I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

Oa?iii?euenueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y

?iai? ?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai

Oiao?yi Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/

OAeE 611. 36. 013

?icaeoie ? noaiiaeaiiss oiiia?ao?? eiiiiiaio?a

ai??o ia*?iee a ?aiiueiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie

14. 03. 01 — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?iii?eue — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aoeiaeinuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e

aeaaeai?? IIC Oe?a?ie (AAeIA).

Iaoeia? ea??aieee: TC «Iaoeia? ea??aieee\: »

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?iiy?a Aieiaeeie?

?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? oa

iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iae?oaanueea A?eoi??y

Aioii?aia, i?ioani? eaoaae?e oiiia?ao?/ii?

aiaoii?? oa iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie.

TC «»

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: TC «Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe\:»

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eiaaeuenueeee Ieoaeei

Iaaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? oa

iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

IIC Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aieeia Einoyioei

Noaiaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e a?noieia??, oeeoieia??

oa aia??ieia?? Oa?iii?euenueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??

IIC Oe?a?ie.

TC «»

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia TC
«I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa\: ?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia »

aeaaeai?y IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “12” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 12_ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E. 58. 601. 01
Oa?iii?euenueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i. ?.ss.
Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie (282001, i.Oa?iii?eue, iaeaeai Aie?, 1).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?iii?euenueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i. ?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie
(282001 i. Oa?iii?eue, aoe. ?onueea, 12).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “11” ethoiai 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aaaeeea?noue aia??ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey
i?aaeeueiiai ?icoi?iiy oa c’ynoaaiiy i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy i?e?iaeaeaieo
caoai?thaaiue, aa??aio?a aoaeiae oa aiiiae?e ?icaeoeo i?aai?a a aeaiee
/an ia aeeeeea? noii?a?a. ?o ?acoeueoaoe ni?eythoue ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo
aoaeoeaieo niinia?a iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue oa caiia?aaiith iiieeeai o
ae?aaiinoeoe? i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae.

Ia/?iea, ye aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaee i?aai c ??ciiiai?oieie ooieoe?yie,
caeaaia i?eaa?oaea oaaao iaoeiaoe?a oai?aoe/ii? oa i?aeoe/ii?
iaaeeoeeie. Ia caeeoaany iica oaaaith oeae i?aai ? o o??o?a?a, ine?eueee
i?e?iaeaeai? aaaee, ooeiaeaeaiiy ia/?iee /anoi iio?aaothoue
iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy.

Aiiiae?? iicaia/?ieiaeo aeia/ieo i?ioie, ai??oii? aaie, aeanii?
ia/?ieiai? a?oa??? oa ?? a?eie cono??/athoueny aeineoue /anoi (A.E.
Aiaaoia e ae?., 1976; E.A. Eoeaaeaiei, 1983; A.A. Naiiaeieeia, 1995; B.
Seziat-Gantiez, 1984). ?icoi?iiy ??ciiiai?oieo a?aeoeeaiue caaaeaieo
no?oeoo? a?ae ii?ie iaiao?aei? aeey ?o nai?/anii? ae?aaiinoeee oa
oni?oii? o??o?a?/ii? ei?aeoe??.

I?ae /an iia?aoe?e ia ia/?ioe? iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue ??
ai?ioa ye ae?eyiea iniiaieo iai?ioeyoe?e, aeey yei? i?eoaiaii? neeaaei?
oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i? aca?iia?aeiioaiiy noaeeiii-i?ioieiaeo eiiiiiaio?a
i?aaia.

Iniaeeao oaaao a no/ani?e aaiaoieia?? i?eae?eythoue ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e
i?ieeaino? oiiia?ao?? eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee a ca’yceo c ?ic?iaeaie
oaoi?ee ?acaeoe?e ? o?ainieaioaoe?? i?aaia, aeeiiaiiyi naeaeoeaieo
aia?ia?ao?e, aiaeiaaneoey?ieo oa i?e?io??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue (A.E.
E?aeianeee, 1982; Y.E. Aaeueia?ei, 1987; M.D. Bismuth Henri, 1982).

No/ania o??o?a?y iiaiia?iaeaeaieo oa ae?oae ?aiiueiai a?eo iio?aao?
a?eueo a?oioiaiiai ? aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a
oiiia?ao?? eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee, i?e/ei ? /ano iiaeeeaiai
aeieeiaiiy aeayeeo ?o i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae, ui ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith
nai?/anii? oa oni?oii? aioaiaoaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee ? iinoiaoaeueii?
o??o?a?/ii? ei?aeoe?? (A.A. Aeiiyi, 1982; A.A. Aae?ia e ae?., 1984;
TH.O. Enaeia e ae?., 1988; O.O. Naen, 1993).

Iacaaaeath/e ia cia/io e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e, i?enay/aieo oeei
ieoaiiyi, aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi??a noinothoueny caeaa?eueoiai aei?ineeo
(E.E. Noneia, 1907; I.E. Iaeii?aeia, 1938; E.I. Ia/oiaaa, 1969; A.E.
Niiaieia, 1972; A.A. Oeae, 1982; A.Y. Eaoeaae/, 1986). Aeai? i?i
?icaeoie ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? oa aca?iia?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a ai??o
ia/?iee a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? ?icaeoeo ia/eneaii?, /anoi noia?a/eea?
? noinothoueny, ye i?aaeei, aea/aiiy eeoa iaeiiai ?c eiiiiiaio?a ai??o
ia/?iee.

Oiio iiaeaeueoa eiieaenia aea/aiiy ii?oiaaiaco ai??o ia/?iee oa ?o
iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ? o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ? aeooaeueiei ? ia? ia eeoa oai?aoe/ia, aea ? iaaia
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa ?
/anoeiith i’yoe??/ii? eiiieaenii? iaoeiai? i?ia?aie eaoaae? ii?iaeueii?
aiaoii??, oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? oa iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? Aoeiaeinueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ca oaiith: “Aea/aiiy ?icaeoeo oa
noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? na?aaeino?iiy ? cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie aeey aeyaeaiiy e?eoe/ieo
ia??iae?a iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ? aa??aio?a aoaeiae c
iaoith ii?oieia?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o aioaiaoaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee ?
ei?aeoe??” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 01.97V001514, oeo? ?I
07.00.000.95).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ?
noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ai??o ia/?iee oa ?o aeaiaio?a i?ioyaii
i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ? o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo, anoaiiaeoe
e?eoe/i? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo no?oeoo? ai??o ia/?iee, /an ? ii?oieia?/i?
ia?aaeoiiae iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy aa??aio?a ?o oiiia?ao?? oa aeayeeo
i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iacaaii? iaoe iaie aecia/ai? oae? caaea/?:

1. Aea/eoe aeaea?aea ooai?aiiy iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee.

2. I?inoaaeeoe noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ai??o ia/?iee, iniaeeaino? ?o
oi?ie oa ?ici???a ia ??cieo noaae?yo i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo oa o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.

3. Aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee oa
noaiiaeaiiy ?o oiiia?ao?? i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco
ethaeeie oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.

4. C’ynoaaoe oa?aeoa? neioii?/ii? ei?aeyoe?? ai??o ia/?iee oa ?o
aeaiaio?a i?ae /an aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo ? o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.

5. Aeyaeoe e?eoe/i? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa eiiieaenii aea/aii
iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ai??o ia/?iee ? ?o
eiiiiiaio?a i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco. Anoaiiaeaii
ia??iaee oi?ioaaiiy ai??o ia/?iee oa ?o noaeeiii-i?ioieiaeo aeaiaio?a.
Aeyaeai? ii?oieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae ? /an iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy aa??aio?a
oiiia?ao?? oa aeayeeo i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae aoaeiae ai??oii? aaie ia/?iee,
aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, iicaia/?ieiaeo aeia/ieo i?ioie. I?inoaaeaia
caeaaei?noue i?ae oi?iith a?noea?aeueii? iiaa?oi? ia/?iee oa aoaeiaith ?
oiiia?ao??th ?? ai??o. Aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? aoaeiae ? aa??aioe
oiiia?ao?? ai??o ia/?iee oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a o ieiae?a oa
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeiiiaithth/e aeai? e?oa?aoo?e i?i i?aiaoaeueiee
ii?oiaaiac ai??o ia/?iee oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a, iathoue ia eeoa oai?aoe/ia,
a ? iaaia i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Ca aeiiiiiaith aaeaeaaoieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/ai? ? iienai? aa??aioe oiiia?ao?? ai??o ia/?iee,
ia/?ieiai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? ca’ycee oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a o ieiae?a oa
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo. Anoaiiaeai? e?eoe/i? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo no?oeoo? ai??o
ia/?iee, ii?oieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy aa??aio?a ?o
oiiia?ao?? oa aeayeeo i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae aoaeiae. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeooue neoaeeoe ii?oieia?/iith iniiaith aeey
oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoiae?a o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy iaoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a ae?eyioe? ai??o ia/?iee, a oaeiae
i?aea?oioyi aeey aioaiaoaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee ? ei?aeoe?? aaae ?icaeoeo
i?ney ia?iaeaeaiiy.

Iaea?aeai? aeai? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o??o?aaie i?e ae?aaiinoeoe?
oa aeai?? aaeaeaaoieo iaoiae?a o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy i?e?iaeaeaii? ?
iaaooi? iaoieia?? aaiaoia?e?a?ii? nenoaie.

C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii ?
ai?iaaaeaeaii aea? ?aoe?iiae?caoi?nuee? i?iiiceoe??: “Noi?o aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy ?aioaaieiio?anoieo ei?ic?eieo i?aia?ao?a” oa “Niin?a
oioia?aooaaiiy aieiaeo aiaoii?/ieo iae?ii?aia?ao?a”.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
a i?aeoeeo “Niiniao iia?e?caoe?? aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee” (iaoaio ia
aeiao?ae N17315A).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ia
eaoaae?ao oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? oa iia?aoeaii? o??o?a??, ii?iaeueii?
aiaoii??, a?noieia??, aeeoy/i? o??o?a??, oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a??
Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??, eaoaae?ao ii?iaeueii?
aiaoii??, iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? ? a?noieia?? Oaeai?iaenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, eaoaae?ao ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??
Oa?iii?euenueei? oa ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaieo iaaee/ieo aeaaeai?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. An? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiai? aaoi?ii
naiino?eii. Aaciina?aaeiuei a?aa o/anoue a ?ic?iaoe? oa ai?iaaaeaeaii?
iaoa??ae?a uiaei ?aoe?iiae?caoi?nueeeo i?iiiceoe?e oa iaoaioo c
iniaenoei aianeii aei 50%. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe ia?iaeai? noaoenoe/ii
iniaenoi caeiaoaa/ai. Iniaenoee aianie o ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo ?c
ni?aaaoi?aie noaiiaeoue a?ae 30 aei 50%.

Ai?iaaoe?y iaoa??ae?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo *a?i?aaoeueeiai iaeaniiai iaoeiaiai
oiaa?enoaa aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a oa aia??ieia?a (1995, 1996, 1997),
ni?eueieo can?aeaiiyo eaoaae? ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??, oiiia?ao?/ii?
aiaoii?? oa iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? (*a?i?aoe?, 1996, 1997), i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii?
iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? (*a?i?aoe?, 1996, 1997), iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
«Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oiaaiaco» (*a?i?aoe?, 1996) oa iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo «A?ieia?y, iaaeeoeeia, aeieia?y» (*a?i?aoe?, 1996),
«Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy o??o?a??» (Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1997), «Aeooaeueiua
aii?inu iaioeiaeiie oe?o?aee i?aaiia a?thoiie iieinoe» (Oa?e?a, 1998),
ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? iaoeiai? eii?n?? Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii?
iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??, eaoaae? ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??, oiiia?ao?/ii?
aiaoii?? oa iia?aoeaii? o??o?a??, a?noieia??, oeeoieia?? ? aia??ieia??,
oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? oa iaeaniiai a?aeae?eaiiy iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa
aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a ? aia??ieia?a (*a?i?aoe?, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 14 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo (5 — o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 8 — o iaoa??aeao iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e, 1 iaoaio ia aeiao?ae).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 180 noi??ieao ?
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a (“No/ani? oyaeaiiy i?i
?icaeoie ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee a ?aiiueiio
ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie”(iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e), “Iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy”, “?icaeoie ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? eiiiiiaio?a ai??o
ia/?iee”, “Aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy”),
aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (anueiai — 266, c ieo 93 —
?iicaiieo). ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 63 oioia?ao?yie i?e?i- oa
iae?ii?aia?ao?a, a?ao?/ieo ? ieanoe/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e, ei?ic?eieo
i?aia?ao?a, 8 oaaeeoeyie, 3 ?enoieaie-noaiaie, ae?aa?aiith.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia 138
i?aia?aoao ca?iaee?a, ia?aaeieiae?a, ieiae?a oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
ethaeeie. Iaoa??ae io?eioaaee c aeooa?nueei-a?iaeieia?/ieo ee?i?e
i.*a?i?aoe?. ?yae na??e a?noieia?/ieo c??c?a aoee aeei?enoai? c iocath
eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai??. I?aia?aoe ieiae?a aaaith iiiaae 500 a., a oaeiae
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo aea/aee aaciina?aaeiuei o iaoieiaiaiaoii?/iiio
a?aeae?eaii? *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeanii? aeeoy/i? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i?.

