1

?INOEOOO AA?A?II? AEIIII?EE

OE?A?INUeEI? AEAAeAI?? AA?A?IEO IAOE

?ICEIOIA Ieaia Aiaoie??aia

OAeE
338.43:631.115

?ICAEOIE OI?I

AINIIAeA?THAAIIss IA NAE?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.01 — aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa

? i?aai?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio
OAAI, caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie Ianaeue- Aanaeye A?eoi?
sseiae/, aieiaiee a/aiee nae?aoa? OAAI.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee ae?y/
iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie E?enaeueiee Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/, caa?aeoth/ee
a?aeae?eii ?inoeoooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI;

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ??iaeia
Ieaenaiae? THoeiiae/, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii aeiiii?ee ? ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo naae?aieoeoaa OAAI.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «30» /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E26.350.02. ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe a ?inoeooo?
aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI (252127 i. Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 10,
eiioa?aioe-cae, 3-e iiaa?o).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aa?a?ii?
aeiiii?ee (i. Ee?a. aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 10, 2-e iiaa?o).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 28 » o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe Ioe?i A.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Na?aae iniiaieo aaaeae?a, ye?
ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, i?aeaeuaiith eiai
aoaeoeaiino? a ?eieiaeo oiiaao iaeaaeia i?noea iin?aea? ?aoi?ioaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa a ?aoe?iiaeuei?
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? no?oeoo?e oa oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoioeeaaeiino? a
aa?a?iiio naeoi??. Oea coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yi?a
?o aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Neeaaei?noue aea/aiiy i?iaeaie iieyaa? a oiio, ui a aa?a?i?e noa?? a
inoaii? ?iee niinoa??aa?oueny niaae ae?iaieoeoaa, cieaeaiiy eiai
aoaeoeaiino?, iaaeineiiae?noue oiia i?aoe? ? aeeooy naeyi. Caaino?aiith
neooaoe?? ni?ey? ii?ooaiiy oe?iiaiai, e?aaeeoiiai ? iiaeaoeiaiai
iaoai?ci?a, iacaaa?oai?noue oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo ae?iaie/eo no?oeoo?,
a?aenooi?noue iiaiaeaeaiino? ?ioa?an?a i?aoe?aiee?a n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa ?ioeo aaeocae, aeeoae?a naea ? i?noa.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia aaaii?noue iio?aae aea/aiiy iiaeeeainoae oa
iaa?oiooaaiiy caoiae?a uiaei caaacia/aiiy iaeaaeiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiue a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao
ie?aieo aeiiii?ei-i?aai?caoe?eieo oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaeoi??a
coiiaeea aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?? iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Noai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie. A ?ic?iaeo oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae
noaiiaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia nae?,
oaeineiiaeaiiy aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueei? no?oeoo?e, aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei ?o ae?yeueiino? cia/iee aianie c?iaeee oe?a?inuee? a/ai? I.O.
Naaeoe, A.ss. Ianaeue-Aanaeye, A.A. TH?/eoei, I.I. Iieuaiei, A.I.
O?aaia/oe, I.A. E?enaeueiee, I.E. Iae?e, I.TH.??iaeia, A.?. E?eai?o/ei,
?.A. Eiiiaaeia, I.A. Uai??iei, E.N. E?aniieoonueea, I.I. Oaaei?ia, E.A.
?iiaiiaa, A.ss. Aia?inia, A.I. Iaeai, TH.I. Eoiaiei, A.A. C?iia/oe,
I.A. Eiaan, A.A. Aiae??e/oe oa ?i.

A/aieie-aeiiii?noaie aeine?aeaeoaaeenue iai?yie ?icaeoeo oi?i aeaniino?
oa ainiiaea?thaaiiy, caiaeuei? a?aeiineie, iioei?caoe?y i?aai?caoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e ainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiue ??cieo oei?a, ?ic?iaeyeenue
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?o ?icaeoeo
oiui. I?ioa ia an? aiie aea/ai? aeinoaoiueith i??ith. Ie?ai? c ieo
aeiaaathoue eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo uiaei ae??oaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo oa
aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cieo
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a ?eieiaeo oiiaao.

