I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO AOAe?AIEOeOAA OA
A?O?OAEOO?E

Aanao ?aaeaai Ae? Aoiaae

OAeE 747:72.01(569.5)

?ICAEOIE OI?IIOOAI?AIIss A?AAI-?NEAINUeEIAI ?IOA?’??A

(IA I?EEEAAe? A?O?OAEOO?E EI?AeAI??)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 18.00.01 -Oai??y a?o?oaeoo?e, ?anoaa?aoe?y iai’yoie
a?o?oaeoo?e

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e

Oa?eia – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anueeiio ooaeiaeiuei-i?iieneiaiio ?inoeooo?.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, aeioeaio O?eaoa Iaoae?y
?aaai?aia, aeioeaio eaoaae?e «?ioa?’?? oa iaeaaeiaiiy», Oa?e?anueeee
ooaeiaeiuei-i?iieneiaee ?inoeooo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani? Aioiiia A?eoi? Eaii?aeiae/, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith «I?iaeaie a?o?oaeoo?e i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua» Oa?e?anueea
aea?aeaaia Aeaaeai?y i?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa

eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, Noa?iaeoaoeaaa E?ae?y Aieiaeeie??aia aeieoi?aio
eaoaae?e oai??? oa ?noi??? eoeueoo?e, Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y
eoeueoo?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «28» /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Ae 64.056.02 a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e (OAeOOAA) ca ae?anith: 310002, i. Oa?e?a-2,
aoe. Noinueea, 40

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e ca
aae?anith: 310002, i. Oa?e?a-2, aoe. Noinueea, 40

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 28 » /a?aiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, aeioeaio *a?eaniaa E.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?o?oaeoo?a ia iaae? XX-XXI
noie?oue, ianeoeaoenue ?aeeiei «iaaeiaoe?iiaeueiei» noeeai oa
naaa?eueiith a?ith oi?i iinoiiaea?i?cio, caa?oa?oueny aei iai’yo?
eoeueoo?e, i???iooth/enue ia naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?th a?o?oaeoo?iiai oai?o c
?noi?e/iith o?aaeeoe??th, c i?noeai aai ia «iiooe eiioaenoo». Caa?iaiiy
aei ?ioa?’??o iiynith?oueny oei, ui ?ioa?’?? – oea i?noea, aea
aeoioeth?oueny ethaenueea “y” o i?inoi??, yeee ? ianooaaiei ethaeei?.
O?aaeeoe?eiee ?ioa?’??, a iniaeeai o?ai aai ia/aoue, iia’ycai? c ia?acii
Anana?oo. ?ioa?’?? caaacia/o? aacia?a?aio ?aei?noue ethaenueei? aeoo?
(“i?e?ieinio”) ?c ciai?oi?i na?oii – “iae?ieiniii”. Aca?iica’ycie
?ioa?’??o c i?noeai aecia/a? aacia?a?ai?noue a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua.
Eiioaenooaeueiee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? i?iaeiaaeeoe aaiethoe?th
ooaeiaeiuei? nenoaie naii? o?aaeeoe??, a?i ? cae?aiei ?icaeiooe ye?noue
oe??? aacia?a?aiino?, ca’ycaoe eiai eiiiiiaioe o iiao iie?oii?/io ca
nai?i ooaeiaei?i oeiii no?oeoo?o, eiiiiceoe?th, ainaiaeue. Oeae
iie?oii?ci, yeee iaea?eueoa ? i?eoaiaiiei aeaeaoiei ainaiaeyi ieioeiai,
a?aeia?aaea? a aaeee?e i??? o?aaeeoe?ei? oe?iiino? nenoaie ?, a neeo
oeueiai, ia? i/aaeaeiee nioe?aeueiee aoaeo. C ?aa?iiae?ciii a
a?o?oaeoo?? i?iaeiaaeothoue iia’ycoaaoe iaae?? ia oi?iaeueia caaaa/aiiy
oa naiiaooi?noue ciae/anoaa.

O 60-70-o? ?iee OO no. a?o?oaeoo?a e?a?i A?aanueeiai Noiaeo i?aeiaea
i?ae aeniain?th cao?aeiiai, oae caaiiai «no/aniiai ?ooo». A ?acoeueoao?
iiaa?oiaa iane?aeoaaiiy ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e, iaiaa?oioiaaia
aeei?enoaiiy oi?o?eiaaieo ?iii?oieo eiino?oeoe?eii-icaeiaethaaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a i?ecaaei aei noe?aiiy naiiaooi?o ?aa?iiaeueieo ?
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?en oa o?aaeeoe?e o oi?ioaaii? i?aaeiaoii-i?inoi?iaiai
na?aaeiaeua.

O aea?aeaaao a?aanueeiai na?oo, aea aeii?io? ?neai, an?eye? ni?iae
aaanoe iiaea?i?ci o oiio cia/aii?, yea a?i ia? ia Caoiae?, ia i?eiineee
oni?oo. A?aanueea noni?euenoai caaaeaee aoei aeaea?aeii iine?aeiaiino? a
nenoai? ieneaiiy oa aeeoo?aiai ono?ith, ui ? i?e/eiith iai?eeiyooy
aoaeue-yeeo ci?i a a?aanuee?e a?o?oaeoo??.

Ei?aeai?y (Ei?aeainueea Oaoei?onueea Ei?ie?anoai) a?aeaeca?eaeth? oeth
niaoeeo?eo. Aiia ?icoaoiaaia o Cao?aei?e Ac??, a naiiio oeaio??
“a?aanueei? ?iia???.” Oea nai???aeia aeaaineiaaiia caiey, i?i yeo
caaaeoaaeiny o Noa?iio oa Iiaiio Caa?oao, caiey, aea oei?aieany ?neai.
Iacae ?? ?noi?e/ieo i?no – Aaeii, Iiaa, Aiiai, A?eaaae, Aaae, Ia?ay —
neeaaeathoue nooo?ao /anoeio a?ae?eiiai aeia?aeieea aaia?ao?/ieo iaca.

Aoi?/ia eoeueoo?a Ei?aeai?? oyaey? niaith neeaaeiee ? aaaaoia?aiiee
nieaa niaaeueie iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo oeea?e?caoe?e, ye? iine?aeiaii
canooiaee iaeia iaeio ia ?? oa?eoi???, ? oiio aiia ? oi?eaeueiei
oaiiiaiii, ui iio?aao? ?aoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Caa?iaiiy aei ei?ai?a iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, aei ?noi??? ciae/anoaa
aei?neainueeiai ? ?neainueeiai /an?a aeicaieeoue aeyaeoe aeiiii?aeiee
a?naiae eiiiiceoe?eieo cania?a ae?aciino? ? oei naiei caaaaoeoe
ooaeiaei?e ia?ac no/aniiai a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o.

?ioa?’?? ye a?o?oaeoo?iee i?ino?? ? /anoeith eoeueoo?e naiai /ano oa
noni?euenoaa, iaea?eueo iia?eueiith ?? oi?iith, yea /ooeeai ?aaao? ia
??ci? ci?ie o aiiaeiaao ? nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo iiaeyaeao. A e?a?iao
A?aanueeiai Noiaeo a?i ia? naith no?eeo noi?iiaaio iiaeaeue aai
?iaa??aio eoeueoo?e, ui ooiaeeoue o noie?ooy ? ia ?icieaa?oueny
aieeaaie.