A?e ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aee ca oaaeeoeyie A.A. Caaa?ceia
(1939), A.I. Iyooaia (1959), A.A. Eii??a (1967), A.I. Oaaoiaa ? TH.I.
Oaiiaaeiaa (1969), A.E. A?oneeianeiai ? E.N. Aai?aeaaneie (1985) ia
i?aenoaa? aei??thaaiiy o?i’yii-eoi?eeiai? (OEAe) oa o?i’yii-i’yoeiai?
(OIAe) aeiaaeeie.

Aei??thaaiiy ca?iaee?a oa ia?aaeieiae?a ia?oeo 2-o i?nyoe?a
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo aeeiioaaee i?ney iaeiiaeaiiiai o?enoaaiiy
?o o 5-6% ?ic/ei? iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo, caaaeyee /iio
aeinyaaeanue noae?noue oi?ie ae?aaeenoiai ooeoaa ia’?eoa ?, ye
iane?aeie, oieeaeeny iaaaaeai? iiieeee i?e aecia/aii? ?o a?eo.

I?aia?aoe ieiae?a oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo nii/aoeo aei??thaaee, a iio?i
o?enoaaee o 10-12% ?ic/ei? oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo i?ioyaii 2-3 oeaei?a, i?ney
/iai ?o caa??aaee o 3-5% ?ic/ei? oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy aecia/aieo caaaeaiue canoiniaaii eiiieaen iaea?eueo
?ioi?iaoeaieo ii?oieia?/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, yeee aeeth/a?
aeaioiaeaiiy ? i?e?ineii?th na??e a?noieia?/ieo ? oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/ieo
c??c?a, iae?ineii?th, cae/aeia oa oiiea i?aia?oaaiiy i?ae eiio?ieai
IAN-10, ?i’?eoe?th noaeei c ianooiiith ei?ic??th.

C iaoith aea/aiiy iieiaeaiiy, oi?ie, oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/ieo
aca?iia?aeiioaiue, i?inoi?iai-/aniai? i???ioaoe?? no?oeoo? ai??o ia/?iee
oi?iaeiaae ?aiiueiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo canoiniaoaaee iaoiae aeaioiaeaiiy
ieanoe/ieo ? a?ao?/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?eieo iiaeaeae.

Na??? c??c?a aeey ?aeiino?othaaiiy iiiooaaee ca niiniaii A.I. E?ooeyea
(1986). Ieanoe/i? ?aeiino?oeoe?? aeaioiaeyee ca niiniaii N.E. Eaa?aeeeia
(1914) o iiaeeo?eaoe?? I.A. Oo?eaae/a (1967).

Aeey aea/aiiy oiiia?ao?? eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee (iicaia/?ieiaeo
aeia/ieo i?ioie, a?eie ia/?ieiai? a?oa??? oa ai??oii? aaie) o ieiae?a oa
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ethaeeie canoinoaaee ?i’?eoe?th oeeo no?oeoo?
caaa?aeaiei aeaeaoeiii c ianooiiei i?aia?oaaiiyi oa iae?ineii??th.

C iaoith ooi/iaiiy oi?ie o?oa/anoeo no?oeoo? ai??o ia/?iee
(iicaia/?ieia? aeia/i? i?ioiee, aieiai? noiaao?e oa a?eee ia/?ieiai?
a?oa??? ? ai??oii? aaie), a oaeiae ?o oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/ieo
ni?aa?aeiioaiue o ieiae?a oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo canoinoaaee iaoiae
ei?ic??. Aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ei?ic?eieo i?aia?ao?a aeei?enoiaoaaee
i?ioae?ee.

Aa??aoe?eii-noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea oeeo?iaeo aeaieo, io?eiaieo i?e aea/aii?
?ici???a ai??o ia/?iee oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a, aeeiiaia ia aeaeo?iii?e
ia/enethaaeuei?e iaoei? PC AT 80586 ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aie “Exel 5.0”.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii, ui
ca/aoie ia/?iee /?oei aeeoa?aioe?th?oueny ia /aoaa?oiio oeaei?
aia??iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo (ca?iaeee 4,0-5,0 ii OEAe) ? i?aaenoaaeaiee
oyaeaie ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oei, iio?aeieo aioiaea?ie aaio?aeueii? no?iee
ia?aeiii? eeoee. A ca/aoeo ia/?iee aecia/athoueny aea? /anoeie:
e?ai?aeueia — aeania ia/?ieiaee ca/aoie (aeeaa?oeeoe) ? eaoaeaeueia —
ca/aoie aeia/iiai i?oo?a.

I?ioyaii i’yoiai oeaeiy (ca?iaeee 6,0-8,0 ii OEAe) ?ici??e ca/aoea
ia/?iee ?ioaineaii c?inoathoue ? a?i caiiaith? e?ai?iaaio?aeueiee
a?aeae?e /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie. Iaeii/anii a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy
noiaao?a ai??oii? aaie ia/?iee ca ?aooiie caeeoe?a aianoiiic?a, ye?
?nioaaee i?ae aeiaoeiai-a?eaeiaeie aaiaie. Oeae ia??iae ?icaeoeo
ai??oii? aaie ? e?eoe/iei ? eiai ii?ooaiiy iiaea i?ecaanoe aei
aeieeiaiiy aiiiae?? o aeaeyae? ia?aaeaeoiaeaiaeueiiai iieiaeaiiy
ai??oii? aaie aai ?? iiaeai?iiy.

Ia i’yoiio oeaei? ?icaeoeo a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy ai??o ia/?iee. Aiie
iathoue aeaeyae caaeeaeie ia a?noea?aeuei?e iiaa?oi? i?aaia ? iaiaaeai?
eenoeaie aaio?aeueii? a?eae?. Inoaiiy a oeae /an ?c naa?oaeueii? ieiueie
ia?aoiaeeoue o o?iioaeueio, ui coiiaeaii ci?iith iieiaeaiiy oeoiea ?
aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee oa ?ioaineaiei ?inoii i?aaeo a?aeae?e?a ia/?iee
c iaeii/aniei ia?ai?uaiiyi ?o aei aei?naeueii? /a?aaii? no?iee. Aeacai?
i?ioeane i?ecaiaeyoue aei ooai?aiiy i?aai? ? e?ai? /anoie i?aaia oa
ia/?ieiai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? ca’ycee.

