9

I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Oa?iii?euenueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y

?iai? ?. Ai?aa/aanueeiai

?INIEA OAOssIA OAAeI??AIA

OAeE: 616-053.31-071.3:612.215.5

?ICAEOIE ? NOAIIAEAIIss OIIIA?AO?? IAIA?II? OA IAI?AIAIA?II? AAI

A I?AIAOAEUeIIIO IA??IAe? IIOIAAIACO ETHAeEIE

14.03.01. — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?iii?eue – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oaeai?iaenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

IAOEIAEE EA??AIEE: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aieiaaoeueeee
Aiae??e Noaiaiiae/, iaaee/iee oaeoeueoao Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aiaoii??
ethaeeie, iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa a?noieia??.

IO?Oe?EI? IIIIAIOE:

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aieeia Einoyioei Noaiaiiae/,
Oa?iii?euenueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y ?i. ?.Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e a?noieia??, oeeoieia?? oa aia??ieia??.

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Noa/aiei Ethaeieea Ieaenaiae??aia,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??.

I?IA?AeIA ONOAIIAA:

?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a
ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “19” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 1200 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.58.601.01. o Oa?iii?euenuee?e
aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? ?i. ?.Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 46001, i.Oa?iii?eue, Iaeaeai Aie?, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?iii?euenueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i.?.Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie (46001,
i.Oa?iii?eue, aoe.?onueea, 12).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “19” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?o I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aea/aiiy ii?oieia?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae i?aaiiaaiaco
ethaeeie, iaiao?aeia aeey i?aaeeueiiai ?icoi?iiy noo? oeo neeaaeieo
i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a ia??iae aioaiaoaeueiiai aeeooy
(A.A.Eiaaoieeia, 1990; ?.?.Aia?ee, 1995; A.N.Aieiaaoeueeee, A.I.E?ooeye
oa ?i., 1997; A.I.E?ooeye, A.?.I?iiy?a oa ?i., 1998). O iianyeaeaii?e
i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? e?ea??a ia??aeei cono??/athoueny iiieeee a
ae?aaiinoeoe? oa e?eoaaii? ?yaeo iaaeoa, a iniia? yeeo ? iaciaiiy
oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo i?aai?a c a?aooaaiiyi ??cieo aa??aio?a
aoaeiae oa oiiia?ao?? an?o ?o no?oeoo? o iaai? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo
i?aai?cio. Oi/ia ciaiiy iioiaaiaco aaiicieo noaeei ? ii?oieia?/iith
iniiaith aeey ?icoi?iiy iaoai?ci?a aa??aio?a oa aaae ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae
aeey aioaiaoaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee ?yaeo caoai?thaaiue, ye?
cono??/athoueny i?ney ia?iaeaeaiiy (A.I.E?ooeye, A.I.Ieoae oa ?i., 1992;
A.I.Eoiu?ue, A.I.Niieeeia e ae?., 1998).

Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae caeeaaeee, ?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy
oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/ieo aca?iia?aeiioaiue iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai c
noi?aeieie i?aaiaie oa aiaoii?/ieie no?oeoo?aie aeeeeea? cia/iee ?ioa?an
? iaaoaa? aaeeeiai oai?aoe/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy (I.N.Ne?eiieeia,
A.E.Oaieoueei e ae?., 1992; ?.E.Aaeaea, 1998, A.I. E?ooeye, 1999).

Aia??iiaeueiee ?icaeoie aaiicieo noaeei oa noaiiaeaiiy ?o oiiia?ao??
i?eaa?oa? oaaao aaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a (E.E.Aia?ee, A.A.Oaa/aiei,
A.A.*a?eania, 1991; A.E.Cieeia, 1995; A.?.I?iiy?a, TH.O.Aooai?e/oe oa
?i., 1995; A.A.*a?eania, I.I.Oaa/aiei oa ?i., 1998). Iaeiae,
iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeea ooieoe?iiaeueia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai aiie ia noaee ia’?eoii anaa?/ieo ii?oieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. A e?oa?aoo?? inoaii?o aeanyoe ?ie?a iaeaea a?aenooi?
niaoe?aeuei? ?iaioe uiaei ?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai ai?iaeiaae i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco
ethaeeie. Iaaaaeai? aeai? oi?eathoueny eeoa ie?aieo ia??iae?a ?icaeoeo
iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ? ia aeathoue iiaiiai oyaeaiiy i?i
aeeiai?eo ?o noaiiaeaiiy i?ioyaii anueiai i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo
iioiaaiaco ethaeeie. Ii?oieia?/i? aniaeoeae oe??? i?iaeaie iaaeinoaoiuei
aea/ai? aai ia aeine?aeaeai? cian?i, a aeaye? c ieo caeeoathoueny
aeeneon?eieie. Aeoiee a/aieo c oeeo ieoaiue aeiaaathoue iiaeaeueoi?
?ic?iaee ? ooi/iaiiy, cie?aia, i?i /an caeeaaeee iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai, aia??ioiiia?ao?th aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeei, i?i
aeaea?aea ooai?aiiy oa ii?oieia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai.

Iaea?eueo aaaeeeaei, ia iao iiaeyae, ? oa, ui i?ooi c aeine?aeiee?a ia
i?inoaaeea eiiieaenii ca ?icaeoeii ? noaiiaeaiiyi oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai i?ioyaii anueiai i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco.
Naia oea, ii?yae c iaeiinoi?iii?noth aaaaoueio aeine?aeaeaiue, ? ia aea?
ciiae noai?eoe oe?e?nio oyao i?i ?icaeoie oeeo noaeei. Oaeei /eiii, noa?
i/aaeaeiith aeooaeuei?noue iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aea/aiith
iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii?
aai a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie, a oaeiae c’ynoaaiiy
ii?oieia?/ieo ia?aaeoiia ? ia??iaeo iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy i?e?iaeaeaieo
aaae, ui ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey iiyniaiiy i?e/ei oa iaoai?ci?a
aeieeiaiiy ??cieo aa??aio?a aoaeiae iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai
(A.E.Ao?aeianeee, 1996; A.I.I?oae, A.I.E?ooeye oa ?i., 1996; Ae.A.Aaeia,
1998).

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? caoaa?aeaeaia a/aiith ?aaeith iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo 24 n?/iy 1995 ?., i?ioieie ?
3. ?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/iiai ieaio iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e aiaoii?? ethaeeie, iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa
a?noieia?? iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy
oiiia?ao?? aaaeeeaeo aaiicieo eieaeoi?ieo noaeei a i?aiaoaeueiiio
ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie”, yea ? o?aaiaioii iaoeiai? i?iaeaie i?ae
iiia?ii aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0196U003532.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/eoe iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy
oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai
ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. Ooi/ieoe /an ? aeaea?aea caeeaaeee iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai.

2. I?inoaaeeoe aeeiai?eo noaiiaeaiiy iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai, ?o
aca?iia?aeiioaiiy c non?aei?ie i?aaiaie.

3. Aea/eoe e?euee?nio ii?oieia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai ai?iaeiaae aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo oa o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.