Aaaeeea?noue ia?aii? oaie aeine?aeaeaiue coiiaeaia, c iaeiiai aieo, ??
iaaeinoaoiueith aea/ai?noth ?, c ?ioiai aieo, o??th cia/ei?noth, yea
iaaea?oueny ionoeueiainueeei noni?euenoaii ?ioa?’??iiio na?aaeiaeuo, ui
i?ecia/aia ia o?eueee caaacia/oaaoe iioeiaeuei? oiiae aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
a aeaiiio aeinoaoiuei iani?eyoeeaiio ee?iao?, aea e noai?thaaoe
ianoaiiaeo e?ane ? aeooiaiino?, yea ? i?eoaiaiiith a?aanuee?e
iaioaeueiino?. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy a a?aanueeiio ?ioa?’??? ia? eie??, a o
no/ani?e eieuei?ia?e eoeueoo?? caeaaeaeothoueny a?ai? ?aa?iiaeueii?
eie??ii? naiaioeee. O?aaeeoe?eiee a?aanueeee ?ioa?’??, ui caa??aa?
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aeeaeii? ei??iiy eiei?enoe/ii? eoeueoo?e, iiaea neeanoe
iniiao aeey niaoeeo?/ii? «eie??ii? aaaoee», yea aeiiiaieoue eiaeaen
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei?o oe?iiinoae Ei?aeai??.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iaoa??aeaie aeae?eueeio
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?e, ui a?aeaoeeny a Aiiai? o 1997-1998 ?.?. ?
aoee i?enay/ai? i?iaeai? caa?aaeaiiy a?o?oaeoo?ii? niaaeueie ? noaio
no/anii? a?aai-?neainueei? a?o?oaeoo?e, yea ia?aaeeaa? ca?ac nioao e?ece
aoiieoeueoo?ii? ?aeaioe/iino?. Ia ieo aoee aeae?eai? oae? i?iaeaie o
yeino? ia?oi/a?aiaeo: oaeineiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o a?aai-?neainueei?
a?o?oaeoo?e ca ?aooiie neie?aoecio ?? iaoa??aeueiiai oa aeooiaiiai
ci?noo (/a?ac caeiie a??e ? o?aaeeoe?e), ae?yeuei?noue niaoe?ae?no?a a
aaeoc? aiae?co a?o?oaeoo?ii? oi?ie, aeoiaey/e c e?eoe/iiai inieneaiiy
a?o?oaeoo?iiai a?aai-?neainueeiai oieueeei?o. Oea iio?aao? ia?aaoaeiae
i?aeaioiaee iaoe?iiaeueieo eaae??a a?o?oaeoi??a oa aeecaeia??a a
a?aanueeeo oi?aa?neoaoao, ui ? iaei??th c i?iaeaiieo noi??i eoeueoo?e,
oiio ui ei?aeainuee? oi?aa?neoaoe aeei?enoaee nenoaio aia?eeainueeiai
iaa/aiiy, i?eeiyaoe ca c?acie ieaie Aia?eeainueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo a
Aae?oo?.

Iaoeiaee ? i?aeoe/iee noai ieoaiiy. Ia?ae?e e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?
iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie, ye? noinothoueny oaie a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o a
Ei?aeai??, aeoaea ei?ioeee. Oea ienoaoeoaiciaanuee? aeena?oaoe??:
Aao-Oai? Aoiaae Iaoioae Noeaeiai Nae?i “Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey
eioa?uea?a ia?iaeiiai aeeeeua Ei?aeaiee (iaoeeiiaeueiua o?aaeeoeee)”
(1995 ?.), Iioaiaaea Aeaeaiaeue Oai?ae Eaeooea Aea? «I?iaiaio a
ia?iaeiii eneonnoaa Ei?aeaiee» (1993 ?.). Aia?oa i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy
no/aniiai ?ioa?’??a aoea ?icaeyiooa o 1973 ?. Eanooo Aaaei Eannaiii aeey
a?o?oaeoo?e Ne???. O ?yae? ?ia?o ?in?enueeeo ? ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a
aiae?co?oueny ?noi?e/iee oeyo ?icaeoeo a?aanueeiai ciae/anoaa a
eiioaeno? aaiethoe?? a?aanueeiai ienoaoeoaa (Aaae? THn?o Aeue-Aa?ae,
Ai?ii?ia A.E., Aae??e?ia I.?., Aiaae?/ I.I., Ai?aeee I.A., K. E?anaaee,
Aai?e Noe?eei). Cia/io caoe?eaaeai?noue o ienoaoeoaiciaaoe?a ??cieo
e?a?i aeeeeeathoue o?aaeeoe?ei? neeaaeia? i?aaeiaoii-oaeeoeiaiai aa?aiiy
a?aanueeiai aeeoea (eeeeia?nuee? oa oeaoeuee? ae?iae, iaae?, ea?ai?ea
o.?i.) (Aaeia?i A.A., Ii?ai A., Iaetho? I?o`y?, A.A. Naaaea, ?.A.
sseiaeaa, A. Oe/eie, N. Ooiaa?o). Iecea oai?aoe/ieo i?aoeue i?enay/aia
iaeiiio c eiiiiceoe?eieo cania?a aa?iii?caoe?? a a?o?oaeoo?iiio
oi?iiooai?aii? – iie?o?ii?? (?o?iia A.A., E?aaaoeue A.E., O?aaoa I.?.)
?, a ie?aiiio aeiaaeeo, eieuei?o a ?aa?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?ao ? a
?ioa?’??? (?e?ca?ia A.AE., Eai?oaa N.E., Iiiiia?ueiaa ?.N.. Noaiaiia
I.I.).

A aaeoc? a?o?oaeoo?ii? i?aeoeee, yea ?ioa?i?aoo? aai oeeoo? noa?? c?acee
a?aanueeiai ciae/anoaa, ne?ae a?aei?oeoe ?iaioe cao?aeieo iaeno??a
a?o?oaeoo?e (AEai Ioaaeue, Iaiei Ii?oiaac?), a oaeiae iecee
ei?aeainueeeo a?o?oaeoi??a, oai?/ith eiioeaioe?th yeeo noaei caa?iaiiy
aei iaoe?iiaeueii? a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeiuei? o?aaeeoe?? (Aeaeaoa? Oieai,
?anai Aaae?ai).

Acaaae?, iiia?aaeieeaie aoee aeine?aeaeai? oae? ieoaiiy:

iaoe?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe?? ei?aeainueeiai ia?iaeiiai aeeoea;

i?iaiaioe a aeaei?aoeaii-oaeeoeiaiio ienoaoeoa? Ei?aeai??;

?acii c oei, aein? iaia? ?iaioe, yea a ocaaaeueithaaea eiiieaen ieoaiue,
iia’ycaieo c oi?ioaaiiyi a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o ? oyaeyea a niaith
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/io aaco aeey ?ic?iaee no/anieo
a?o?oaeoo?ii-aeecaeia?nueeeo i?iaeo?a, c o?aooaaiiyi ?aa?iiaeueieo
eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e, ui ua ?ac i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeooaeuei?noue
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaiee c i??i?eoaoiith oaiaoeeith iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie
eaoaae?e «?ioa?’?? oa iaeaaeiaiiy» Oa?e?anueeiai
ooaeiaeiuei-i?iieneiaiai ?inoeoooo, aea aoea aeeiiaia oey aeena?oaoe?y,
a naia oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy iieiaeeo
niaoe?ae?no?a – aeecaeia??a ?ioa?’??iiai na?aaeiaeua.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iaoeiaiai, oai?aoe/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai noaio i?iaeaie
oi?iiooai?aiiy a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o aeicaieea aeyaeoe ieceo
iaae??oaieo aoceiaeo ieoaiue:

iaiaaeai?noue ? o?aaiaioa?i?noue a oai??? a?o?oaeoo?e aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
i?enay/ai? i?iaeai? oi?iiooai?aiiy ?ioa?’??iiai na?aaeiaeua;

a?aenooi?noue a a?o?oaeoo?i- oa ienoaoeoaiciaanoa? i?aoeue, aaoi?e yeeo
ona?aeiieththoue aaiethoe?th a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o Ei?aeai?? ye
neeaaeiao /anoeio caaaeueii? ? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi??? a?o?oaeoo?e;

iaaeineiiae?noue i?ioan?eii? iaoiaeeee aiae?co-neioaco ? iaaecia/ai?noue
a?aoiaioiaaieo i?aeoiae?a aei eiiieaeniiai i?iaeooaaiiy
a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o, ye? a?oioothoueny ia i?eioeeiao
caa?aaeaiiy aoiieoeueoo?ii? ?aeaioe/iino?, ?ae?a?eieo aeaea?aeao oa
iniaeeainoyo ineoio?c?ieia?? ci?iaiai ni?eeiyooy;

neeaaei?noue neioaco ?ioa?’??a ? na?aaeiaeua, ui a?aeiia?aea?
o?aaeeoe?yi ?icaeoeo ?ioa?’??a a oiiaao eiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
oneeaaeiaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: ?ice?eooy i?eioeei?a oi?iiooai?aiiy
a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o a no/anieo oiiaao ? iiaoaeiaa a?aeiia?aeii?
aa??noe/ii? nenoaiii? iiaeae? (ia ye?niiio ??ai?).

