I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

Oa?iii?euenueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y

?i. ?.ss.Ai?aa/aanueeiai

E TH O E E Na?oeaia Ieoaee?aia

OAeE 611.41.013

?ICAEOIE ? NOAIIAEAIIss OIIIA?AO?? NAEAC?IEE ETHAeEIE A ?AIIUeIIO
IA??IAe? IIOIAAIACO

14.03.01. — Ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?iii?eue — 1 9 9 8

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aoeiaeinuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? IIC
Oe?a?ie (AAeIA)

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?ooeye Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eiaaeuenueeee
Ieoaeei Iaaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? oa
iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo IIC Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Aieiaaoeueeee Aiae??e Noaiaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aiaoii??
ethaeeie, iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? ? a?noieia?? iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y
IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? (i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 30 aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 58.601.01 i?e
Oa?iii?euenuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? ?i.?.ss.Ai?aa/aanueeiai
IIC Oe?a?ie. Aae?ana: 280001, i.Oa?iii?eue, Iaeaeai Aie?, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?iii?euenueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i.?.ss.Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie
280001, i.Oa?iii?eue, Iaeaeai Aie?, 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 30 aa?aniy 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E ? o I. I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy ia naeac?ioe? oa ??
noaeeii?e i?aeoe? o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo oa ae?oae ?aiiueiai a?eo a inoaii?
?iee aeeiiothoueny aeineoue /anoi ( N.ss. Aeieaoeueeee 1991; I.E. Eou oa
ni?aaao., 1992).

Cia/ia i?noea a o??o?a?? ?aiiueiai a?eo iin?aeathoue i?e?iaeaeai? aaaee
naeac?iee ( aaaiac?y, aieac?y, a?iiieac?y, aeiaeaoeiaa naeac?iea,
aeiaeaoeiaa aeiey naeac?iee, aeoeath/a naeac?iea oa ?i. ), a?eueo?noue c
yeeo i?iyaeythoueny aaea a ?aiiueiio a?oaeiiio a?oe? (A.A. Aae?ia oa
ni?aaao., 1990 ).

Oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a aeeoy/?e o??o?a?? ciaeoee oae? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy ye nieaiiii?oia?ao?y, naeaeoeai? aaii- ? a?oa??ia?ao?y,
o?ainoia?e?eaeueia nieaiiii?oia?ao?y, oni?o aeeiiaiiy yeeo a cia/i?e
i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae oi/iiai ciaiiy iniaeeainoae oiiia?ao?? ? aa??aio?a
aoaeiae naeac?iee oa ?? noaeeiii? i?aeee.

Ia aeeaey/enue ia /enaeuei? ii?oieia?/i?, o?c?ieia?/i?,
aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa ee?i?/i?, a a inoaii? ?iee ?ioaineai?
?ioiia?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ieoaiiy i?i cia/aiiy naeac?iee aei
oaia??oiueiai /ano ? i?aaeiaoii oaaaeiiai aea/aiiy (O.N. Nie?iiaa, I.Ae.
ssaio?ia 1993).

Oea coiiaeaii neeaaei?noth no?oeoo?e, ??ciiiai?oi?noth ooieoe?e ?
iniaeeainoyie ?? e?iaiiinoa/aiiy.

Aeinoia??i? aeai? i?i iniaeeaino? aoaeiae ? oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee a
ia??iae aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo ae?ae iaiao?aei? aeey
aaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia
naeac?ioe? oa ?? noaeeii?e i?aeoe?. ?acii c oei, aiae?c iayaieo no/anieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui oe?eee ?yae oai?aoe/ii ?
i?aeoe/ii i?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue, a?aeiinii aia??ioiiia?ao??
naeac?iee aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei.

Oaeei /eiii, iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy ii?oiaaiaco naeac?iee, noaiiaeaiiy
?? oiiia?ao??, a oaeiae c’ynoaaiiy ii?oieia?/ieo ia?aaeoiia iiaeeeaiai
aeieeiaiiy i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae oa aa??aio?a aoaeiae ? oiiia?ao??
coiiaeai? iio?aaaie i?aeoe/ii? iaaeeoeeie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue ia eaoaae?? ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? ? ?
o?aaiaioii aaaaoi??/ieo iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie ii i?iaeai? “Aea/aiiy ?icaeoeo
? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? aioo??oi?o i?aai?a a i?aiaoaeueiiio iioiaaiac?
ethaeeie aeey aeyaeaiiy e?eoe/ieo ia??iae?a aeieeiaiiy i?e?iaeaeaieo
aaae ? aa??aio?a aoaeiae c iaoith ii?oieia?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o
aioaiaoaeueii? ei?aeoe?? oa i?io?eaeoeee”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei ?icii/aoa c
iaoith aea/aiiy /ano oa aeaea?aea caeeaaeee, caeiiii??iinoae ii?oiaaiaco
? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee ethaeeie i?ioyaii anueiai
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo a?ae ?? caeeaaeee ? aei ia?iaeaeaiiy.
Iinoaaeai? ne?aeoth/e caaaeaiiy:

1.Ooi/ieoe /an oa aeaea?aei caeeaaeee naeac?iee o ethaeeie.

2.Aea/eoe ii?oiaaiac ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee ethaeeie a
??ci? a?eia? ia??iaee aia??iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, anoaiiaeoe aa??aioe ??
aieioii?? ? neioii?? a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo.

3.I?ine?aeeoaaoe aeeiai?eo ci?ie oi?ie ? ?ici???a naeac?iee, aea/eoe
?icaeoie ?? o?enoth/iai aia?aoo.

4.C’ynoaaoe ii?oieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae, iaoai?ci oa aeaea?aei, a oaeiae
/an iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy aeayeeo i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae, aeiaeaoeiaeo
naeac?iie, aa??aio?a aoaeiae ? oiiia?ao?? i?aaio.

?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aoaea ni?eyoe ooi/iaiith ?
nenoaiaoecaoe?? ?nioth/eo a e?oa?aoo?? aeaieo i?i ?icaeoie ? noaiiaeaiiy
oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee ethaeeie i?ioyaii aia??iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa eiiieaenii aea/aii
ii?oiaaiac naeac?iee ethaeeie a?ae ?? caeeaaeee aei ia?iaeaeaiiy,
i?inoaaeaii ci?io oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei c noi?aeieie
i?aaiaie, oi?ioaaiiy o?enoth/iai aia?aoo naeac?iee a i?ioean?
aia??iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. Anoaiiaeaii ci?ie oi?ie oa ?ici???a naeac?iee,
aeyaeai? ia??iaee iineeaiiai ?? ?inoo oa a?aeiiniiai eiai niia?eueiaiiy
a i?aiaoaeueiiio iioiaaiac?. Io?eiai? aeai? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
anoaiiaeoe iniiai? aa??aioe oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee ethaeeie a
aia??iaaiac?, ?o /anoioo oa a?aei?io a?ae aei?ineeo. Iieacai?
ii?oieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae, ye? iaoiiaeththoue aeieeiaiiy aeayeeo
i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo naeac?iee. Ooi/iai? oa aeiiiaiai? aeai?
e?oa?aoo?e, ui noinothoueny aeaea?aea oa /ano caeeaaeee naeac?iee
ethaeeie.

