Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie

Aoo?ei Ienaia Aieiaeeie??aia

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 338.978

?ICAEOIE ? ?ICI?UAIIss IIOAIOe?EII IAAACIA*IEO AE?IAIEOeOA O I?NOAO
OE?A?IE OA ?O AIEEA IA AEIIII?EO OAOIIAAIII-AEIEIA?*II? AACIAEE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.10.01 – ?ici?uaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaieo

nee ? ?aa?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aae? ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?

Noaiaiaiei Aiaoie?e Aaneeueiae/,

?aaea
ii ae/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee

Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee

iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Noa/aiei Aeieo?i Ieeieaeiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?iiaaoe?eiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo oa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea;

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe Ei?aeoiiaa Iaoae?y Aieiaeeie??aia, noa?oee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?aaee ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI
Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo
I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e iaoiaeieia?? ? iaoiae?a eiiieaeniiai
?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «_4_»_aa?aciy_» 1999 ?. i _1430_
aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.160.01 a ?aae?
ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252032,
i.Ee?a – 32, aoeueaa? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 60, o?ao?e iiaa?o.wmetafile8?
??T????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????   ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyya???AE?? ???&?
?MathType??P????&??yyyy?????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????????yyy?yyy???????????
?????????????????????

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?aaee ii aea/aiith
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252032, i.Ee?a – 32,
aoeueaa? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 60.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «_3_»_ethoiai_» 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe
I.N.Eiaaeaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie noai?aii iiooaeio oaoiinoa?o,
iaaaioaaeaiiy yei? ia iaaeieeoi? i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua a 4-5 ?ac?a
ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/i? iieacieee o ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao na?oo. Neooaoe?y
iaoyaeo?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi /anoee canoa??eeo oaoiieia?e ? iaeaaeiaiiy,
cieaeaiiyi ??aiy iiaea?i?caoe?? oa iiiaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa, e?ecith a
aeiiii?oe?. O na?aaeiueiio ??aaiue ciino i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/eo iniiaieo
oiiae?a (IAIO) Oe?a?ie, ye? noa??thoue ye ii?aeueii, oae ? o?ce/ii,
ae?iaeyth/e ii?iaoeaiee, ?aca?aiee, a iio?i ? o?ce/iee ?ano?n, ia?aaeuo?
48%, a iaoei ? iaeaaeiaiiy 60%. O no?oeoo?? oaoiinoa?e aaeeea ?ieue
iaeaaeeoue iioaioe?eii iaaacia/iei i?aei?e?inoaai, ia ye? ii e?a?i?
i?eiaaea? a?eueoa 33% ianyao ae?iaieoeoaa ? 21% i?aoethth/eo. Oea ?
iaeiei ?c /eiiee?a a?eueo iiooaeieo ? ana a?eueo iaaacia/ieo aaa??e ?
eaoano?io, ui ianooue caa?ico aeey ianaeaiiy, aeiiii?ee ? aeiae?eey. A
ciiao iiaeeeaiai o?aaeaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieie ia’?eoaie i?iaeeaa?
a?eueoa 20 iei. /ie. ianaeaiiy. C?inoaiiy e?eueeino? oa ianooaa?a
iaeeie/ieo iiooaeiinoae i?iieneiaeo ia’?eo?a ia noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue
noai?aiiyi aaeaeaaoii? iio?aaai noni?euenoaa nenoaie caaacia/aiiy
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee ianaeaiiy ? aeiiii?ee. Oaea nenoaia
iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia a?aeiia?aeieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo caoiaeao, iaiao?aeieo oaoi?/ieo caniaao uiaei
caoenoo ethaeae. Ia?ao?ae aei aeiiii?ee ci?oaiiai oeio,
aeaiiiiiie?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa oneeaaeiththoue ?icaeoie iioaioe?eii
iaaacia/ieo i?aei?e?inoa. Eiaeiee i?aei?e?iaoeue ae??oo? ieoaiiy
aaciaee, aeoiaey/e c aeaniiai oyaeaiiy i?i ia?.

Caiia?aaiiy oaoiiaaiiei aaa??yi ? ciaioaiiy ?o aieeao ia aeiiii?eo,
i?e?iaeo ? ianaeaiiy iaaoaa? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? aaae. Oiio iaiao?aei?
aoaeoeai? iaoai?cie caaacia/aiiy aaciaee ia aeiaaeie iaaecae/aeieo
neooaoe?e c i?aoeacaeaoieie ca’yceaie ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio e eieaeueiiio
??aiyo, ui ni?yiiaai? ia caa?aaeaiiy ii?iaeueieo oiia aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
ia oa?eoi??yo ooieoe?iioaaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa.

I?iaeaie oaoiiaaiieo aaa??e ? eaoano?io aeine?aeaeoaaeenue a i?aoeyo
I.I.Aeeiiaa, N.?.Aei?iaoioeiaa, A.A.Caneaanueeiai, ?.E?i?,
TH.I.Iaioeaae/a, A.A.Noaiaiaiea, A.I.Oaaei?euaai?. Ieoaiiyi caaacia/aiiy
aeieia?/ii? aaciaee iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua i?enay/ai?
?iaioe I.I.Ai?uaanueeiai, A.A.Ao?eeinueeiai, A.I.Aa?oea, A.Ai?a,
A.I.Aeaieeeoeia, I.?.Aeieeoiueiai, N.Aeeeaia, A.Eiiiia?a, ?.?.Eoe?iiaa,
A.Ia?oaea, A.I.Iaeaia?/oea, I.I.Iaeaia?/oea, Ae.I.Noa/aiea, A.Oaeoa,
A.Oaeaa?aa, I.I.*oia/aiea oa ?ioeo. Aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee aena?oethaaeenue o aei?iaeao
I.?.Ai?aeoeiaa, A.I.Ao?eiaa, I.I.A?ooi?inueeiai, A.I.Aeaaeeie?iaa,
A.E.Aioiaia, A.?.?ciaeeiaa, E.A.Eieioe?ia, A.A.Eiiae?ao’?aa, A.?.Ieee,
A.?.Iioaiiaa oa ?ioeo.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aaaaoi/enaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue, aei oeeo i??
a?aenooiy eiioeaiooaeueii oe?e?nia ? iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaia iie?oeea
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo oa ?ici?uaiiy
iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa. A?aoiaoth/e, ui aeecueei 90-92%
ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae i?iieneiaino?, a oiio /ene? ? iioaioe?eii
iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa, eieae?co?oueny a i?noao, ? iaiao?aei?noue
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue ?o ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy o i?nueeiio
na?aaeiaeu? oa iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie, iia’ycaieo c iaoiaeieia?/iei ?
iaoiaee/iei caaacia/aiiyi ioe?iee ?eceeo ? caiia?aaiiy iaaecae/aeiei
neooaoe?yi oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy. O ca’yceo c oeei iinoa? iio?aaa
aea/aiiy i?iaeai ?ici?uaiiy oa ?icaeoeo iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo
ae?iaieoeoa o i?noao, oia?aaeaeaiiy iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e, i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? oi?aae?iiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/iith aaciaeith i?nueeiai
na?aaeiaeua /a?ac oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo iaoai?ci?a c
o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae aeiiii?ee ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, ye? aeeiiothoueny
?aaeith ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, cie?aia ii
oaiao: 4.2.1.2.54 “I?iaiic (noaia) ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo
nee Oe?a?ie oa ?? ?aa?ii?a”; 4.2.1.2.53 “Eiiieaeniee i?iaiic
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie”;
«Aea?aeaaia i?ia?aia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Iie?nny», ?252;
11.01.00/035-93 “I?eaaoecaoe?y iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa:
iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? oa iaoiaeieia?y iii?oi?eiao aeieiai-aeiiii?/iiai
noaiiaeua”. Ie?ai? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii ii oai?
4.2.1.4.56 “Iaoeiaa caaacia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee ianaeaiiy oa no?eeino? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie
i?e iiaeeeaeo oaoiiaaiieo aaa??yo, eaoano?ioao oa noeo?eieo eeoao”, a
oaeiae iaoeiaeie iai?yieaie oai ?inoeoooo i?iaeai ?eieo oa
aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie “Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai I?e/i?iiii?’y”;
“Iaoeiaeo iniia nenoaie caaacia/aiiy ?ano?nii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee a
Iaeanuee?e iaeano?”; aeiiia?aeii? caienee “I?i ioe?ieo ??aiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Iaeanueei? iaeano?”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaa?oiooaaiiy ieoaiue
?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa o i?noao
Oe?a?ie, ioe?iea ?eceeo iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e oaoiiaaiiiai oa?aeoa?o o
i?nueeiio na?aaeiaeu? ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yie?a i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aoee iinoaaeai?
oae? caaea/?:

· ?ice?eoe nooi?noue iiiyooy “iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ia ae?iaieoeoai” ?
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie aeiiii?ee aaciaee ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?no, nenoaiaoecoaaoe iniiai? i?aeoiaee aei ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? aeae?a
iaaaciae oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy;

· ioe?ieoe ??aaiue ?eceeo iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e oaoiiaaiiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy a ?ic??c? i?nueeeo iinaeaiue oa aena?oeeoe
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy o ieo iioaioe?eii
iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa;

· i?iaanoe aiae?c ? ae?aaiinoeeo ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo
ae?iaieoeoa, aeiiii?ee oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee i?no ? aecia/eoe
i?noea oa ?ieue iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo i?aei?e?inoa a ainiiaea?nueeiio
eiiieaen? i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua;

· ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ?
?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa o i?noao c o?aooaaiiyi
?iia??iino? iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy;

· iaa?oiooaaoe iniiai? iai?yie i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/iith aaciaeith i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua.

I?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
eiiieaenia nenoaia caaacia/aiiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee i?nueeiai
na?aaeiaeua c o?aooaaiiyi ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo
ae?iaieoeoa ?c canoinoaaiiyi aeiiii?/ieo ?aaoeyoi??a ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.
Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iioaioe?eii iaaacia/i? ae?iaieoeoaa, ?ici?uai?
o i?noao Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? no/ania aeiiii?/ia oai??y,
iniiai? canaaee aeieia?/ii? aaciaee, aeeeaaeai? o i?aoeyo a/aieo c
ieoaiue oai??? ? iaoiaeeee, aiae?co ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii
iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa, aeinyaiaiue a?o/eciyii? ? na?oiai? iaoeiai?
aeoiee c i?iaeai caaacia/aiiy i?eeiyoiiai ??aiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii?
aaciaee a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. I?e ae??oaii?
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aoei canoiniaaii nenoaiiee aiae?c,
aeieiai-aeiiii?/ia iiaeaethaaiiy, noaoenoe/i?, ii??aiyiiy,
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/i? oa ?io? iaoiaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aei iiaeo iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoao?a, ye? iaea?aeai? a ?iaio?, iaeaaeaoue ianooii?: ?ic?iaeaii
iia? i?aeoiaee aei oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa o
i?noao Oe?a?ie

· iaa?oioiaaii ci?no iiiyooy “iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ia ae?iaieoeoai” oa
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie aeiiii?ee aaciaee ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?no, i?iaaaeaii ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th aeae?a iaaaciae oaoiiaaiiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy;

· cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae ioe?iee ?eceeo iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e
oaoiiaaiiiai oa?aeoa?o o i?noao, ??aiy iaae?eiino? i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa, aaaeae? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy
iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa o ?ic??c? i?nueeeo iinaeaiue;

· i?iaiae?ciaaii noai ?icaeoeo iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa o
i?noao, i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenio ioe?ieo ??aiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii?
aaciaee i?no ??cieo eaoaai??e ? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai cia/aiiy;

· aecia/aii ??aaiue ?eceeo iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e oaoiiaaiiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy o i?noao ia iniia? iieaciee?a iaae?eiino? ?iaioe
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa, ?ic?iaeaii aaaeae? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?ioeano ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa o
i?noao;

· aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa o
i?noao ? cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia aeiiii?/ieo caoiae?a caaacia/aiiy
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua;

· ?ic?iaeaii i?iaiic ? iaa?oioiaaii i?aaaioeai? caoiaee uiaei
i?aeaeuaiiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/i? iniiae aiae?co ? ioe?iee ??aiy ?eceeo iaaecae/aeieo
neooaoe?e oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy a ?ic??c? i?nueeeo iinaeaiue,
iaoeia? aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ?
?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa ae??oothoue caaea/?:

· iaa?oioiaoaaiiy iai?yie?a iiaeaeueoiai i?aeaeuaiiy
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee i?no;

· oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a uiaei ?icaeoeo ?
?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa oa iie?ioaiiy oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaaie ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio oa aea?aeaaiiio ??aiyo c iaoith
ia”?aeiaiiy coneeue uiaei cieaeaiiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/iiai ?eceeo;

· iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee, ?ic?iaee
i?ia?ai ii caaacia/aiith oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie ?
i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua cie?aia.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeei?enoai? ?aaeith ii
aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie i?e i?aeaioiaoe? ?yaeo
iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeae ? aeiiia?aeieo caienie, iai?aaeai? a oeaio?aeuei?
oa ?aa?iiaeuei? i?aaie oi?aae?iiy, a oaeiae caoe?eaaeaiei i?i?noa?noaai
? a?aeiinoaai. E??i oiai, aiie aeei?enoai? i?e aeeiiaii? ieaiiaeo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, aeeiiaieo ?aaeith ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo
nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, Aea?aeaaiei iaoeiaei oeaio?ii ?aae?iaaio?i??
ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua IAI Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noai c ieoaiue
iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e oa caoenoo ianaeaiiy a?ae iane?aee?a
*i?iiaeeuenueei? aaa???, ?inoeoooii i?iaeai ?eieo oa
aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei
aeiiii?/iei ?inoeoooii I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea aa?eoee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith eo?no
eaeoe?e «Iiaeae? oa iaoiaee iiaeaethaaiiy ?eceeo» oaeoeueoaoo
e?aa?iaoeee.

Aeaeea?aoe?y iniaenoiai aianeo a io?eiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe.

Iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, ?ic?iaeai?
aaoi?ii naiino?eii. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy io?eiai? iniaenoi
aaoi?ii, ? ? eiai aianeii o ?icaeoie ? ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee
Oe?a?ie ? ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oai???,
iaoiaeieia??, i?aeoeee aeeiiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue a
oacao: i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (“Aeieia?y ?
ina?oa: i?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee”, Oiaiue, 20-21 ea?oiy 1994?.);
ae?oaiai i?aeia?iaeiiai eiia?ano oe?a?inueeeo aeiiii?no?a (“Oe?a?ia a
na?oiaiio aeiiii?/iiio i?inoi??”, Iaeana, 23-27 o?aaiy, 1994?.);
i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (“?aaeii e aaia?aoey”,
Ia?iue, 15-19 iay, 1995a.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii o 7 iaoeiaeo
?iaioao caaaeueiei ianyaii 4,15 ae?oeiaaieo a?eooa

No?oeoo?a ? ci?no aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a.
Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? iae?/o? 238 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, a
oiio /ene?: ?ethno?aoe?? ia 17 noi??ieao (7 noai ? 10 ?enoie?a), nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ia 9 noi??ieao (c ieo 7 — ?iicaiiith iiaith),
aeiaeaoie ia 62 noi??ieao (4 oaaeeoe?).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EIIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy
iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa oa oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ia aaciaea”
i?enay/aii aeeeaaeaiith oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo aniaeo?a i?ioeano
?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa oa ?o aieeao
ia aeiiii?eo oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee. I?iaiae?ciaaii ci?no
iiiyooy «iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ia ae?iaieoeoai», i?iaaaeaii
?aeaioeo?eaoe?th iniiaieo aeae?a oaoiiaaiieo iaaaciae, iaa?oioiaaii
iaea?eueo aaaeeea? i?eioeeie oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee ?icaeoeo,
aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy i?no. ?ice?eoi nooi?noue, iaoeia? i?aeoiaee ioe?iee
?eceeo iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e oaoiiaaiiiai oa?aeoa?o oa aeyaeai? aoaie
? aeaiaioe i?ioeano eiai ioe?ithaaiiy.