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?iiooai?aiiy
a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o;

— i?iaaaeaiiy nenoaiiiai ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iiai aiae?co
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeiuei? niaaeueie Ei?aeai?? ? ci?i o oi?iiooai?aii?
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeiueiai eiioaenoo ia an?o aoaiao eiai ?icaeoeo;

— aeyaeaiiy nenoaiiooai?thth/eo o?aaeeoe?eieo aeaiaio?a
a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o oa ?oi?o eiiiiceoe?eieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e o
no/ani?e a?o?oaeoo?? Caoiaeo oa Noiaeo;

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aaeiaoii-i?inoi?iaa na?aaeiaeua
a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o a?iiaaenueeeo aoae?aaeue Ei?aeai??
(?noi?e/ieo — a?ia?enoai, eaciy, iaae?ana, ia/aoue, iaeaoe, oi?oaoey,
oai, oaiea; no/anieo – aaei?i?no?aoeai? aoaeeiee,
a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?i? oeaio?e, ia/ao?, i?aei?e?inoaa oi?a?ae? oa
a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy).

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – no?oeoo?a i?ioeano aaiaceno oi?iiooai?aiiy
a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o ia’?eo?a ?noi?e/iiai oa no/aniiai
ciae/anoaa Ei?aeai??.

Iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy. O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue
/an c iiiaioo inai?iiy oa?eoi??? Ei?aeai?? ethaeeiith ? aei 610 ?. i. a.
(aei?neainueeee ia??iae) oa c VII no. i. a. aei XX no. i. a.
(?neainueeee ia??iae).

Oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeathoue ei?aeiiai
Ei?aeai??, ye? iioa?i?ee ci?ie a oiae? aaiiie?oe/ieo iiae?e. Aei ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie oa?eoi??y Ei?aeai?? aoiaeeea aei neeaaeo Iniainueei?
?iia???, a ?? Ne??enueeee a?eae?o. Aei ii/aoeo iiaiai /ano Ne??y,
Ei?aeai?y, E?aai ? Iaeanoeia ?icaeyaeaeeny ye ?aeeiee aaia?ao?/iee ?
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iee eiiieaen i?ae caaaeueiith iacaith «Ne??y» aai
«Aaeeea Ne??y». ?iaioa iaiaaeaia aiae?cii aieiaieo (ca ooieoe??th)
i?ei?uaiue iaea?eueo aeaeaoieo iai’yoiee?a ?neainueeiai ciae/anoaa ?
no/anii? a?o?oaeoo?e Ei?aeai??, Ne???, Naoae?anueei? A?aa??, ?aeioo,
??aio oa ?niai??.

Aeenoeeie?ia?i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/athoue caeo/eoe oae? a?ai?
a?o?oaeoo?iciaanoaa ye ?noi??y a?o?oaeoo?e, oai??y eiiiiceoe??,
a?o?oaeoo?ia eiei?enoeea, naiaioeea oi?ie, a oaeiae caaaeueia oai??y
nenoai ? ?ae?a?ei? aeaea?aea.

Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia iiaeyae? ia ?ioa?’?? ye
?acoeueoao ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie oa ?ice?eoo? oaiaeaioe?e
a?o?oaeoo?iiai oi?iiooai?aiiy a i?ioean? aaiethoe??.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia iaoith ? caaea/aie ?iaioe,
a?oioo?oueny ia nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae? ? eiiieaeniiio ?noi?e/iiio aiae?c?
?ioa?’???a a?iiaaenueeeo aoaeeie?a, ui ? oa?aeoa?ieie aeey e?a?i
A?aanueeiai Noiaeo.

Iaoiaeeea i?noeoue ?ao?iniaeoeaiee e?oa?aoo?ii-aiae?oe/iee aiae?c,
ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aiae?c
eiie?aoieo a?o?oaeoo?ieo ia’?eo?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa?:

a eiiieaeniiio i?aeoiae? aei aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?iiooai?aiiy
a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o, ye nai???aeii? a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeiuei?
nenoaie;

o iiaoaeia? iiaeae? aaiaaeia??, ?ioa?- oa aoiieoeueoo?ieo aieea?a o
o?aaeeoe?eieo oi?iiooai?thth/eo eiiiiiaioao a?aai-?neainueeiai
?ioa?’??o, o aeyaeaii? iniiaieo ia??iae?a eiai ?aeiiiiceoe??, ui
c?iaeaii aia?oa;

aia?oa a oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai?, ye iaoeia? ia?aaeoiiae
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ia?aciiai ieneaiiy, aoae?aaeuei? o?aeoaoe (aoeai
aeue-a?iueyi) ? oaenoe aieiaiiai ?ae?a?eiiai aeaea?aea ?neaio – Ei?aia,
ye eiaeaeno iniiaieo aeeoo?aeo i?eioeei?a ? noo? ?neainueei? a?o?oaeoo?e
oa eiinoaioiiai aeaiaioa oai??? ?neainueeiai a?o?oaeoo?iiai ieneaiiy, ui
ia? aieea ia i?aai?caoe?th i?aaeiaoii-i?inoi?iaiai na?aaeiaeua a
?neainueeeo e?a?iao;

aia?oa aeae?eai? ? nenoaiaoeciaai? «ia?aeii?» oi?iiooai?thth/?
ciaee-aeaiaioe a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o, yeee oyaey? niaith
oi?eaeueiee oaiiiai a na?oia?e eoeueoo??, aeyaeai? a?aeiioaiiy
oe?e?niino? — caeiie eiiiiceoe??, ui ?ice?eaathoue aaaaoiaa??aioi?noue
?ioa?i?aoaoe?e a a?o?oaeoo?iiio oai?? ? aeicaieythoue ?icaeiooe
iaoeiai-a?aoiaioiaai? iaoiaee/i? iniiae o/aiaiai ? i?ioan?eiiai
i?iaeooaaiiy a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o a iiaiio ye?niiio aniaeo?
i?iaeiaaeaiiy eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o iaoeiaiio inieneaii? ?
no?oeoo?oaaii? ia’?eoo a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeiueiai i?iaeooaaiiy –
«a?aai-?neainueeee ?ioa?’??».

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie
?ice?eaathoue ea?oeio aaiaceno ? ?icaeoeo oi?iiooai?aiiy
a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o ia i?eeeaae? a?o?oaeoo?e Ei?aeai??,
neeaaeaiee eaoaeia o?aaeeoe?eieo a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei?o oi?i ? eieuei?o
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o i?ioan?ei?e ae?yeueiino? a?o?oaeoi?aie ?
aeecaeia?aie ?ioa?’??o, ye? caeiathoueny i?iaeoiith ae?yeuei?noth o
?neainueeeo e?a?iao, a oaeiae a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? oi?aa?neoao?a
A?aanueeiai na?oo. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a
a?o?oaeoo?io i?aeoeeo aeicaieeoue aeinyaoe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ?
anoaoe/ii aeineiiaeeo c iiceoe?? caa?aaeaiiy a?aai-?neainueei?
aoiieoeueoo?ii? ?aeaioe/iino? eiiiiceoe?eieo ??oaiue ?ioa?’??iiai
na?aaeiaeua.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Oa?e?anueeiai
ooaeiaeiuei-i?iieneiaiai ?inoeoooo (1997,1998,1999?.?.), ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (1997,1998,1999?.?.), ia
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «No/ania a?aai-?neainueea a?o?oaeoo?a. E?eca
?aeaioe/iino?» (Ei?aeai?y, i. Aiiai, Anioe?aoe?y ?iaeaia??a, 7-10
aa?aniy 1998 ?.), ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
i?aeaioiaee oa ia?ai?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a o aaeoc? aeecaeio oa a?aiiii?ee
a no/aniiio noni?euenoa?» (i. Oa?e?a, OOI?, 14-15 aeiaoiy 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o 12 noaooyo
caaaeueiei ianyaii 4,0 ae?. a?e., o oiio /ene? – aac ni?aaaoi??a 7
ioae?eaoe?e o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aoc?a
ooaeiaeiuei-aoae?aaeueiiai i?io?eth Oe?a?ie ? ?in?? «O?aaeeoe?? oa
iiaaoe?? o aeu?e a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei?e ina?o?» (i. Oa?e?a, OOI?), o
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio ca??ieeo «No/ani? i?iaeaie a?o?oaeoo?e oa
i?noiaoaeoaaiiy» (i. Ee?a, Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e), a ca??ieeo noaoae I?aeia?iaeii?
eiioa?aioe?? (i. Aiiai), a Oe?a?inueeiio eaoaeic? c aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e «Aaoa?ian», (i. Oa?e?a).