Iiaei c ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? anoaiiaeaiiy
noaae?eiino? ?icaeoeo naeac?iee, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeae?eeoe o?e
noaae?? ?icaeoeo naeac?iee o ca?iaeeiaiio ia??iae?, a naia: a) ca/aoeiao
— aac iciae oeaieiii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??; a) noaae?th oeaieiii?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe??; a) noaae?th i?aaiii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

caeeaaeea naeac?iee c’yaey?oueny a e?ioe? 5-ai oeaeiy
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo o ca?iaee?a 8,0 — 9,0 ii
o?i’yii-eoi?eeiai? aeiaaeeie o aeaeyae? neoi/aiiy ee?oei iacaio?ie
caaeiuei? a?eae? oeoieo;

o ca?iaeeiaiio ia??iae? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo caeeaaeea
naeac?iee i?ioiaeeoue o?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo:

a) ca/aoeiao;

a) oeaieiii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??;

a) i?aaiii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??.

ca’ycee naeac?iee c non?aeieie i?aaiaie ooai?ththoueny aaea ia ?aii?o
noaae?yo, a a ?o oiau? aei caeeaaeee i?i?anoathoue e?iaiiini? noaeeie ?
ia?ae;

i?e?iaeaeai? aaaee ?icaeoeo aeieeathoue a ia?aaeie?aeiiio ia??iae?,
eiee naeac?iea ?icae?eaia /enaeueieie ai?iciaie ? u?eeiaie ia??aeei
iano?eueee aeeaieeie, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiaiiai a?aeoio?iaoaaiiy
/anoee i?aaio a?ae iaoa?einueei? caeeaaeee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeeaeththoue ? ?icoe?ththoue ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i ?icaeoie ?
noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee ethaeeie a ??ci? a?eia? ia??iaee
i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco, iieaaoothoue ?icoi?iiy iaoiaaiaco oa
iniaeeainoae ia?aa?ao aeayeeo caoai?thaaiue, ye? cono??/athoueny i?ney
ia?iaeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? a oiae? aeeiiaiiy aeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, cia/ii ?icoe?ththoue ? iiaeeaeththoue ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy
i?i aia??ioiiia?ao?th naeac?iee, ui aea? i?aenoaae aeey oeoia/aiiy
iiaeeeainoae aeayeeo a?aeoeeaiue a?ae ii?iaeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

Iaea?aeai? aeai? aoaeooue ni?eyoe aeyniaiith iaoai?cio oa i?e/ei
iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy aeayeeo i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae, aeiaeaoeiaeo naeac?iie
oa aa??aio?a ?? oiiia?ao?? ? iiaeooue neoaeeoe iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee
iiaeo iaoiae?a aioaiaoaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee.

Aeai? i?i iniaeeaino? oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee a ??ci? a?eia? ia??iaee
i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo aeei?enoiaothoueny a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ia eaoaae?ao aiaoii?? ethaeeie, oiiia?ao?/ii?
aiaoii?? ? iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa aeeoy/i? o??o?a?? oa a
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaai?aoi??yo ii?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaeiei c ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ciao?aeea
ii?oieia?/ieo ooai??a, ye? i?ney ia?iaeaeaiiy a?aeiinyoueny aei
i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ? ?ieiee iio?aaothoue iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy.
Iaea?aeai? ooi/iai? aeai? c oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee oa ?? noaeeiii? i?aeee
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeeoy/eie o??o?aaie i?e e?eoaaii? o?aaiiaaii?
naeac?iee.

Aeaeea?aoe?y eiie?aoiiai iniaenoiai aianeo aeena?oaioa o ?ic?iaeo
iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno. Aianie aaoi?a a
iaea?aeaii? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a ? iniiaiei ? iieyaa? o aeai??
iai?yieo, ianyao ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, iinoaiiaoe? iaoe oa
oi?ioethaaii? caaaeaiue, aiae?c? oa ocaaaeueiaii? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a, iaa?oiooaaii? aeniiae?a i?aoe?, a oaeiae o i?aeaioiaoe?
iaoeiaeo aeaieo aei ioae?eaoe??.

Aeaioiaeaii 19, aea/aii ? iienaii 59 na??e a?noieia?/ieo c??c?a
ca?iaee?a ? ia?aaeieiae?a. Aeaioiaeaii, aea/aii oa iienaii 39 oioia?ao?e
iae?i- oa i?e?ii?aia?ao?a ? ieanoe/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e. Oeyoii cae/aeiiai
? oiieiai i?aia?oaaiiy, a oaeiae aeaioiaeaiiy oiiia?aoiaiaoii?/ieo
c??c?a aea/aii 57 iae?ii?aia?ao?a naeac?iee oa noi?aeieo i?aai?a ieiae?a
? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.

Ai?iaaoe?y iaoa??ae?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? ii oiaeo
aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aenoieiaeo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ni?a?ia?oiee?a Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii?
iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 ?ie?a, iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/ai?e 100-??//th a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy i?ioani?a I.A.Oo?eaae/a
(*a?i?aoe?, 1994), tha?eaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e
50-??//th *a?i?aaoeueeiai iaaee/iiai ?inoeoooo(*a?i?aoe?, 1994),
tha?eaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo Aoeiaeie (*a?i?aoe?,
1994), iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 60-??//th a?ae aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy i?ioani?a A.I.E?ooeyea (*a?i?aoe?, 1996) oa can?aeaiiyo
iaeaniiai a?aeae?eaiiy iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa AAA ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a.
O?aaiaioe aeena?oaoe?? aoee oaeiae aeieeaaeai? ia I-io Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
eiia?an? AAA ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a a i.?aaii-O?aie?anueeo a 1994 ?ioe?.