4. C’ynoaaoe ii?oieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae ? /an iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy
i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ? aa??aio?a iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa eiiieaenii aea/ai?
aoaie ?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai
ai?iaeiaae anueiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.
I?inoaaeaia aeeiai?ea e?euee?nieo ci?i ii?oieia?/ieo iieaciee?a iaia?ii?
oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai o ??ci? ia??iaee aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo.
C’yniaai? oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii?
aai c noi?aeieie i?aaiaie oa no?oeoo?aie i?ioyaii anueiai i?aiaoaeueiiai
ia??iaeo oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo. Iienai? aa??aioe oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai o ieiae?a ? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo. Aeyaeaii ii?oieia?/i?
ia?aaeoiiae, ui coiiaeththoue aeieeiaiiy iaaieo a?iaeaeaieo aaae ?
aa??aio?a aoaeiae aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeei. Iieacaii, ui oe? aa??aioe
aoaeiae ? ?acoeueoaoii ii?ooaiiy i?ioeano ?icaeoeo ia iaaieo noaae?yo
aia??iaaiaco ethaeeie.

Ooi/iaii oa aeiiiaiaii aeai? e?oa?aoo?e noiniaii aeaea?ae oa /ano
caeeaaeee iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai, iniaeeainoae noaiiaeaiiy ?o
oiiia?ao?? i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie.
A?aoiaoth/e iniaeeaino? oiiia?ao?? oa ciai?oiuei? aoaeiae iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai, iaie aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoaoe oae? oa?i?ie:
iaea iaia?ia aaia (e?aa) oa aaeeea iaia?ia aaia (i?aaa).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? aeai?
iiaeeaeththoue oa aeiiiaiththoue ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i ?icaeoie oa
noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ine?eueee aeiiiiaaathoue
c?icoi?oe i?ioeane ?icaeoeo i?aai?a a?oaeii? ii?iaeieie i?e ia?aoiae?
a?ae i?aooieoe?iiaeueiiai aei ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio. Iaea?aeai? aeai?
aeicaieythoue c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie ? iaoai?cie aeieeiaiiy i?e?iaeaeaieo
aaae ?icaeoeo oa aa??aio?a aoaeiae iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai.
A?aeiiino? i?i iniaeeaino? oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ?
ii?oieia?/iith iniiaith aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo
iaoiae?a aioaiaoaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee e iinoiaoaeueii? o??o?a?/ii?
ei?aeoe?? o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ? ae?oae ?aiiueiai a?eo. Cie?aia, ciaiiy
oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai iiaeia aeei?enoaoe a ee?i?oe?
i?e iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiiyo ia i?aaiao oa no?ieao a?oaeii? ii?iaeieie.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?i o?ae ?icaeoeo iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai, ?o neaeaoioii?th, neioii?th, aa??aioe ciai?oiuei?
aoaeiae o ieiae?a ? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoenue i?e
oeueo?acaoeia?e ae?aaiinoeoe?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aeaeaii?
iiiia?ao?e c aia??ieia??, aiaoii?? ethaeeie, aeeoy/i? o??o?a?? oa
aoaeiae aaiicieo noaeei.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiai? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeaii a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean eaoaae?e
aiaoii?? ethaeeie, iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa a?noieia??, eo?no aeeoy/i?
o??o?a?? iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, eaoaae? aiaoii?? ethaeeie Aoeiaeinueei?, Oa?iii?euenueei?,
?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaieo iaaee/ieo aeaaeai?e, Oe?a?inueei?
iaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?/ii? aeaaeai?? oa A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi cae?eniaii aea?? iai?yieo,
ianyao ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Naiino?eii iaa?oioiaaii oa
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaioii
cae?eniaii caa?? a?ieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo, aeeiiaii ii?oieia?/i?,
ii?oiiao?e/i? oa ?aeiino?oeoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeaii noaoenoe/io
ia?iaeo iaea?aeaieo aeaieo, aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii aeniiaee oa i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??.Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo iaaee/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1996, 1997,
1998, 1999), ia ?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an? aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a,
aia??ieia?a ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie (Eoaainuee, 1998), ia
ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?e aiaoii?? ethaeeie, iia?aoeaii? o??o?a??
oa a?noieia??, ? eaoaae?e oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? iaaee/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa
Caea?iaonueeiai iaeaniiai a?aeae?eaiiy iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa aiaoii?a,
a?noieia?a, aia??ieia?a ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie (29 ea?oiy 1999
?ieo).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o,
?c ieo 5 noaoae o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 4 — o iaoa??aeao iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e oa c’?cae?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia oe?a?inueeith iiaith ia
159 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo. Neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??ae?a ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?icae?e?a aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa nienea aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
e?oa?aoo?e. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 61 ?enoieii, 6 oaaeeoeyie.
A?ae?ia?ao?/iee aeac?aiee i?noeoue 186 aeaea?ae, c ieo 52 — ?iicaiieo
aaoi??a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey aea/aiiy ?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy
oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai aoei aeei?enoaii 130 i?aia?ao?a
ca?iaee?a, ia?aaeieiae?a, ieiae?a ? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ethaeeie. Iaoa??ae
aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iaea?aeoaaee c a?iaeieia?/ieo ? ?iaeiaeiiii?aeieo
caeeaae?a i?noa Oaeai?iaea oa Caea?iaonueei? iaeano?. E??i oeueiai, aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? na??ei? a?noieia?/i? c??ce ?c eieaeoe??
eaoaae?e aiaoii?? ethaeeie Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai??. A?eiaee neeaae ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaaaeaiee o oaaeeoe?
1. A?e ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aee ca oaaeeoeyie, ia i?aenoaa?
aei??thaaiiy o?i’yii-eoi?eeiai? aeiaaeeie (OEAe). Aea/aiiy
ii?oiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a iaia?ii? ? iai?aiaia?ii? aai o ieiae?a ?
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo aea/aee aaciina?aaeiuei o iaoieiaiaiaoii?/iiio
a?aeae?eaii? Caea?iaonueei? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? (i. Oaeai?iae).

Aei??thaaiiy ca?iaee?a ? ia?aaeieiae?a ia?oeo aeaio i?nyoe?a i?iaiaeeee
i?ney iaeiiaeaiiiai ?o o?enoaaiiy o 5% ?ic/ei? iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iae?io,
/ei aeinyaaee noaeino? oi?ie ae?aaeenoiai ooeoaa ia’?eoa, ?, ye
iane?aeie, oieeaee iaaaaeaieo ia??o?a i?e aecia/aii? eiai a?eo.

I?aia?aoe ia?aaeieiae?a o?aoueiai i?nyoey, ieiae?a ? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
o?enoaaee o 5% ?ic/ei? iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iae?io i?ioyaii 2 oeaei?a, iio?i
aei??thaaee ? ia?aiineee o 3% oi?iae?i, aea aiie e caa??aaeeny.

I?ney aio?iiiiao?e/ieo aei???a ? ia?ea?oaaiiy ieiae?a oa
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ?o i?iieaaee i?ioi/iith aiaeith, a iio?i i?aia?oaaee.
Ia?aaeith a?oaeio no?ieo ooeoaa ?icn?eaee I-iiae?aiei ?ic??cii,
a?aei?aia?iaoaaee i?aaie a?oaeii? ii?iaeieie aei caaeiueiai
na?aaeino?iiy. Aea/aee oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaia?ii? o?
iai?aiaia?ii? aai c i?aaiaie oa aiaoii?/ieie no?oeoo?aie a?oaeii?
ii?iaeieie. I?ney a?aei?aia?oaaiiy iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai
iienoaaee ?o neaeaoioii?th, a oaeiae i?iaiaeeee aei??thaaiiy aeiaaeeie
oa ae?aiao?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeei. Aeey aea/aiiy aeoie?a iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai ai?aano?aeueiei iiia?a/iei oa na?aaeeiiei
iiacaeiaaei?i ?icoeiii aeinyaaee /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie. I?ney ?icn?eaiiy
caaeiueiai eenoea i?eno?ieiai? i/a?aaeie a?aeie?aiethaaee ai?oo, ieaeith
ii?iaeienoo aaio oa i?aaie cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o. Iio?i i?iaiaeeee
?aoaeueia aea/aiiy noaeei caaeiuei? no?iee /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie, a oaeiae
i?noey i?ioiaeaeaiiy ?o /a?ac ae?ao?aaio.