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? cae?enith?oueny a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? a?o?oaeoo?iiai oaeoeueoaoo ei?aeainueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. (Aeo
i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy, aeaeaiee Aiiainueeei eieaaeaeai ?iaeaia?ieo
oaoiieia?e I?eeeaaeiiai oi?aa?neoaoo Aeue-Aaeea).

A /anoei? i?iaeooaaiiy iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaai? oai?/? eiioeaioe?? aaoi?a
aeei?enoai? a 11-oe ?ic?iaeaieo iei ? cae?eniaieo a iaoo?? ?ioa?’??ao
iaaacei?a aeey i?no Ca?ea ? Aiiai (Ei?aeai?y). (Aeo ai?iaaaeaeaiiy,
aeaeaiee Ei?aeainueeith ?iaeaia?iith Anioe?aoe??th, aieiaiei a?aeae?eii
a?o?oaeoo?e i. Ca?ea).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya iniiaiiai oaenoo 150 noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, a?ae?ia?ao?y 185 iaeiaioaaiue (18 noi??iie),
aeiaeaoee ia 114 noi??ieao (98 noi??iie aiae?oe/ieo oa ?ethno?aoeaieo
oaaeeoeue, oa?i?iieia?/iee neiaiee ia 14 noi??ieao, 2 aeoe i?i
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy). Aeniiceoe?eiee iaoa??ae aei caoenoo iiaeaiee ia 51
ieaioao? (?ici??ii 68(45 ni.)

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? ?ice?eaa?oueny nooi?noue ? i??a aea/aiino? iaoeiai? i?iaeaie,
iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ? iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/a?oueny iaoa ? caaea/? ?iaioe, aeae?eythoueny
ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaiaeeoueny iaoiaeeea ? iaae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe ? ioae?eaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «?ao?iniaeoeaiee iaeyae aeine?aeaeaiue
a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o» aiae?cothoueny e?oa?aoo?i? aeaea?aea, ye?
i?enay/ai? ?noi??? ?icaeoeo a?aanueeiai ciae/anoaa, i?eioeeiai
oi?ioaaiiy aeeoea ? aeayeeo oei?a a?iiaaenueeeo aoaeeie?a, o?aaeeoe?eiei
neeaaeiaei i?aaeiaoii-oaeeoeiaiai aa?aiiy ?ioa?’???a. ?icaeyaeathoueny
?acoeueoaoe a?oaieia?/ieo ? iacaeaaeieo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aanueeeo ?
?a?iiaenueeeo a/aieo.

sse c’ynoaaeiny, a?eueo?noue no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?neainueei?
a?o?oaeoo?e aoee i?enay/ai? ?noi??? ?? oi?i. Iaeiae, noa?iaeaai?
a?aanuee? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? a?aai-?neainueei? a?o?oaeoo?e yaeythoue
niaith ? ?noi??th oi?ie, ? ?noi??th aeeneo?no, aoaeo/e /anoeiith
o?aeoaoo c a?o?oaeoo?e. Cia/iee aianie o ?icaeoie a?aai-?neainueeiai
a?o?oaeoo?iiai aeeneo?no c?iaeee oae caai? iacaeaaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ye? aoee i?iaaaeai? ?ai Aeue-Eaea?, Aeue-Ac?ae?, Aeue-Aaaaeaae?,
Aeue-A??iao?, Ac-Ca?eao?, Aeue-Eaca?i?.

Iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiue a aaeoc? a?aai-?neainueei? a?o?oaeoo?e iiaeia
ii?aeiaoe o i’youe aniaeo?a: aoae?aaeuei? i?aaeea ? eaiiie (aoeai
aeue-a?iueyi), oeie aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e, i?nueea ieaioaaiiy,
a?oaieia?/i? ? ?noi?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?eueo?noue aeine?aeaeaiue
i?enay/ai? a?o?oaeoo?? ia/ao? (aeue-ianaeae?ae). Caeiie (aoeai
aeue-a?iueyi) aoee o?ainoi?iiaai? o caniae a?o?oaeoo?e aeey ae??oaiiy
i?iaeai a?o?oaeoo?iiai oi?iiooai?aiiy. Aiie iaee ye oai?aoe/ia, oae ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy a oi?aae?ii? noai?aiiyi a?o?oaeoo?ieo ia’?eo?a.

Aaeeeee aianie o aea/aiiy iiaooo ? a?o?oaeoo?e Aeecueeiai oa
Na?aaeiueiai Noiaeo iai?ee?ioe? OVIII – ii/aoeo XIX no. c?iaeee
aeine?aeieee: Ea?noai I?ao?, Oeue??o Caaooeai, Eiaaii Ao?eaa?aeo, A.
Ioc?eue, Aao?aioaeiae, ye? aia?oa c ?a?iiaeoe?a i?eeoee aei A?aa??. A
?oi?o eieaao cina?aaeaeai? anaa?/i? a?aeiiino? i?i oeae ?aa?ii,
iaaaaeai? ?ethno?aoe?? ae?aai?oeo i?no Ei?aeai??, a naia Iao?e ? ??
?ioa?’???a o neaeyo.

Iaeyae oa aiae?c no/aniiai noaio aeine?aeaeaiue a?aai-?neainueeiai
?ioa?’??o aeicaieea aeyaeoe ooiaeaiaioaeuei? i?aoe?, o yeeo ?icaeyioo?
aeaye? a?o?oaeoo?i? ia’?eoe Ei?aeai??. Oae A.E. Ai?ii?ia a iiiia?ao??
“Eiino?oeoeee e ooaeiaeanoaaiiue ia?ac a a?oeoaeoo?a Ainoiea” iieno?
?ioa?’??e iaeaoeo O??aao aeue-Iaoaeaea? (8 no.) oa Aeue-Ioaooa. Aeoaea
noene? a?aeiiino? i?i a?o?oaeoo?i? ia’?eoe ia oa?eoi??? Ei?aeai??
ciaoiaeeii ia noi??ieao “Anaiauae enoi?ee a?oeoaeoo?u”: i?noa Aeaea?ao
oa Iao?a.

A oiae? ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai iaeyaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aai-?neainueeiai
?ioa?’??o ie aaaaeaee ca aeioe?eueia caa?iooeny aei iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie c
i?iaeai eiei?enoe/iiai a?o?oaeoo?iiai oi?iiooai?aiiy ? ?aa?iiaeueii?
eie??ii? eoeueoo?e. A aeayeeo c ieo iaaaaeai? ?ici??eiaoaaiiy, ye?
aeiiiaiththoue oa?aeoa?enoeeo a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??a, a naia
eaeaoueny: i?i aieea ionoeueiainueeiai na?oiaeyaeo ia noai eieuei?iai?
eoeueoo?e ia?iae?a Noiaeo; i?i eiiiainaoe?th aneaoe/ii? iae?o?e
i?e?iaeiiai ioi/aiiy ca ?aooiie iie?o?iiiiai aaaaonoaa ?ioa?’??o; i?i
naiaioeeo eiei?enoe/ii? nenoaie i?aaeiaoii-i?inoi?iaiai na?aaeiaeua
o?aaeeoe?eiiai aeeoea; i?i ?ioo?oe?th noa?iaeaai?o a?aanueeeo iaeno??a
i?e ia?aii? eie??ieo niieo/aiue o i?iaiaioao, oiui.

Aeinoaoiuei iiaii aeine?aeaeai? iaoe?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe?? a aeecaei?
ei?aeainueeiai ia?iaeiiai aeeoea: a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ciioaaiiy
?ioa?’??iiai i?inoi?o aei aeaiaio?a i?iaiaioaeueiiai icaeiaeaiiy
(Aao-Oai? Aoiaae Iaoioae Noeaeiai Nae?i). Aeine?aeaeaiiy oeiiaeo c?ace?a
ia?iaeiiai ei?aeainueeiai ?aianea (ea?ai?ea, eeeeia?noai, thaae??i?
ae?iae) a ?oiueiio ?icaeoeo, ui aoei cae?eniaii Iioaiaaeii Aeaeaiaeue
Oai?ae Eaeooea Aea?, aeicaieeei aeyaeoe iaeio c oa?aeoa?ieo ?en
ia?iaeiiai ienoaoeoaa – iie?naiaioeci o?aaeeoe?eii? i?iaiaioeee ia??ai?
c? caa?aaeaiiyi “aoi?/ii? iai’yoe”.