Aeena?oaoe?y ai?iaiaaia ia ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? iaoeiai? eii?n??
Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? oa eieaeoea?a eaoaae?
ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??, a?noieia?? ? aia??ieia??, iia?aoeaii? o??o?a??,
oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? oa iaeaniiai a?aeae?eaiiy iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa
aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a ? ai??ieia?a oa IAe? iaaeeei-aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai
IIC Oe?a?ie 30 o?aaiy 1998 ?ieo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o 19
ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao c yeeo: 4 – o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 15 – o
iaoa??aeao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia aea?aeaaiith
iiaith ia 167 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
?icae?eo 1 — no/ani? oyaeaiiy i?i ?icaeoie ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao??
naeac?iee ethaeeie a ?aiiueiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco (iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e),
?icae?eo ?? – iaoa??aeo ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noaoenoe/ii?
ia?iaee, ?icae?eo ??? — ?acoeueoao?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?icae?eo ?O
— iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiae?a oa nieneo
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e , ui i?noeoue 196 aeaea?ae, c yeeo 124 i?aoe?
aaoi??a e?a?i NIAe oa 72 ?iicaiieo aaoi??a. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia ?
aeieoiaioiaaia 49 i?e?i- oa iae?ioioia?ao?yie i?aia?ao?a oa 4
oaaeeoeyie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia 74
na??yo a?noieia?/ieo c??c?a ca?iaee?a ? ia?aaeieiae?a, a
oaeiae ie?aieo ae?eyiie

naeac?iee ieiae?a ? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo. Iae?ineii?/ieie iaoiaeaie aea/aii
67 ia’?eo?a.

Iaoa??ae aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy io?eioaaee c a?iaeieia?/ieo oa
aeooa?nueeeo a?aeae?eaiue ee?i?/ieo iieiaiaeo aoaeeie?a i.*a?i?aoe?, a
oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaee eieaeoe?th na??e a?noieia?/ieo c??c?a eaoaae?e
ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??.
I?aia?aoe ieiae?a aaaith a?eueoa ye 500,0 a oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
aea/aee aaciina?aaeiuei o iaeaniiio aeeoy/iio iaoieiaiaiaoii?/iiio
a?aeae?eaii?. Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aeei?enoaii
eiiieaen no/anieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeeth/aa aeaioiaeaiiy oa
aea/aiiy na??eieo a?noieia?/ieo ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?/ieo c??c?a,
i?aia?oaaiiy, i?e?i- oa iae?ineii??.

C iaoith aea/aiiy oi?ie oa neioii?? naac?iee ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ?icaeoeo
aeei?enoaee iaoiae ieanoe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe??, ui aeaa iiaeeea?noue
aea/eoe aca?iia?aeiineie naeac?iee c ioi/oth/eie i?aaiaie o o?eaei??iiio
cia?aaeaii?.

Aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ieanoe/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e ei?enooaaeeny niiniaii
N.?.Eaaaaeeeia (1914), o iiaeeo?eaoe?? I.A.Oo?eaae/a (1967).

A?e ia’?eo?a aecia/aee ca o?i’yii-eoi?eeiaith aeiaaeeiith (OEAe) oa
o?i’yii-i’yoeiaith (OIAe) aeiaaeeiith ca?aeii c oaaeeoeyie A.A.Caaa?ceia
(1939), A.I.Iaooaia (1959), A.I.Oaaoiaa, TH.I.Oaiiaaeiaa (1969).

Ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiiy o?enoaaee o 10-12% ?ic/ei? oi?iaeueaeaaeaeo ia
i?ioyc? 12-15 aei?a, i?ney /iai ?o ia?aiineee o 3-5% ?ic/ei
oi?iaeueaeaaeaeo, aea aiie e caa??aaeeny.

A?aoiaoth/e ae?aaeenoo eiinenoaioe?th ca?iaee?a ? ia?aaeieiae?a ia?oeo
aeaio i?nyoe?a, ui cao?oaeiyei i?iaiaeeoe ?o aei??thaaiiy aac o?enaoe??,
oi ?o nii/aoeo o?enoaaee ia i?ioyc? iaei??? aeiae o 5-6% ?ic/ei?
oi?iaeueaeaaeaeo.

Na??? a?noieia?/ieo c??c?a aioiaeee ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoith iaoiaeeeith.
Aei i?iaaaeaiiy /a?ac aaoa?ath nie?o?a i?aia?aoe oioaeueii oa?aoaaee
ai?iei ea?i?iii, a aaea ia i?aaeiaoiiio nee? c??ce aeioa?aiaoaaee
aaiaoienee?i-aiceiii, i?e?iooeneiii, oa ca iaoiaeii Aai-A?cii.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy. A ?acoeueoao?
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui caeeaaeea naeac?iee
c’yaey?ouenny a e?ioe? 5-ai oeaeiy aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo o
ca?iaee?a 8,0-9,0 ii aeiaaeeie. A oeae /an aiia i?aaenoaaeaia
iioiauaiiyi oa?o iacaio?iieo ee?oei aei?naeueiiai iaciaano??th ?ici??aie
17 o 30 iei. Iniiaio iano caeeaaeee neeaaeathoue ae??ai?, e?oae?,
iaeii?iaei? ee?oeie, i?ae yeeie iaia? u?eei, ii?iaeiei, a oaeiae
e?iaiiinieo noaeei. O ca?iaee?a 10,0 ii aeiaaeeie ii/eia?oueny oeaieiia
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y caeeaaeee naeac?iee c ooai?aii?i ii ?? ia?eoa??? oa?o
aeoyaiooeo ee?oei, a a oeaio?aeueieo a?aeae?eao c’yaey?oueny a?oia
ee?oei a?eueo ?ioaineaii caaa?aeaieo. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeathoue
i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui aei?naeueiee iaciaano??e ia aeaiiio aoai?
?icaeoeo ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ia i?inoi ye caaeith a?eaeo oeoieo. Ooo
iathoue i?noea neeaaei? ? iaei aea/ai? i?ioeane, iia’ycai? c caeeaaeeith
? ?icaeoeii naeac?iee, i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, aaeeeiai naeueieea ?
naeueieeiai? noiee. Iaoa??aee i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaee i?aenoaae
aeae?eeoe o?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo naeac?iee o ca?iaeeiaiio ia??iae?, a
naia: ca/aoeiao noaae?th, noaae?th oeaieiii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??, noaae?th
i?aaiii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??. A oa?? iacaio?ie, ui c’?aeio? caeeaaeeo c
no?ieith naeueieeiai? noiee c’yaeythoueny a?oie ee?oei oeio
a?eo?iaeano?a, ye? ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye ii/aoeiao noaae?th naeac?ieiaiai
aaneoeiaaiaco ? aaiiiiaco.