Oaaeeoey 1

A?eiaee neeaae ? e?euee?noue ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy

A?e ia’?eo?aaeine?aeaeaiiyO?i’yii-eoi?eeiaaaeiaaeeia
(ii)Aeine?aeaeaiiia’?eo?aCa?iaeee:4-e oeaeaeaiue4,0-60,45-e
oeaeaeaiue6,0-8,056-e oeaeaeaiue9,0-13,08Ia?aaeieiaee:7-e
oeaeaeaiue14,0-20,5128-e oeaeaeaiue21,0-30,0139-e
oeaeaeaiue31,0-41,0910-e oeaeaeaiue42,0-53,0611-e
oeaeaeaiue54,0-66,0812-e oeaeaeaiue67,0-80,07Ieiaee:4-e
i?nyoeue81,0-135,095-e i?nyoeue136,0-185,076-e i?nyoeue186,0-230,087-e
i?nyoeue231,0-270,088-e i?nyoeue271,0-310,069-e i?nyoeue311,-345,0510-e
i?nyoeue346,0-375,05Iiaiia?iaeaeai?:376,0 ? a?eueoa10Anueiai:130

O ia?aaeieiae?a a?eueoa 18,0ii OEAe i?iaiaeeee iiia?aaeith
aeaeaeueoeeiaoe?th, aeey /iai ?o caio?thaaee ia 3 aeiae o 7% ?ic/ei
acioii? eeneioe. Uia oieeiooe iaa?ye niieo/ii? oeaieie, i?aia?aoe
iii?uaee ia 24 aiaeeie o 5% ?ic/ei n??/aiieeneiai iao??th. Aeaioiaeaiiy
na??eieo a?noieia?/ieo c??c?a c ia?ao?iiaeo aeie?a oiaueiith 15iei
i?iaiaeeee a iaei?e ?c o?ueio aca?iiiia?iaiaeeeoey?ieo ieiuei —
naa?oaeuei?e, o?iioaeuei?e aai ai?eciioaeuei?e. Na??ei? c??ce oa?aoaaee
aaiaoienee?i-aiceiii ? caeeth/aee o eaiaaenueeee aaeuecai. Ii?oiiao?e/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith ieoey?-i?e?iiao?a ?
ii?oiiao?e/ii? e?i?eee.

C iaoith aea/aiiy oi?ie, oiiia?ao?? oa aca?iia?aeiioaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeei ? i?aai?a a?oaeii? ii?iaeieie o ethaeeie ia
?aii?o noaae?yo aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo ie ei?enooaaeenue iaoiaeii
a?ao?/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e, cai?iiiiiaaiei I.A.Oo?eaae/ai (1967).
Caiaeueiaoaaiiy ca?eueoaieo eiioo??a c??c?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo aaiicieo
noaeei i?iaiaeeee ia iaeiiio a?eoo? iaia?o. Ni?anoaaeaiiy eiioo??a
eiaeiiai ianooiiiai c??co cae?enithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith iai?aaeyth/eo
i???ioe??a. Ca aeiiiiiaith eii?thaaeueiiai iaia?o eiioo?e
aeine?aeaeoaaieo no?oeoo? ia?aiineee ia iniiaiee a?eoo iaia?o. Oeyoii
oo?eoiaee iaea?aeaiiai cia?aaeaiiy iaaeaaaee eiio ia’?iiiai aeaeyaeo.

Aeey aea/aiiy oiiia?ao?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeei oa aca?iia?aeiioaiiy
no?oeoo? ? i?aai?a a?oaeii? ii?iaeieie o ieiae?a oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
i?iaiaeeee ?i’?eoe?th aaiicieo noaeei ooooth, aeaeaoeiith oa i?ioae?eeii
c ianooiiith iae?ineii??th. Caiiaiaiiy iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ?
?o i?eoie?a ?i’?eoe?eiith ianith i?iaiaeeee /a?ac noaaiiao aaio. I?ney
oeueiai i?aia?ao caio?thaaee o aiaeii?ia?aeio aiaeo ia 6 aiaeei.
A?aei?aia?iaoaaee an? i’ye? oeaieie oa i?aaie, e??i noaeei, ye?
i?aeeyaaee aeine?aeaeaiith. I?iaiaeeee ii?oiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy:
aecia/aee ae?aiao? oa aeiaaeeio oeeo noaeei. Io?eiai? oeeo?ia? aeai?
ia?iaeyeenue aa??aoe?eii-noaoenoe/iei iaoiaeii.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aiiy i?ioeano i?aaiiaaiaco na?ae/eoue
i?i oa, ui caeeaaeea oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii?
aai o ca?iaeeiaiio oa ia?aaeieiaeiaiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie
a?aeaoaa?oueny o aca?iica’yceo c ioi/oth/eie ?o i?aaiaie oa no?oeoo?aie.

Oi?ioaaiiy iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai iia’ycaii ?c caeeaaeeith oa
?icaeoeii iniiaieo nenoaiieo aai ca?iaeea. O ca’yceo c oeei ie aaaaeaee
ca aeioe?eueia, ii?yae c aeine?aeaeaiiyi ?icaeoeo ? noaiiaeaiiy
oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai, aea/eoe iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo
oa aoaeiae iniiaieo nenoaiieo aai ca?iaeea ethaeeie.

Ia iniia? iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiue, a oaeiae i?eeiath/e aei oaaae
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ?ioeo a/aieo, ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui
oi?ioaaiiy iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai a?aeaoaa?oueny a caeaaeiino?
a?ae oaii?a ?icaeoeo noi?aeieo c ieie no?oeoo?.

Aia?oa nenoaii? aaie c’yaeythoueny o ca?iaee?a 4,0-6,0 ii OEAe
(/aoaa?oee oeaeaeaiue aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo) ? i?aaenoaaeai?
ia?ieie ea?aeeiaeueieie aaiaie — ia?aaei?ie oa caaei?ie. Caaei?
ea?aeeiaeuei? aaie a?aeaiaeyoue e?ia a?ae i?aai?a /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie, a
oiio /ene? ? ii?iaeieie oaco. Aiie i?ioiaeyoue iicaaeo iaciiao?in?a ?
eaoa?aeuei?oa aei?caeueii? ai?oe. Aea/aiiy na??e a?noieia?/ieo c??c?a
ca?iaee?a 4,0-6,0 ii OEAe iieacaei, ui o an?o aeiaaeeao e?aa oa i?aaa
caaei? ea?aeeiaeuei? aaie ?icoaoiaai? aneiao?e/ii ii a?aeiioaiith aei
o?aaoa oa aei?caeueii? ai?oe.