?aeaioeo?eaoe?y iaaacia/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa – oea i?ioean aecia/aiiy
aeanoeaino? ainiiaea?nueeiai ia’?eoo c oi/ee ci?o iiaeeeaiai iaaaoeaiiai
aieeao ia ianaeaiiy, ioi/oth/a na?aaeiaeua ? ae?iaieoeoai. Ca oa?aeoa?ii
oeueiai aieeao ?ic??ciythoue:

· iioaioe?eii iaaacia/i? ae?iaieoeoaa (IIA). ?aioiaa ii?ooaiiy ?o
oaoiieia?/ieo nenoai noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oyaeeeie iane?aeeaie aeey
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ethaeeie oa ainiiaea?nueeeo ia’?eo?a; iiiaio
iiyae oa ?ici?? oeeo iiae?e ia? eiia??i?niee oa?aeoa?, oiaoi iino?eii o
iianyeaeaii? iiaea ? ia i?iyaeyoeny; i?iaiic iiaeia c?iaeoe
?ic?aooieiaei oeyoii (oiio i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ieoaiue oa?eoi??aeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? IIA ae??oaeueiei ? iiiyooy eiia??iino?);

· aeieia?/ii iaaacia/i? ae?iaieoeoaa (AIA). Aiie iathoue iino?eio
iaaaoeaio ae?th ia ianaeaiiy ? na?aaeiaeua caaaeyee oe?aeeeaei aieeaai,
ui ni?e/eiththoue iacai?ioith aeaa?aaeaoe?th aeinenoai; iiaeeea?noue
i?iaiico ?acoeueoao?a iiae?aieo i?ioean?a iiaea aooe aecia/aia ca
ianooaaaie aieea?a a i?inoi?? ? /an? ia iniia? niinoa?aaeaiue,
aiae?co ? ?ic?aooie?a.

Oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ia aaciaea ? caoeuai?noue ethaeeie oa iaaeieeoiueiai
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua a?ae iaaacia/ieo ae?yiue oaoiinoa?e. I?ioean
ia?aoiaeo IIA ?c ii?iaeueiiai noaio a aaa??eiee iaceaathoue e?eoe/iei, a
ianoaiiaea, ui neeaeany a ?acoeueoao? aaa???, ? iaaecae/aeiith
neooaoe??th. ?nio? aaaaoi i?aeoiae?a aei eeaneo?eaoe?? iaaecae/aeieo
neooaoe?e:

· ca e?eoa???i ?ici??o caiiae?yiiai /e i/?eoaaiiai aeiiii?/iiai caeoeo.
Aeae?eythoue ??ai? iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e: ia’?eoiaiai, eiee ieoiia
aaaa c?oeiiaaieo i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/eo iniiaieo oiiae?a (IAIO) neeaaea?
aei 10%, e?euee?noue iino?aaeaeaeiai ianaeaiiy – aei 20 /ie., caaeaeeo –
1 /ie., caciaee iia??oaiiy oiia i?iaeeaaiiy – aei 100 /ie.; i?noeaaiai,
yeui ieoiia aaaa c?oeiiaaieo IAIO – 10-15%, e?euee?noue iino?aaeaeaeiai
ianaeaiiy – 20-50 /ie., caaeaeeo – 1-2 /ie., caciaee iia??oaiiy oiia
i?iaeeaaiiy – 100-300 /ie.; ?aa?iiaeueiiai – IAIO – 15-25%,
iino?aaeaeaeeo – 50-300 /ie., caaeaeeo – 3-5 /ie., iia??oaoue oiiae
i?iaeeaaiiy – 300-500 /ie.; caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai – IAIO – a?eueoa 25%,
iino?aaeaeaeeo – a?eueoa 300 /ie., caaeaeeo – a?eueoa 5 /ie., iia??oaoue
oiiae i?iaeeaaiiy – a?eueoa 3 oen. /ie.;

· ca ?ici??ii aeiiii?/ieo ao?ao: aeiaaeueia eaoano?ioa ?c c?oeioaaiiyi
oiia aeeooy ia caie?, eiee noiia ao?ao i?e oeueiio i?yio? aei
aaceiia/iino?, oiaoi aeiiii?/ii aacaeocaea, ine?eueee aeiiii?ea ia?
ni?aao eeoa c e?ioeaaeie aaee/eiaie; iaea?eueoa oaoiiaaiia eaoano?ioa
(oeio *i?iiaeeuenueei?) – aei 5 . 1012 aeie. NOA; e?oiia oaoiiaaiia
eaoano?ioa (aaa??y) – aei 109 aeie. NOA; aaeeea oaoiiaaiia aaa??y – aei
107 aeie. NOA; «?yaeiaa» oaoiiaaiia aaa??y – aei 106 aeie. NOA; ae??aia
oaoiiaaiia aaa??y – aei 105 aeie. NOA. O ?ic?aooieao aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea
ethaenueeiai aeeooy aei??aith? 2 . 106 aeie. NOA, ui i?eaeecii a 1,5
?ace ieae/a i?eeiyoi? o aeniei?icaeiooeo e?a?iao;

· ca a?aeii/ith iaeaaei?noth – iaaecae/aei? iiae?? a ??cieo aaeocyo
i?iieneiaino?, o aoae?aieoeoa? /e ia eiioiaeueii-iiaooiaeo ia’?eoao;

· ca oa?aeoa?ii iaaaciae: o?i?/ia, ?aae?aoe?eia, a?ae?iaeeiai?/ia,
caa?ica aeaooo ? iiaeaae;

Aeina?ae oaoiiaaiieo aaa??e ? eaoano?io, a iniaeeai *i?iiaeeuenueea
eaoano?ioa, aeiaiaeyoue oeai?noue i?eeiyoiai ?ai?oa i?aea?oioy
“ioeueiaiai” ?eceeo (aaniethoii? aaciaee), yeee ? iaeiei ?c aieiaieo
i?eioeei?a oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee. Iaiao?aeii nie?aoeny ia aea??
??aiy ?eceeo a iaaeao a?ae i?i?iaeueiiai (ciaaaaeeeai iaeiai) aei
iaeneiaeueii i?eionoeiiai. Oea i?i?i?co? caeoee ? c’yaey?oueny
iiaeeea?noue a?aeiaeoe eiii?ii?n i?ae iaiao?aei?noth aeo?a/aoe eiooe ia
i?aeaeuaiiy aaciaee ? aeiiii?/ieie i?eaooeaie. Iniiaieie i?eioeeiaie
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee ?: nenoaiiino? aeieia?/ii? aaciaee;
iani?anoaai?noue aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo aoaeo?a oa aacoiiaiee
i??i?eoao inoaiiueiai; iaa?ae’?iia i?aai ethaeeie ia caei?iaa iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua; ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?y aeieia?/ii? aaciaee; ieaoa ca ?ecee;
naiaiaea aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??; eiii?ii?n i?ae iieie?iiyie.

?iia??i?noue ?aae?caoe?? iioaioe?eii? iaaaciaee, ui ?i?oe?th?oueny
i?iieneiaei i?aei?e?inoaii, oa (aai) iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a oe???
?aae?caoe?? iaceaa?oueny ?eceeii i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa. I?ioean
ioe?iee ?eceeo neeaaea?oueny c aoai?a: oi?ioaaiiy aace aeaieo ii i?noo,
yea aeine?aeaeo?oueny; aiae?c ?eceeo aeey iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua ? caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy – e?euee?nia ioe?ithaaiiy ?eceeo
oe?aeeeaiai aieeao aeey oeiiaeo aaa??e; oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? oi?aae?iiy
? iia?aoeaieo ieai?a ae?e ia aeiaaeie iaaecae/aeii? neooaoe??.
I?ioeaaeo?a ioe?iee ?eceeo oi?io?oueny c aeaiaio?a: ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
iaaaciaee, oiaoi aecia/aiiy aeaea?ae, oi?i ? ia’?eo?a ?o iioaioe?eiiai
aieeao; oaeoi??a ?eceeo – ioe?iea eiia??iino? aeieeiaiiy iaaecae/aeieo
neooaoe?e; noaiaea?oo aaciaee ethaeeie ? aeinenoaie c oi/ee ci?o aieeao
iaaieo aeanoaa?e?coth/eo oaeoi??a; eiiieaenii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?eceeo c
aeei?enoaiiyi ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a, ui anoaiiaeai?
iiia?aaei?ie iia?aoe?yie.