?icae?e cae?i/o?oueny ei?ioeeie aeniiaeaie ii oei eiie?aoiei
ia?ica’ycaiei iiia?aaeieeaie caaea/ai, ye? iaie iinoaaeai? ? iiaeii?
aooe ae??oai?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue ?ioa?’??o»
iaaaaeaiee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c eiioeaioe?e ? iaoiaeee aiaeia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeae?eai? aea? a?oie iaoiae?a: oai?aoe/i? ? aii??e/i?. C
o?aooaaiiyi neeaaeiino? aeine?aeaeoaaii? nenoaie ? ?? aaaaoi??aiaaino?
iaie cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue aeine?aeaeaiiy, yea ia?aaeaa/a? ?icaeyae
aeaiiai i?aaeiaoa a aniaeo? ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo,
oi?iaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eiiai eiino?othaaiiy oa ineoio?c?ieia?? ni?eeiyooy
ethaeeiith. Iaoiaeeea oyaey? niaith neia?ic oaeeo i?aeoiae?a ye
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iee oa oi?iaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eiee, ye? a?oioothoueny ia
?neainueeiio a?o?oaeoo?iiio ieneaii?, ui ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi niaoeeo?/ieo
?en o?aaeeoe?eiiai ia?aco aeeooy. Oey eiie?aoia iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?oioo?oueny ia o?eueee ia aiae?c? ??ciiiai?oieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae,
a ? ia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iniiaiiai ?ae?a?eiiai aeaea?aea ?neaio – Ei?aia.
Iaoiae iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c a?aai-?neainueeiai
?ioa?’??o ye ia’?eoa-nenoaie iaoa??aeueiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy oai?/eo,
?aeaieia?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a e?a?iao
A?aanueeiai na?oo, aea nioe?aeueii-?aeaieia?/i? (?ae?a?ei?) oaeoi?e
aeeeoothoue aea?? oi?i ? ooaeiaei?o cania?a, oi?aaeyth/e, oaeei /eiii,
i?ioeanii oi?iiooai?aiiy a a?aai-?neainuee?e a?o?oaeoo??.

Aei aaciaeo oa?aeoa?enoee aoaeue-yei? nenoaie a?aeiinyoue: eiiiiiaioe
(m), ca’ycee ? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae ieie (R), aeaee oii?yaeeoaaiiy aai
no?oeoo?e ? caeiie eiiiiceoe?? (Z). Caa?iaiiy aei na?aaeiaeuiiai
i?aeoiaeo iio?aao? nenoaiii? iaoiaeeee, yea ioiieth? eaoaai??? ia
o?eueee ooieoe??, eiino?oeoe??, oi?ie, aea e ae?yeueiino?, iiaaae?iee ?
ia?aco aeeooy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «?noi?e/iee aiae?c ?ioa?’???a ciae/anoaa Ei?aeai??»
iaaiaeeoueny ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iee aiae?c a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeiueiai
eiioaenoo Ei?aeai?? (aei?neainueeee ? ?neainueeee ia??iaee), ui neeaany
i?ae aieeaii ??ciiiai?oieo ?ioa?eoeueoo?, iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e ?
a?aai-?neainueeiai ieneaiiy. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ?ioa?’??o c
o?aooaaiiyi aaiee?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a, i?noeaaeo aoae?aaeueieo ?
icaeiaethaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, nioe?aeueieo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei ?
?ae?a?eieo eaiii?a.

Aeyaeai? eoeueoo?i? oa?e aeicaieeee iiaoaeoaaoe a?aeai?yaee
oi?iiooai?aiiy eiiiiiaio?a a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o a i?ioean?
?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Iai?eeeaae, ia??iae a?aei-?einueei? eoeueoo?e caeeoea a iaoe?iiaeuei?e
eoeueoo?? Ei?aeai?? aeinoaoiuei iii?oiee a?aeaeoie. ?einueea
oeea?e?caoe?y caaaaoeea i?noeaaee i?iaiaio oaeeie aeaiaioaie ye eenoy
aeaioo, a??eyiaee, o?oeoe. Iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaiei aoa ei?eionueeee
? eiiiiceoiee i?aea?. A oeae ia??iae aoea aeinyaiooa aa?iii?/ia
a?aeiia?aei?noue i?aea?a, a?ee oa neeai?iiy ?ioa?’??o. Eoeueoiaa
a?o?oaeoo?a a i?ia?ioe?yo ?einueei? ?iia??? aoea o?nii iia’ycaia c
i?noeaaeie o?aaeeoe?yie, iineeeeiny cia/aiiy ?ioa?’??o o?aio. I?aeeiae,
no?ie, neeai?iiy aoee iane/ai? aeaei?ii.

A?caio?enueeee ia??iae ia oa?eoi??? Ei?aeai?? a?aeia?aceany a iica?/iiio
ienoaoeoa? oea?eia O??aao aeue-Iooaeyo ? Iaaeaae, aea aoea a?aee?eoa
iica?/ia ea?oa Nayoi? Caie?. Ia oeae /an aoee noai?ai? aa??aioe aacee?e
? oeaio?e/ieo nii?oae.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iiaith ?ae?a?eiith ?aeaieia??th ?neaio c’yaeany
iiaee oei iaeaoeo aeey oae?o?a, a?ia?enoaie, ia/ao?, iaae?ana, iaaciea?,
eaci?, oaie, oaiee. A Ei?aeai?? cina?aaeaeai? oi?eaeuei? iai’yoieee
ciae/anoaa: Iao?a, Aeaea?ao, Iaaeaaa, Oii Eaen, oi?oaoe? (Ea?ae, Aeaaa,
Aaeaeeoi), «caiee ionoae?» – Aeue-Ioaooa, Eonae? Ai?a, Ean? Oa?aia, Ean?
Oaeeyaao.

Iaie aoee nenoaiaoeciaai? oeie ?ioa?’??ieo i?inoi??a oa aeaiaioe
eiiiiceoe?eii? nenoaie ?ioa?’???a aei?neainueeiai ? ?neainueeiai
ia??iae?a, ui neiioeaio?iaai? ia oa?eoi??? Ei?aeai??. Oea aeicaiey?
oyaeoe oe?e?niee a?coaeueiee ?yae ooaeiaei?o ia?ac?a a a?o?oaeoo?? oa
aaiethoe?th eiiiiceoe?eiiai ieneaiiy. Iiyaa ?neaio o nueiiiio noi??//?
iioyaioea ca niaith ia?aaeyae eiaeaeno a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei?o
oe?iiinoae ? oyaeaiue i?i oi?ioaaiiy i?aaeiaoii-i?inoi?iaiai
na?aaeiaeua. Oeae ia??iae ?oeioaaiiy oe?e?nieo nenoai eiiiiceoe?eiiai
ieneaiiy oa i?iaeoii? ae?yeueiino? ? oi?ioaaiiy iiai? nenoaie
(iiiaeaiiy) eiiiiceoe?eiiai ieneaiiy ? aoaiii ?aeiiiiceoe?? a
a?aai-?neainuee?e a?o?oaeoo??, a oiae? yeiai iiiyooy eiiiiceoe??
o?ainoi?ioaaeiny i?ae aieeaii iiaiai ?aeaieia?/iiai eiioaenoo
(?neainueeiai ieneaiiy).