Ia ii/aoeo ia?aaeie?aeiiai ia??iaeo (ia?aaeieiaee 16,5 — 18,0 ii
aeiaaeeie), ui a?aeiia?aea? ii/aoeo 7-ai oeaeiy aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai
?icaeoeo caeeaaeea naeac?iee ia anueiio i?ioyc? c’?aeiaia c aei?naeueiei
iaciaano???i, aea aaea ia e?iaoeue 7-ai oeaeiy ii/eia?oueny ??
a?aeoa?oaaiiy a?ae no?iee naeueieeiai? noiee. Iaeii/anii a oiau?
caeeaaeee aeieeathoue ae?eyiee ?ic??aeaeaiiy iacaio?ie c iiyaith ooo
aeaiaio?a e?ia?, a a nioaeoe? iacaio?ie iaeaooi?o ai??o ooai?ththoueny
iaeeiie? e?ia’yi? ino??aoe?, a ee?oeie iacaio?ie, ui ?o ioi/othoue
aeoyaothoueny ? c /anii neoaeaoue iaoa??aeii aeey ooai?aiiy no?iie
iaeaooi?o e?iaiiinieo noaeei. A oeae aea /an a oeaio?aeueieo a?aeae?eao
caeeaaeee i?iaeiaaeothoueny i?ioeane eai?ey?ecaoe?? c iiyaith ooo ee?oei
iie?aiiaeueii? oi?ie, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ii/aoie aeieeiaiiy
aiaeioae?aeueii? aenoeeee aioo??oiueii?aaiiiai noaeeiiiai ?onea
naeac?iee.

O ia?aaeieiae?a 21,0 — 25,0 ii aeiaaeeie i?iaeiaaeo?oueny i?ioean
a?aeoio?oaaiiy caeeaaeee naeac?iee a?ae no?iee iaeiai i/a?aaeiiiai
i?oea. Iaeii/anii ia caeeaaeoe? ooai?ththoueny ??cii? aeeaeie oa oi?ie
u?eeie ? ai?icie, ye? ?ieiee a?aeae?eythoue iiethni? a?aeae?ee caeeaaeee
a?ae iniiaii? iane i?aaio. A oeo aeiaaeeao eiee /anoee iaoa??inueei?
naeac?iee, ui a?aeae?eeeeny ia caaacia/othoueny aeinoaoi?i
e?iaiiinoa/aiiyi, aiie ?icniieoothoueny, ui aeia?a aeaeii ia na??eieo
a?noieia?/ieo c??cao, a a aeiaaeeao caa?aaeaiiy iiaiioe?iii?
aaneoey??caoe?? a?aeoio?iaai? /anoee iaoa?einueei? naeac?iee c /anii
iiaeooue ia?aoai?thaaoeny o aeiaeaoeia? naeac?iee, ui ia??aeei
con??/athoueny i?ney ia?iaeaeaiiy. Oi?ia caeeaaeee naeac?iee iienoaaiiai
a?eo aoea o?eeooiith c aeiaaeeiith 600 ? oe?eiith 180-200 iei.

Aoaeiaa caeeaaeee naeac?iee ia 8-io oeaei? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai
?icaeoeo (ia?aaeieiaee 26,0 — 31,0 ii aeiaaeeie) oaeaeei ci?ith?oueny. A
oeae /an a ?? oeaio?aeueieo a?aeae?eao ciaioo?oueny e?euee?noue u?eueii
?icoaoiaieo ee?oei, ia oii? ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ?icaaeoaeaieo o
aeaeyae? n?oee u?eei, ui caiiaiai? iaaaeiaeanoaie. Aac noii?ao iacaai?
u?eeie yaeythoueny ia?aeiiith aioo??oiueii?aaiiith noaeeiiith nenoaiith
naeac?iee. Iaeii/anii, a?oie ee?oei, ui eaaeaoue ii ia?eoa??? caeeaaeee,
aeoyaothoueny a aeiaaeeio, i???iooth/enue ia?aeaeueii ?? iiaa?oi?, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i ii/aoie oi?ioaaiiy eainoee.

O ia?aaeieiae?a 31,0 — 40,0 ii aeiaaeeie (9-e oeaeaeaiue) caeeaaeea
naeac?iee i?ae iaoa?oe?iaaia aaeeeith e?euee?noth aac’yaea?ieo
a?eo?ioeeo?a. A oeae /an o ?? ai?ioa ii/eiathoue i?i?inoaoe aaeee?
noaeeii? noiaao?e, ye? ?icaaeoaeo/enue a i?aai?, ooai?ththoue aaeeeo
e?euee?noue oiieino?iieo noaeei. Iniiaia iana naeac?iee ia iienoaai?e
noaae?? ?icaeoeo neeaaea?oueny c ia’?iieo ee?oei, ye? o ia?aaeieiae?a
40,0 — 42,0 ii aeiaaeeie a oeaio?aeueieo a?aeae?eao caeeaaeee
ooai?ththoue oiiaiuee? a?ae?inoee o aeaeyae? i?cae?thaaoi? n?oee. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiuei? noaae?? ?icaeoeo aa?oi?e iiethn naeac?iee
iaaeeaea?oueny aei e?ai? /anoee ia/?iee oa e?aiai iaaeie?ieea, ui aea?
i?ea?ae aeae?eeoe a i?aai? o?e neioii?/ieo iiey: oeoieiaa, ia/?ieiaa oa
iaaeie?ieeiaa.

Ia e?iaoeue ia?aaeie?aeiiai ia??iaeo (ia?aaeieiaee 46,0 — 79,0 ii
aeiaaeeie) naeac?iea iiai?noth a?aeiaaeiaaia a?ae no?iee iaeiai
ia?eoiiaaeueiiai i?oea, caeeoath/enue ca’ycaiith c iei ca aeiiiiiaith
nioaeee iacaio?ie iaeano? iaeaooi?o ai??o. Inoaii? a oeae /an aia?oa
aiie iathoue aeaeyae iaaeeaiei? ai?icie, a yeo anooia? naeac?ieiaa
a?oa??y. Ia 11-io oeaei? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo aeiaaeeia
naeac?iee aei??aith? 2 ii, oiaueia 1 ii ? oe?eia — 2 ii. Eainoea
naeac?iee a oeae /an neaai ?icaeiooa ? ooai?aia iaeiei oa?ii ieineeo
aeoyaiooeo ee?oei, ye? i?noeyie a?oiothoueny a oyae?, ui ni?yiiaai? a
aeeaeio i?aaio. C?inoaiiy iane naeac?iee cae?enith?oueny ca ?aooiie
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? i?i?inoeo e?iaiiinieo noaeei, o?aaaeoe ?
e?ia’yieo ino??aoe?a.