Inoaii?i /anii o na?oiaiio iaoeiaiio iiooeo iai?/a?oueny ia?ao?ae a?ae
aeii?ioth/iai ?icaeyaeo i?iaeai aeiiii?ee ? aeieia?? iaeiiai iaae ?ioei
aei ?o noi?niiai ae??oaiiy. Aeieia?/ia ye?noue, nioe?aeueiee aeia?iaoo ?
aeiiii?/ia aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy a noeoiiino? neeaaeathoue aeeiai?/io
nenoaio aca?iica’yce?a, ui caaacia/othoue no?eeee ?icaeoie i?nueeiai
na?aaeiaeua.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Aiae?c oa ae?aaiinoeea ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy
iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa ? aeiiii?ea oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii?
aaciaee i?no” oa?aeoa?eco? no/aniee noai ?ici?uaiiy IIA o i?nueeeo
iinaeaiiyo Oe?a?ie. Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoai?cio ioe?iee ?eceeo
iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaia eiiieaenia
ioe?iea oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee i?no oa ?o oeiieia?y ca noaiii
aeieia?/ii? aaciaee.

Ia/eneaii ?iia??i?noue aacaaa??eii? ?iaioe ia iniia? aeiiii?/ieo
iieaciee?a, ui aeaiiino?othoue i?ioeane ciioaiiy oaoi?/ieo nenoai:
caaaeueiee ??aaiue noa??iiy i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/eo iniiaieo oiiae?a, oa
aii?oecaoe?y, ui ? ia’?eoeaiei i?ioeanii iinooiiaiai ciiooaaiiy IAIO
oiiae?a. Aiie iiina?aaeeiaaii ca’ycai? c ??aiai aaa??eiino?.
Aeei?enoiaoth/e oa?aeoa?enoeee caeaaeiino? iaae?eiino? a?ae /ano ?iaioe
ca aeiiiiiaith aeniiiaioe?aeueii? iiaeae? ?iciiae?eaiiy /ano aei iieiiee
io?eiaii:

?(t) = e- t (aeieae iaeeieoe?),
(1)

aea – ia?aiao? iiaeae?, noaoenoe/iee iieaciee ?ioaineaiino?
iioaioe?eieo a?aeiia ca ia??iae /ano (e?euee?noue a?aeiia ca ia??iae
/ano);

t – 1 (e?ioeaaee iiiaio /ano aeine?aeaeaiiy, inoaii?e ??e).

=N(t,t+t)/[100% — N(t,t+t)]t (e?euee?noue a?aeiia ca ia??iae
/ano), (2)

aea N(t,t+t) — /enei ciioaieo IAIO a iaaiee ?ioa?aae /ano (a?aenioe?a);

t – ?ioa?aae /ano aenieoaoaoe?? ye a?aeiioaiiy caaaeueiiai ??aiy ciino
IAIO aei oaii?a eiai ciino (?ie?a).

Ine?eueee iiiyooy eiia??iino? a?aeiiae ? aeiiiaithth/ei ?iia??i?noue
aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe aei iaeeieoe?, oi:

R = 1-P,
(3)

aea R — ?ecee iiyae aaa??? ia ia’?eo? (aeieae iaeeieoe?);

? — ?iia??i?noue aacaaa??eii? ?iaioe ia’?eoo (aeieae iaeeieoe?).

Aeae? iiaeia aecia/eoe aaee/eio ?aa?iiaeueiiai aaa??eiiai ?eceeo ii
i?noo aac a?aooaaiiy aca?iiaieeao ae?iaie/eo ia’?eo?a:

? wmetafile8? ??™???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy???oe?? ???&?
?MathType??a????uyY?????

aea ? — ?iia??i?noue aacaaa??eii? neooaoe?? i?noa (aeieae iaeeieoe?);

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy!yyy ??!?? ???&?
?MathType??p????uAy??????o=(o1,o2,…,on)?O – aoeaaee aaeoi?, ui
oa?aeoa?eco? noai an?o ae?iaieoeoa i?noa a oe?eiio ( iiiaeeia an?o
iiaeeeaeo noai?a);

wmetafile8? ??i????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyya??AE?? ???&?
?MathType??P????uthY?????n – e?euee?noue ia’?eo?a, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny
(iaeeieoeue);

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyyA??†?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????

Iiiyooy ?iai/iai /e ia?iai/iai noaio ?ioa?i?aoo?oueny oaeei /eiii: a?oia
oao?aoe?a-aenia?o?a ?iaeoue aeniiaie noiniaii nooiaiy aieeao ??cieo
oa?aeoa?enoee i?aei?e?inoaa ia ??aaiue aaca?aeiiaii? eiai ?iaioe.
Cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae aeiiiiaaa? aecia/eoe iiiaio iiyae cai?a o
ooieoe?iioaaii? oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy, neaiae?co? i?i oa, yea naia
i?aei?e?inoai iio?aao? oa?i?iiaiai iiiaeaiiy i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/eo
iniiaieo oiiae?a. Canoiniaoth/e ae?th/? iaoiaeeee ia?aooie?a ca aeaeaie
oaoiiaaiieo iaaaciae aeey eiaeiiai IIA, ii i?noao Oe?a?ie ia/eneaii
??aaiue eiia??ieo iane?aee?a iioaioe?eieo aaa??e aeey ianaeaiiy ?
oa?eoi???. Aei aiae?co aa?eoee iaea?eueo iaaacia/i?: o?i?/iiiaaacia/i?
ae?iaieoeoaa (OIA) 1, 2, 3 eaoaai???, aeaooi-iiaeaaeiiaaacia/i?
ae?iaieoeoaa (AIIA) eaoaai??? A, A, A ? A oa ?aae?aoe?eiiiaaacia/i?
ae?iaieoeoaa (aoiii? aeaeo?inoaioe??), (?IA),. Oe? IIA ?ici?uai? o
a?eueo ye 270 i?noao (?en.1), c ieo – OIA neeaaeathoue 59,2%; AIIA –
40,6% ? 0,2% – ?IA.

?en.1. ?iciiae?e iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ia’?eo?a ca a?oiaie i?no
(oeeo?aie ia iaethieao iicia/aii: 1 – i?noa-i?eueeiia?e; 2 – a?ae 500
/ie. aei 1 iei.; 3 – a?ae 100 aei 500 oen. /ie; 4 – aei 100 oen. /ie.).

Aiae?c i?iaaaeaieo o ?iaio? ?ic?aooie?a na?ae/eoue, ui ?nioth/? IIA,
ieiu? cii iiaeeeaiai o?aaeaiiy oa ianaeaiiy, ui i?aeiaaeathoue i?ae
iioaioe?eiee iaaaoeaiee aieea, ?iciiae?eai? ii i?noao Oe?a?ie
ia??aiii??ii. Oae, o i?noao-i?eueeiia?ao ciaoiaeeoueny: 16% OIA (6,4%
ieiu cii iiaeeeaiai o?i?/iiai o?aaeaiiy, 27% i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy
aea?aeaae, yea iiaea caciaoe aieeao eiia??iiai o?i?/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy);
13% AIIA (0,019% ieiu cii iiaeeeaiai aeaooi-iiaeaaeiiai o?aaeaiiy oa 46%
ianaeaiiy, ui iio?aiey? a oe? ciie). O i?noao c /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy
a?ae 500 oen. aei 1 iei. /ie.: 9% OIA (7,8% cii iiaeeeaiai ?o o?aaeaiiy,
14,8% ianaeaiiy, ui iio?aiey? a oe? ciie); 11% AIIA (0,1% cii iiaeeeaiai
?o o?aaeaiiy, 54% ianaeaiiy, ui iio?aiey? a oe? ciie). O i?noao c
/enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy a?ae 100 aei 500 oen. /ie. ?ici?uaii: 32% OIA
(18,5% cii iiaeeeaiai ?o o?aaeaiiy, 27,4% ianaeaiiy, ui iio?aiey? a oe?
ciie); 20% ?IA (17% cii iiaeeeaiai ?aae?aoe?eiiai o?aaeaiiy, 13%
ianaeaiiy, ui iio?aiey? a oe? ciie); 26% AIIA (0,21% cii iiaeeeaiai ?o
o?aaeaiiy, 0,002% ianaeaiiy, ui iio?aiey? a oe? ciie). O i?noao c
/enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy aei 100 oen. /ie. eieae?ciaaii: 43% OIA (67,3%
cii iiaeeeaiai ?o o?aaeaiiy, 30,8% ianaeaiiy, ui iio?aiey? a oe? ciie);
80% ?IA (83% cii iiaeeeaiai ?o o?aaeaiiy, 87% ianaeaiiy, ui iio?aiey? a
oe? ciie); 50% AIIA (99,6% cii iiaeeeaiai ?o o?aaeaiiy, 0,18% ianaeaiiy,
ui iio?aiey? a oe? ciie).