I?ieneiaeuei?oa a?ae aei?caeueii? ai?oe ia ??ai? a?oiueie iaeaooi?o
aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie niinoa??aa?oueny caeeaaeea ia?aaei?o ea?aeeiaeueieo
aai. Eaoaeaeueiee e?iaoeue i?aai? caaeiuei? ea?aeeiaeueii? aaie
i?ioiaeeoue iicaaeo ioieiai? a?oa???, ceeaa?oueny c e?aith caaeiueith
ea?aeeiaeueiith aaiith, ooai?thth/e aaie, ui a?aeaiaeyoue e?ia a?ae
ieaei?o e?ioe?aie – iaeaooi? eeoaia? aaie.

sse iieacaee iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i’yoee oeaeaeaiue aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai
?icaeoeo (ca?iaeee 7,0-8,0 ii OEAe) oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiaeaeueoei
ii?oiaaiacii i?aai?a a?oaeii? oa /a?aaii? ii?iaeiei. ?icaeoie aioo??oi?o
i?aai?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?aaoaeiae aaiicii? nenoaie, ui
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny eaoa?aeueiei aeaeiaaeaiiyi caaei?o ea?aeeiaeueieo aai
oa iiyaith noaea?aeeiaeueieo aai. Noaea?aeeiaeuei? aaie ooai?eeeny a
?acoeueoao? iaa?no?ae?caoe?? aianoiiic?a i?ae a?eaeiaeie i?eoieaie
iaae?aeueieo aai iaciiao?in?a ? i?ioiaeyoue acaeiaae aaio?iiaae?aeueieo
iiaa?oiiue caeeaaeee iaaeie?iee?a ? aoi?eiieo ie?ie.

A ?acoeueoao? iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui aneiao?e/ia
?icoaooaaiiy caaei?o ea?aeeiaeueieo aai o ca?iaee?a aeanoeaa ?
noaea?aeeiaeueiei aaiai.

Oaea ia?aaoaeiaa aaiicii? nenoaie i?ioyaii i’yoiai oeaeiy
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei “ia?aiino” a?aeoieo
aaiicii? e?ia? a?ae ia?aeiieo ie?ie oa noaoaaeo caeic a nenoaio
noaea?aeeiaeueieo aai. Ia oe?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo niinoa??aa?oueny
?ioaineaiee ??no ia/?iee, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?icoa?oaaiiyi ia?aeiieo
ie?ie ia caaei?e oeaeii?/i?e no?ioe?. Ii i??? ?icaeoeo ca?iaeea
niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ?ici??o caaei?o ea?aeeiaeueieo aai.
?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?aaa
noaea?aeeiaeueia aaia ia? a?eueoee ae?aiao?, i?ae e?aa.

O ca?iaee?a oeueiai a?eo ieae/a ioieiaeo a?oa??e ? iicaaeo oainoaoi?
/anoee ia/?iee a?aeaoaa?oueny iiaeaeueoee ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie aoi?eiieo
ie?ie. ??no aoi?eiieo ie?ie noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ooai?aiiyi aianoiiico
i?ae noaea?aeeiaeueieie aaiaie, ?c yeiai caiaeii ooai?th?oueny
noaea?aeeiaeueiee neion. Ca iaoeie aeaieie aeiaaeeia
?ioa?noaea?aeeiaeueiiai neiono noaiiaeoue 400,01±0,04 iei, a ae?aiao? –
100,09±0,09 iei.

I?ioyaii oinoiai oeaeiy aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo (ca?iaeee
9,0-13,0 ii OEAe) i?ioiaeeoue ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie i?aai?a a?oaeii? oa
/a?aaii? ii?iaeieie, ye? a?oiothoueny o aeaeyae? i?aaiieiiieaen?a. Oea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy ?ua iaei??? ia?e aaiicieo noiaao??a –
noi?aea?aeeiaeueieo aai. Aiie a?aeaiaeyoue aaiicio e?ia a?ae
aei?caeueii? no?iee o?ea ca?iaeea. Ia ??ai? na?aaeiuei? /anoeie
iaciiao?ino noi?aea?aeeiaeuei? aaie c’?aeiothoueny ?c noaea?aeeiaeueiei
neionii oae naii, ye oea a?aeaoaaeiny ?c caaei?ie ea?aeeiaeueieie aaiaie
ia a?eueo ?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo.

Iaie io?eiai? ii?oiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e an?o iniiaieo aaiicieo iaa?no?aeae
ca?iaeea ethaeeie.

Iai?ee?ioe? oinoiai oeaeiy aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo (ca?iaeee 13,0
ii OEAe) i?aa? ie?ea ? iaaeie?iee iaaeeaeathoueny iaeei aei iaeiiai
iocaaeo ei?aiy a?eae? aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee. I?ae ?o
aei?ciiaae?aeueiith iiaa?oiath oa ai?oith, iiia?aaeo neiiaoe/iiai
noiaao?a, caeyaathoue iicaeiaaei? aaiici? aianoiiice, ye? c’?aeiothoue
caaei? ea?aeeiaeuei?, noi?aea?aeeiaeuei? oa noaea?aeeiaeuei? aaie. Oea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy iiaeo aaiicieo noaeei, ye? ie iacaaee
na?aaeeiieie aaiaie. Oe? na?aaeeii? aaie iathoue n?oeiiiae?aio aoaeiao ?
aeathoue ii/aoie iaia?i?e oa iai?aiaia?i?e aaiai.

Oaeei /eiii, iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iaia?ia oa iai?aiaia?ia
aaie noi?iiaai? aaea iai?ee?ioe? ca?iaeeiaiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco
ethaeeie (ca?iaeee 13,0 ii OEAe, e?iaoeue oinoiai oeaeiy
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo).

I?iaaaeai? niinoa?aaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao??
iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ii/eia?oueny o ca?iaeeiaiio ia??iae?,
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny i?ioyaii onueiai ia?aaeieiaeiaiai ? ieiaeiaiai
ia??iae?a ?icaeoeo ? iaaoaa? aeecueeiai aei aeao?i?oeaiiai noaio o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.

Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?ie oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai o
ia?aaeieiae?a oa ieiae?a iia’ycai? ?c noaiiaeaiiyi oiiia?ao?? i?aai?a
a?oaeii? oa /a?aaii? ii?iaeiei. Ii oiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy ie ia?aeiiaeeny,
ui ii?oieia?/ii iaia?ia oa iai?aiaia?ia aaie aeoaea aa??aaaeuei?
ai?iaeiaae onueiai i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie.

Ui noino?oueny ieoaiiy i?i no?iee oa aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai, oi a iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiiyo ie aeyaeee ?o aaea
iai?ee?ioe? ca?iaeeiaiai ia??iaeo (aeno?aei? iiia?aeia? aaie, ie?eia?
aaie, caaei? i?ae?aaa?i? aaie).

Ie ia?aeiiai?, ui aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai
caeeoathoueny iaci?iieie ia an?o aoaiao iioiaaiaco. Aea/ath/e
neaeaoioii?th iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ii a?aeiioaiith aei o?aaoa,
ie anoaiiaeee, ui iaia?ia oa iai?aiaia?ia aaie iiaeooue caeiaoe oae?
iieiaeaiiy: e?aei? i?aaa, e?aei? e?aa oa na?aaeeiia. Caa??aath/e
aeno?aeiee iai?yiie, iaia?ia aaia ia caaaeaee ia? aa?oeeaeueiee o?ae.
*ano?oa cono??/athoueny aeiaaeee, eiee aaciina?aaeiuei iaae ae?ao?aaiith
iaia?ia aaia ?icoaoiao?oueny ii na?aaeeii?e e?i?? o?aaoa, a ia?aae
ooai?aiiyi aeoae ci?uo?oueny ai?aai.