Ia ii/aoeo ie?aeiiai ia??iaeo a?aeiaaeiaaia naeac?iea eaaeeoue a e?aiio
i?ae?aaa?’? o caieiooiio i?inoi??, ui iaiaaeaiee ccaaeo i?aeeaie
ae?ao?aaie, e?aith ie?eith oa iaaeie?ieeii, caa?oo — e?aith /anoeith
ia/?iee ? ?aaa?ii-ae?ao?aaiaeueiith iacooith, cna?aaeeie — aeiii oeoieo
oa no?ieith iaeiai ia?eoiiaaeueiiai i?oea, a cieco — oianoith eeoeith.
Aa?oi?e iiethn naeac?iee eaaeeoue aeeae/a aei o?aaoiaiai noiaao?a, a
ieaei?e — aeeae/a aei ?aa?iai? aeoae. A oeae /an a naeac?ioe? iiaeia
aeae?eeoe aea? iiaa?oi?, aeaa e?a? oa aeaa iiethne. Iaea?eueoo ieiuo
caeia? aa?oiy iiaa?oiy, yea aei??aithaaea aeiaaeei? iicaeiaaeiuei? in?
i?aaio. Aiia caaaeaee aoea iiaa?iooa aei ieaeiuei? iiaa?oi? e?ai? /anoee
ia/?iee, /a?ac ui ?? ne?ae iaceaaoe ia/?ieiaith. Ia oeth iniaeea?noue
oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee ii/aoeo ie?aeiiai ia??iaeo caa?ioa oaaao
Ae.Ooaeaeaa?aeuaa (1984). Aa?oi?e iiethn naeac?iee i? a iaeiiio
niinoa?aaeaii? ia iaa u?eei ? ai?icai, a ieaei?e — caaaeaee aeaeyaeaa
cacoa?aiei. C a?eii iaeaeaa iiethne ? e?ae naeac?iee caeaaeaeothoueny ca
?aooiie ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? u?eei ? ai?icai, /a?ac ui, /ei iaioee a?e
aeeoeie, oei naeac?iea aeaeyaea? a?eueo cacoa?aiith ? oei a?eueoa oain?a
cono??oe aeiaeaoeia? naeac?iee. A a?eueoino? niinoa?aaeaiue naeac?iea
i?iaeoo?oueny a?ae ??aiy IX ?aa?a aei ieaeiueiai e?ath XI ?aa?a.

Ai?ioaie naeac?iee i?eeiyoi iaceaaoe u?eeio ia ?? a?noea?aeuei?e
iiaa?oi? aea aoiaeyoue oa aeoiaeyoue e?iaiiini? noaeeie oa ia?ae, ui
ooai?ththoue naeac?ieiao i?aeeo. Oi?ia oa ?ici??e inoaiiuei? caeaaeaoue
a?ae oa?aeoa?o ?icaaeoaeaiiy e?iaiiinieo noaeei oa iniaeeainoae
o?enoth/iai aia?aoo. Ne?ae ?ic??ciyoe aeiaa? oa aocuee?, ei?ioe? oa
oe?ie? noaeeii? i?aeee. sseui aeiaaeeia i?aeee ia?aaeuo? ?? oe?eio, oi a
oaeeo aeiaaeeao ai?ioa naeac?iee ne?ae iaceaaoe eiiiaeoieie. A
a?eueoino? niinoa?aaeaiue aeaiaioe noaeeiii? i?aeee ??aiii??ii
?iciiae?eyeeny ii an?e aeiaaeei? ai??o, a ?ieiee aoiaeeee a i?aai, i?ae
aeaiia ?yaeaie. Oe? ciao?aeee aeaee i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui e?euee?noue
naeac?ieiaeo ai??o iiaea eieeaaoeny a?ae 2-o aei 4-o. sseui ia ii/aoeo
ie?aeiiai ia??iaeo aaaa naeac?iee noaiiaeea 8 ia, oi aaea iai?ee?ioe?
5-ai i?nyoey aiia aei??aithaaea 12 ia, ui aeaco? ia aeoea?caoe?th
a?noiaaiaoe/ieo i?ioean?a.

Ia e?iaoeue ie?aeiiai ia??iaeo naeac?iea iaaeo? c e?aith
?aa?iai-ae?ao?aaiaeueiith iacooith, oeoieii, iaaeie?ieeii ?
i?aeoeoieiaith caeicith, a oaeiae iaiaeiaith eeoeith.

Oiiia?ao?y naeac?iee iiaiia?iaeaeaieo nooo?ai ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ??
oiiia?ao?? a i?ciueiio ie?aeiiio ia??iae?. Aa?oi?e ?? iiethn
ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? a?ae YIII i?ae?aa?iaiai i?ii?aeeo aei ieaeiueiai
e?ath XI ?aa?a. O noa’?eo?a a?ao?ii?oii? noaoo?e naeac?iea eaaeeoue
a?eueo aa?oeeaeueii.

Ia an?o aea/aieo i?aia?aoao naeac?iea eaaeaea ?io?aia?eoiiaaeueii, ca
aeeeth/aiiyi ai??o, eoaee i/a?aaeia i?eiee ia caoiaeeea, a ia?aoiaeeea
ia nonoaei? i?aaie, ooai?thth/e ca’ycee. O iiaiia?iaeaeaieo o?enoth/ee
aia?ao naeac?iee i?aaenoaaeaiee oiiaiueeeie, ei?ioeeie eenoeaie
i/a?aaeie, ui iaaaaeothoue ie?aeo. A a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a naeac?iea iaea
o?e iino?eieo ? o?e iaiino?eieo ca’ycee. Aei iino?eieo ie a?aeianee
oeoieiai-naeac?ieiao, ae?ao?aaiaeueii-naeac?ieiao oa
ae?ao?aaiaeueii-iaiaeiao. Aei ia iino?eieo ca’ycie ne?ae a?aeianoe o?,
ye? ia caaaeaee cono??/athoueny, a naia: i?aeoeoieiao-naeac?ieiao,
naeac?ieiai-ie?eiao ? naeac?ieiai-iaiaeiao. I?e oe?ie?e ? ei?ioe?e
a?oaei?e ee?oei? iaea i?noea i?i?iaeueia e?euee?noue ca’ycie, a i?e
aeaeiaaeai?e a?oaei?e ee?oei? caaaeaee cono??/aeeny ? aeiaeaoeia?
ca’ycee. A?aei?/ai? iniaeeaino? aoaeiae o?enoth/iai aia?aoo naeac?iee
caeaaeaoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o ? oaeaeeino? ?? a?aeiaaeoaaiiy a?ae
aei?naeueiiai iaciaano??th oa aoi?eiiiai c?iuaiiy caeeaaeee c
ia???oaeueiith i/a?aaeiith.