Canoiniaoth/e iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooie?a, ?ic?iaeaio a ?AIN Oe?a?ie IAI
Oe?a?ie, io?eiaii cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a ia?aiao??a cii iiaeeeaiai
o?aaeaiiy ii eiaeiiio i?noo oa e?eueeino? ianaeaiiy, ui i?aeiaaea? i?ae
iioaioe?eiee iaaaoeaiee aieea aeey eiaeiiai aeaeo iaaaciaee:

E? = [Scio ?aa/S?aa]/[Scio ?ani/S?ani],
(5)

aea E? – eiao?oe??io ?-oi? iaaaciaee (oiiaieo iaeeieoeue);

Scio ?aa, Scio ?ani – ieiua ciie iiaeeeaiai o?aaeaiiy a ?aa?ii? (i?no?)
? a e?a?i? (ei2) a?aeiia?aeii;

S?aa, S?ani – ieiua i?noa (?aa?iio) ? ?anioae?ee a?aeiia?aeii (ei2).

Eiao?oe??io oaoiiaaiii? iaaaciaee aa?aoueny o aca?iia?aeiioaii? ?c
ieiuath ciie iiaeeeaiai o?aaeaiiy a oe?eiio ii e?a?i?, ui iieaco?
ianooaa o?aaeaiiy ?aa?iio (i?noa) a?aeiinii aea?aeaae. I?ae iioaioe?eiee
iaaaoeaiee aieea OIA i?aeiaaea? 16% oa?eoi??? i?nueeeo iinaeaiue Oe?a?ie
oa 42,5% iaoeaioe?a i?no; 0,3% oa?eoi??? i?no iiaeooue caciaoe
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao AIIA ? 0,86% i?nueeeo aeeoae?a i?iaeeaathoue ia ieo;
?aooa oa?eoi??? ? ianaeaiiy ciaoiaeyoueny a cii? iiaeeeaiai
?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy. ?iciiae?e ianaeaiiy ii ciiao iiaeeeaiai
o?aaeaiiy ca a?oiaie i?no iaaaaeaii ia ?en. 2. A?eueo?noue i?nueeiai
ianaeaiiy

???

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yyy???????????-????’yy?????????????????????????????????????????
????????????????????

?en. 2. ?iciiae?e ieiu cii iiaeeeaiai o?aaeaiiy oa ianaeaiiy a ieo ca
a?oiaie i?no (oeeo?aie ia iaethieao iicia/aii: 1 – i?noa-i?eueeiia?e; 2
– a?ae 500 /ie. aei 1iei.; 3 – a?ae 100 aei 500 oen. /ie; 4 – aei 100
oen. /ie.).

aea?aeaae cacia? iaeii/anii aeae?eueea iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo aieea?a,
oiaoi oaoiinoa?a Oe?a?ie ia?aiane/aia IIA.

Ia iniia? ?ic?aooie?a i?iaaaeaii ?ioaa?iaaio ioe?ieo a??ia?aeieo
iane?aee?a iioaioe?eieo aaa??e o i?noao a?ae e?eueeino? aeae?a
oaoiiaaiieo iaaaciae, ui ae?aaea? ??aaiue ? aeeiai?eo aeieia?/ii?
aaciaee (neioaciaaiee iaeiicia/iee aei?? yaeua, aeaiiino?o? caaaeueio
oaiaeaioe?th ci?ie o /an?). ?ic?aooiee i?iaiaeeeenue c a?aooaaiiyi
e?eueeino?, aeaeo iaaaciae, noaio ? u?eueiino? IIA:

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???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
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aee wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/4yyya?? ?? ???&?
?MathType??p????uAy??????wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/4yyy ?? ?? ???&?
?MathType??p????uAy??????n = (1:4) – e?euee?no? iioaioe?eieo
oaoiiaaiieo iaaaciae a i?no? (?aa?ii?) (o?i?/ia, ?aae?aoe?eia,
aeaooi-iiaeaaeia, a?ae?iaeeiai?/ia).

Na?aaeiueii?nuee? iieacieee ?ioaa?iaaii? ioe?iee oaoiiaaiieo iaaaciae
neeaaeathoue 0,5 (ii oa?eoi???) ? 2,93 (ii ianaeaiiy). Ca ?acoeueoaoaie
?ic?aooie?a i?iaaaeaii ?aiaoaaiiy i?no Oe?a?ie c o?aooaaiiyi caaaeueiiai
??aiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “Iniiai? iai?yie oaeineiiaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy
iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa oa caaacia/aiiy
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee” i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? i?iiiceoe?e uiaei
iaoiae?a ? i?aeiei, ye? iaiao?aeii cai?iaaaeeoe a aea?aeaa? aeey
?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy IIA o i?noao Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae
aeeeaaeaiith iai?yie?a oaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai caaacia/aiiy
i?eeiyoiiai ??aiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee.

Eiioeaiooaeueiith iniiaith ?ici?uaiiy IIA ? i?i?i?caoe?y oaoiiaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy aei iaae aacia/ieo aeey ethaeeie ? i?e?iaee i?e
caaacia/aii? caaeaieo oaii?a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. Ia
i?aeoeoe? oea icia/a? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
cieaeaiiy eiia??iino? aeieeiaiiy iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e, i?aeaeuaiiy
nooiaiy caoeuaiino? ianaeaiiy a?ae iane?aee?a iaaacia/ieo iiae?e,
i?i?i?caoe?th iaaaoeaii? ae?? oaeoi??a iaaaciaee ? eiio?ieue ca
aeio?eiaiiyi a?aeiia?aeieo ii?i, i?aaee, ia?aaeaa/aieo /eiiei
caeiiiaeaanoaii oa ?ioeie ii?iaoeaieie aeoaie. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c oeei
aeae?eaii a?oie i?aaaioeaieo caoiae?a: i?aai?caoe?eii-ae?iaie/?, ui
icia/a? i?aai?caoe?th ae?iaieoeoaa c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy
iaae?eiino? oa nenoai ?aaaoaaiiy ia iaooaoi? iiae??;
?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/i?, yeeie ? caaacia/aiiy aaciaee
?iaeaia?ii-oaoiieia?/ieo aoce?a; ?ioi?iaoe?ei? – oaeaeea io?eiaiiy ?
ia?aaea/a ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iaaecae/aeio neooaoe?th oa ?? iane?aeee;
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? – aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie iaoeiaeie iaoiaeaie;
o?iainiai-?ano?ni? ia?aaeaa/athoue oi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeueii? aace
caiia?aaiiy, cieaeaiiy, e?ea?aeaoe?? aaa??eieo iane?aee?a; i?aaia?, ye?
caaacia/othoue noai?aiiy i?aaiai? ? caeiiiaeaa/i? aace oi?aae?iiy
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/iith aaciaeith; oa?eoi?eaeueii-i?aai?caoe?ei?
ia?aaeaa/athoue ?iciiae?e nenoaie oi?aaeyiiy ?eceeii; eiio?ieuei?, ye? ?
iaaeyaeii ca caiia?aaiiyi i?aeaeuaiiyi ??aiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/iiai
?eceeo.

