaooe neeaaea? aeecueei 320$ ca
oiiio, a oe?ia iaaoeeueiaaiiai ?in?enueeiai aaiceio A-95R, aeinoaaeaiiai
a Aa?naeiio – o?eueee 153$. Oaea ae oe?iiaa neooaoe?y ia? i?noea ? ii
aaaaoueio ?ioeo aeaeao iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? iaoa??aei- oa
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy. Aeiaaaeaii, ui a ieo iaaeinoaoiuei a?aeia?aaeaii
eiiieaen ?acoeueoao?a oa aeo?ao, ye? iathoue i?noea i?e i?iaaaeaii?
aeacaieo caoiae?a. Oea iieacaei iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? a?ae i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?a
c aeiiii?? ?ano?n?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie a
i?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa?” ?ic?iaeaii iniiai? iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie a i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie. I?iaaaeaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo caeaaeiinoae oi?ioaaiiy oa ci?ie aeo?ao
aeicaieeei aaoi?o oaeineiiaeeoe nenoaio a?aeiia?aeieo oaeoi??a,
aeeth/eaoe aei ia? aeineoue aeooaeuei? a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eii?
aeiiii?ee /eiieee: nooi?iue caaaioaaeaiino? ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae,
no?oeoo?a oa ?ioaineai?noue ?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee, aoai aeeoo?aiai
oeeeeo oiaa?o, aeo?aoe ia ae?iaieoeoai yeiai oi?iothoueny. Iiaio
eeaneo?eaoe?eio noaio oaeoi??a oi?ioaaiiy aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai
i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??, cai?iiiiiaaio aaoi?ii, iaaaaeaii o ?iaio?.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee ioe?iee ae?? iniiaieo oaeoi??a ia aaee/eio iaeaooi?o
aeo?ao ia noai?aiiy oa ae?iaieoeoai eiie?aoieo oiaa??a o ii??aiyii? c ?o
no/aniei noaiii. Iai?eeeaae, oi?ioea aecia/aiiy ci?ie aeo?ao ii aoaiao
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeeeeo ia? oaeee aeaeyae:

? L ? L

Feii = 1 + i [( Ciji — Cija ) / Ni] / Niia , (1)

i=1 j=1 i=1 j=1

aea Ciji, Cija — aeo?aoe ii i-io i?iaeoo ia j-io aoai? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
oeeeeo, a?aeiia?aeii a ia??iae?, ui i?iaiico?oueny oa aaciaiio; Ni —
ia’?i ae?iaieoeoaa o ia??iae?, ui i?iaiico?oueny; Niia — nia?aa?o?noue
ae?iao o aaciaiio ia??iae?; i — ieoiia aaaa i-ai ae?iao a i?ia?ai?
i?aei?e?inoaa; ? — e?euee?noue ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a, ui
?icaeyaeathoueny; L — e?euee?noue aoai?a ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeeeeo.
Ni?anoaaeaiiy io?eiaieo aeaieo aeicaiey? aeyaeoe i?iaeoe, ii yeeo aoai
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeeeeo ci?ith?oueny ?, a?aeiia?aeii, i/?eo?oueny ci?ia
aeo?ao ia ?o aeeiiaiiy. Aiaeia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aoee c?iaeai? ? ii
a?aeiioaiith aei noaae?? aeiiii?/iiai oeeeeo aeeooy ae?ia?a.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea aeyaeaia i?eaeecia
no?oeoo?a aeo?ao (o a?aenioeao) ii ie?aieo noaae?yo aeiiii?/iiai oeeeeo
aeeooy aeayeeo ae?ia?a iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa (oaae.1).

Cia/iee aieea ia ci?ie ianyao aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoe?? ia?
nooi?iue caaaioaaeaiiy ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae. I?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ciaioaiiy ?o caaaioaaeaiiy, iai?eeeaae, aei
40 % aeeeeea? i?aeaeuaiiy ieoiieo aeo?ao iaeeaa oa aia?a?? ia
oaoiieia?/i? iio?aae ii o?aeoi?i?e oaoi?oe? — ia 11 %, ii aei?iaei?o
aaeineiaaeao — ia 12,6%, ii aeaeo?iii?e oaoi?oe? — ia 18,4 %. Aeacai?
aeo?aoe (a a?eaiyo) ii ie?aieo aeaeao i?iaeoeoe?? i?e ??ciiio
caaaioaaeaii? ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae iaaiaeyoueny a oaae.2 .

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ae?y aeaiiai
oaeoi?o oi/a e a?aeiineoueny i?aeoe/ii aei an?o noaoae eaeueeoeyoe??,
aea nooi?iue oe??? ae?? ??cia. Iniiai? ci?ie noinothoueny i?iii?oe?eieo
noaoae eaeueeoeyoe??, aei yeeo c aeayeeie caoaaaeaiiyie ie a?aeianee ?
noaooth “Aeo?aoe ia oo?eiaiiy oa aenieoaoaoe?th iaeaaeiaiiy”. Iaaaeee?
ci?ie aeo?ao iathoue i?noea ii iai?yieo noaooyo eaeueeoeyoe??.

Iaeaaaeeea?oeie iieacieeaie aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aia?ai?ano?n?a,
cie?aia ia iae?iaeiiii?/iiio ??ai?, ? aia?ai?ii?noue aaeiaiai
aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo. Ca?aeii ioe?iie “Eiiieaenii? aea?aeaaii?
i?ia?aie aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy

Oaaeeoey 1

No?oeoo?a aeo?ao ii noaae?yo aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ae?ia?a.