Oi?ia naeac?iee ia i?ioyc? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo
ci?ith?oueny a?ae o?eeooii? aei iaaeueii?. Ui noino?oueny ?ici???a
naeac?iee iiaiia?iaeaeaieo, oi ia a?eueoino? aea/aieo i?aia?ao?a
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iicaeiaaei?o oa iiia?a/ieo ?? ?ici???a o ??cieo ia’?eo?a
aoee iaiaeeiaeiaeie. Naeac?iee o ae?ii/i? noao? aoee iaioeie, i?ae o
/ieia?/i? noao?. Aeiaaeeia naeac?iee iiaiia?iaeaeaieo aei??aith? 46,1
ii, oe?eia — 30,1 ii ? oiaueia — 15,5 ii. Aaaa naeac?iee iienoaaiiai
a?eo nyaaea 9,6 a?. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaae naeac?iee iiaiia?iaeaeaieo aei
caaaeueii? aaae o?ea noaiiaeoue a na?aaeiueiio 0,3% — 0,4%. I?ioyaii
ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy aaaa naeac?iee c?inoa? a 10 ?ac?a.

Eainoea, o?aaaeoee oa e?ioaoe/i? oie?eoee o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ?icaeioo?
aeineoue neaai ? i?iaeiaaeothoue ?icaeaaoenue ia i?ioyc? ia?oeo ?ie?a
i?ney ia?iaeaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, ae?oa?e ia??iae aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo naeac?iee
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oi?ioaaiiyi ?? ye i?aaio a oe?eiio, oi/a iaa?oue ?
i?ney ia?iaeaeaiiy i?ioeane ?? ?icaeoeo, ?inoo oa oneeaaeiaiiy aoaeiae
ua aeiaai i?iaeiaaeothoueny. I?ae aieeaii iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a iiaea
cao?eioaaoenue ?icaeoie ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a naeac?iee, ye? a?aenoath/e
aai aeia?aaeaeath/e na?e ??no, aeathoue a aeao?i?oeaiiio noai? ??ci?
aa??aioe ? a?aei?iiino? oi?ie, iieiaeaiiy, ?ici???a, a ?ieiee
i?ecaiaeyoue aei aeieeiaiiy aeayeeo i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae oa aa??aio?a
oiiia?ao??. A oeueiio ieai?, ia ia?oiio i?noe? ii /anoio? aeieeiaiiy
aia??iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue oi?ie naeac?iee ? /anoi/eiaa naeac?iea.
Ii/eiath/e aaea c ia?aaeie?aeiiai ia??iaeo iaie ciaeaeaii /enaeuei?
ai?icie ? u?eeie ia e?ayo oa iiaa?oiyo i?aaio, ye? ?ieiee aoee
iano?eueee aeeaieeie, ui iaei i?noea iiaia a?aeoio?oaaiiy /anoee i?aaio
a?ae iniiaii? eiai iane.

Ae?oaei aeaea?aeii aeieeiaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo naeac?iie iiaeooue aooe
iaaeeeoeiai caeeaaeai? ae?eyiee naeac?ieiai? oeaieie, ui ?iceeaeai? ii
no?ioe? naeueieeiai? noiee, a oaeiae ia i?aaiao, ui iaaeothoue c
caeeaaeeith naeac?iee. Oe?, ?iceeaeai? ae?eyiee naeac?ieiai? oeaieie
i?ioiaeyoue noaae?th o?c?ieia?/ii? ?aaeoeoe??, yea iiaea
niia?eueithaaoenue, aai iaa?oue iiai?noth coieiyoenue i?ae aieeaii
iaaaoeaieo ciai?oieo ? aioo??oi?o oaeoi??a. Ia?aaeoeiaai? aei
ia?iaeaeaiiy ae?eyiee naeac?ieiai? oeaieie, iath/e iiaiioe?iio
aaneoey?ecaoe?th ? yaeythoueny ii?oieia?/iith iniiaith aeey ooai?aiiy
aeiaeaoeiaeo naeac?iie, oi/a iiaeooue ?icniieooaaoenue ? ia i?ioyc?
ia?oeo ?ie?a aeeooy.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaiae?coaaaoe ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeanieo
aia??ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?i ?icaeoie ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao??
naeac?iee a ?aiiueiio iioiaaiac? oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo, ?, ni?anoaaeaoe
?o c aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e, iiaeia c?iaeoe ne?aeoth/? aeniiaee:

A E N I I A E E

1.Caeeaaeea naeac?iee aia?oa aeyaeaia o ca?iaee?a 8,0 — 9,0 ii
aeiaaeeie.

2.O ca?iaeeiaiio ia??iae? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo iiaeia aeae?eeoe
o?e noaae?? ?caeoeo naeac?iee:

ca/aoeiao;

oeaieiii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??;

i?aaiii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??.

3.O aioo??oiueioo?iaiiio ia??iae? caeeaaeea naeac?iee ia iaaeo?
aaciina?aaeiuei c ae?ao?aaiith, a?aeae?eaia a?ae ia? e?aith /anoeith
ia/?iee, /a?ac ui ?? aa?oith iiaa?oith i?aaeeuei?oa iaceaaoe ia
ae?ao?aaiaeueiith, a ia/?ieiaith.

4.??no ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee ia ??cieo aoaiao
aioo??oiaioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo cae?enith?oueny aneio?iiii ii no?ieao oa
?ioaineaiino?.

5.O ia?o?e iieiaei? i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco a?oa??? oa aaie
naeac?iee ?icaeaathoueny cia/ii ?ai?oa i?ae ?io? ii?oieia?/i? eiiiiiaioe
i?aaio, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?o aecia/aeueio ?ieue ia aeai?e noaae??
?icaeoeo.

6.I?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie aioo??oiuei-oo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo a naeac?ioe?
ia?aaaaeathoue i?ioeane ?icaeoeo no?iie, a no?oeoo?ia i?aai?caoe?y oa
?icaeoie ia?aio?ie i?iaeiaaeothoueny ? i?ney ia?iaeaeaiiy.

7.Iaei??th c ii?oieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo naeac?iee ? ooai?aiiy
u?eei oa ae??cie ia ?? iiaa?oi? a i?ioean? a?aeiaaeoaaiiy caeeaaeee a?ae
no?iee iaeiai ia?eoiiaaeueiiai i?oea, ui ia??aeei i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iiaii? o?aaiaioaoe?? i?aaio c ooai?aiiyi aeiaeaoeiaeo naeac?iie.

8.Oeie ai??o naeac?iee caeaaeaoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o aoiaeaeaiiy oa
?icaaeoaeaiiy aeaiaio?a noaeeiii? i?aeee, aei neeaaeo yei? a iieiaei?
niinoa?aaeaiue aoiaeeoue ? oa?no i?aeoeoieiai? caeice. Ie ?ic??ciy?ii
ai?ioa iiaa?aoiaa? oa aeeaie?, eiiiaeoi? oa oe?ie?, iaeii?yaei?,
aeaio?yaei? oa aaaaoi?yaei?.