Ia ??ai? ieaeiuei? o?aoeie oeoiea ? aa?oiueiai a?aeae?eo
aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee aei?naeueiee ? aaio?aeueiee iaciaano???
c’?aeiothoueny a?ey ai??o ia/?iee. Aiane?aeie oeueiai noa? iiaeeeaei
niieo/aiiy i?ioiee i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, ?icoaoiaaii? a aei?naeueiiio
iaciaano???, ? ni?eueii? aeia/ii? i?ioiee, ioi/aii? eenoeaie
aaio?aeueii? a?eae?.

Oaeei /eiii, ia ??ai? i?aai? /anoeie aa?oiueiai a?aeae?eo
aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee i?acoiioeaia ia/?ieiai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaea
ca’ycea neeaaea?oueny c aeaiaio?a ye aaio?aeueiiai oae ? aei?naeueiiai
iaciaano???a. Ia?oee ooai?th? ia?aaeith ?? /anoeio ? a eiai oiau?
?ici?uo?oueny ni?eueia aeia/ia i?ioiea, ae?oaee — caaeith, aea
i?ioiaeyoue i?ioiea i?aeoeoieiai? caeice oa noaeeie, ye? iai?aaeythoueny
aei ai??o ia/?iee. Oe? niinoa?aaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeai? TH.I.
Aieoeaa (1985).

Ia aeai?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo ca/aoee aeia/iiai i?oo?a, i?oo?iai? i?ioiee,
a oaeiae ni?eueieo ia/?ieiai? oa aeia/ii? i?ioie ?ici?uothoueny i?aai?o/
a?ae ioieiai? aaie o oiau? ia?aio?ie ia/?iee. A caaaeaieo no?oeoo?ao
niinoa??aathoueny iciaee o?c?ieia?/ii? ao?ac??.

Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy a?noea?aeueii? iiaa?oi?
ia/?iee oei/aniaeie neeaaeiaeie eiiiiiaioaie ?? ai??o ? ioieiaa aaia
(ca?iaeee 4,0-6,0 ii) oa aeia/iee i?oo? (ca?iaeee 6,5-8,0 ii OEAe).

I?ioyaii ca?iaeeiaiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco a?aeaoaathoueny ?ioaineai?
i?ioeane oi?iiooai?aiiy ia/?iee, ?? noaeei oa i?ioie ? iai?ee?ioe?
??-ai i?nyoey aia??iaaiaco ai?no ai??o ia/?iee aeaui iaaaaeo?
aeao?i?oeaiee, oiaoi oaea iathoue i?noea an? ?o iino?ei? eiiiiiaioe:
ai??oia aaia, aeania ia/?ieiaa a?oa??y ? iicaia/?ieia? aeia/i? i?ioiee.

Ia iniia? aeanieo niinoa?aaeaiue, a oaeiae ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
?ioeo aaoi??a ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui iniiai? eiiiiiaioe ai??o ia/?iee
oi?iothoueny i?ioyaii ca?iaeeiaiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco: ai??oia aaia — o
ca?iaee?a 4,0-6,0 ii OEAe; i?oo?iaa, ni?euei? ia/?ieiaa oa aeia/ia
i?ioiee — o ca?iaee?a 6,5-8,0 ii OEAe; aeania ia/?ieiaa a?oa??y, i?aaa ?
e?aa ia/?ieia? i?ioiee — o ca?iaee?a 8,5-13,5 ii OEAe.

Noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ai??o ia/?iee oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a a
ia?aaeieiaeiaiio ia??iae? ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae aieeaii ei?aeyoeaieo
i?ioean?a, ye? coiiaeai? ?icaeoeii ia/?ieiai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? ca’ycee,
aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee, i?aeoeoieiai? caeice oa ?ioeo noi?aeieo
i?aai?a. Oe? i?ioeane i?ecaiaeyoue aei ooai?aiiy oainoaoi? ? eaaae?aoii?
/anoie ia/?iee oa ?? ai?icai, a ai?ioa ia/?iee i?e oeueiio
a?aeiia?aeathoue iiia?a/i?e ai?ici? i?aaia.

O ia?aaeieiae?a VII oeaeiy ?icaeoeo (14,0-20,0 ii OEAe) ii?yae c?
ca?eueoaiiyi ?ici???a ia/?iee ia ?? a?noea?aeuei?e iiaa?oi? /?oei
aecia/athoueny e?aa ? i?aaa naa?oaeuei? ai?icie, a ia?aaei?o a?aeae?eao
yeeo ?ici?uothoueny ioieiaa aaia oa aeia/iee i?oo?.

A iicaia/?ieiaeo aeia/ieo i?ioieao a?aeaoaathoueny i?ioeane ?o
?aeaiae?caoe??. Cao?eiea oeeo i?ioean?a iiaea i?ecaanoe aei aeieeiaiiy
i?e?iaeaeaii? ao?ac??. Oe? aeai? oe?eeii ocaiaeaeothoueny c
aeine?aeaeaiiyie A.I. E?ooeyea (1968), I.Ae. Ethoeea (1977), V.
Anghelescu (1983), J. Langman (1981) ? ia ca?aathoueny c aeaieie *.
Aiaeaia?a (1971) ? F.T.Lewis (1912).

Ia ainueiiio oeaei? (ia?aaeieiaee 21,0-30,0 ii OEAe)
ia/?ieiai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaea ca’ycea i?inoyaa?oueny a?ae ai??o ia/?iee
aei caaeiueiai i?aeiea aa?oiuei? /anoeie aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee ?
aieiaee i?aeoeoieiai? caeice. Ai??oia aaia i?ioiaeeoue ce?aa a?ae
ia/?ieiaeo i?ioie ? anooia? a ia?aio?io ia/?iee. I?aaa ? e?aa ia/?ieia?
i?ioiee ?ici?uothoueny iiaeeco a?noea?aeueii? iiaa?oi? i?aaia, a iaaeao
eiai ai??o, aea c’?aeioth/enue, ooai?ththoue ni?eueio ia/?ieiao i?ioieo.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeathoue i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
e?eoe/i? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo aeey eiaeiiai c eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee
??ci?.Oae, aeey ai??oii? aaie ia/?iee oa ?? a?eie — oea IV-V oeaei?,
iicaia/?ieiaeo aeia/ieo i?ioie — VI-VII, aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa??? oa
?? a?eie — VII-VIII oeaei? ?icaeoeo.