Noaoo? aeo?aoNoaae?? aeiiii?/iiai oeeeeo aeeooy
ae?iaoIAeAeE?Inai-?iiy1-e aoai ae?iaieoeoaaIiaea?i?caoe?y2-e aoai
ae?iaieoeoaaE?ea?-aeaoe?y iiaeae?Ne?iaeia oa iaoa??aee115871707379Iaeeai
oa aia?a?y364433Iieaoa i?aoe? c
a?ae?aooaaiiyie51119888Aii?oecaoe?y8910986A?ae?yaeaeaiiy63-1—Aeo?aoe ia
ia?eaoeia68454-?io? aeo?aoe1552344I?aenoiie100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %100
%

Oaaeeoey 2

Aeo?aoe ia IA? ii aeaeao i?iaeoeoe?? i?e ??ciiio caaaioaaeaii?
ae?iaie/eo

iiooaeiinoae.

Aeae i?iaeoeoe??Caaaioaaeaiiy ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae, %100806040Aeo?aoe
IA?, a?i.O?aeoi? O-150E3790392041104195Aaeineiaae
“Oe?a?ia”5,135,265,225,44Oeaiaio, 1 oiia25,226,325,827,9Iaai?oioii
“I?ioii-411”2,712,933,113,22I?aeoeiieee, 1
oen.oo.167,2173,0174,0162,3Eaaaeueia i?iaeoeoe?y, 1 oen.a?i.
43,843,848,152,7Oeoei?, 1 oiia13,114,014,915,4Iieiei, 1
oiia20,921,422,624,1

Oe?a?ie”, a oe?eiio, ca inoaii? ?iee AAI nei?ioeany cia/ii a?eueoa, i?ae
caaaeueia niiaeeaaiiy ia?aeiieo aia?ai?ano?n?a. Oea iaoiiaeei cieaeaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aia?ai?ano?n?a.

Aaaeeea?noue oa aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe ii aeiiii?? oa caa?aaeaiith
?ano?n?a, iino?eiiio nei?i/aiith aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoe??
iano?eii iio?aao? ?ic?iaee a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie.
A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii oe?iiaee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie a
i?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa? ia iniia? o?ainoa?oieo oe?i oa ia?aeeiaeueiiai
i?eaooeo. Caaaeueia noaia oeueiai iaoiaeo iieacaia ia ?en.1.

Oe?IIAEE IAOAI?CI OI?AAE?IIss AEO?AOAIE I?AeI?E?INOAA

Iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy i?eaooeo no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a i?aei?e?inoaa ca
aeiiiiiaith o?ainoa?oieo oe?i ia i?iaeoeoe aioo??oiueiai niiaeeaaiiy
Iioei?caoe?y aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoe?? i?iieneiaiai
i?aei?e?inoaa

Aecia/aiiy noia?ieo oiiaii-iino?eieo aeo?ao ia aeione i?iaeoeoe??

(OI = Ni — Vnoi)Aecia/aiiy noia?ieo i?iii?oe?eieo aeo?ao ia aeione
i?iaeoeoe?? (Vcoi)Aecia/aiiy noia?iiai ia?aeeiaeueiiai i?eaooeo ia
aeione i?iaeoeoe??Iioei?caoe?y i?iii?oe?eieo aeo?ao (V)Iioei?caoe?y
oiiaii-iino?eieo aeo?ao (OI)

?iciiae?e oiiaii-iino?eieo aeo?ao ii ae?iaie/eo i?ae?icae?eao
(OIi)?iciiae?e i?iii?oe?eieo aeo?ao ii i?ae?icae?eao, (Vi)?iciiae?e
ia?aeeiaeueiiai i?eaooeo ii i?ae?icae?eao (Iii)

Aecia/aiiy o?ainoa?oieo oe?i (o?ainoa?oii? aa?oino?) aioo??oiueiai
i?iaeoeoo ae?iaie/iai i?ae?icae?eo

(Oeoi = Vi + Iii)

Aecia/aiiy /enoiai i?eaooeo, ca?iaeaiiai i-i i?ae?icae?eii i?aei?e?inoaa
(Ii = Oeoi — OIi)

Iaenei?caoe?y /enoiai i?eaooeo, ca?iaeaiiai i-i i?ae?icae?eii
i?aei?e?inoaa

?en.1. Noaia oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie ca aeiiiiiaith o?ainoa?oieo oe?i oa
ia?aeeiaeueiiai i?eaooeo.

Iaoiae, ui i?iiiio?oueny, ia?aaeaa/a? ae??oaiiy o?ueio aca?iiiia’ycaieo
caaea/. Ii-ia?oa, cae?enith?oueny i?ea’ycea aei oe?iiaeo iieaciee?a
aeayeeo aeaiaio?a i?yieo aeo?ao, ye? oi?iothoueny a eiie?aoieo
no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?eao i?aei?e?inoaa. I?e cai?iaaaeaeaii? iaoiaeo
aeei?enoiaothoueny o?ainoa?oi? oe?ie, ui ?ic?aoiaothoueny aeey eiaeiiai
c oeeo i?ae?icae?e?a. Aiie aecia/athoue aeeaae eiaeiiai i?ae?icae?eo a
eiia/i? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoaa ? aeeth/athoue a naaa
i?iii?oe?ei? aeo?aoe ia aeaioiaeaiiy iaeiiai ae?iao (Vi) ?
ia?aeeiaeueiee i?eaooie, ui ciaoiaeeoueny ia iniia? caaaeueiiai ianyao
?aae?caoe?? a?aeiia?aeii aei ?ici??o aaee/eie Vi. ?ic?aooiee aaee/eie Vi
aeeiiothoueny, ye i?aaeei, i?yiei iaoiaeii ? iathoue aeineoue no?iaa
aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy, oi/i?noue ? a??ia?aei?noue yeiai aeoaea eaaei
ia?aa??eoe. Ia?aeeiaeueiee i?eaooie no?oeoo?iiai i?ae?icae?eo aeeth/a? a
naaa oaeiae ? /enoee i?eaooie, yeee ? aeaea?aeii ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa
oa iaoa??aeueiiai caioi/aiiy i?aoe?aiee?a i?ae?icae?eo. A ca’yceo c oeei
noaia, ui i?iiiio?oueny, caa??aa? caoe?eaaeai?noue i?ae?icae?e?a
i?aei?e?inoaa o ciaioaii? (iioei?caoe??) ci?iieo aeo?ao, a?ae /iai i?yii
caeaaeeoue ca?eueoaiiy ?o ia?aeeiaeueiiai i?eaooeo. Ii-ae?oaa, oey
iaoiaeeea ia?aaeaa/a? a?eueo no?iaee iae?e oiiaii-iino?eieo aeo?ao, ye?
a?aeiinyoueny aei eiie?aoiiai no?oeoo?iiai i?ae?icae?eo, ? a?ae ?ici??o
yeeo i?yii caeaaeeoue aaee/eia /enoiai i?eaooeo oeueiai i?ae?icae?eo.
Ii-o?ao?, iaoai?ci aoaeoeaii? ae?? cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee iaiiaeeeaee
aac aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiae?a ieaioaaiiy aeo?ao,
iniiai? iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy yeeo iaaaaeaii a ?iaio?.