Oea aeiaaa? a?eueo iaa?oioiaaiiai nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo i?e
aeine?aeaeaii? ieoaiue ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?niiai
iioaioe?aeo oa i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo iiaeeeainoae eiaeii? c oi?i,
?o ni?a?nioaaiiy, iai?yi?a oaeineiiaeaiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa a aoaeoeaii ae?th/? ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa iia’ycaia c oaiaoeeith a?aeae?eo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ?inoeoooo
aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI ii i?ia?ai?: ”Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? iniiae ?icaeoeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ?
caiaeueieo a?aeiinei”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy
ieoaiue oi?ioaaiiy oa cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ae?yeueiino?
?nioth/eo ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo? ??cieo i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i,
iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yi?a ?o ?icaeoeo, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?c canoinoaaiiyi a?aeiia?aeieo aeiiii?/ieo iaoai?ci?a o
?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oe??? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? iinoaaeai? ? ae??oothoueny
oae? caaaeaiiy:

— ?ice?eoe nooi?noue oai?aoe/ieo iniia ?icaeoeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

— aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? (oaiaeaioe??) ?icaeoeo ?nioth/eo
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao;

— iaa?oiooaaoe iniiai? iai?yie noaiiaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee ?aoi?ioaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa o ainiiaea?nuee? no?oeoo?e ?eieiaiai oeio ?c canoinoaaiiyi
i?eioeei?a eiiia?oaaiiy;

— iaa?oiooaaoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy aioo??ainiiaea?nueeeo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei o ?aoi?iiaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao;

— aeyaeoe aieea nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoie ainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiue ??cieo iai?yi?a.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaee/i? ? i?eeeaaei? ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ?o ae?yeueiino?
oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe ?aoi?ioaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa. Ia`?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? ?
ainiiaea?thaaiiy Noinueei? iaeano?, cie?aia eieaeoeai?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa, aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa, i?eaaoi?
aa?io??ie, naeyinuee? (oa?ia?nuee?) ainiiaea?noaa, iniaeno? i?aeniai?
ainiiaea?noaa ianaeaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith ? iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? iieiaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?/ii?
oai???, ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae i?ciaiiy oa nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy
aeiiii?/ieo yaeu, caeiiiaeaa/? ? ii?iaoeai? aeoe, iaoeia? i?aoe?
a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo c ieoaiue noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a aa?a?i?e noa??.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoiaee:
aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iee, aano?aeoii-eia?/iee, iiiia?ao?/iee, aiae?oe/iee,
a?ao?/iee, nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

?ioi?iaoe?eieie aeaea?aeaie noaee io?oe?ei? iaoa??aee aea?aeaaieo
noaoenoe/ieo i?aai?a, ?ic?iaee iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiia, iaoeia?
ioae?eaoe?? c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, ??/i? ca?oe oa iioi/ia
aooaaeoa?nueea aeieoiaioaoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa,
aeai? aieaoieo iieooaaiue, ?acoeueoaoe iniaenoeo niinoa?aaeaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— ooi/iaii? aecia/aiiy iiiyooy oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ye aeiiii?/ii?
eaoaai???;

— i?iaaaeaii? eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao oa
aecia/aii? ?o aoaeoeaiino?;

— aeyaeaii? iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i ainiiaea?nueeeo
no?oeoo? oa anoaiiaeaii? aca?iica`yceo i?ae ieie ? aaeocaaith
niaoeeo?eith;

— ii?aoethaaii? iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano
?aoi?ioaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa o ainiiaea?nuee?
no?oeoo?e ?eieiaiai oeio;