A aeeiai?oe? i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie ia caeeoa?oueny
iaci?iieie ? ??aaiue ?ici?uaiiy ono?aiai a?aeae?eo aeine?aeaeoaaieo aai.
Iaie iieacaii, ui o ia?aaeieiae?a iaia?ia aaia aiaaea? o aa?oith
ii?iaeienoo aaio ia ??ai? ia?oiai a?oaeiiai o?aaoey, a aei e?ioey
ieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo ? o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo oeae ??aaiue ci?uo?oueny aei
ieaeiueiai e?ath o?ea o?aoueiai a?oaeiiai o?aaoey.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo iaie aeine?aeaeaiue aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
c?icoi?oe ? iiynieoe i?e/eio aeieeiaiiy ??cieo aa??aio?a ?icaeoeo oa
aeaea?ae oi?ioaaiiy iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai o i?ioean?
ii?oiaaiaco.

I?e/eio aa??aaaeueiino? aoaeiae oa ??ciiiai?oiino? aeaea?ae ooai?aiiy
iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ie aa/eii o ??cieo aaiiaeeiai?/ieo oiiaao,
ye? aeieeathoue o i?ioean? ia?aaoaeiae ea?aeeiaeueieo aai i?ioyaii
ia?oeo aeaio i?nyoe?a aia??iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. Ine?eueee oeae ia??iae
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?ioaineaiei ?icaeoeii on?o i?aai?a oa nenoai, aia??ii
? iaea?eueo /ooeeaei aei ??ciiiai?oieo oe?aeeeaeo aieea?a. A
aia??iaaiac? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ethaeeie iiaeia aeae?eeoe
ie?ai? e?eoe/i? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo, eiee ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie aenooiathoue
ia?aaeoiiaith iiyae iiaeo aa??aio?a aoaeiae aeine?aeaeoaaieo aai:
/aoaa?oee oeaeaeaiue aia??iaaiaco — c’yaeythoueny caaei? ea?aeeiaeuei?
aaie; i’yoee oeaeaeaiue aia??iaaiaco — oi?ioaaiiy noaea?aeeiaeueieo aai;
ii/aoie oinoiai oeaeiy aia??iaaiaco — caeeaaeea noi?aea?aeeiaeueieo aai;
e?iaoeue oinoiai oeaeiy — noaiiaeaiiy iaia?ii? ? iai?aiaia?ii? aai.

A?aoiaoth/e neeaaei?noue ii?oiaaiaco ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii?
oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai, iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui ?o aeoiee iiaeooue aooe
naieie ??ciiiai?oieie ? caeeoathoueny iaci?iieie ia an?o aoaiao
i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco.

Aea/aiiy aeaea?ae ooai?aiiy iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai o ieiae?a
iieacaei, ui o ?o oi?ioaaii? aa?ooue o/anoue noaeeie, ye? ?icoaoiaai? ye
ieae/a, oae ? aeua ae?ao?aaie.

I?aeae?ao?aaiaeueiee ii/aoie iaia?ii? aaie aeyaeaii ia 20 i?aia?aoao
(41,6 %), eiee aiia ye noi?iiaaiee aaiiciee noiaao? aoiaeeea /a?ac
ae?ao?aaio o a?oaeio ii?iaeieio. A ?? ooai?aii? aa?ooue o/anoue:
aeno?aei? iiia?aeia? aaie (35,0 %), ia?oa iiia?aeiaa aaia (15,0 %), aaie
ciai?oiueiai o?oaoiaiai nieao?iiy (20,0 %), ia?oa oa ae?oaa iiia?aeia?
aaie (15,0 %) oa aaiiciee noiaao?, yeee ii/eiaany a?ae ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie (5,0 %).

I?aeae?ao?aaiaeueiee ii/aoie iai?aiaia?ii? aaie iaie ciaeaeaii ia 25
i?aia?aoao (52,1 %). Ie aeyaeee 6 aa??aio?a i?aeae?ao?aaiaeueiiai
ii/aoeo iai?aiaia?ii? aaie:

1 — ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi e?ai? aeno?aeii? iiia?aeiai? aaie (40,0 %);

2-oi?io?oueny ?c ciai?oiueiai aaiiciiai o?aaoiaiai nieao?iiy (16,0%);

3 — ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi aaiiciiai noiaao?a ?c ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie
(8,0 %);

4 — ii/eia?oueny a?ae e?ai? ie?eiai? aaie (12,0 %);

5 — oi?io?oueny ?c e?ai? aeno?aeii? iiia?aeiai? aaie oa aaiiciiai
noiaao?a a?ae ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie (4,0 %);

6 — ii/eia?oueny a?ae e?ai? ia?oi? iiia?aeiai? aaie (20,0 %).

Oi?ioaaiiy iniiaiiai noiaao?a iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai iaae
ae?ao?aaiith niinoa??aaany o 59,4% ? 47,9% a?aeiia?aeii. I?e oeueiio, o
46,4% o iaia?io aaio i?iaeiaaeoaaeanue i?aaa i?ae?aaa?ia aaia, o 17,8%
i?aaa iaeeiaaeoeyoa caaeiy i?ae?aaa?ia aaia, o 3,6% i?aaa aeanyoa
i?ae?aaa?ia aaia, o 10,8% i?aaa i?ae?aaa?ia oa i?aaa iaeeiaaeoeyoa
caaeiy i?ae?aaa?i? aaie, o 3,6% i?aaa i?ae?aaa?ia ? i?aaa ie?eiaa aaie,
o 14,2% i?aaa i?ae?aaa?ia oa i?aaa aeno?aeia iiia?aeiaa aaie ? o 3,6%
i?aaa i?ae?aaa?ia ? aaiiciee noiaao? a?ae ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie.

Iai?aiaia?io aaio iaae ae?ao?aaiith oi?iothoue e?aa i?ae?aaa?ia aaia
(43,6%), e?aa i?ae?aaa?ia oa e?aa iaeeiaaeoeyoa caaeiy i?ae?aaa?ia aaie
(21,7%), e?aa i?ae?aaa?ia aaia oa aaie ciai?oiueiai o?aaoiaiai nieao?iiy
(21,7%), e?aa iaeeiaaeoeyoa caaeiy i?ae?aaa?ia oa e?aa aeno?aeia
iiia?aeiaa aaie (4,3%).

Iaie iieacaii, ui ??aaiue aiaae?iiy iai?aiaia?ii? aaie o iaia?io
iino?eii ci?uo?oueny ? ai?iaeiaae onueiai i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo
ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? a?ae oinoiai aei aeaa’yoiai a?oaeiiai o?aaoey.