Aeey oni?oii? ?aae?caoe?? ?ic?iaie iaiao?aeii oaeiae i?iaanoe
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie a i?iieneiaino?. Oey
caaea/a, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaea aooe ae??oaia ca aeiiiiiaith
niaoe?aeueiiai no?oeoo?iiai i?ae?icae?eo, yeee aoaea a?aeiia?aeaoe ca
i?aeaioiaeo oiia, i?aai?caoe?th oa cae?eniaiiy oni?oiiai oi?aae?iiy
aeo?aoaie. Iioeiaeuei?, ia iiaeyae aaoi?a, no?oeoo?a, caaea/? oa
ooieoe?? oaei? neoaeae oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie iaaaaeaii a aeena?oaoe??.
?iaioa neoaeae iiaeiia aooe iai?aaeaia ia iii?oi?eia ciai?oiueiai oa
aioo??oiueiai na?aaeiaeua, oaeaeea ?aaaoaaiiy ia an? ci?ie, ye? a ieo
i?ioiaeyoue, aaeaioaoe?th i?aei?e?inoaa aei ?o aeiia, aoaeoeaia
aeei?enoaiiy iayaieo ?ano?n?a, aeione eiieo?aioini?iiiaeii? i?iaeoeoe??,
a oaeiae ia aeeaa?neo?eaoe?th ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. Aoaeoeaia
ae?y oeueiai i?ae?icae?eo iio?aao? cia/ieo ianya?a aeiiii?/ii?
?ioi?iaoe??. A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii noaio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a i?aei?e?inoaa a oe?eiio oa
neoaeae oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie, cie?aia.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?ic?iaea niinia?a oaeineiiaeaiiy ioe?iee aaee/eie
aeo?ao ? ?aca?a?a ?o cieaeaiiy” aeyaeaii eiie?aoi? oeyoe cieaeaiiy
aia?aiaeo?ao a i?iieneiaino?, ?icaeiooi aeaye? niiniae anoaiiaeaiiy
aeo?ao ? oe?i ia iaoeiiaoae?aio i?iaeoeoe?th. Aeine?aeaeaii ?yae
aniaeo?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? niiaeeaaiiy IA?, aeeiai?eo aia?ai?iiino? AAI oa
i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? oa a Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?. AAI ?
i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai a Oe?a?i? a 1990 – 1998 ?ieao cieaeoaaeinue
oaeaeoa, i?ae ae?iaieoeoai ??cieo aeae?a IA?. Oae a 1997?. AAI cieceany
o ii??aiyii? c 1990?. aei ??aiy 41,8%, a ae?iaieoeoai aeaeo?iaia?a?? –
aei 59,63%. Aeo?aoe iaeeaa ? aeaeo?iaia?a?? ia 1a?i ca?eueoeeenue
a?aeiia?aeii ia 140% ? 154,17%. Aaoi?ii aeeiiaii oaeiae aiae?c
niiaeeaaiiy iniiaieo aeae?a IA? a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? oa
i?iieneiaino? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? (oaae. 3). Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui a
??cieo aeaea?aeao iaaiaeyoueny aeai? uiaei aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
IA?, ye? nooo?ai ( a 1,65 – 1,71 ?ac) a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith. I?e
oeueiio i/aaeaeii, ui /enaeuei? cia/aiiy a ciaiaiieeo iieaciee?a
aia?aiaoaeoeaiino? aa?ooueny c oi?ie 11 IOI noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino? ? ?
iaeiaeiaeie. ??cieoey ae iieyaa? a niiniaao ioe?iee aa?o?nieo cia/aiue
AAI ? i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeaye? aaoi?e i?eaiaeyoue aeai? i?i oa,
ui ii ??aith aia?aiaoaeoeaiino? a 1996?. Oe?a?ia

Oaaeeoey 3

Aeeiai?ea aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? ? i?iieneiaino?
Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?