9.O iiaiia?iaeaeaieo naeac?iea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ae?aaeaiith
?iaeea?aeoaeueiith i?ieea?noth, yea i?iyaey?oueny ??ciiiai?oi?noth
oi?ie, ?ici???a, iane, neaeaoioii?? oa neioii??.

10.Ca’yceiaee aia?ao naeac?iee o ieiae?a oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ?icaeiooee
aeineoue neaai, ? i?ney ia?iaeaeaiiy aeeoeie i?iaeiaaeo? ?icaeaaoeny.

11.Ii?oieia?/iith aacith aeey aeieeiaiiy i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae naeac?iee ?
ii?ooaiiy i?ioean?a o?c?ieia?/ii? ?aaeoeoe?? iaaeeeoeiai caeeaaeaii?
naeac?ieiai? oeaieie.

NIENIE IAOEIAEO I?AOeUe,

IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Eoeaiueiaa N.I., Eoeaiueia E.A., Ethoee I.Ae. Aeae?eueea
caoaaaeaiue i?i iniaeeaino? aia??iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo o?enoth/iai aia?aoa
naeac?iee //A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. -1997. — ? 16. – N. 27
– 29.

2.Eoeaiueiaa N.I. ?icaeoie ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ai??o naeac?iee a
?aiiueiio iioiaaiac? ethaeeie //A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie.
1998. — ?8. – N. 86-89.

3.Eoeaiueiaa N.I. ?icaeoie ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ca’ycie naeac?iee
ethaeeie a ?aiiueiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco //Aoeiaeinueeee iaaee/iee
a?niee -1997.- ?1.- N.44 – 45.

4.Ethoee N.I., Ooiei A.?. Aeaye? caoaaaeaiiy uiaei iaoai?cio aeieeiaiiy
aeoe?ni?ieo naeac?iie //Aoeiaeinueeee iaaee/iee a?niee. – 1998.- ? 1. –
N.116-119.

5.Ethoee N.I., Ethoee I.Ae. Aei ieoaiiy i?i nieaiic. //Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? ”A/ai? Aoeiaeie — ia?iaei?e ioi?ii? caei?ia’y”.-
*a?i?aoe?: AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie.- 1994.- N.215.

6.E?ooeye A.I., Eieiuoe A.?., Ethoee N.I. Aeaye? ii?oieia?/i? aeai? i?i
iioiaeaeaiiy aeoe?ni?ieo naeac?iie. // ”Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??”.-
?aaii-O?aie?anuee: iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y IIC Oe?a?ie. — 1994.- N.96-97.

7.Ethoee N.I. Aei ieoaiiy i?i aaaee ?icaeoeo naeac?iee oa aia??ieia?/i?
ia?aaeoiiae ?o aeieeiaiiy //Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? ”Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie ii?oiaaiaco”.- *a?i?aoe?: AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie. — 1994.- n.
114-115.

8. Ethoee N.I., Ethoee I.Ae., Na?noiithe ?.O. Aia??iiaeueiee
aaneoeiaaiac naeac?iee // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiio. ”Iieiae? iaoeiaoe? —
ioi?ii? caei?ia’y.” – *a?i?aoe?: AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie. — 1994.- N. 69-70.

9. Ethoee N.I. Aei ieoaiiy i?i «iinonieaiaeoii?/iee a?iinieai?ci»
//Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiio.”Iieiae? iaoeiaoe? — ioi?ii? caei?ia’y.” –
*a?i?aoe?: AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie. — 1994.- N.69.

10.Ethoee N.I. ?icaeoie ? no?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy noaeei naeac?iee
ethaeeie a ?aiiueiio iioiaaiac? //A?ieia?y, iaaeeoeeia, aeieia?y. Oace
iaoe. eiio. – *a?i?aoe?: AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie. — 1996.- N.48.

11.Ethoee N.I., Neo?/ainueeee I.I., Ooiei A.?. ?icaeoie ? oiiia?ao?y
naeac?ieiai? aaie a ?aiiueiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie //A?ieia?y,
iaaeeoeeia, aeieia?y. Oace iaoe. eiio. – *a?i?aoe?: AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie. —
1996.- N.70.

12. Ethoee N.I. A?o?oaeoii?ea e?iaiiinieo noaeei naeac?iee a
aia??iiaeueiiio ia??iae? ?icaeoeo //Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiio.”Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie ii?oiaaiaco”. – *a?i?aoe?: AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie. — 1996.- N.206.

13.Ethoee N.I. Oiiia?aoiaiaoii?/i? iniaeeaino? naeac?iee ieiae?a oa
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiio. ”Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
ii?oiaaiaco.” – *a?i?aoe?: AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie. — 1996.- N.206-207.

14. Ethoee N.I. Aia??iiaeueiee ?icaeoie o?enoth/iai aia?aoa naeac?iee //
Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiio. ”Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ii?oiaaiaco.”- *a?i?aoe?:
AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie. — 1996.- N.286-288.

15.Ethoee N.I. Aia??ioiiia?ao?y naeac?iee a ?aiiueiio iioiaaiac?
ethaeeie // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiio. ”Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ii?oiaaiaco”.-
*a?i?aoe?: AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie. — 1996.- N.113-114.

16.Ethoee N.I. Aeae?eueea caoaaaeaiue i?i iaoai?ci aeieeiaiiy aeayeeo
i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae naeac?iee // ”Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy o??o?a??”. Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? Ee?a-Oiaeueieoeueeee-A?iieoey. — 1997.-
N.152-153.

17.Eoeaiueiaa N.I., Ethoee I.Ae., Neo?/ainueeee I.I., Ooiei A.?.
O??o?a?/ia aiaoii?y naeac?ieiai? aaie iiaiia?iaeaeaieo // ”Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy o??o?a??”. Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
Ee?a-Oiaeueieoeueeee-A?iieoey. — 1997.- N.153-155.

18. Ethoee N.I. Aeaye? iniaeeaino? oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee ieiae?a //
Oeno. — 1997.- ?1.- N.130 – 133.

19. Einaae/ ss., Ethoee N., Iaioae O., ?yaee N. Aei ieoaiiy
iaoai?cio iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy nieaiico. //2-e I?aeia?iaeiee eiia?an
nooaeaio?a ? iieiaeeo a/aieo. Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??,
Oa?iii?eue: — 1998. – N.50 – 51.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ethoee N.I. ?icaeoie ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee ethaeeie a
?aiiueiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth
14.03.01 – ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y. – Oa?iii?euenueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia
aeaaeai?y ?i.?.ss.Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie, Oa?iii?eue, 1998.
Caoeuathoueny 19 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, ye? i?noyoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
ia iaoa??ae? c 141 i?aia?ao?a ca?iaee?a, ia?aaeieiae?a, ieiae?a oa
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ethaeeie.