A ?acoeueoao? ii?oiiao??? ? noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee e?euee?nieo no?oeoo?ieo
iieaciee?a iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ie anoaiiaeee ?o a?eiao
aeeiai?eo ? caeiiii??iino? ci?ie aeiaaeeie oa eae?a?o. Ia ii/aoeo
ia?aaeieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo (ia?aaeieiaee 15,0-17,0 ii OEAe, nueiiee
oeaeaeaiue aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo) ae?aiao? iaia?ii? aaie ia
ai?eciioaeueieo c??cao noaiiaeoue 175,10?0,58 iei. Iai?aiaia?ia aaia
aeaui iaioeo ?ici???a — 133,07 ? 0,14 iei. Iai?ee?ioe? ainueiiai oeaeiy
aioo??oiuei-oo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo (28,0-30,0 ii OEAe) ?ici??e iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai c?inoathoue aei 203,03? 0,02 iei oa 165,01?0,37 iei
a?aeiia?aeii. O ia?aaeieiae?a aeaa’yoiai — aeanyoiai oeaeiy
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo (31,0-53,0 ii OEAe) ae?aiao? iaia?ii?
aaie c?inoa? aei 211,12?0,07 iei, a iai?aiaia?ii? aaie aei 169,04?0,05
iei. Iai?ee?ioe? ia?aaeieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo (ia?aaeieiaee 54,0-80,0 ii
OEAe, iaeeiaaeoeyoee-aeaaiaaeoeyoee oeaeaeaiue aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai
?icaeoeo) iaia?ia aaia ia? ae?aiao? 218,09?0,46 iei, a iai?aiaia?ia —
173,02?0,08 iei.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e ae?aiao? ? aeiaaeeio iaia?ii? ? iai?aiaia?ii? aai o
ieiae?a iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui c?inoaiiy eae?a?o oeeo aai i?ioiaeeoue
ia?aeaeueii ?c c?inoaiiyi ?o aeiaaeeie. Oae, o ieiae?a
/aoaa?oiai-i’yoiai i?nyoey aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo (81,0-185,0 ii
OEAe) ae?aiao? iaia?ii? aaie noaiiaeoue 1,10?0,03 ii, a ?? aeiaaeeia
aei??aith? 15,10?0,07 ii. A e?ioe? nueiiiai — ia ii/aoeo ainueiiai
i?nyoey (270,0-280,0 ii OEAe) ae?aiao? iaia?ii? aaie c?inoa? aei
5,0?0,08 ii, a ?? aeiaaeeia noaiiaeoue 41,20?0,02 ii. O ieiae?a
aeaa’yoiai-aeanyoiai i?nyoey aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo (311,0-375,0
ii OEAe) ?ici?? iaia?ii? aaie iaeaea ia ci?ith?oueny. ?? ae?aiao? oa
aeiaaeeia noaiiaeyoue a?aeiia?aeii 5,40?0,09 ii oa 52,50?0,72 ii .

?ici??e iai?aiaia?ii? aaie oaeiae iaiaeiaeiai ci?iththoueny i?ioyaii
ieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo. Ia ii/aoeo ieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo ae?aiao?
iai?aiaia?ii? aaie aei??aith? 0,82?0,07 ii, a ?? aeiaaeeia — 10,50?0,06
ii. Ana?aaeei? ieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo ??
?ici??e c?inoathoue a?aeiia?aeii aei 2,30?0,01ii ? 18,80?0,09 ii. A
iai?ee?ioe? ieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo ae?aiao? iai?aiaia?ii? aaie noaiiaeoue
3,90?0,05 ii, a aeiaaeeia — 34,50?0,02 ii.

Io?eiai? iaie ii?oiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e ia?aeiieeai iieacothoue, ui
aeiaaeeia ? eae?a? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ci?iththoueny ia
iaeiaeiai o ??ci? ia??iaee i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco. ?ici??e iaia?ii?
oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii c?inoathoue o ia?aaeieiaeiaiio
ia??iae? ia ainueiiio oeaei? ?icaeoeo ? o ieiaeiaiio – ia
nueiiiio-ainueiiio i?nyoe?.

Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oa oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? ? iai?aiaia?ii? aai o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo aeacothoue ia oa, ui noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? oeeo noaeei
aei ia?iaeaeaiiy ia cae?i/o?oueny, a i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ? o
i?neyiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?.

I?ine?aeeoaaaoe ?icaeoie oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai i?ioyaii anueiai i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco,
aaaaea?ii aeioe?eueiei aeei?enoaoe oae? oa?i?ie: iaea iaia?ia aaia
(e?aa) oa aaeeea iaia?ia aaia (i?aaa).

Oaeei /eiii, ie aaaaea?ii, ui i?ae iaia?iith oa iai?aiaia?iith aaiaie ?
noi?aeieie no?oeoo?aie o ?aiiueiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie ?nio?
o?niee aca?iica’ycie, yeee coiiaeth? nai???aeio caeaaei?noue a
aia??ioiiia?ao?/ieo aca?iia?aeiineiao.

AENIIAEE

1. Caeeaaeea iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai a?aeaoaa?oueny o ethaeeie
iai?ee?ioe? ca?iaeeiaiai ia??iaeo, ? o nai?io ?icaeoeo aaie i?ioiaeyoue
aea? noaae??: ia?oa – oi?ioaaiiy na?aaeeiieo aai ?c aianoiiic?a i?ae
ea?aeeiaeueieie aaiaie (ca?iaeee 12,0 ii OEAe, na?aaeeia oinoiai oeaeiy
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo); ae?oaa – ooai?aiiy ?c na?aaeeiieo aai
iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai iai?ee?ioe? oinoiai oeaeiy
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo (ca?iaeee 13,0 ii OEAe).

2. Aiaoii?/ia aoaeiaa iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ia? oe?ieee
ae?aiacii ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-a?eiai? i?ieeaino?. I?ioean noaiiaeaiiy
oiiia?ao?? oeeo aai i?iaeiaaeo?oueny i?ioyaii onueiai ia?aaeieiaeiaiai
oa ieiaeiaiai ia??iae?a ?icaeoeo ? iaoiiaeaiee oi?ioaaiiyi i?aai?a
a?oaeii? ii?iaeieie oa i?aaiieiiieaen?a cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o.

3. ?ici??e iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ai?iaeiaae
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo c?inoathoue. Anoaiiaeaii aeaa iaeneioie
?ioaineaiiai «?inoo» oeeo aai — ia ainueiiio oeaei? ia?aaeieiaeiaiai
ia??iaeo oa ia nueiiiio-ainueiiio i?nyoe? ieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo.

4. Oiiia?ao?/ii iaia?ia oa iai?aiaia?ia aaie o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ia
iaaoaathoue caaa?oaiiai aeao?i?oeaiiai noaio. Oe? noaeeie iathoue
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? a?aei?iiino? ca aoaeiaith, ?ici??aie oa aeaea?aeaie
ooai?aiiy.

5. Ii?oieia?/ieie ia?aaeoiiaaie aeieeiaiiy i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae oa
aa??aio?a ciai?oiuei? aoaeiae iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ? ii?ooaiiy
?icaeoeo aaeeeeo aaiicieo iaa?no?aeae – caaei?o ea?aeeiaeueieo,
noaea?aeeiaeueieo oa noi?aea?aeeiaeueieo aai ia /aoaa?oiio — oinoiio
oeaei? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie.

6. A aia??iaaiac? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ethaeeie iiaeia
aeae?eeoe e?eoe/i? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo: ii/aoie /aoaa?oiai oeaeiy, i’yoee
oeaeaeaiue, ii/aoie ? e?iaoeue oinoiai oeaeiy, ai?iaeiaae yeeo
no?oeoo?e, ui ?icaeaathoueny, ? iaea?eueo «/ooeeaeie» aei
iioeiaeaeoth/eo oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai ? aioo??oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

I?AEOE*I? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

1. Io?eiai? aeai? uiaei /ano caeeaaeee oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao??
iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco
ethaeeie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aeaeaii? iiiia?ao?e c
aia??ieia??, aiaoii?? ethaeeie, aeeoy/i? o??o?a?? oa aoaeiae aaiicieo
noaeei.

2. Iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy aia??ioiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii?
aai aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaeoe iia? aaeaeaaoi?, c o?aooaaiiyi
iioiaaiaoe/ieo aeaieo, iia?aoeai? i?eeiie i?e o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiiyo o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo oa ae?oae ?aiiueiai a?eo.