Aeae IA?Aaee/eia niiaeeaaiiy ii ?ieao19901991199519961997Aeaeo?iaia?a?y,

a oen. eAoa.;1170843510188968497327444849454125624a % aei 1990
?.10087,0251,1138,3135,24Oaieiaa aia?a?y,

a Aeae;27445017256402761014111893867327190299a % aei 1990
?.10093,4236,9534,2026,20Iaeeai anueiai,

a o.o.i.;1349306214327003756118358531046201449a % aei 1990
?.100106,1856,0443,3845,96Aeaeo?iaia?a?y a i?iieneiaino?,

a oen. eAoa.;5068997205992117875921725602a % aei 1991
?.10040,6435,2634,04Oaieiaa aia?a?y a i?iieneiaino?,

a Aeae;12460641560421247340244035238a % aei 1991
?.10044,9837,9932,38Iaeeai anueiai a i?iieneiaino?,

a o.o.i.;13762687669413549500565294253a % aei 1991
?.10048,6435,9738,47Ci?ia ianyao i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a
%10096443639

a?aenoaaaea a?ae e?a?i ?N a 17,1 ?ac, a aia?ai?ii?noue AAI o ii??aiyii?
c oeei aea iieacieeii a N?N? ( 1991?. ) ca?eueoeeanue a 2,14 ?ac, oa ?
aeuith i?ae o ?aeiao? a 3 ?ace. An? oe? oeeo?e ?, ia iao iiaeyae, cia/ii
caaeuaieie. Aeeiiai? iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui oi/i?oo ioe?ieo
ci?ie aia?aiaoaeoeaiino? iiaeia iaea?aeaoe aeei?enoiaoth/e ia aaniethoi?
cia/aiiy, a ?iaeaene ci?ie AAI, ianya?a i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa
aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy. I?e oeueiio iaeeai?ii?noue(Oa ) iiaeia ciaeoe ye
Oa=?o/Ii, a aeaeo?i?ii?noue (Ya) – ye Ya=?yy/Ii. Ooo ?o – aeo?aoe
iaeeaa; ?yy – aeo?aoe aeaeo?iaia?a??. A yeino? Ii iiaea aooe i?eeiyoi
aaee/eio AAI, aai ianya i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Oiae?, iai?eeeaae,
ci?io (?iaeaen) iaeeai?iiino? i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa (?oaii) a 1997?
a ii??aiyii? c 1990? iiaeia ciaeoe, ye ?oaii97/90=Oaii97/Oaii90.
I?aenoaaeaoe a?aeiia?aei? neeaaeia?, iiaeia ciaeoe oeae ?iaeaen oae:

?oaii97/90=1/(Iii97/Iii90)·?o ii97/?o ii90. (2)

Aeey i?eeeaaeo iaie aecia/aii ia iniia? iioae?eiaaieo aeaieo ci?io
iaeeai?iiino? i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? a Oe?a?i? a 1997? a ii??aiyii? c
1990?. ?oii97/?oii90=115,7iei o.o.i. /213,6iei o.o.i.=0,5417.
Iii97/Iii90=0,485. Oiae? ?oaii97/90=0,5417/0,485=1,117. Oiaoi
iaeeai?ii?noue i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ca aeacai? ?iee c?inea ia 11,7%.
Aiaeia?/ii aecia/aii oaeiae ci?ie iaeeai- ? aeaeo?i?iiino? a
i?iieneiaino? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? a 1997 ?. a ii??aiyii? c 1991?.
?oaii97/91=0,3847/0,4062=0,947. ?yaii97/91=0,3404/0,4062=0,838. Oiaoi
?aaeuei? ?ic?aooiee, ye? aeeiiaii ca?aeii io?oe?eieo aeaieo, iieacothoue
ia ca?eueoaiiy, a cieaeaiiy iaeeai- oa aia?ai?iiino?. Iaeeai?ii?noue
1a?i i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? a iaeano? cieceeanue ia 5,3 %, a
aeaeo?i?ii?noue – ia 16,2%. Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii oaeiae aeo?aoe iaeeaa
oa aia?a?? ii aaeocyo i?iieneiaino? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co aeyaeaii aeaa’youe iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yie?a
cieaeaiiy aia?aiaeo?ao ia ??ai? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa oa /ioe?e a?oie
caoiae?a ii aeiiii?? IA? ia i?aei?e?inoaao. I?e oeueiio iaea?eueoa
/anoea niiaeeaaiiy aeaeo?iaia?a?? a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? i?eiaaea?
ia aeieth aneio?iiieo aeaeo?iaeaeaoi?a ( AAe ). I?e ?o i?iaeooaaii?
aeei?enoiaothoueny, ye iieacaee iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, caieaeai? cia/aiiy
??/ii? ?iaioe i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyi aeaeo?ii?eaiae?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aenieoaoaoe?? aieiaieo niiaeeaa/?a aeaee iai iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe
?aaeuei? cia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo aaee/ei. I?e oeueiio aeae?eaii o?noue
a?oi ia’?eo?a oa ia/eneaii ?o no?oeoo?o. ?icaeyiooi aieea o?eaaeino?
oaeoe/ii? ?iaioe ia aeiiii?/i? iieacieee aenieoaoaoe?? AAe oeio AE?
100LA4. Aa?o?noue ao?ao aeoeaii? aia?a?? a oe?iao 1989 ?. neeaaeaea
16,6% a?aeiinii oe?ie aeaeo?iaeaeaoia, a o 1999 ?ioe? – aaea 26,8% a?ae
oaia??oiuei? eiai oe?ie. Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?aooieiaa ieoiia aaaa ao?ao
aeoeaii? aia?a?? a?aeiinii oe?ie c?inea ia 61,45 %.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo ??ai?a aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaie
cai?iiiiiaaii i?aeo?ae ia iniia? iieacieea /enoi? aeeneiioiaaii?
aa?oino?, aeyaeaii neeaae a?aeiia?aeieo aeo?ao oa ?ic?iaeaii niiniae ?o
aecia/aiiy. I?e ii??aiyii? aa??aio?a i?ino?oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia
aaniethoio aaee/eio, a ci?io aeo?ao ii aa??aioao, /e o ii??aiyii? c
eiieo?aioii (N/ae ). Ine?eueee ii??aiyiiy cae/aeii aaaeaoueny ii ae?iaao
c iaeiaeiaei cia/aiiyi iaeaaaeeea?oiai ia?aiao?o, oi oeae iieaciee a
caaaeueiiio aeae? iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe ii iiaiio (i) ? aaciaiio (a)
aa??aioao oae:

O

N/ae = [(Ai? – Aa?)+(Ia? – Ii?)+(Ea? – Ei?)]/(1+r?)t , (3)

1

aea O – no?ie neoaeae, aai ia??iae aei ia?oiai eai?oaeueiiai ?aiiioo; A?
– aii?oecaoe?ei? a?ae?aooaaiiy a ?-io ia??iae?; I? – iioi/i? aeo?aoe; r
– noaaee aeeneiiooaaiiy; E – eai?oaeuei? aeo?aoe; t – i?ii?aeie /ano,
yeee a?aeae?ey? iiiaio ioe?iee a?aeiia?aeii? neeaaeiai? a?ae ii/aoeo
?ic?aooieiaiai ia??iaeo.

Aaoi? aeine?aeea oaeiae aeo?aoe ia iaeeai oa aia?a?th i?e ??cieo ia’?iao
ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeey i?eeeaaeo iaaaaeaia ci?ia iaeeai?iiino?,
aia?ai?iiino? oa iaeeaiaia?ai?iiino? i?e ??cieo ianyaao aeioneo
i?iaeoeoe?? a oeaiaioiiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

Aeey ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee aeo?ao ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe oe?io niiaeeaaiiy,
yea aeeth/a? an? aeo?aoe ca aeeoo?aee oeeee ae?iao. ?ic?iaeaii neeaae,
oa ?ic?aoiaaii no?oeoo?o oe?ie niiaeeaaiiy aeey ?yaeo ae?ia?a
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. Oae, iai?eeeaae, aeey aia?aaoe/iiai ia?iaiai eioea
A-50-39-440AI aeo?aoe ia iaeeai neeaaeathoue 88,24 % a?ae caaaeueii?
oe?ie niiaeeaaiiy.

Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii ? caeaaeiino? aaee/eie iaeeaaeieo aeo?ao a?ae
ia’?io ae?iaieoeoaa. Iaaaaeaii caeaaeiino? iiaii? nia?aa?oino? (Ni),
oeaoiaeo (Coe ), caaaeueiicaaiaenueeeo ( Cic ) aeo?ao ia 1 o oeaiaioo
i?e ??cieo ia’?iao ae?iaieoeoaa. I?e oeueiio ciaeaeai? a?aeiia?aei?
ei?aeyoe?ei? caeaaeiino?:

Coe=1290,6·N – 0,3607 (eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? R=0,984581); (4)

Cic=781,44·N – 0,5249 (R=0,98585); (5)

Ni=1238,2·N – 0,6695 (R=0,9937), (6)

aea N – ia’?i aeioneo i?iaeoeoe??.

Aeoaea aenie? eiao?oe??ioe ei?aeyoe?? na?ae/aoue i?i o?niee ca’ycie
aeacaieo noaoae aeo?ao a?ae ia’?io aeioneo oe??? i?iaeoeoe??. Aaoi?ii
aeeiiaii oaeiae aiae?c aaccaeoeiaino? ?yaeo ae?ia?a iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee aecia/aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo a?ae
i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?a ii aia?aicaa?aaeaiith. Aiie iathoue eiiieaeniee
aieea, ye ia ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo i?iieneiaeo eaiie, oae ?
?aa?ii?a ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa a oe?eiio. Oiio a ?iaio?
?icaeyaeathoueny niiniae aecia/aiiy ??cieo aeae?a aoaeoo. Aeeiiaii
a?aeiia?aei? ?ic?aooiee ia i?eeeaae? aeaeo?iaia?a??, ye iaea?eueo
aaaeeeai? e?i?ooth/i? neeaaeiai? IA? a Oe?a?i?. Iaeiae iniiai?
iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoenue ? aeey ?ioeo aeae?a IA?,
a a ?yae? aeiaaee?a – ? aeey ?ioeo aeae?a iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.

I?e ioe?ioe? aoaeoo o ae?iaie/eo eaieao aeei?enoiaothoueny oae?
iieacieee. Aeey ?ic?aooieo aaee/eie iiia?aaeiueiai aoaeoo –
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueia aa?o?noue aai caaaeai? aeo?aoe. Aeey aecia/aiiy
aaee/eie oaeoe/iiai aoaeoo – iae/ano?oa iana i?eaooeo. C iaoi? oi/ee
ci?o, ia iei?oiueiio aoai? oaeee iieaciee iaee?aua a?aeia?aaea?
?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?, ine?eueee iia?aoe??
c oe?iieie iaia?aie oa ?io? o?iainia? iia?aoe?? ua ia iaaoee oe?ieiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy a ae?yeueiino? a?o/eciyii? i?iieneiaino?. Ia ia?
nooo?aiai aieeao ia o?iainiaee noai a?eueoino? i?aei?e?inoa ?
aeoe?iioaaiiy.