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «Aaiethoe?y oi?iiooai?aiiy a?aai-?neainueeiai
?ioa?’??o» iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeaeiiiiceoe?eiiai aiae?co
i?aaeiaoii-i?inoi?iaiai na?aaeiaeua a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o, ui aoa
i?iaaaeaiee ia iniia? iaoo?iiai ianoaaeaiiy aeecueei 50-oe ia’?eo?a –
c?ace?a ?noi?e/ii? ? no/anii? a?o?oaeoo?e Ei?aeai?? (c oioio?enaoe??th,
cai??aie oa a?aoiaiae?oe/iei aiae?cii i?iii?oe?e), iieacai? o?aaeeoe?ei?
eiiiiceoe?ei? caniae aa?iii?caoe?? a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeiuei? nenoaie
a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o, aeyaeai? oeie i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e oa
«ia?a?ni?» o?aaeeoe?ei? ia’?iii-ieanoe/i? eiiiiiaioe, ye? i?eeiathoue
o/anoue o oi?iiooai?aii? ?ioa?’??o ? ni?eeiyoo? eiai ooaeiaeiueiai
ia?aco: a?o?oaeoo?i? oi?ie – iaieiiee, a?eia, noae?, a?ee, aeaa??,
iao?aa??, eaaia???, oaic??, iaae?, i?iaiaioeea, eiei?enoeea. Iienai?
aca?iica’ycee i?ae eiiiiiaioaie (eiino?oeoeai?, ooieoe?iiaeuei?,
eiiiiceoe?ei?, a?coaeuei?). Aeyaeai? caniae aa?iii?caoe??: i?iii?oe??,
ianooaa, oaeoii?ea, iao?i-?eoi?/i? caeiiii??iino?, eie??. Ia iniia?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oaeno?a Ei?aia aecia/aia naiaioeea iniiaieo eieuei??a.
I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c eiiiiceoe?eiiai eiino?othaaiiy
?ioa?’???a a ?noi?e/ieo c?aceao ? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? o?aaeeoe?eiiai
oi?iiooai?aiiy a no/ani?e cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee?e ? ?neainuee?e
a?o?oaeoo??, yea i?aaenoaaeaia i?iaeoaie Iaiei Ii?oiaac?, ?anaia
Aaae?aia, AEaia Ioaaey, Aaae? THn?o Aeue-Aa?aea, iaeno??a o??ie
Aeue-Oaeyo, Aanaoa ?aaeaaia Ae? Aoiaaea.

sse aeiaaaeaii oeei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, c?acee aeei?enoaiiy aeano?oeoeaiiai
eieuei?o o i?iaiaioaeueieo iano?iieo eiiiiceoe?yo a?aanueeiai ?ioa?’??o
noaee aeoieii aeey ?icaeoeo iioe/iiai (ii-a?o) ? e?iaoe/iiai ienoaoeoaa
(A. Aaca?ae?, Aeae. ?. Nioi), i?aeaiooaaee iiyao no/anii? na?aaeiaeuii?
noia?a?ao?ee. O?aaeeoe?y ionoeueiainueeiai aeaei?aoeaiiai ienoaoeoaa
uiaei i?aai?caoe?? i?inoi?iaeo oi?i aac oea, noaea iniiaith oai?/iai
iaoiaeo oaeeo iaeno??a ye Iiiae??ai, Eea?, Aoa?, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
i?iaaaeaiei iaie ii??aiyeueiei aiae?cii o?aaeeoe?eii? a?aanueei?
i?iaiaioeee ? ?ioa?’??ieo eiiiiiaio?a c a?ao?/ieie eiiiiceoe?yie
ooaeiaeiee?a OO noie?ooy.

AENIIAEE

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiaceno ? ?icaeoeo oi?iiooai?aiiy a?aai-?neainueeiai
?ioa?’??o, ui aeeeeeaii aeooaeueiith iaiao?aei?noth oai?aoe/iiai
inieneaiiy no/anii? aoiieoeueoo?ii? neooaoe?? a a?o?oaeoo?? Ei?aeai?? ?
e?a?i ?neainueeiai na?oo, aea a?aei?/a?oueny e?eca aoiieoeueoo?ii?
?aeaioe/iino?, aiineoue oai?aoe/iee ? i?aeoe/iee aianie a ??oaiiy
aaaeeea?oi? i?iaeaie i?iaeoii? eoeueoo?e nueiaiaeaiiy ? a iaeaooiueiio
o?aoueiio oeny/ie?oo?.

Ia i?ioyc? ?neainueeiai ia??iaeo, yeee ia? ii/aoie o VII no., a
ionoeueiainuee?e a?o?oaeoo?i?e oai??? i?ae aieeaii ?neainueeeo
?ae?a?eieo eaiii?a neeaeany iaiiaoi?ia oai??y i?aai?caoe?? na?aaeiaeua
a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o, ia’?eoe-nenoaie yei? aaaaoi noie?oue
?nioaaee ia ??ai? oioiaeieo ia?aoai?aiue. Aeyaeai? eoeueoo?i? oa?e
aeicaieeee iiaoaeoaaoe iiaeaeue aaiaaeia?? a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o
c o?aooaaiiyi ?ioa?eoeueoo?ieo (aee?i?noe/ieo, ?einueeeo,
a?caio?enueeeo) oa aoiieoeueoo?ieo aieea?a. A ?acoeueoao? aoee
i?iaiae?ciaai? aeaeici?ie oi?i, ye? i?eeiathoue o/anoue o
eiiiiceoe?eiiio eiino?othaaii? aei?neainueei? oa ?neainueei? a?o?oaeoo?e
(i?inoi?ia? oi?ie-iaieiiee, eieiie, eai?oae?, a?eia, a?ee). Aeyaeai?
aeaiaioe noiaeino? ? a?aei?iiino?, ui ? caiice/aieie o iiia?aaei?o
eoeueoo?ao oa ciiao i?eaianai? a?aanuee? aeaiaioe.

Aia?oa aecia/ai? ? nenoaiaoeciaai? “ia?aeii?” ?iaa??aioi? o?aaeeoe?ei?
oi?iiooai?thth/? ciaee-aeaiaioe a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o, ye?
neeaaeathoue eiai eiiiiceoe?th: oeie ieai?a oa a?o?oaeoo?ieo i?inoi??a c
aeaiaioaie iai?iaeaeaiiy; ia’?iii-ieanoe/i? aeaiaioe (eieiie, a?ee,
a?eia, aeaa??, iao?aa??, eaaia???, oaic??, noaeaeoeoe i?iaiaioeea,
eie??); i?aaeiaoia iaiiaiaiiy.

Ia i?aeoeoe? niinoa??aa?oueny oe?ieee ae?aiacii ??oaiue – a?ae
aoiia?ao?/iiai aai iocaeiiai a?aeoai?aiiy aeaoaeae ? iiaieo iiaieo
no?oeoo? aei iaeneiaeueii ocaaaeueiaii?, eaaeaa iii?oii? anioe?aoeaii?
?ioa?i?aoaoe??. ??cia nooi?iue ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ia?iaeaeo? ??ciee ca’ycie
c o?aaeeoe??th – a?ae ciaea «cia?aaeaiiy» aei ciaea «neiaie». No/ani?
??oaiiy a?ae??ciythoueny c?inoath/ith oaaaith aei ?noi?e/ieo no?eeeo
naiaioe/ieo no?oeoo?, iaeiae c iaaeinoaoiueith ?o aea/ai?noth
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y cae?enith?oueny ?ioo?oeaii, aac iaoeiaiai a?oioo.
No?eeeie a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei?ie oi?iaie a?aai-?neainueei? a?o?oaeoo?e
– iaoeoeeie, caaaeyee ionoeueiainueeiio a?o?oaeoo?iiio ieneaiith,
?iaa??aioaie eoeueoo?e — ? ?ioa?’??e ia/ao? ? a?aanueeee ae?i.

Aeyaeai? iaie o?aaeeoe?ei? oi?iiooai?thth/? aeaiaioe a?aai-?neainueeiai
?ioa?’??o (i?inoi?ia? oi?ie-iaieiiee, i?iaiaioeea, iao?aa?y, eaaia???,
oaic??, noaeaeoeoe, oeie i?aaeiaoiiai iaiiaiaiiy) aeicaieeee neeanoe
aaciaee eaoaeia oi?i ? eieuei?o, yeee iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee ye iai/iee
iaoa??ae aeey iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o ni?aa? i?aeaioiaee iaoe?iiaeueieo
eaae??a a?o?oaeoi??a ? aeecaeia??a i?aaeiaoii-i?inoi?iaiai na?aaeiaeua o
e?a?iao A?aanueeiai na?oo.