A na?aaeei? ia?aaeieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo (aeaa’yoee oeaeaeaiue) ai??oia
aaia ?ici?uo?oueny o oiau? ia/?ieiai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? ca’ycee ccaaeo ?
ce?aa a?ae ni?eueii? aeia/ii? i?ioiee. A ae?eyioe? ai??o ia/?iee ai??oia
aaia ei?ioeei noiaao?ii (ai??oiith iacooith) niieo/a?oueny c ioieiaith
aaiith ? i?yio? a oiauo i?aai? /anoee ia/?iee. Aeania ia/?ieiaa a?oa??y
ciaoiaeeoueny ce?aa a?ae ni?eueii? aeia/ii? i?ioiee, nia?aaeo ? caa?oo
a?ae ai??oii? aaie ia/?iee.

O ia?aaeieiae?a X-XII oeaei?a ?icaeoeo a ni?euei?e aeia/i?e i?ioioe?
aeia?a aecia/athoueny o?e ?? a?aeae?ee: iicacaeicaaee, iaie?aaoe/iee,
yeee i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac ia?aio?io caeice, a?aeie?aiethth/enue a?ae
inoaiiuei? oa?ii niieo/ii? oeaieie, oa aioo??oiueino?ieiaee aai
aeoiaeaiaeueiee.

Ia iaae? ia?aoiaeo oeoiea o aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaeo eeoeo a?aeaoaa?oueny
c’?aeiaiiy aaio?aeueiiai ? aei?naeueiiai iaciaano???a. O oiau?
inoaiiueiai ?ici?uo?oueny ia/?ieiaa a?oa??y, yea iai?aaey?oueny aei
ai??o ia/?iee. Aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaea eeoea ia aeai?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo ua ia
o?eniaaia aei caaeiuei? /a?aaii? no?iee.

O ia?aaeieiae?a III i?nyoey noiaao? ai??oii? aaie ia/?iee ?ici?uo?oueny
ni?aaa ? aei?naeuei?oa a?ae aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???. E?aei? i?aaa
iieiaeaiiy a ai?ioao caeia? i?oo?iaa i?ioiea, e?a?oa ? iicaae ia?
?ici?uo?oueny ai??oia aaia, a aaio?aeuei?oa inoaiiuei? — i?aaa a?eea
ia/?ieiai? a?oa??? oa i?oo?iaa a?oa??y. O aa?oiueiio a?aeae?e? ca’ycee,
ce?aa ? nia?aaeo a?ae ai??oii? aaie, ciaoiaeeoueny i?noea ceeooy
ia/?ieiaeo i?ioie, o ieaeiueiio — ni?eueia ia/?ieiaa i?ioiea. Iaea?eueo
e?aei? e?aa iieiaeaiiy caeia? aeania ia/?ieiaa a?oa??y c? nai?ie
a?eeaie.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue, ui o ieiae?a oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
ia?aaaaea? aaio?iiaoaeueia iieiaeaiiy ia/?iee a /a?aai?e ii?iaeiei?.
*ioe?eeooia oi?ia ?? a?noea?aeueii? iiaa?oi? o ieiae?a V, IX, X i?nyoe?a
oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo niinoa??aa?oueny /ano?oa, i?ae aiai- oa
a?ooiiiae?aia, o ieiae?a IV ? VI i?nyoe?a — /ano?oa a?ooiiiae?aia ? o
7- i?ny/ieo ieiae?a — /ano?oa aiaiiiae?aia.

sse o ieiae?a, oae ? o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ia?aaaaea? cae?eoa oi?ia ai??o
ia/?iee, yea niinoa??aaeanue o 34-o aeiaaeeao (26 ieiae?a ? 8
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo), o 20 aeiaaeeao oi?ia ai??o aoea ia?ao?aeiith ? o 14 —
a?aee?eoith.

I?e oeueiio aeey a?ooiiiae?aii? oa /ioe?eeooii? a?noea?aeueieo
iiaa?oiiue i?aaia oa?aeoa?i? cae?eoa ? ia?ao?aeia oi?ie ai??o ia/?iee, a
aeey aiaiiiae?aii? — a?aee?eoa. Aeoaiiiae?aia ? e?eeiiiae?aia oi?ie
aa?oiuei? iiaa?oi? ia/?iee c iii??iith iioee?noth /ano?oa
niinoa??aathoueny i?e a?aee?eo?e oi?i? ai??o. I?e oae?e aea oi?i?, aea
cia/ii ae?aaeai?e iioeeino? ae?ao?aaiaeueii? iiaa?oi?, ye i?aaeei,
niinoa??aa?oueny cae?eoa oi?ia ai??o.

Aea/aiiy oiiia?ao?? iiia?a/ii? ai?icie ia/?iee (aieiaia /anoeia ai??o)
ii a?aeiioaiith aei ia?aaeiueiai ? caaeiueiai e?a?a i?aaia iieacaei, ui
aiia caeaa?eueoiai ?icoaoiao?oueny aei?niiaoaeueii (46 ia’?eo?a), ??aeoa
— iaciiaoaeueii (19) ? aaio?iiaoaeueii (3). I?e oeueiio o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo niinoa??aa?oueny iani?eyoeeaa aeey iia?aoeaiiai
aeinooio ii?aeiaiiy aei?niiaoaeueiiai ?icoaooaaiiy ai??o ia/?iee c ?o
cae?eoith oi?iith.

Aeey c?o/iino? oa a?eueo eiie?aoiiai aecia/aiiy eieae?caoe?? ? aa??aio?a
oiiia?ao?? eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee iaie aeae?eai? a iaaeao ai??o
i?aaee ? e?aee a?aeae?ee ?, a?aeiia?aeii, a eiaeiiio c ieo aaio?aeueiee
oa aei?naeueiee eooe.

A a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a o aeine?aeaeaieo ia’?eo?a aeyaeai? aeiaeaoeia?
ca’ycee aeia/iiai i?oo?a: i?oo?iai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaea (19) ?
i?oo?iai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei-iaiaeiaa (21), ye? ?acii c oeeeith aeia/iiai
i?oo?a i?ee?eaathoue i?aaee a?aeae?e ai??o ia/?iee. E?aee a?aeae?e ai??o
nia?aaeo a?aee?eoee.

E??i ??cieoe? o aoaeia? a?aeae?e?a ai??o ia/?iee, niinoa??aa?oueny
a?aei?ii?noue oiiia?ao?? a ieo noaeeiii-i?ioieiaeo eiiiiiaio?a. Oae, a
i?aaiio a?aeae?e? ii?oaeueiee oa aeia/iee eiiiiiaioe a?aecia/athoueny
iaea?eueoith e?euee?niith oa ye?niith aa??aioi?noth, a oie /an, ye
a?oa??y ? iino?eiith ? iaeiaio i?ieeaith no?oeoo?ith aeaii? ae?eyiee.