Aeai? caoiaee ia’?eoeaii iiaeii? a?aeiia?aeaoe aeiiaai: eiiieaeniino?, a
naia, ?o iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe oe?eei eiiieaenii, ia iniia? aeeaieeo
aeine?aeaeaiue; oi?aa?naeueiino?, ui icia/a? i?eeiyoi?noue ?o
i?iaaaeaiiy a iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?yo oaoiiaaiiiai oa?aeoa?o,
niaoeeo?/iino? – iaai? no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? eiiieaeno caoiae?a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae eiie?aoieo oiia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. I?iaiici? ?ic?aooiee
iieacothoue, ui ca aeiiiiiaith i?aaaioeaieo caoiae?a oi?aae?iiy
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/iith aaciaeith i?e aaeaeaaoiiio o?iainiaiio
caaacia/aii? iiaeia cieceoe ?ecee aeieeiaiiy aaa??e o i?iieneiaino? c
10-4 aei 10-5 – 10-6 aeiaaee?a a ??e.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe caaacia/aiiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee
i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua ne?ae aecia/eoe iioeiaeueiee niin?a aeei?enoaoiiy
iaiaaeaieo eioo?a, a aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeia ocaiaeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?
aeieia?/ieo ?ioa?an?a noni?euenoaa. Iaeiei ?c iai?yie?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
oaei? iie?oeee ? i?aeieie aeiiii?/iiai ? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
iaaacia/ii? ae?yeueiino?: no?aoiaa ?aaoethaaiiy (aaee/eia no?aoiaiai
aianeo caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy ?eceeo ? no?aoiai? noie); iiaeaoeiaa
?aaoethaaiiy (aaee/eia iiaeaoeo caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy ?eceeo); oo?aoi?
naieoe?? – oo?ao ca ia?aaeuaiiy i?eionoeiiai ??aiy ?eceeo (aaee/eia
oo?aoo ?inoa o caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?aaeuaiiy ??aiy ?eceeo); e?aaeeoia
?aaoethaaiiy (i?ioeaioia noaaea ia caoiaee uiaei cieaeaiiy ?eceeo iaioa,
i?ae e?aaeeoia noaaea ii e?aaeeoo ia ?icoe?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa, yea oaeiae
caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy ?eceeo, ui noai?th?oueny aeaiei ae?iaieoeoaii);
ieaoa a athaeaeao i?noa ca ca?eueoaiiy ?eceeo i?e ?icoe?aii?
ae?iaieoeoaa (“aeeoi ?eceeo”); i?aaiaa ? aeiiii?/ia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ca caaaeai? ao?aoe, yea ia?aaeaa/a? aa?aio?? iie?eooy ao?ao ? ?o
aacoiiaio eiiiainaoe?th; noaiaea?oe ? aenia?oece; ?ano?nia caaacia/aiiy
i?nueeeo i?ia?ai aaciaee; i?nueea ?aca?aoaaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo ?
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eaia i?iaeaiai i?ioeano i?eaaoecaoe?? IIA oa eiai
aieea ia ?aaoethaaiiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee. A Oe?a?i? i?e
i?eaaoecaoe?? IIA, aei ?o aa?oino? ia a?aoiaothoueny iaiao?aei? ianyae
aeo?ao ia cieaeaiiy iioaioe?eiiai ?eceeo i?iieneiaeo aaa??e. O oaeiio
aeiaaeeo, IIA, ui i?aeeyaathoue ?icaea?aeaaeaiith, iaiao?aeii ioe?ieoe
ca nooiaiai ?eceeo, yeee aiie noai?ththoue, aecia/eoe caoiaee uiaei eiai
cieaeaiiy, ioe?ieoe ?ici??e iaiao?aeieo aeey oeueiai eioo?a. An?
i?iieneia? ia’?eoe, ye? aeaoaathoue ?c noa?e aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth,
iiaeii? iaoe aeieia?/iee ianii?o o yeiio ii?yae c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? iiaeiia aooe i?enooiy ?ioi?iaoe?y noiniaii ?o
iiaeeeaiai iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia iaaeieeoi? i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua,
oa?aeoa?o ? ianyao caoiae?a oia?aaeaeaiiy iaaecae/aeii? neooaoe?? oa
i?i?i?caoe?? ?? iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a.

AENIIAEE

I?iaaaeaia aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy
iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa oa ?o aieeao ia aeiiii?eo
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee aeaei iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe ?yae aeniiae?a
oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ui iathoue oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, a naia:

1. Aaciaea ianaeaiiy ? noai iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua ?
iaei??th ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo oa?aeoa?enoee yeino? aeeooy ethaeeie,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae. Aa?aiooaaiiy
aeieiaiaacia/iiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ca ?aooiie aeio?eiaiiy ??aiiaaae
i?ae caieoaie noni?euenoaa ? iiaeeeainoyie i?e?iaee iin?aea?
oeaio?aeueia i?noea a nenoai? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee. O ca’yceo c oeei o
?iaio? iaa?oioiaaii nooi?noue iiiyooy «iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ia
ae?iaieoeoai», nenoaiaoeciaaii iniiai? i?aeoiaee aei ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
aeae?a iaaaciae oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ui aeicaiey? caanoe ana
?icia?ooy aaa??eieo i?iya?a aei aeae?eueeio oeiiaeo neooaoe?e.
Cai?iiiiiaaii ?yae iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a, aeio?eiaiiy yeeo i?e
?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaii? IIA ni?ey? caaacia/aiith oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii?
aaciaee.

2. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae aecia/aiiy iaae?eiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iioaioe?eii
iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa ia iniia? iieaciee?a caaaeueiiai ??aiy
ciioaiino? iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a oa oaii?a ?o noa??iiy. Oea
a?aee?eaa? iiaeeea?noue ia/eneaiiy cia/aiue ??aiy eiia??iino? iiyae
iaaecae/aeii? neooaoe?? oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy ii eiaeiiio ia’?eoo ?
ii i?noo a oe?eiio, ia iniia? iieaciee?a caeaaeiino? iaae?eiino?
oaoi?/ieo nenoai a?ae /ano ?o aenieoaoaoe??.

3. Aecia/aii iniaeeaino? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa
o i?noao Oe?a?ie: aiie u?eueii ?ioaa?iaai? o caaaeueio no?oeoo?o
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno; iia’ycai? i?yii aai iiina?aaeeiaaii c on?ia
aeaeaie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ? ?o iaiiaeeeai aeeeth/eoe ?c noa?e
iaoa??aeueiiai ? iaiaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa; oe? aaeoc? ? aaciaeie
aeey ainiiaea?noaa e?a?ie. E??i oiai, cia/ia /anoeia c oeeo ae?iaieoeoa
? o?oaeii?noeeie, ioaea aeoaea u?eueii iia’ycaia c ?aeeiith nenoaiith
?icnaeaiiy; i?e no/aniiio ??ai? ?icaeoeo oaoiieia?e ?o aaaeei
oa?eoi??aeueii a?aeae?eeoe a?ae i?noeue i?iaeeaaiiy ianaeaiiy.

4. I?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo ??aiy ?eceeo oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee a
i?noao. ?ic?aooiee na?ae/aoue, ui ?nioth/? IIA, ieiu? cii iiaeeeaiai
o?aaeaiiy oa e?eueeino? ianaeaiiy, ui iio?aiey? a oe? ciie ?iciiae?eai?
ii i?noao Oe?a?ie ia??aiii??ii: ia i?noa c /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy aei
100 oen. /ie. i?eiaaea? iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue ieiu cii iiaeeeaiai
o?aaeaiiy ? iaeiaioa e?euee?noue ianaeaiiy, ui iiaea caciaoe iaaaoeaiiai
aieeao; iaeiaioa e?euee?noue ieiu cii iiaeeeaiai o?aaeaiiy oa iaea?eueoa
e?euee?noue ianaeaiiy, ui iio?aiey? a oe? ciie ciaoiaeyoueny o i?noao c
/enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy a?ae 500 oen. /ie. aei 1 iei. A oeeo i?noao a
ia?oo /a?ao iaiao?aeia ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c aa?aiooaaiiyi
aeieiai-aacia/iiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? no?eeino? aeiiii?ee, ui iio?aao?
oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee ia iniia? canoinoaaiiy
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii
iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa o i?noao Oe?a?ie.

5. ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii
iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa o i?noao, iaa?oioiaaii a?oie i?aaaioeaieo
caoiae?a, ui ni?yiiaai? ia ciaioaiiy ?eceeo iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e
oaoiiaaiiiai oa?aeoa?o. Aeae?eaii nenoaio aeiia aei oeeo caoiae?a oa
?yae eiioeaiooaeueieo e?eoa???a, ui ? i?aea?oiooyi ioe?iee
aeueoa?iaoeaieo aa??aio?a aoae?aieoeoa iiaeo IIA aai ?icaeoeo aaea
?nioth/eo.

6. Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ia?aoiaeo a?ae eiioeaioe?? «aaniethoii?
aaciaee» (ioeueiaiai ?eceeo) aei eiioeaioe?? i?eeiyoiiai ?eceeo i?e
?ica’ycaii? i?iaeai oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee a eiioaeno? ?icaeoeo
? ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee. Ca?oiiaaii aeaee aeiiii?/ieo caeoe?a
a?ae iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ui iiaeooue aooe
caaaeai? ianaeaiith, iaaeieeoiueiio i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeuo, aeiiii?oe?
Oe?a?ie.

7. Aecia/aii ??ai? i?iaaaeaiiy ?aeeii? iie?oeee oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii?
aaciaeith (no?aoaa?/iee ? iia?aoeaii-oaeoe/iee) oa ?ieue aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy oeei i?ioeanii. Iaa?oioiaaii iai?yiee no?aoaa?? iiaoaeiae
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie: ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaee,
i?aai?caoe?eii-aaei?i?no?aoeaiee, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee, aeiiii?/iee,
aoiai?oa?iee oa ?ice?eoi ?o ci?no.

8. I?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee iio?aao?
caeiiiaeaa/iai caaacia/aiiy. C oe??th iaoith iio??aii i?eeiyoe ?yae
caeii?a, cie?aia, “I?i iioaioe?eii iaaacia/i? ae?iaieoeoaa”, “I?i
iaaecae/aei? neooaoe?? oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy”.

IA?AE?E IIOAE?EIAAIEO IAOEIAEO I?AOeUe, UI A?AeIA?AAEATHOUe INIIAI?
IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aoo?ei I.A. Ioe?iea ?eceeo oaoiiaaiieo iaaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e a
?aa?iiaeueiiio aei??? ? iaoai?cie ?aaoethaaiiy aeieia?/ii? aaciaee / /
I?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ? ioi?iia iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua – Ee?a: ?AIN
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie. – 1998. – N. 116-125.

2. Aoo?ei I.A. Oi?aae?iiy aeieia?/iith aaciaeith a ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie / /
Aeiiii?/ia oa nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y. – Ee?a: Caiia?o. – 1995. – aei. 47.
– N. 129-132.

3. Aoo?ei I.A. Caeaaei?noue ??aiy ?eceeo oaoiiaaiieo eaoano?io a?ae
??aiy ciino IAO / / I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. – 1998. – ? 49. –
N. 59-62.

4. Aoo?ei I.A. Oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ia aaciaea i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa ?
i?iaeaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a ?eieiaeo oiiaao / /
I?iaeaie i?aoe?, aeiiii?ee oa iiaeaethaaiiy. – Oiaeueieoeueeee: IAI
“Aa??ea”. – 1998.- N. 41-46.

5. Aoo?ei I.A., I?aeeai?iiee ?.I. Ieoaiiy oi?aae?iiy aeieia?/iith
aaciaeith Oe?a?ie / / ?aa?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea. – 1998. – ? 2. – N 116-124
(c ieo iniaenoiai aianeo N.120-124).

6. Oaaei?euaaa A.I., Aoo?ei I.A. Oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y a
Oe?a?i? oa oi?aae?iiy ??aiai ?? aaciaee / / Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie. – 1998. –
? 5. – N. 74-79; (c ieo iniaenoiai aianeo N. 74-76).

7. Aoo?ei I.A. Ieoaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy aeieia?/iith aaciaeith a ?aa?iiao
Oe?a?ie / / Oace iaoe.-i?aeoe/. eiio. «Aeieia?y ? ina?oa: i?iaeaie
oai??? ? i?aeoeee». – Oii 1. – Oiaiue: Oiainueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. O.A.Oe/eie. – 1994. – N. 12-13.

Aiioaoe?y

Aoo?ei I.A. ?icaeoie ? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa o
i?noao Oe?a?ie oa ?o aieea ia aeiiii?eo oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee.
— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.10.01 – ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ?
?aa?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea. — ?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeaiai ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii
iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa o i?noao oa ?o aieeao ia aeiiii?eo
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee. Iaa?oioiaaii nooi?noue iiiyooy
«iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ia ae?iaieoeoai» ? i?iaaaeaii ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th
aeae?a iaaaciae oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Aeae?eai? iaoiaeieia?/i?
i?eioeeie aeiiii?ee aaciaee ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?no. I?iaaaeaii
aiae?c ? ae?aaiinoeeo ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo
ae?iaieoeoa oa oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee. Aecia/aii iniaeeaino?
?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaie/eo i?aei?e?inoa o i?nueeeo
iinaeaiiyo e?a?ie. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae aecia/aiiy iaae?eiino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa ia iniia? iieaciee?a
caaaeueiiai ??aiy ciioaiino? iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a oa oaii?a ?o
noa??iiy. Noi?ioeueiaai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a
?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa o i?noao,
iaa?oioiaaii oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai caaacia/aiiy i?eeiyoiiai
??aiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iioaioe?eii iaaacia/ia ae?iaieoeoai,
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ia aaciaea, ?ecee, aaa??y, iaaecae/aeia neooaoe?y,
caeoee, ?ici?uaiiy, ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y, oi?aae?iiy, i?noi.

Aiiioaoeey

Aoo?ei I.A. ?acaeoea e ?aciauaiea iioaioeeaeueii iianiuo i?iecaiaenoa a
ai?iaeao Oe?aeiu e eo aeeyiea ia yeiiiieeo oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie
aaciianiinoe. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.10.01 – ?aciauaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e
?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea. — Niaao ii eco/aieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee
Oe?aeiu IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiia enneaaeiaaiea iinayuaii aeooaeueiui i?iaeaiai ?acaeoey
e ?aciauaiey iioaioeeaeueii iianiuo i?iecaiaenoa a ai?iaeao Oe?aeiu e
eco/aieth eo aeeyiey ia yeiiiieeo oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe.
Iainiiaaii nouiinoue iiiyoey «iioaioeeaeueii iianiia i?iecaiaenoai»,
i?aaenoaaeythuaa niaie oicyenoaaiiue iauaeo, ioiineoaeueii auno?ia
ia?ooaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo nenoai eioi?iai nii?iaiaeaeaaony oyae?euie
iineaaenoaeyie aeey ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, ianaeaiey e
?eiiiieee. I?iaaaeaii a?oiie?iaaiea iioaioeeaeueii iianiuo i?iecaiaenoa
ii ?yaeo i?eciaeia: io?aneaaiio oaeoi?o, ii noaiaie iianiinoe aeey
ianaeaiey, yeiiiieee e ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, ii oa?aeoa?o
nicaeaaaaiie iianiinoe. ?ane?uoi niaea?aeaiea eaeaioeoeeaoeee iianiinoae
oaoiiaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiey naienoa
oicyenoaaiiuo iauaeoia n oi/ee c?aiey aiciiaeiiai iianiiai aeeyiey,
enoiaey ec eieoeee?othueo niauoee e oneiaee eo ?aaeecaoeee, aa?iyoiinoe
aicieeiiaaiey aaa?ee e eaoano?io. I?iaaaeaia no?oeoo?ecaoeey i?ioeanna
ioeaiee ?enea oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneeo /a?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee ia iniiaa
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iai?aaeaiee (?an/ao aa?iyoiinoe aaa?ee, iiaeaee?iaaiea
iianiuo i?ioeannia, yenia?oiie ioeaiee niauoee, eioi?ua naycaiu n
aiaeecii ?enea), yoaiia (nicaeaiea aacu aeaiiuo ii ai?iaeo, eioi?ue
enneaaeoaony; aiaeec ?enea aeey ianaeaiey, ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie
n?aaeu, yeiiiieee; oi?ie?iaaiea no?aoaaee oi?aaeaiey n ?ac?aaioeie
iia?aoeaiuo ieaiia aeaenoaee) e yeaiaoia (auyaeaiea oaeoi?ia ?enea,
ioeaiea eo ?aaeueiiai aeeyiey ia /aeiaaea, yeiiiieeo e ie?oaeathuoth
i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo, eiiieaeniay oa?aeoa?enoeea ?enea n eniieueciaaieai
ea/anoaaiiuo e eiee/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia, onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaeuaeoueie
iia?aoeeyie) yoie i?ioeaaeo?u. Nenoaiaoece?iaaiu iaoiaeieiae/aneea
i?eioeeiu oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe. ?ane?uou iniiaiua
iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey e aeeaaiinoeee oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie
aaciianiinoe ai?iaeia. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeaii n?aaieoaeueii iiaiio e
aeinoaoi/ii ia?niaeoeaiiio iaoiaeo enneaaeiaaiee, eioi?ue aace?oaony ia
oai?ee eaoano?io.