I?e aecia/aii? aini?ic?aooieiaiai aoaeoo i?e ci?i? iioi/ieo aeo?ao e??i
o?aaeeoe?eii? noaoo? aeiiii?? aeaeo?iaia?a?? cai?iiiiiaaii oaeiae
a?aoiaoaaoe ciaioaiiy aii?oecaoe?eieo a?ae?aooaaiue ia iaeeieoeth
i?iaeoeoe?? (YA) ca oi?ioeith:

wmetafile8? ??D??? ????????
?????????????yyy????.??????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy ??»?? ???&?
?MathType??????u????????????-????? ‘??? E ??? I
??? ‹ ???u y??????

aea IA – ii?ia aii?oecaoe??, %; E1, E2 – aeo?aoe o niiaeeaa/a ia
i?eaeaaiiy aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy i?e ?nioth/iio cania? ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?e
aeei?enoaii? aia?aicaa??aath/iai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi aeo?ao
ia eiai iiioaae oa o?ainii?ooaaiiy, a?aeiia?aeii, a?i.; AA – ??/iee
aeione i?iaeoeoe?? o aaciaiio ia??iae?, oo/??e; A1EAoa – ianya aeioneo
i?iaeoeoe?? ia iaeio e?eiaao-aiaeeio aeaeo?iaia?a?? ii aaciaiio
aa??aioo, oo/EAoa; YEAoa – e?euee?noue caeiiiieaieo e?eiaao-aiaeei
aeaeo?iaia?a?? ca ??e. Aiaeia?/ii ?ic?aoiao?oueny aaee/eia cieaeaiiy
?ioeo aeaiaio?a oiiaii-iino?eieo aeo?ao ia iaeeieoeth i?iaeoeoe??.

Ciaioaiiy aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy aea? iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoeoe aeione
i?iaeoeoe?? i?e o?e aea anoaiiaeai?e iiooaeiino? aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy.
Oea, a naith /a?ao, aeicaiey? ciaioeoe iio?aao a aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaii?, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy eai?oaeueieo aeo?ao ia eiai i?eaeaaiiy.
Canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee ia i?eeeaae? ?iaioe iaeiiai c
oa?e?anueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aeiaaei, ui oaeoe/ia aaee/eia aoaeoo a?ae
i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?a ii aia?aicaa?aaeaiith cia/ii ia?aaeueea eiai
cia/aiiy o ii??aiyii? c o?aooaaiiyi o?eueee iaeiiai aeaeo caeiiiieaieo
aeo?ao – aeaeo?iaia?a?? i?e canoinoaaii? o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a
?ic?aooieo aoaeoo.

I?e aeao?oeeo? aia?a??, iniaeeai a oieiaeiee ia??iae, a Oe?a?i? iathoue
i?noea a?yeia? a?aeeeth/aiiy aeaeo?iaia?a??. Iaeiae caniae aecia/aiiy
ao?ao a?ae ia?aai?a o iiaea/? aeaeo?iaia?a?? i?aeoe/ii ia ?ic?iaeai?. A
?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny a?aeiia?aeia iaoiaeeea ?o ?ic?aooieo. O
i?iieneiaino? oae? caeoee i?ecaiaeyoue aei ciaioaiiy i?eaooeo ca ?aooiie
c?inoaiiy nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe?? oa eai?oaeueieo aeo?ao ia i?eaeaaiiy
aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy. Iaea?eueo? ao?aoe, ye iieacaee i?iaaaeaii? iaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iathoue i?noea a eeaa?iiio ae?iaieoeoa?. Aiie
aeyaeythoueny o caoaa?ae?ii? iaoaeo, a?aeo i?iaeoeoe??, iieiieao
oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy. O ca’yceo c oeei, iai caea?oueny, ui ne?ae
i?iaiaeeoe aea??eia? a?aeeeth/aiiy niiaeeaa/?a c o?aooaaiiyi iaea?eueo
nooo?aeo iioaioe?eieo ao?ao i?e ia?a?aao o iiaea/? aeaeo?iaia?a?? oai,
aea oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane oeueiai ia aeiioneathoue.

A?aeeeth/aiiy aeaeo?iaia?a?? i?ecaiaeeoue oaeiae aei nioe?aeueieo ao?ao
o iiaoo?. Iaeei ?c caeoe?a oaeiai ?iaeo iieyaa? o ciaioaii?
i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy a?eueiiai /ano. Ca?eueoothoueny oaeiae
aeo?aoe ia ?aiiio iiaooiai? oaoi?ee, e?euee?noue iiaooiaeo o?aai o
ceiiaee /an ia aoeeoeyo. A?aeiia?aei? niiniae ?ic?aooieo aaee/eie
nioe?aeueieo ao?ao oa ?o /enaeuei? cia/aiiy ii Oa?e?anueeiio ?aa?ii?
iaaaaeaii a ?iaio?.

Iniiai? aeniiaee ?iaioe

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeathoue iiaeeea?noue:

— i?aeaeueoe a??ia?aei?noue ?ic?aooieo aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai
i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??;

— oi/i?oa i?iaiicoaaoe aaee/eio oe?ie oiaa?o c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee;

— aecia/eoe iaiao?aeiee ianya ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey ia?niaeoeaiiai oa
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie o i?iieneiaino?;

— aea?aoe aeiiii?/ii aeioe?euei? aia?aaoe/i? iieacieee i?e i?iaeooaaii?
iiaeo aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieo ae?ia?a;

— aecia/eoe neeaae oa aaee/eio ao?ao i?e ia?a?aao o iiaea/?
aeaeo?iaia?a??.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Neeaeai A. N. Iaoiaeu ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe yia?ainaa?aaeaiey //
Aanoiee OAIO. Oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann e yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa. —
Oa?ueeia: OAIO. – 1998. — ?26. — N.218-221.

2. Neeaeai A. N. ?acaeoea iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey cao?aoaie a i?iiuoeaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa // Aanoiee OAIO. Oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann e yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa. — Oa?ueeia: OAIO. 1999. — ?27. — N.174-178.

3. Neeaeai A. N. Aiaeec niiniaia ii?aaeaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe yeiiiiee
yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia // A?niee OAeAO. – Oa?e?a: OAeAO. – 1999. — ? 2.
– N.86-89.