3. Aeai? i?i i?inoi?iai-/aniaa aca?iia?aeiioaiiy iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai ?c noi?aeieie i?aaiaie oa no?oeoo?aie a i?aiaoaeueiiio
ia??iae? iioiaaiaco, i?i i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo
aai aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aaeineiiaeeoe ?nioth/? ? ?ic?iaeoe iia?
iaoiaee iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia i?aaiao ? no?ieao a?oaeii? ii?iaeieie
a?aeiia?aeii aei caieo?a i?aeoe/ii? iaaeeoeeie.

4. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?i ?icaeoie iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii?
aai, ?o neaeaoioii?th, neioii?th, aa??aioe ciai?oiuei? aoaeiae o ieiae?a
? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoenue i?e oeueo?acaoeia?e
ae?aaiinoeoe?.

5. Aeai? aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iiaeooue ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy o
a?aeae?eaii? noaeeiii? o??o?a??, iaoeiaeo eaai?aoi??yo, a oaeiae
iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ia eaoaae?ao
aiaoii?? ethaeeie, a?noieia??, aia??ieia?? oa aeeoy/i? o??o?a??.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??:

1. ?iniea O.O. ?icaeoie oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? ?
iai?aiaia?ii? aai o ca?iaeeiaiio ia??iae? // Iaoeiaee a?niee
Oaeai?iaenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y “Iaaeeoeeia”.- 1996.- Aei. 3.-
N.94-96.

2. ?iniea O.O. Aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy oa oiiia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? iaia?ii?
oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai o ie?aeiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie //
Iaoeiaee a?niee Oaeai?iaenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y “Iaaeeoeeia”. —
1997. — Aei. 4. — N.215-217.

3. ?iniea O.O. ?icaeoie oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai o ia?aaeie?aeiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie//
Oe?a?inueeee iaaee/iee aeueiaiao.- 1998. — ?3.-N.81-82.

4. ?iniea O.O. Iniaeeaino? oiiia?ao?? aai caaeiueiai na?aaeino?iiy o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo //Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. — Ee?a. — 1999.- N.151-152.

5. ?iniea O.O. Aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy oa oiiia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? iaia?ii?
oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai a aia??iaaiac? ethaeeie// Iaoeiaee a?niee
Oaeai?iaenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y “Iaaeeoeeia”.- 1999.- Aei. 7.-
N.50-52.

6. ?iniea O.O. Ii?oieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo iaia?ii? ?
iai?aiaia?ii? aai a i?aiaoaeueiiio iioiaaiac? ethaeeie //
Iaoa?.iaoe.eiio.aiao., a?noie., aia??ie.? oiiia?aoiaiao. “Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie ooieoe?iiaeueii? aiaoii?? noaeeiii? nenoaie”.- Euea?a,
1995.-N.95.

7. Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi?, iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai o ?aiiueiio ia??iae?
iioiaaiaco ethaeeie /Aieiaaoeueeee A.N., E?ooeye A.I., Ei/ia?ue I.TH.,
?iniea O.O.// Iaoeia? caienee. — Ee?a. — 1997.- N.152-153.

8. Aieiaaoeueeee A.N., E?ooeye A.I., ?iniea O.O. Aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy
iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai o ia?aaeie?aeiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco
ethaeeie // Aanoiee i?iaeai aeieiaee e iaaeeoeeiu. — Iieoaaa-Oa?ueeia. —
1997. — N.22-26.

9. E?ooeye A.I., Ei/ia?ue I.TH., ?iniea O.O. ?icaeoie oa noaiiaeaiiy
oiiia?ao?? aaiicieo noaeei cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o a i?aiaoaeueiiio
ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie // Iaoa??aee iaoe.eiio. “Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??”. — *a?i?aoe?.-1998.-N.37-38.

AIIOAOe?ss

?INIEA O.O. “?icaeoie ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? iaia?ii? ? iai?aiaia?ii?
aai o i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie”. Aeena?oaoe?y ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.03.01 — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y. — Oa?iii?euenueea
aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y ?i. ?.Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie.
Oa?iii?eue. 1999.

I?iaaaeai? iae?ineii?/i? oa na??ei? a?noieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye?
aeeth/athoue cae/aeia oa oiiea i?aia?oaaiiy, aeaioiaeaiiy a?ao?/ieo
?aeiino?oeoe?e, ?i’?eoe?y noaeei caoa?aiaaiei i?ioae?eeii, oa?aoaaiiy
a?noieia?/ieo c??c?a aaiaoienee?i-aiceiii. Aeei?enoaiee iaoiae
noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iai?ee?ioe? oinoiai oeaeiy aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo
(ca?iaeee 13,0-13,5 ii OEAe) a o?e? aia??iia a?aeaoaathoueny ci?ie a
nenoai? ea?aeeiaeueieo aai, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei iiyae iaia?ii? oa
iai?aiaia?ii? aai. ?ici??e iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai ci?iththoueny
ia iaeiaeiai o ??ci? ia??iaee i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco ? iathoue
oaiaeaioe?th aei ca?eueoaiiy. Iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii ?inoooue iaia?ia oa
iai?aiaia?ia aaie ia ainueiiio oeaei? ia?aaeieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo oa ia
nueiiiio — ainueiiio i?nyoe? ieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo. Ai?iaeiaae
i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco a?aeaoaa?oueny iinooiiaa ci?uaiiy
ono?aiai a?aeae?eo iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai a?aeiinii o?aaoa a
eaoaeaeueiiio iai?yieo. Noiae? aei aeao?i?oeaieo oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i?
aca?iia?aeiineie iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai c ioi/oth/eie i?aaiaie
oa no?oeoo?aie anoaiiaeththoueny iai?ee?ioe? ieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo oa o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo. Aa??aaaeuei?noue iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai
i?ioyaii ia?aaeieiaeiaiai oa ieiaeiaiai ia??iae?a, a oaeiae o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo coiiaeaia iniaeeainoyie ?icaeoeo ea?aeeiaeueieo aai
ai?iaeiaae ia?oeo aeaio i?nyoe?a aia??iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaia?ia oa iai?aiaia?ia aaie, ea?aeeiaeuei? aaie,
aia??iaaiac, aia??iiaeueia oiiia?ao?y, aioo??oiueioo?iaiee ?icaeoie.

AIIIOAOeEss

?INIEA O.O. “?acaeoea e noaiiaeaiea oiiia?aoee iaia?iie e iieoiaia?iie
aai a i?aiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca /aeiaaea”. Aeenna?oaoeey ia
nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.01 — ii?iaeueiay aiaoiiey.-Oa?iiiieueneay
ainoaea?noaaiiay iaaeeoeeineay aeaaeaiey ei. E.Ai?aa/aaneiai IIC
Oe?aeiu. Oa?iiiieue. 1999.

I?iaaaeaiu iae?ineiie/aneea e na?eeiua aenoieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey
130 i?aia?aoia ca?iaeuoae, ia?aaeieiaeia, ieiaeia e iiai?iaeaeaiiuo
/aeiaaea, aeeth/athuea iau/iia e oiieia i?aia?e?iaaiea, ecaioiaeaiea
a?aoe/aneeo ?aeiino?oeoeee, eiuaeoeeth ninoaeia ie?aoaiiui i?ioae?eeii,
ie?aoeaaiea aenoieiae/aneeo n?acia aaiaoieneeei yiceiii. Eniieueciaai
iaoiae noaoenoe/aneie ia?aaioee.