?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co eiiiiceoe?eiiai eiino?othaaiiy
a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o o ?noi?e/ieo c?aceao oa a no/ani?e
a?o?oaeoo?? aeyaeee niaaeei?ii?noue eiiiiceoe?eieo ??oaiue, yea
i?noeoueny o iiaoi?aii? eiio?ao?aoe?? ieai?a ? a?o?oaeoo?ieo ia’?i?a, o
aeei?enoaii? i?iaiaioeee, no?oeoo? iao?aa??, noaeaeoeoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e.
Aiie i?eeiathoue o/anoue o oi?iiooai?aii? no/aniiai a?aai-?neainueeiai
?ioa?’??o o aeaeyae? “oeeoaoe” c ieioeiai a?o?oaeoo?iiai eiioaenoo oa ye
noee?ciaai? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? o?aaeeoe?eieo oi?i. Oai?/a e?aaei aeayeeo
?a?iiaenueeeo ? a?aanueeeo a?o?oaeoi??a aeiaiaeeoue iaae/a?ii?noue
aeaii? nenoaie oe?iiinoae, caniiaaii? ia aaciaaei?e eiia?iaoi?eoe?
a?aai-?neainueeiai ooaeiaeiueiai ieneaiiy, ia?niaeoeai?noue oeyoo
oi?iiooai?aiiy, yeee ?icaeaa? o?aaeeoe?ei? iioeae ? aeaiiino?o?
aacia?a?ai?noue eoeueoo?e.

A?aai-?neainueeee ?ioa?’??, ye ia’?eo-nenoaia ia ? aeiaiaoe/iith, a
cae?aiith aei ia?aoiaeo ca iaeaaeieie caeiiaie o a?eueoa /enei ?ioeo
ia’?eo?a-nenoai, iaeiaeiaeo ca ye?noth aai iiaiai ?iaeo, a?i ? noeeueiei
aei ?aaaia?aoe?? oa ia?aa?ae?iaeaeaiith ia nai?io a?oio?.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1.O?aaoa I.?., Aanao ?aaeaai Ae? Aoiaae. A?o?oaeoo?ii — ooaeiaei?
oi?iiooai?aiiy a eiioaeno? i?noey oa o?aaeeoe??. // O?aaeeoe?? oa
iiaaoe?? o aeu?e a?o?oaeoo?ii — ooaeiaei?e ina?o?: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ooaeiaeiueiai i?io?eth Oe?a?ie ?
?in??. / I?ae caa. ?aae. I.?. O?aaoa. — Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1997. — ? 1. — n.
11 — 13.

2.O?aaoa I.A., Aanao ?aaeaai Aee Aoiaae. O?aaeeoeeiiiua ciaee a?aaneie
a?oeoaeoo?u e eneonnoaa a nenoaia “eiiiiceoeeiiiiai aeoaaeoa”. //
O?aaeeoe?? oa iiaaoe?? o aeu?e a?o?oaeoo?ii — ooaeiaei?e ina?o?: Ca??ea
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ooaeiaeiueiai i?io?eth
Oe?a?ie ? ?in??. / I?ae caa. ?aae. I.?. O?aaoa. — Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1997. —
? 2. — n. 20 — 21.

3.O?aaoa I.A., Aanao ?aaeaai Aee Aoiaae. O?aaeeoeeiiiua ciaee a?aaneie
a?oeoaeoo?u e eneonnoaa a oi?iiia?aciaaiee eioa?uea?ia iauanoaaiiuo
caeaiee. // No/ani? i?iaeaie a?o?oaeoo?e oa i?noiaoaeoaaiiy: Iaoeiai —
oaoi?/iee ca??iee. Aeione 2. Aie. ?aae. I.I. Aeueii?i. — E.: EAeOOAA,
1997. — n. 156 — 163.

4.O?aaoa I.?., Aanao ?aaeaai Ae? Aoiaae. Naiaioeea aaiiao?e/ii? oa
eiei?enoe/ii? nenoaie ?i?aeainueeiai eeeeia. // O?aaeeoe?? oa iiaaoe?? o
aeu?e a?o?oaeoo?ii — ooaeiaei?e ina?o?: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ooaeiaeiueiai i?io?eth Oe?a?ie ? ?in??. / I?ae
caa. ?aae. I.?. O?aaoa. — Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1997. — ? 4. — n. 84 — 85.

5. Aanao ?aaeaai Ae? Aoiaae. Enoi?e/aneee a?oeoaeoo?iue eiioaeno
Ei?aeaiee. // O?aaeeoe?? oa iiaaoe?? o aeu?e a?o?oaeoo?ii — ooaeiaei?e
ina?o?: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ooaeiaeiuei
— aoae?aaeueiiai i?io?eth Oe?a?ie ? ?in??. / I?ae caa. ?aae. I.?.
O?aaoa. — Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1997. — ? 5. — n. 34 — 37.

6. Aanao ?aaeaai Aee Aoiaae. I aeecaeia eioa?uea?ia iaaaceiia a
Ei?aeaiee 80-o aiaeia (ec oai?/aneiai iiuoa). // O?aaeeoe?? oa iiaaoe??
o aeu?e a?o?oaeoo?ii — ooaeiaei?e ina?o?: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ooaeiaeiuei — aoae?aaeueiiai i?io?eth Oe?a?ie ?
?in??. / I?ae caa. ?aae. I.?. O?aaoa. — Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1997. — ? 6. — n.
11 — 15.

7. Aanao ?aaeaai Aee Aoiaae. Eaaia?ee e oaicee a oi?ie?iaaiee
eneaineiai eioa?uea?a. // O?aaeeoe?? oa iiaaoe?? o aeu?e a?o?oaeoo?ii —
ooaeiaei?e ina?o?: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
ooaeiaeiuei — aoae?aaeueiiai i?io?eth Oe?a?ie ? ?in??. / I?ae caa. ?aae.
I.?. O?aaoa. — Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1998. — ? 1. — n. 17 — 18.

8. Aanao ?aaeaai Aee Aoiaae. Iao?aaey eae oi?iiia?acothuee yeaiaio
eioa?uea?a a o?aaeeoeeiiiie eneaineie a?oeoaeoo?a. // O?aaeeoe?? oa
iiaaoe?? o aeu?e a?o?oaeoo?ii — ooaeiaei?e ina?o?: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ooaeiaeiuei — aoae?aaeueiiai
i?io?eth Oe?a?ie ? ?in??. / I?ae caa. ?aae. I.?. O?aaoa. — Oa?e?a: OOI?,
1998. — ? 2. — n. 42 — 47.

9. O?aaoa I.A., Aanao ?aaeaai Aee Aoiaae. “Cae ai?iaea” a Aiiaia. //
Aaoa?ian: Oe?aeineee eaoaeia ii no?ieoaeuenoao e a?oeoaeoo?a. —
Oa?ueeia. — 1998. — ? 16. — n. 90 — 93.

10.Aanao ?aaeaai Aee Aoiaae. Eioa?i?aoaoeey cia/aiee naaoa e oeaaoa a
Ei?aia. // O?aaeeoe?? oa iiaaoe?? o aeu?e a?o?oaeoo?ii — ooaeiaei?e
ina?o?: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ooaeiaeiuei
— aoae?aaeueiiai i?io?eth Oe?a?ie ? ?in??. / I?ae caa. ?aae. I.?.
O?aaoa. — Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1998. — ? 3. — n. 62 — 64.

11. Wasef Radwan Ali Ahmad. Tendencies of Formation of Arab — Islamic
Interior of Public Buildings in Jordan. / The First Architectural
Conference of Jordan Engineers Association: Contemporary Arab — Islamic
Architecture (The Crisis of Identity). 7-10 September, 1998. — Amman,
Jordan. — p. 67 — 80.