4. Neeaeai A. N. Cao?aoiua iaoiaeu oeaiiia?aciaaiey e ia?niaeoeau eo
eniieueciaaiey. // Aanoiee OAIO. Oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann e yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa. – Oa?ueeia: OAIO. – 1998. — ?26. — N.212-215.

5. Neeaeai A. N. No?oeoo?ii-eiae/aneay iiaeaeue neoaeau oi?aaeaiey
cao?aoaie e aa eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea // A nai?ieea iao/iuo o?oaeia
OAIO “Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey,
ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea. Auione 7, /anoue 4. – Oa?ueeia: OAIO. – 1999. —
N.267-270.

6. Neeaeai A. N., sseiaeaa A. E. Aeeyiea nieaeaiey yia?aiaieinoe ia
iae?i- e iee?iyeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu // A ca. “Ia?eaoeia: oai??y ?
i?aeoeea.” Iaoa??aee o?aouei? I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? 19-22 o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo. – Ee?a-sseoa: I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noai aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — N.230-231.

Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? iniiae aecia/aiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aia?aicaa??aath/eo
caoiae?a.

Aiioaoe??

Ne?aeai A.N. ?icaeoie iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy aeo?ao oa ?o ?aca?a?a ia
i?iieneiao i?iaeoeoe?th. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.01 – aeiiii?ea i?iieneiaino?, Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaee aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee oa ieaioaaiiy aeo?ao, a oaeiae
oi?aae?iiy ieie a i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eii?
aeiiii?ee. ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaeue neoaeae oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie a
i?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa?. Cai?iiiiiaaii oe?iiaee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy
aeo?aoaie ia iniia? o?ainoa?oieo oe?i ? ia?aeeiaeueiiai i?eaooeo.
Oaeineiiaeaii niin?a ?ic?aooieo aeeiai?ee aia?aiaoaeoeaiino?. ?ic?iaeaii
iaoiae aecia/aiiy ao?ao i?e a?aeeeth/aii? aeaeo?iaia?a?? ia i?iieneiaeo
ia’?eoao. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeiiii?/iee i?aeo?ae aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai ??aiy aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a aeaeo?iaeaeaoi?a.
?ic?iaeaii niin?a aecia/aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo a?ae
i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?a ii aia?aicaa?aaeaiith.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoiaee, aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea, ieaioaaiiy aeo?ao,
oi?aae?iiy aeo?aoaie, oe?iiaee iaoai?ci, aia?aiaoaeoeai?noue, i?iieneia?
ia’?eoe.

Skidan A.S. Development of methods for determination of expenses and
their reserves on industrial products. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a scientific degree of the Candidate of economical sciences
by specialty 08.07.01 — industrial economics. — Kharkiv State
Polytechnic University, Kharkiv, 1999.

The methods of economic evaluation and planning of expenses and
management by them in industry of Ukraine in conditions of
transformational economy are developed. The model of structure of
expenses management in industrial production is elaborated. The price
mechanism of expenses management on the transfer price base and marginal
profit is suggested. The method of calculation of energy dynamic
efficiency in is improved. The method of determination of losses when
unplugging an electric power on industrial objects is elaborated. The
economic approach for definition of optimal level of power metrics of
electric motors is developed. The method of definition of socio economic
effect of realization measures on saving of energy resources is offered.

Keywords: methods, economic evaluation, planning of expenses, expenses
management, price mechanism, efficiency of energy, industrial objects.

Neeaeai A.N. ?acaeoea iaoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiey cao?ao e eo ?aca?aia ia
i?iiuoeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.01 – yeiiiieea i?iiuoeaiiinoe. – Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

I?iaaaeai aiaeec cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai, eae aaaeiaeoaai oaeoi?a a
aeayoaeueiinoe i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey
iai?aaeaiee nieaeaiey cao?ao, aeeth/ay iaoa?eaeueiua. ?ac?aaioaia
eeanneoeeaoeey ninoaaa cao?ao ia i?iiuoeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, ioaa/athuay
nia?aiaiiui o?aaiaaieyi. Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeiiieiaiey
iieacaoaeae ieaie?iaaiey cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iiuoeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee oaeeie iieacaoaeyie, eae aeeneiioe?iaaiiua cao?aou ca
aeeciaiiue oeeee ecaeaeey, aeeneiioe?iaaiiua cao?aou a ?an/aoa ia 1 a?i.
oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee. I?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey oi?ie?iaaiey cao?ao a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia iniiaa niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu cao?aoioi?ie?othueo
oaeoi?ia iooai aeeth/aiey a iaa aeooaeueiuo a oneiaeyo
o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiie yeiiiieee oaeoi?ia: caa?ocea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiuiinoae; no?oeoo?a e eioaineaiinoue eiiiaaoeeiiiie iieeoeee; yoai
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a. ?ac?aaioai oeaiiaie iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey
cao?aoaie a i?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa ia iniiaa o?ainoa?oiuo oeai e
ia?aeeiaeueiie i?eauee. Oaeea oeaiu ?ann/eouaathony aeey eaaeaeiai
no?oeoo?iiai iiae?acaeaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey. Iie ii?aaeaeytho aeeaae
eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey a eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aeey oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee iiauo ?ac?aaioie iaiaoiaeeii niaa?oainoaiaaiea
iaoaiecia oi?aaeaiey cao?aoaie a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. N yoie oeaeueth
i?aaeeiaeaiu iioeiaeueiua, ii iiaieth aaoi?a, no?oeoo?a, ooieoeee,
caaea/e niioaaonoaothuaai iiae?acaeaeaiey. Yooaeoeaiay aai ?aaioa, eae e
ae?oaeo neoaea i?iiuoeaiiuo caaiueaa, o?aaoao cia/eoaeueiiai iauaia
yeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee. ?ac?aaioaia noaia eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iaania/aiey no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoee, oe?i, a o./.
neoaeau oi?aaeaiey cao?aoaie. Ii?aaeaeaiu eiie?aoiua iooe nieaeaiey
yia?aicao?ao a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Enneaaeiaaiu ?yae aniaeoia oiieeai- e
yia?aiiio?aaeaiey a Oe?aeia e Oa?ueeianeie iaeanoe. Iiae/a?eiooi, /oi
i?eaaaeaiiua a ioeoeeaeueiuo enoi/ieeao iieacaoaee yia?aiaieinoe AAI –
caauoaiu. Aeieacaii, /oi aieaa oi/ioth ioeaieo aeeiaieee
yia?aiyooaeoeaiinoe iiaeii iieo/eoue, eniieuecoy ia aaniethoiua
cia/aiey, a eiaeaenu eciaiaiey AAI, i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
yia?aiiio?aaeaiey.