A e?aiio a?aeae?e? ai??o e?aa a?eea ai??oii? aaie ? e?aa ia/?ieiaa
i?ioiea — iino?ei? neeaaeia?, a a?oa??aeueia nenoaia ?
iaeaa??aaaeuei?oei eiiiiiaioii. I?noeyie ?? aoiaeaeaiiy a ia?aio?io
ia/?iee iiaeooue aooe aaio?aeueiee aai aei?naeueiee eooe e?aiai
a?aeae?eo ai??o, a oaeiae ia?aaei?e aai caaei?e a?aeae?ee e?ai?
naa?oaeueii? ai?icie. A 3-o aeiaaeeao niinoa??aaeanue aeiaeaoeiaa e?aa
ia/?ieiaa a?oa??y, yea aoea a?eeith e?ai? oeoieiai? a?oa???. Ua a 2-o
niinoa?aaeaiiyo aei e?ai? /anoee i?yioaaee aea? a?eee aeanii?
ia/?ieiai? a?oa???.

?icaeyaeath/e oiiia?ao?th noaeeiii-i?ioieiaeo aeaiaio?a ia/?iee ieiae?a
a iaaeao ?? ai??o a iai?yieo ni?aaa iae?ai ia iaoiio iaoa??ae? aeyaeai?
oae? aa??aioe ?o ?icoaooaaiiy:

a) i?oo?iaa i?ioiea, i?aaa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, i?aaa a?eea
ai??oii? aaie, i?aaa ia/?ieiaa i?ioiea, e?aa ia/?ieiaa i?ioiea, e?aa
a?eea ai??oii? aaie, e?aa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa??? — 23
aeiaaeee;

a) i?aaa a?eea ai??oii? aaie, i?oo?iaa i?ioiea, i?aaa ia/?ieiaa i?ioiea,
e?aa ia/?ieiaa i?ioiea, i?aaa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, e?aa
a?eea ai??oii? aaie, e?aa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa??? — 14
aeiaaee?a;

a) i?oo?iaa i?ioiea, i?aaa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, i?aaa
ia/?ieiaa i?ioiea, i?aaa a?eea ai??oii? aaie, na?aaeiy a?eea aeanii?
ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, e?aa ia/?ieiaa i?ioiea, e?aa a?eea ai??oii? aaie,
e?aa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa??? — 5 aeiaaee?a;

a) i?oo?iaa i?ioiea, i?aaa a?eea ai??oii? aaie, i?aaa a?eea aeanii?
ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, i?aaa ia/?ieiaa i?ioiea, e?aa ia/?ieiaa i?ioiea,
e?aa a?eea ai??oii? aaie, e?aa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa??? — 2
aeiaaeee;

ae) i?oo?iaa i?ioiea, i?aaa a?eea ai??oii? aaie, i?aaa ia/?ieiaa
i?ioiea, e?aa ia/?ieiaa i?ioiea, i?aaa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???,
e?aa a?eea ai??oii? aaie, e?aa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa??? — 3
aeiaaeee;

a) ai??oia aaia, i?oo?iaa i?ioiea, caaaeueia ia/?ieiaa i?ioiea, i?aaa
a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, na?aaeiy oa e?aa a?eee aeanii?
ia/?ieiai? a?oa??? — 1 aeiaaeie.

I?e aea/aii? ?icoaooaaiiy eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee ieiae?a a
ia?aaeiuei-caaeiueiio iai?yieo aecia/ai? oae? aa??aioe:

a) e?aa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, i?oo?iaa i?ioiea, e?aa ? i?aaa
ia/?ieia? i?ioiee, i?aaa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, e?aa ? i?aaa
a?eee ai??oii? aaie — 24 aeiaaeee;

a) e?aa ? i?aaa a?eee aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, i?oo?iaa i?ioiea, e?aa
? i?aaa ia/?ieia? i?ioiee, e?aa ? i?aaa a?eee ai??oii? aaie — 9
aeiaaee?a;

a) i?oo?iaa i?ioiea, e?aa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, e?aa a?eea
ai??oii? aaie, e?aa ? i?aaa ia/?ieia? i?ioiee, i?aaa a?eea ai??oii?
aaie, aeiaeaoeiaa i?aaa ia/?ieiaa a?oa??y — 2 aeiaaeee;

a) e?aa ? i?aaa ia/?ieia? i?ioiee, e?aa ? i?aaa a?eee aeanii? ia/?ieiai?
a?oa???, e?aa ? i?aaa a?eee ai??oii? aaie — 6 aeiaaee?a;

ae) e?aa ? i?aaa ia/?ieia? i?ioiee, e?aa a?eea ai??oii? aaie, e?aa a?eea
aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, i?aaa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???,
i?aaa a?eea ai??oii? aaie — 5 aeiaaee?a;

a) i?oo?iaa i?ioiea, caaaeueia ia/?ieiaa i?ioiea, i?aaa a?eea aeanii?
ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, e?aa a?eea aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, e?aa ? i?aaa
a?eee ai??oii? aaie — 2 aeiaaeee.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
aa??aio?a oiiia?ao?? noaeeiii-i?ioieiaeo eiiiiiaio?a ia/?iee
cono??/a?oueny ia ??ai? ?? ai??o, iine?aeiaii ciaiooth/enue a i?aa?e
/anoeia?e i?aeoe?, i?aeoe? i?aaiai ia?aiaae?aiiiai naeoi?a, e?aiai
eaoa?aeueiiai naeoi?a, e?a?e /anoeia?e i?aeoe? ? a naaiaioao ia/?iee.

Aeniiaee

1. Caeeaaeea ai??o ia/?iee o aeaeyae? caaeeaeie ia a?noea?aeuei?e
iiaa?oi? i?aaia a?aeaoaa?oueny ia i’yoiio oeaei? ?icaeoeo.

2. Iniiai? eiiiiiaioe ai??o ia/?iee oi?iothoueny i?ioyaii ca?iaeeiaiai
ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco: ai??oia aaia — o ca?iaee?a 4,0 — 6,0 ii OEAe;
i?oo?iaa, ni?euei? ia/?ieiaa oa aeia/ia i?ioiee — o ca?iaee?a 6,5 — 8,0
ii OEAe; aeania ia/?ieiaa a?oa??y, i?aaa ? e?aa ia/?ieia? i?ioiee — o
ca?iaee?a 8,5 — 13,5 ii OEAe.

3. E?eoe/ieie ia??iaeaie ?icaeoeo aeey ai??oii? aaie ia/?iee oa ?? a?eie
? IV-V oeaei?, iicaia/?ieiaeo aeia/ieo i?ioie — VI-VII oeaei?, aeanii?
ia/?ieiai? a?oa??? oa ?? a?eie — VII-VIII oeaei? ?icaeoeo.

4. Oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i? aca?iia?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee
oiiae?aiththoueny aeao?i?oeaiei iai?ee?ioe? ia?aaeieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo
?icaeoeo.

5. Aeey ieiae?a ? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo a?eueo oa?aeoa?ia cae?eoa oi?ia ai??o
ia/?iee oa ?o aei?niiaoaeueia iieiaeaiiy o ii?aeiaii? c /ioe?eeooiith ?
a?ooiiiae?aiith a?noea?aeueieie iiaa?oiyie i?aaia.

6. Neioii?y noaeeiii-i?ioieiaeo aeaiaio?a ia/?iee a iaaeao ?? ai??o
aa??aaaeueia: a i?aaiio a?aeae?e? ai??o iaio iino?eieie eiiiiiaioaie ?
ii?oaeueiee oa aeia/iee, a a e?aiio — a?oa??aeueiee.

7. O ieiae?a oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
niinoa??aathoueny aeiaeaoeia? ca’ycee aeia/iiai i?oo?a:
i?oo?iai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaea ? i?oo?iai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei-iaiaeiaa, ye?
?acii c eiai oeeeith i?ee?eaathoue i?aaee a?aeae?e ai??o ia/?iee.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Oiao?yi A.I. Ceioii?y noaeei o ai?ioao ia/?iee ieiae?a oa
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo // Aoeiaeinueeee iaaee/iee a?niee. — 1997. —N1. — N.
67-72.

2. Oiao?yi A.I. Aia??ioiiia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e ai??o ia/?iee
// Aanoiee i?iaeai aeieiaee e iaaeeoeeiu. — 1997. — N30. — N. 66-70.

3. Oiao?yi A.I. Noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? oa neioii?/i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee a ca?iaeeiaiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco // Iaoeiaee
a?niee OaeAeO. — 1998. — N5. — C. 31-34.

4. Ia?/oe O.Ae., Oia?a O.A., Oiao?yi A.I., Ia?/oe A.O. ??aee?nia
ii?aeiaiiy i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo i?aai?a iiaiia?iaeaeaiiai
ethaeeie // Aoeiaeinueeee iaaee/iee a?niee. — 1998. —O.2., N 1. — N.
119-125.

5. Aaoaiai A.I., Neiiaoeueeee A.?., Aeiie/aiei ?.I., Aieyithe I.I.,
Oiao?yi A.I., Ooiaeth? A.Ae., Ea?e?e/oe I.A., Neiiaoeueeee ?.?.,
Ieoaeeia I.A. Aeai?eoi iiooeo iiaeo ? aaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a
oa niinia?a iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue // Aenia?eiaioaeueia oa ee?i?/ia
o?c?ieia?y ? a?io?i?y. — 1998. —N2. — N. 66-69.

6. Oiao?yi A.I. No/ani? aeai? i?i ?icaeoie oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao??
ai??o ia/?iee // Oeno. — 1997. — N1. — N. 303-308.

7. Iao. 17315A Oe?a?ia, UA A61A17/00. Niin?a iia?e?caoe??
aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee / Aaoaiai A.I., Ooo/aiei I.?., Neiiaoeueeee
A.?., A?ii?/aiei ?.I., Oiao?yi A.I. — N96104090; Cayae. 29.10.96; Iioae.
01.04.97.

8. Oiao?yi A.I. Oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i? iniaeeaino?
ia/?ieiai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? ca’ycee o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo // Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiio.»A?ieia?y, iaaeeoeeia, aeieia?y». —*a?i?aoe?:
AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie. — 1996. — N. 61-62.

9. Oiao?yi A.I. Iniaeeaino? oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue
eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiio. «Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy ii?oiaaiaco». —*a?i?aoe?: AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie — 1996. —
N.336-337.

10. Oiao?yi A.I. Iniaeeaino? aaneoey?ecaoe?? iicaia/?ieiaeo aeia/ieo
i?ioie o ieiae?a oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai?
eiio.»Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oiaaiaco». —*a?i?aoe?: AAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie. —
1996. — N. 338-339.

11. Oiao?yi A.I. No?oeoo?ia i?aai?caoe?y ia/?ieiai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei?
ca’ycee // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiio. «Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
o??o?a??» — Ee?a-Oiaeueieoeueeee-A?iieoey. — 1997. — N. 97.

12. Oiao?yi A.I., Neiaiaeyi I.I., A?iaeianueeee N.I., Naiioaaeaiei ?.A.
Oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i? iniaeeaino? ai??o ia/?iee o ieiae?a oa
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo // Iaoeia? caienee OAIII/ Ae?cia nan?y, i?enay/aia
40-??//th Oa?iii?euenueei? iaae. aeaaeai??. — Ee?a-Oa?iii?eue. — 1997. —
N. 488-489.

13. Aooai?e/oe TH.O., A??the ?.A., Iai/oeaiei Ae.A., Oiao?yi A.I.,
Oeeaeeaei I.A. Iiaee niin?a aia??ioiiia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
ii?iaeienoeo i?aai?a oa no?oeoo? // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiio.
«Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy o??o?a??» — Ee?a-Oiaeueieoeueeee-A?iieoey. — 1997. —
N. 105-106.

14. Aaoaiai A.I., Ia?/oe A.O., Aieyithe I.I., Oiao?yi A.I. Iayai?noue
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aea?oioy — caii?oea aeey aoaeoeaiino? iiooeo
iiaeo niinia?a iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue // Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie
eiio. «Aeooaeueiua aii?inu iaioeiaeiie oe?o?aee i?aaiia a?thoiie
iieinoe» — Oa?ueeia. — 1998. — N. 167- 168.

Aiioaoe?ss

Oiao?yi A.I. ?icaeoie ? noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? eiiiiiaio?a ai??o ia/?iee
a ?aiiueiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14. 03. 01 — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y. — Oa?iii?euenueea
aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y ?i. ?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie,
Oa?iii?eue, 1999.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/aia eiiieaeniiio aea/aiith iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo
oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ai??o ia/?iee ? ?o eiiiiiaio?a i?ioyaii
i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco. Anoaiiaeaii ia??iaee oi?ioaaiiy
ai??o ia/?iee oa ?o noaeeiii-i?ioieiaeo aeaiaio?a. Aeyaeai? ii?oieia?/i?
ia?aaeoiiae ? /an iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy aa??aio?a oa aiiiae?e aoaeiae
ai??oii? aaie ia/?iee, aeanii? ia/?ieiai? a?oa???, iicaia/?ieiaeo
aeia/ieo i?ioie. I?inoaaeaia caeaaei?noue i?ae oi?iith a?noea?aeueii?
iiaa?oi? ia/?iee oa aoaeiaith ? oiiia?ao??th ?? ai??o. Aecia/ai?
iniaeeaino? aoaeiae ? aa??aioe oiiia?ao?? ai??o ia/?iee oa ?o
eiiiiiaio?a o ieiae?a oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe ii?oieia?/iith iniiaith aeey
oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoiae?a o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy iaoieia?? aaiaoia?e?a?ii? ae?eyiee o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo oa
ae?oae ?aiiueiai a?eo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ai?ioa ia/?iee, aia??ioiiia?ao?y, ia/?ieiaa a?oa??y,
iicaia/?ieia? aeia/i? i?ioiee, ai??oia aaia ia/?iee.