I?iaaaeaii iae?ineii?/i? oa na??ei? a?noieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye?
aeeth/athoue cae/aeia oa oiiea i?aia?oaaiiy, aeaioiaeaiiy ieanoe/ieo ?
a?ao?/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e, ?i”?eoe?th noaeei c ianooiiith ei?ic??th,
oa?aoaaiiy a?noieia?/ieo c??c?a ai?iei ea?i?iii, i?e?iooeneiii,
aaiaoienee?i-aiceiii.

Caoeua?oueny eaiaeeaeaonueea aeena?oaoe?y, yea i?noeoue a?aeiiino? i?i
eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee
ethaeeie ia anueiio i?ioyc? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo a?ae ??
caeeaaeee ? aei ia?iaeaeaiiy aeeoeie aeeth/ii. Io?eiaii iia? aeai?
a?aeiinii oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee a ??ci? a?eia? ia??iaee i?aiaoaeueiiai
iioiaaiaco. Ciaeaeaii ii?oieia?/i? ooai?aiiy, ui yaeythoueny aeaea?aeii
aeieeiaiiy aeayeeo i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae oa aa??aio?a oiiia?ao?? naeac?iee,
ui ia? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy i?e e?eoaaii? o?aaiiaaii? naeac?iee.
Aeae?eaii e?eoe/i? oa?i?iaoe?ei? ia??iaee oa iieacaii iaoai?cie
iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy aeayeeo aiiiae?e naeac?iee. Iaea?aeai? aeai?
iiaeooue aooe iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoiae?a aioaiaoaeueii?
i?io?eaeoeee oa iinoiaoaeueii? o??o?a?/ii? ei?aeoe?? i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae
naeac?iee o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo oa ae?oae ?aiiueiai a?eo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: naeac?iea, aia??iiaeueiee ?icaeoie,
oiiia?ao?y, i?e?iaeaeai? aaaee, ca’yceiaee aiia?ao.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ethoee N.I. ?acaeoea e noaiiaeaiea oiiia?aoee naeacaiee /aeiaaea a
?aiiai ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca. ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie
noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.01 —
ii?iaeueiay aiaoiiey. Oa?iiiieueneay ainoaea?noaaiiay iaaeeoeeineay
aeaaeaiey ei.E.ss.Ai?aa/aaneiai IC Oe?aeiu, Oa?iiiieue, 1998.
Caueuathony 19 iao/iuo ?aaio, eioi?ua niaea?aeao ?acoeueoaou
enneaaeiaaiee ia iaoa?eaea 141 i?aia?aoia ca?iaeuoae, i?aaeieiaeia,
ieiaeia e iiai?iaeaeaiiuo /aeiaaea.

I?iaaaeaiu iae?ineiie/aneea e na?eeiua aenoieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey
aeeth/athuea iau/iia e oiieia i?aia?e?iaaiea, ecaioiaeaiea ieanoe/aneeo
e a?aoe/aneeo ?aeiino?oeoeee, eiuaeoeeth ninoaeia n iineaaeothuae
ei??iceae, ie?aoeaaiea aenoieiae/aneeo n?acia ai?iui ea?ieiii,
iee?iooeneiii, aaiaoieneeei-yiceiii.

Caueuaaony eaiaeeaeaoneay aeenna?oaoeey a eioi?ie eceiaeaiu aeaiiua i
eiiieaeniii eco/aiee ?acaeoey e noaiiaeaiey oiiia?aoee naeacaiee
/aeiaaea ia anai i?ioyaeaiee yia?eiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey io aa caeeaaeee e
aei ?iaeaeaiey ?aaaiea aeeth/eoaeueii. Iieo/aiu iiaua aeaiiua
ioiineoaeueii oiiia?aoee naeacaiee a ?acee/iua aic?anoiua ia?eiaeu
i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaca. Auyaeaiu ii?oieiae/aneea ia?aciaaiey, eioi?ua
neoaeao enoi/ieeii aicieeiiaaiey iaeioi?uo a?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ieia e
aa?eaioia oiiia?aoee naeaciee, /oi eiaao aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea
aeey ea/aiey o?aaie?iaaiiie naeacaiee. Auaeaeaiu e?eoe/aneea
oa?ieiaoeeiiiua ia?eiaeu e iieacaiu iaoaieciu aiciiaeiiai aicieeiiaaiey
iaeioi?uo a?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ieia naeacaiee.

Iieo/aiiua aeaiiua iiaoo neoaeeoue iniiaie aeey ?ac?aaioee iiauo
iaoiaeia aioaiaoaeueiie i?ioeeaeoeee e iinoiaoaeueiie oe?o?ae/aneie
ei??aeoeee a?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ieia naeacaiee o iiai?iaeaeaiiuo e aeaoae
?aiiaai aic?anoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naeacaiea, yia?eiiaeueiia ?acaeoea, oiiia?aoey,
a?iaeaeaiiua ii?iee, nayci/iue aiia?ao.

SUMMARY

Lutik S.M. “Development and formation of spleen topography in early
period of human ontogenesis”. Manuscrip. Dissertation for defence of
scientific degree of master of medical science. Speciality 14.03.01 —
Normal anatomy, Ternopol State Medical Academy n. I.Gorbachevskiy,
Ministry of Health of Ukraine.Ternopol, 1998. There are 19 scientific
works to be asserted. They contain experimental investigations results
of 141 preparations of embryo, prefetus, fetus, and newborn. Macroscopic
and serial hystological investigations were conducted.They included a
usual and thin preparation, producinggraphic and
plasticreconstructions, injection of vessels with following corrosion,
staining of hystological sections by boric carmine, picrofuchsin,
hematoxilin-eosin.

A candidate d?ssertation is depended et contains information about a
complex study of development and formation of the thopography of the
human spleen all along the length of the embrionyc development ,
starting from its primodium and up till the baby’s birth inclusively.
Completely new findings were obtained pertaining the topography of the
spleen during different periods of prenatal ontogenesis. We found
new morphological formations wich were the cause of the origin of some
congenital defects variants of the spleen topography et is of practical
significance in the treatment of a traumatized spleen. Both critical and
termination periods were marced ont. Mechanisms of possible origin of
some congenital defects were shown. The obtained findings may serve as
a basis for elaborating new methods of antenatal prophylaxis and
postnatal surgical correction of congenital spleenic defects in neonates
and children of early age .

Key words: spleen, embryonic development, topography, ligamentous
apparatus, congenital defects.

PAGE

PAGE 24

Похожие записи