Onoaiiaeaii aeaayoue aaaeiaeoeo iai?aaeaiee nieaeaiey yia?aicao?ao ia
o?iaia ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e /aou?a a?oiiu ia?ii?eyoee ii yeiiiiee OY?
ia i?aaei?eyoeyo. Iieacaii, /oi iniiaiuie iio?aaeoaeyie yeaeo?iyia?aee a
ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa yaeythony nenoaiu i?eaiaeia n eniieueciaaieai
aneio?iiiuo yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeae. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai o?iaiy
eo yia?aaoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae i?aaeeiaeai iiaeoiae ia iniiaa
eniieueciaaiey iieacaoaey /enoie oaeouae noieiinoe, ii?aaeaeai ninoaa
niioaaonoaothueo cao?ao e ?ac?aaioaiu niiniau eo ii?aaeaeaiey. Iieacaii,
/oi oaeaeueiue aan cao?ao ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth i?e yenieoaoaoeee
aneio?iiiuo aeaeaaoaeae ca 10 eao (1989-1999 aa.) au?in n 16,6 aei 28,6
i?ioeaioia.

Enneaaeiaaiu oaeaea cao?aou ia oiieeai e yia?aeth i?e ?aciuo iauaiao
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia yoie iniiaa iino?iaiu niioaaonoaothuea ei??aeyoeeiiiua
caaeneiinoe. Aeey iauaeoeaiie ioeaiee cao?ao ia i?iiuoeaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth eniieueciaai iieacaoaeue oeaiu iio?aaeaiey. ?ac?aaioaiu
ninoaa e niiniau ?an/aoa oeaiu iio?aaeaiey aeey ?yaea ecaeaeee
iaoeiino?iaiey. Enneaaeiaaii eciaiaiea aaee/eiu iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia io
iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa. Iino?iaiu niioaaonoaothuea ei??aeyoeeiiiua
caaeneiinoe iieiie naaanoieiinoe, iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e
iauaoicyenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Aunieea eiyooeoeeaiou ei??aeyoeee
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i iaee/ee oaniie nayce oeacaiiuo noaoae cao?ao e
iauaia auiouaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

I?aaeeiaeaiu iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa io
i?iaaaeaiey ia?ii?eyoee ii yia?ainaa?aaeaieth. Iie ieacuaatho
eiiieaeniia aeeyiea, eae ia ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe ioaeaeueiuo
i?iiuoeaiiuo caaiueaa, oae e ?aaeiiia e iaoeeiiaeueiiai oicyenoaa a
oeaeii. A ?aaioa ?anniio?aiu niiniau ii?aaeaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo
iaoiaeia yooaeoa.

I?e ioeaiea yooaeoa a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caaiueyo eniieueciaaiu
neaaeothuea iieacaoaee. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
yooaeoa – eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiay noieiinoue, aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu
oaeoe/aneiai yooaeoa –iieacaoaeue iannu i?eauee. Iainiiaaii, /oi ia
iuiaoiai yoaia oaeie iieacaoaeue a iaeaieueoae noaiaie ioia?aaeaao
?acoeueoaou oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a Oe?aeia, iineieueeo iia?aoeee
n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie e ae?oaea oeiainiaua iia?aoeee aua ia eiatho
aeieaeiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey a aeayoaeueiinoe ioa/anoaaiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu iaoeeiiaeueiiai yooaeoa
eniieuecoaony iieacaoaeue /enoie i?iaeoeoeee.

I?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey iioa?ue io ia?aaiaa a iiaea/a
yeaeo?iyia?aee. A i?iiuoeaiiinoe oaeie oua?a i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth
aaee/eiu i?eauee e eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao ia i?eia?aoaiea iai?oaeiaaiey.
Eae iieacaee i?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey, iaeaieueoea iioa?e eiatho ianoi
a eeoaeiii i?iecaiaenoaa. A yoie nayce oeaeaniia?acii auiieiyoue
auai?i/iua ioeeth/aiey yeaeo?iyia?aee n o/aoii iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuo
iioaioeeaeueiuo iioa?ue i?e ia?a?uaao a iiaea/a yeaeo?iyia?aee ia
iauaeoao, aaea ii oa?aeoa?o oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia oaeea ia?a?uau ia
aeiioneathony. Ioeeth/aiey yeaeo?iyia?aee aaaeoo oaeaea e nioeeaeueiui
iioa?yi a auoo. Niioaaonoaothuea niiniau eo ?an/aoa e /eneaiiua cia/aiey
oeacaiiuo aaee/ei ia i?eia?a Oa?ueeianeiai ?aaeiia i?eaiaeyony a ?aaioa.

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