I?aaeeiaeai iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey iaae?aeiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
iioaioeeaeueii iianiuo i?iecaiaenoa ia iniiaa iieacaoaeae iauaai o?iaiy
eciina i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iniiaiuo oiiaeia e oaiiia eo
noa?aiey i?e iiiiue eniieueciaaiey iieacaoaeae caaeneiinoe iaae?aeiinoe
oaoie/aneeo nenoai io a?aiaie eo yenieoaoaoeee. I?iaiaeece?iaaii
nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e ii?aaeaeaiu iniaaiiinoe ?aciauaiey
iioaioeeaeueii iianiuo i?iecaiaenoa a ai?iaeao Oe?aeiu ii eaaeaeiio
aeaeo iianiinoe. I?iaaaeaii eiiieaenioth ioeaieo
oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe ai?iaeneeo ianae?iiuo ioieoia
ioo?i eniieueciaaiey iieacaoaeae ?ani?aaeaeaiey ieiuaaeae oa??eoi?ee
iioaioeeaeueiiai caa?yciaiey e eiee/anoaa ianaeaiey, eioi?ia iiiaaeaao a
yoe ciiu. ?ac?aaioaiu eiioeaiooaeueiua iniiau ?acaeoey e ?aciauaiey
iioaioeeaeueii iianiuo i?iecaiaenoa a ai?iaeao, iainiiaaii a?oiiu
i?aaaioeaiuo ia?, eioi?ua iaoeaeaiu ia nieaeaiea ?enea /a?acau/aeiuo
neooaoeee oaoiiaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a ia iniiaa nenoaiu o?aaiaaiee
(i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai, i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai, eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneiai,
iaaeeoeeineiai, eioi?iaoeeiiiiai, iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneiai,
oeiainiai-?ano?niiai, i?aaiaiai, oa??eoi?eaeueii-i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai
iai?aaeaiey, e eiio?ieeiaa), eioi?ui yoe ia?u aeieaeiu oaeiaeaoai?youe.
Auaeaeaiu e?eoa?ee oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe, aunooiathueo
iniiaie ioeaiee aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aa?eaioia no?ieoaeuenoaa iiauo
iioaioeeaeueii iianiuo i?aaei?eyoee eee ?acaeoeth oaea nouanoaothueo.
?ane?uoi iaiaoiaeeiinoue eniieueciaaiey i?eioeeia oa??eoi?eaeueiinoe i?e
enneaaeiaaiee e ?aoaiee i?iaeai ?acaeoey e ?aciauaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iioaioeeaea, auaeaeaiu aai aniaeou e iieacaoaee. Auaeaeaii yoaiu
i?ioeanna i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ioiineoaeueii aiciiaeiinoae ?acaeoey e
?aciauaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a ai?iaeneie n?aaea. Iainiiaaia
aaaeiinoue ia?aoiaea io eiioeaioeee «aaniethoiie aaciianiinoe» e
eiioeaioeee i?eaieaiiai ?enea i?e ?aoaiee i?iaeai
oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe a eiioaenoa ?acaeoey e ?aciauaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. I?iaaaeaii a?oiie?iaeo aeaeia yeiiiie/aneeo
oua?aia io /a?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee oaoiiaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, eioi?ua
iiaoo auoue i?e/eiaiu ianaeaieth, ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaea,
yeiiiieea. Nenoaiaoece?iaaiu iniiaiua yeiiiie/aneea iaoaieciu
iaania/aiey oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe: no?aoiaiai,
iaeiaiaiai, e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, oo?aoiuo naieoeee; ieaou a
athaeaeao ai?iaea ca oaaee/aiea ?enea i?e ?anoe?aiee i?iecaiaenoaa,
yeiiiie/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca i?e/ei?iiue oua?a, ?ano?niiai
iaania/aiey ai?iaeneeo i?ia?aii ii aaciianiinoe, ?aca?ae?iaaiey
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneeo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. Auaeaeaii cia/aiea
oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe a i?ioeanna i?eaaoecaoeee,
acaeiiaeaenoaey eioa?ania ainoaea?noaa e noauaeoia yeiiiieee.

Ii?aaeaeaiu o?iaie i?iaaaeaiey iieeoeee oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie
aaciianiinoe (no?aoaae/aneee e iia?aoeaii-oaeoe/aneee), ?ane?uoi
cia/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey yoei i?ioeannii a ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieea e ?ieue iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee i?e iaania/aiee oaoiiaaiiie
aaciianiinoe. Iainiiaaiu iai?aaeaiey no?aoaaee iino?iaiey
oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie iieeoeee Oe?aeiu: ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaia,
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-aaeieieno?aoeaiia, iao/ii-oaoie/aneia, yeiiiie/aneia,
aoiaieoa?iia e eo niaea?aeaiea. Noi?ioee?iaaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
niaa?oainoaiaaieth iaoiaeia e iaoaieciia oi?aaeaiey ?acaeoeai e
?aciauaieai iioaioeeaeueii iianiuo i?iecaiaenoa a ai?iaeao. Eino?oiaioii
?aaeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie iieeoeee
aeieaeii noaoue /?oeia caeiiiaeaoaeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea iieiiii/ee,
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneie aacu iaaeaeo
iauaainoaea?noaaiiui, oa??eoi?eaeueiui, ianoiui e iauaeoiaui o?iaiyie
oi?aaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iioaioeeaeueii iianiia i?iecaiaenoai,
oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneay aaciianiinoue, ?aciauaiea, ?ene, aaa?ey,
/a?acau/aeiay neooaoeey, oua?a, eaeaioeoeeaoeey, oi?aaeaiea, ai?iae.

Summary

Butrim O.V. Development and Distribution of Potentially Dangerous
Productions in Towns of Ukraine and their Influence on the Economic of
Production-Ecological Safety. – Manuscript.

Thesis for candidate`s degree for economics by speciality 08.10.01 – The
distribution of the producnive forces and regional economics. – the
Council on the problems of productive forces in Ukraine of NAS of
Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

The thesis is devoted the problems of development and distribution of
potential dangerous productions in towns and their influence on the
economic of production-ecological safety. The maintenance of “potential
dangerous production” was based and the identification of type of
dangerous production origin was organize. The methodological principals
are pick out of the development of economical safety and function of
towns.

Analyses and diagnostics of development and distribution of potential
dangerous productions and production ecological safety was organize.

The spatial of the distribution of potential dangerous production in
towns of country was define. To introduce the method for definition of
reliability of function of potential dangerous productions that was
based on the value of general level of degradation of main production
founds and the time of their degradation. The proposal for management of
process of development and distribution of dangerous production in towns
have been elaborated.

Means of improvement the ways for modernization of government provide of
standard of production ecological safety have been formulated.

The key words: potentially dangerous production; production-ecological
safety, risk, accident, exceptional emergency, population, environment,
demage, accommodation, town.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 01.02 1999. Oi?ia 60o84/16. Iai?? oei.?1.

Ion.ae?oe. Oiia.ae?oe.a?e. 1,1. Oiia.-ae?oe.a?e. 1,4

Caiiae. ?

Oe?aae 100__________________________________________________

?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

252032, Ee?a, aoeueaa? O.Oaa/aiea, 60

Ae?eueieoey iia?aoeaiiai ae?oeo ?AIN Oe?a?ie IAI

Oe?a?ie 252032, Ee?a, aoeueaa? O.Oaa/aiea, 60

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