Eco/aiea yia?eiaaiaca naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi caeeaaeea iaia?iie e
iieoiaia?iie aai naycaia n caeeaaeeie caaeieo ea?aeeiaeueiuo,
noaea?aeeiaeueiuo e noi?aea?aeeiaeueiuo aai. Iaia?iay e iieoiaia?iay
aaiu aicieeatho a oiaea neiaeiuo i?aia?aciaaiee aannaeia caaeieo
ea?aeeiaeueiuo aai. Iie iaoneiaeaiu iniaaiiinoyie i?aaiiaaiaca a iaeanoe
ia?ae/iuo ii/ae. Noaiiaeaiea oiiia?aoee iaia?iie e iieoiaia?iie aai
i?ioiaeeo a oaniuo acaeiiioiioaieyo n aeeceaaeaueie no?oeoo?aie. A nayce
n yoei iu n/eoaai, /oi aianoa n enneaaeiaaieai noaiiaeaiey iaia?iie e
iieoiaia?iie aai iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea e ia iniaaiiinoe
caeeaaeee e noaiiaeaiea ea?aeeiaeueiuo aai, a oaeaea aeeceaaeaueo
ia?aciaaiee. Ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiey, a oaeaea i?eieiay ai
aieiaiea ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey ae?oaeo aaoi?ia, iu i?eoee e
auaiaeo, /oi aa?eaaaeueiinoue iaia?iie e iieoiaia?iie aai iaoneiaeaia
iniaaiiinoyie ?acaeoey ea?aeeiaeueiuo aai ia i?ioyaeaiee ia?auo aeaoo
ianyoeaa aioo?eoo?iaiiai ?acaeoey.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi: caeeaaeea iaia?iie e iieoiaia?iie aai aia?aua
auyaeyaony o ca?iaeuoae (13,0 ii OEAe) a eiioea oanoie iaaeaee
aioo?eoo?iaiiai ?acaeoey. Caeeaaeea yoeo aai i?ioiaeeo aeaa noaaeee:
ia?aay — oi?ie?iaaiea n?aaeeiiao aai ec aianoiiicia iaaeaeo
ea?aeeiaeueiuie aaiaie (ca?iaeuoe 12,0 ii OEAe); aoi?ay —
iaaeno?aeecaoeey n?aaeeiiuo aai a iaia?ioth e iieoiaia?ioth aaiu o
ca?iaeuoae 13,0 ii OEAe (eiiaoe oanoie iaaeaee aioo?eoo?iaiiai
?acaeoey). I?ioeann noaiiaeaiey oiiia?aoee iaia?iie e iieoiaia?iie aai
i?ienoiaeeo ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai i?aaeieiaeiiai e ieiaeiiai ia?eiaeia
?acaeoey e iaoneiaeaiiue oi?ie?iaaieai i?aaiia a?oaeiie iieinoe e
i?aaiieiiieaenia caa?thoeiiiai i?ino?ainoaa. ?acia?u iaia?iie e
iieoiaia?iie aai ia i?ioyaeaiea aioo?eoo?iaiiai ?acaeoey eiatho
oaiaeaioeeth e aic?anoaieth. Ioia/aii aeaa iaeneioia eioaineaiiai
“?inoa” yoeo aai: ia ainueiie iaaeaea i?aaeieiaeiiai ia?eiaea e ia
naaeueiii — ainueiii ianyoea ieiaeiiai ia?eiaea. A oa/aiea
i?aiaoaeueiiai ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca i?ienoiaeeo niauaiea onoueaaiai
ioaeaea iaia?iie e iieoiaia?iie aai ioiineoaeueii iicaiii/iiai noieaa a
eaoaeaeueiii iai?aaeaiee. Aeeceea e aeaoeieoeaiui
oiiia?aoi-aiaoiie/aneea ioiioaiey iaia?iie e iieoiaia?iie aai n
ie?oaeathueie i?aaiaie e no?oeoo?aie onoaiaaeeaathony a eiioea ieiaeiiai
ia?eiaea e o iiai?iaeaeaiiuo. Aa?eaaaeueiinoue iaia?iie e iieoiaia?iie
aai ia i?ioyaeaiea i?aaeieiaeiiai, ieiaeiiai ia?eiaeia e o
iiai?iaeaeaiiuo iaoneiaeaia iniaaiiinoyie ?acaeoey ea?aeeiaeueiuo aai a
ia?aua aeaa ianyoea yia?eiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey. A yia?eiaaiaca iaia?iie e
iieoiaia?iie aai /aeiaaea iiaeii auaeaeeoue e?eoe/aneea ia?eiaeu
?acaeoey, eiaaea ii?oieiae/aneea eciaiaiey a nenoaia ea?aeeiaeueiuo aai
yaeythony i?aaeiinueeie iiyaeaiey aa?eaioia aiaoiaai no?iaiey
enneaaeoaiuo aai: /aoaa?oay iaaeaey yia?eiaaiaca — iiyaeythony caaeiea
ea?aeeiaeueiua aaiu; iyoay iaaeaey yia?eiaaiaca — oi?ie?iaaiea
noaea?aeeiaeueiuo aai; ia/aei oanoie iaaeaee yia?eiaaiaca — caeeaaeea
noi?aea?aeeiaeueiuo aai; eiiaoe oanoie iaaeaee yia?eiaaiaca —
noaiiaeaiea iaia?iie e iieoiaia?iie aai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaia?iay e iieoiaia?iay aaiu, ea?aeeiaeueiua aaiu,
yia?eiaaiac, yia?eiiaeueiay oiiia?aoey, aioo?eoo?iaia ?acaeoea.

SUMMARY

Rosola T.F. “Development and formation of topography of azygos and
hemiazygos veins in a prenatal period of human ontogenesis”.

Thesis for competition of the scientific degree of the candidate of
biological sciences. Speciality 14.03.01 – normal anatomy. Horbachevskyi
Ternopil state medical academy, Ministry of Health of Ukraine. Ternopil,
1999.

Macroscopic and serial histological investigations have been carried
out. They included usual and thin preparation, making graphic
reconstructions, injection of vessels with painted protacryl, painting
of histological sections with hematoxylin-eosin. The methof of
statistical processing was applied.

It was found that by the end of the sixth week of the intranatal
development (embryos 13.0-13.5 CCL) in the embryo’s body the changes in
the system of cardinal veins take place which result in the appearance
of the azygos and hemiazygos veins. The dimensions of the azygos and
hemiazygos veins are changing not equally during the different periods
of prenatal ontogenesis and have a tendency towards increase. The most
intense growth of the azygos and hemiazygos veins is observed on the
eighth week of the prenatal period and the seventh week of the natal
period. During the prenatal period of ontogenesis there takes place a
gradual shift of the mouth part of azygos and hemiazygos veins relative
to the spine in a caudal direction. Similar to definitive
topographic-anatomic interrelations of the azygos and hemiazygos veins
and the surrounding organs and structures are found by the end of a
natal period and in new-born children. The variability of azygos and
hemiazygos veins during prenatal and natal periods and in new-borns is
due to the peculiarities of the development of cardinal veins during the
first two months of the embrional development.

Key words: azygos and hemiazygos veins, cardinal veins, embryogenesis,
embryonal topography, intrauterine development.

Horbachevskyi I. Ternopil state medical academy, Ministry of Health of
Ukraine. Ternopil, 1999.

Aeneiaeth?ii ue?o iiaeyeo iaoeiaiio eiinoeueoaioo aeieoi?o iaaee/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?o, caneoaeaiiio ae?y/o iaoee ? oaoi?ee O?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/o
eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? E?OOessEO AIEIAeEIE?O IEEIEAEIAE*O ca iaaeaio aeiiiiiao ?
eiinoeueoaoe?? i?e aeeiiaii? iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

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