Oiao?yi A.I. ?acaeoea e noaiiaeaiea oiiia?aoee eiiiiiaioia ai?io ia/aie
a ?aiiai ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca /aeiaaea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.01 — ii?iaeueiay aiaoiiey. — Oa?iiiieueneay
ainoaea?noaaiiay iaaeeoeeineay aeaaeaiey ei. E.ss. Ai?aa/aaneiai IC
Oe?aeiu, Oa?iiiieue, 1999.

Enneaaeiaaiea i?iaaaeaii ia 138 i?aia?aoao ca?iaeuoae, ia?aaeieiaeia,
ieiaeia e iiai?iaeaeaiiuo /aeiaaea. Eniieueciaai eiiieaen
ii?oieiae/aneeo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey, eioi?ue aeeth/ae ecaioiaeaiea e
iee?ineiieth na?ee aenoieiae/aneeo e oiiia?aoi-aiaoiie/aneeo n?acia,
iae?ineiieth, iau/iia e oiieia i?aia?e?iaaiea iiae eiio?ieai IAN-10,
eiueaeoeeth ninoaeia n iineaaeothuae ei??iceae, ecaioiaeaiea e eco/aiea
a?aoe/aneeo e ieanoe/aneeo ?aeiino?oeoeeiiiuo iiaeaeae.

Eiiieaenii eco/aiu iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey e noaiiaeaiey oiiia?aoee ai?io
ia/aie e eo eiiiiiaioia ia i?ioyaeaiee i?aiaoaeueiiai ia?eiaea
iioiaaiaca. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oi?iiia?aciaaiea ai?io ia/aie i?ienoiaeeo
ia iyoie iaaeaea ?acaeoey a aeaea oaeoaeaiey ia aenoea?aeueiie
iiaa?oiinoe i?aaia. Iniiaiua eiiiiiaiou ai?io ia/aie oi?ie?othony a
oa/aiea ca?iaeuoaaiai ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca: ai?ioiay aaia ia/aie — o
ca?iaeuoae 4,0-6,0 ii OEAe; iocu?iue, iauea ia/aii/iue e aeae/iue
i?ioiee — o ca?iaeuoae 6,5-8,0 ii OEAe; nianoaaiiay ia/aii/iay a?oa?ey,
i?aaue e eaaue ia/aii/iua i?ioiee — o ca?iaeuoae 8,5-13,5 ii OEAe.
Auyaeaiu ii?oieiae/aneea i?aaeiinueee e a?aiy aiciiaeiiai aicieeiiaaiey
aa?eaioia oiiia?aoee e iaeioi?uo a?iaeae?iiuo ii?ieia ?acaeoey ai?ioiie
aaiu ia/aie, nianoaaiiie ia/?ii/iie a?oa?ee, aiaia/aii/iuo aeae/iuo
i?ioieia.

I?ineaaeaia caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oi?iie aenoea?aeueiie iiaa?oiinoe
ia/aie e no?iaieai, a oaeaea oiiia?aoeae a? ai?io. Eco/aiu iniaaiiinoe
no?iaiey e aa?eaiou oiiia?aoee ai?io ia/aie e eo eiiiiiaioia o 48
ieiaeia e 20 iiai?iaeaeaiiuo /aeiaaea. Aeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi o ieiaeia e iiai?iaeaeaiiuo i?aiaeaaeaao
cae?uoay oi?ia ai?io ia/aie e eo aei?niiaoaeueiia ?aniieiaeaiea.
Ii?aaeaeaiu e iienaiu aa?eaiou acaeii?aniieiaeaiey ninoaeenoi-i?ioieiauo
eiiiiiaioia ai?io ia/aie ieiaeia a iai?aaeaiee ni?aaa iaeaai e nia?aaee
iacaae. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eo neioiiey a i?aaeaeao ai?io ia/aie
aa?eaaaeueia: a i?aaii ioaeaea ai?io iaiaa iinoiyiiuie eiiiiiaioaie
yaeythony ii?oaeueiue e aeae/iue, a a eaaii — a?oa?eaeueiue.

Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iiaoo neoaeeoue ii?oieiae/aneie aacie aeey
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey nouanoaothueo e ?ac?aaioee iiauo iaoiaeia
aioaiaoaeueiie i?ioeeaeoeee e oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey iaoieiaee
aaiaoiaeeea?iie iaeanoe o iiai?iaeaeaiiuo e aeaoae ?aiiaai aic?anoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ai?ioa ia/aie, aia?eioiiia?aoey, ia/?ii/iay a?oa?ey,
aiaia/?ii/iua ae?e/iua i?ioiee, ai?ioiay aaia ia/aie.

Ungurian V.P. Development and Formation of the Hepatis Porta Components
Topography in the Prenatal Period of Human Ontogenesis. — Manuscript.

Research work for a Candidate Degree in Medicine. Speciality: Normal
Anatomy (14. 03. 01). Ternopil State Medical Academy named after
Gorbachevsky, Ministry of Healh Care of Ukraine, Ternopil, 1999.

The present research work is dedicated to the complex study of
peculiarities of the formation and development of the topography of
hepatis porta components within a prenatal period of human
ontogenesis. The periods of the formation of the porta hepatis and its
vascular and duct elements have been determined. The morphological
preconditions and the time of possible occurance of variants and
anomalies in the portal vein structure, as well as in proper hepatic
artery itself and extrahepatic bile-ducts, have been defined. The
dependence between the form of the liver visceral surface and the
structure and topography of the porta hepatis have been under research.
The peculiarities of structure and the variants of topography of the
porta hepatis components in fetuses and newborns have been determined.

The data obtained may serve as a morphological basis for the improvement
of current methods and elaboration of new ones of surgical treatments of
hepatic-biliary area pathology problems in newborns and children of
young age.

Key words: embriotopography, porta hepatis, proper hepatic artery,
extrahepatic bile-ducts, portal vein.

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