12. Aanao ?aaeaai Ae? Aoiaae. O?ainoi?iaoe?y a?aanueei?
i?iaiaioeee oa ieanoeee a i?aaeiaoii-i?inoi?iaiio na?aaeiaeu? ?ioa?’??a
oa aenoa?’??a. // O?aaeeoe?? oa iiaaoe?? o aeu?e a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei?e
ina?o?: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
ooaeiaeiuei-aoae?aaeueiiai i?io?eth Oe?a?ie ? ?in??. / I?ae caa. ?aae.
I.?. O?aaoa. – Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1998. — ? 4-5. – n. 54 — 65.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aanao ?aaeaai Ae? Aoiaae. ?icaeoie oi?iiooai?aiiy a?aai-?neainueeiai
?ioa?’??a (ia i?eeeaae? a?o?oaeoo?e Ei?aeai??). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy ioeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 18.00.01 – Oai??y a?oeoaeoo?e, ?anoaa?aoe?y iai”oie
a?o?oaeoo?e. Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e, Oa?e?a, 1999a.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiith oi?iiooai?aiiy a?aai-?neainueeiai
?ioa?’??o, ?icaeyiooiai a aniaeo? ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/ii? aaiethoe??. A
?iaio? ?icaeaa?oueny iiaee iai?yiie a a?oeoaeoo?iciaa/iio aiae?c?, yeee
a?oioo?oueny ia eiioeaioe?? ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo ?
ia’?eoii? aeaeiiiiceoe??. I?iaiae?ciaai? aeaeici?ie oi?i o
eiiiiceoe?eiiio eiino?othaaii? aei?neainueei? ? ?neainueei? a?o?oaeoo?e.
Aeyaeai? “ia?aeii?” ?iaa??aioi? o?aaeeoe?ei? aeaiaioe a?aai-?neainueeiai
?ioa?’??o, i?eioeeie aca?iica’yceo i?ae ieie, no?oeoo?a ? caeiie
eiiiiceoe??. Cai?iiiiiaaiee aaciaee nenoaiaoeciaaiee eaoaeia oi?i ?
eieuei??a oi?iiooai?thth/eo aeaiaio?a a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o.
Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe i?aeoaa?aeaeai? a a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei?o
??oaiiyo ?ioa?’???a i?aei?e?inoa oi?a?ae? (i. Aiiai, Ca?ea), ?ic?iaeaieo
aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe??, oa ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean
I?eeeaaeiiai oi?aa?neoaoo Aeue-Aaeea.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oi?iiooai?aiiy a?aai-?neainueeiai ?ioa?’??o, nenoaiiee
aiae?c. o?aaeeoe?ei? aeaiaioe, eiiiiceoe?y, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aanao ?aaeaai Aee Aoiaae. ?acaeoea oi?iiia?aciaaiey a?aai-eneaineiai
eioa?uea?a (ia i?eia?a a?oeoaeoo?u Ei?aeaiee). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa a?oeoaeoo?u ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 18.00.01 – Oai?ey a?oeoaeoo?u, ?anoaa?aoeey iaiyoieeia
a?oeoaeoo?u. Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao
no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u, Oa?ueeia, 1999a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?ino oi?iiia?aciaaiey a?aai-eneaineiai
eioa?uea?a, ?anniao?eaaaiiai a aniaeoa enoi?eei-aaiaoe/aneie yaiethoeee.
A ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony iiaia iai?aaeaiea a a?oeoaeoo?iaaae/aneii aiaeeca,
iniiaaiiia ia eiioeaioeee enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea e
iauaeoiie aeaeiiiiceoeee. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu aeaeieciaiaiey oi?i a
eiiiiceoeeiiiii eiino?oe?iaaiee aeieneaineie e eneaineie a?oeoaeoo?u.
Auyaeaiu “ia?ae/iua” eiaa?eaioiua o?aaeeoeeiiiua yeaiaiou
a?aai-eneaineiai eioa?uea?a, i?eioeeiu naycae iaaeaeo ieie, no?oeoo?a e
caeiiu eiiiiceoeee. I?aaeeiaeai nenoaiaoece?iaaiiue aaciaue eaoaeia
oi?iiia?acothueo yeaiaioia a?aai-eneaineiai eioa?uea?a. Iniiaiua
?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu i?aeoe/anee a
a?oeoaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ?aoaieyo eioa?uea?ia i?aaei?eyoee oi?aiaee
(a. Aiiai, Ca?ea), ?ac?aaioaiiuo aaoi?ii aeenna?oaoeee, e aiaae?aiu a
o/aaiue i?ioeann I?eeeaaeiiai oieaa?neoaoa Aeue-Aaeea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oi?iiia?aciaaiea a?aai-eneaineiai eioa?uea?a, nenoaiiue
aiaeec, o?aaeeoeeiiiua yeaiaiou, eiiiiceoeey, eioa?i?aoaoeey.

SUMMARY

Wasef Radwan Ali Ahmad. Development of formation of Arab-Islamic
interior (architecture of Jordan is taken as an example). – Script.

The dissertation paper applying for a scientific degree of Ph.D. of
Architecture, Major 18.00.01 – Theory of Architecture, restoration of
architectural monuments. Kharkov State University of Construction and
Architecture, Kharkov, 1999.

The present dissertation is a research into formation of Arab-Islamic
interior viewed in the aspect of its historic and genetic evolution. The
research purports to develop a new trend in architectural and artistic
design and in architectural analysis, based on the concept of historic
and artistic systemic approach and object decomposition.

The dissertation paper is not only novel but timely as well: the crisis
of ethnic and cultural identity spread over the architecture of almost
all the countries in the end of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th
century. The expansion of the so-called “modern movement” led to
disappearing of unique local and national traces and traditions. At the
same time the Arabic society has always been the source of continuity in
the way of thinking and in life style. On the one hand the importance of
the chosen theme is determined by the fact that it has not been
specially and fully considered yet. On the other hand it is determined
by the value which interior has in the Moslem society, because interior
is to provide not only optimum life conditions by rather difficult
climate, but also to create the spiritual atmosphere which is typical
for the Arabic mentality.

In order to research formation of Arab-Islamic interior as a phenomenal
architectural and artistic system the complex approach with the
methodology of general theory of systems was used.

The paper purports to explore development of formation of Arab-Islamic
interior. In order to achieve this aim the following research tasks have
been solved:

The model of genealogy, of cultural, inter- and ethnic influence in
traditional formative components of Arab-Islamic interior is built,
which gives the possibility to follow the influence of Hellenistic,
Greek, Roman and Byzantine cultures on Arab-Islamic culture and to study
the evolution of composite thinking. Appearance of Islam in the 7th
century led to the review of the set of architectural and artistic
values and of the ideas of formation of a subject-space atmosphere. This
period of “breaking” the systems of composite thinking, which were
completely solid before, the period of formation of a new system is a
stage of recomposition in Arab-Islamic architecture formed under the
influence of a new way of Islamic thinking.

Arab-Islamic interior as an object-system has remained unchangeable for
a long time. It existed on the account of an equal reorganization of
different components of the system. The religious sources such as Koran,
ahkam al-binyan (set of rules and canons for construction) served as an
ideological background of architectural formation.

The rows are built and the changes of forms are analyzed, which take
part in compositional design of pre-Islamic and Islamic architecture
(space surrounding forms, columns, capitel, windows, arches). The
elements of similarity and difference are defined, which are taken from
proceeding culture and which are contemporary Arabic elements.

For the first time “initial” invariant traditional formational signs and
elements of Arab-Islamic interior are defined and systemized. They form
the composition of this interior: types of plans and architectural
environment with limiting elements; volumetrical-plastic elements
(columns, arches, windows and doors, mashrabiya, qwamaria, shamsiya,
stalactites, ornaments, color); subject filling.

The comparative analysis of the composite constructing of Arab-Islamic
interior in historic samples and in modern architecture shows the
heritage of compositional decisions, which consists in repetition of
configuration of plans and architectural volumes, in use of ornaments,
of mashrabiya and of stalactite structures. They participate in
formation of modern Arab-Islamic interior both as “cites” from the past
architectural context and as stylized interpretations of traditional
forms.

Comprehensive works of modern Jordanian and Western
architects-postmodernists prove the endless nature of the present set of
values of Arab-Islamic culture. The samples of using the destructive
color in various ornamental wall-compositions of Arab-Islamic interior
served as a source for development of optic (op-art) and kinetic art,
prepared the base for modern supergraphics, and extended language
boarders of modern visual culture.

The systemized basic catalogue of formative elements of Arab-Islamic
interior is offered. The main results of the present dissertation paper
are proved in practice into architectural and artistic interiors of
trade offices (the cities of Amman and Zarka) developed by the author of
the present dissertation paper and are introduced into the teaching
process of Al-Balqa Applied University.

Key words: formation of Arab-Islamic interior, systemic analysis,
traditional elements, composition, interpretation.

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 24.05.99 ?.

Oi?iao 60o90/16

Oi.-ae?oe.a?e.0,8

Iai?? ena?ieniee 80a/i2

Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

Caiiaeaiiy ? 376

II OeAII «?aeaea?», 310002, i.Oa?e?a, aoe. A?oaia 4

PAGE 17

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