— iaa?oiooaaii? aeioe?eueiino? a?aooaaiiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
oaeoi??a i?e noai?aii? ??cieo ainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiue.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie ? i?aenoaaith aeey aecia/aiiy
i??i?eoao?a aeai?o, noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy
oa oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy a aa?a?i?e
noa??. Aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiceoe?? a?aoiaai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
“Ia?oi/a?aiaeo caoiae?a uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oa ?icaeoeo
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Noinueei? iaeano? ia ia??iae 1999-2000 ??.”
oa aiaeia?/iiai aeieoiaioo a ?iiainueeiio ?aeii?. Cai?iiiiiaai?
iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo
a?aeiinei aeei?enoiaothoueny a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio cae?eoiio
aeoe?iia?iiio oiaa?enoa? (NCAO) «Ia?aeii?anueea» ?iiainueeiai ?aeiio
Noinueei? iaeano?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a aeine?aeaeoaaio i?iaeaio. Iaa?oioiaai?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia nae? a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?, ?ic?iaeai?
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa o
?aoe?iiaeuei? no?oeoo?e. Cae?eniaii i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiao oa aeiiii?/io
ioe?ieo ia?aaaa ? iaaeie?e?a iiaeo ainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiue, aecia/ai?
ia?niaeoeae ? iai?yie iie?ioaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino?, ii?aoeueiaai? iniiai?
i?aeoiaee (i?eioeeie) iiaoaeiae aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo a?aeiinei ?c
canoinoaaiiyi iaoai?cio eiiia?aoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo c i?iaeai
oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a ?eieiaeo oiiaao (Iieoaaa, 1998
?., Noie, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a o?ueio
iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo oa oacao ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? caaaeueiei
ianyaii 1,07 ae?oeiaaieo a?eooa.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia
153 noi??ieao eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, ?ethno?iaaia 26 oaaeeoeyie, 6
?enoieaie, 2 aeiaeaoeaie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae iae?/o? 122
iaeiaioaaiiy.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

Anooi.

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy. 1.1. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae noaiiaeaiiy oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. 1.2. Iaoiaeieia?/i?
canaaee i?aai?caoe?eiiai aaeineiiaeaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo? a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?. 1.3.
Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oaeoi?e ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa.

?icae?e 2. No/aniee ?icaeoie ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy. 2.1.
Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia nae?. 2.2. I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? iniaeeaino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo? ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a
?aa?ii?.

?icae?e 3. Iniiai? iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy. 3.1.
Iai?yie ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a oiiaao
noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. 3.2. Iai?yie iiaeaeueoiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa a ainiiaea?nuee? no?oeoo?e
?eieiaiai oeio. 3.3. Aieea nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a aa?a?i?e noa?? a oiiaao ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Aeniiaee.

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ?icaeoeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy” — ?icaeyiooi oai?aoe/i?
iniiae noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?, ooi/iaii ?o aeiiii?/io nooi?noue, eeaneo?eiaaii oi?ie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, iaa?oioiaai? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo? c o?aooaaiiyi ca?oa?aeiiai oa a?o/eciyiiai
aeina?aeo, ?ice?eoa nooi?noue nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaeoi??a aieeao
ia i?aai?caoe?ei? ia?aoai?aiiy a aa?a?i?e noa??.

Aeo?ae c e?ece aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa aiaeii/an c oaeineiiaeaiiyi
aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia iae?i- ? i?e?i??aiyo
aaa/a?oueny o ?aoi?ioaaii? a?aeiinei aeaniino? oa ca-iaeueieo a?aeiinei,
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa o ?eieia?
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? no?oeoo?e, noaiiaeaii? aaaaoioeeaaeiino?
aeiiii?ee.

I?ioean noaiiaeaiiy iiaeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a aa?ii?iieneiaiio
eiiieaen? Oe?a?ie o?nii iia`ycaiee ?c cae?eniaiiyi o?ainoi?iaoe??
/anoeie aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? ia caieth o iaaea?-aeaaio /a?ac
?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ? i?eaaoecaoe?th oeyoii ia?aaea/? o eieaeoeaio
aeani?noue oa iathaaiiyi i?ae i?aoethth/eie.

Aeieeiaiiy ??cieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?ioaaiue a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? coiiaeaii caeiiiaeaa/ei
aaaaeaiiyi a Oe?a?i? c 1991 ?ieo i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia caieth.

Eiino?oeoeaiei o iaoeiaiio ieai? ? aecia/aiiy oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ye
i?aai?caoe?eii? oi?ie aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa, iaoiiaeaii? ?nioth/ei
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei oeeaaeii ? ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie (oi?iith
aeaniino?, i?aai?caoe?eiith iiaoaeiaith ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo?,
aeiiii?/ieie a?aeiineiaie oa ?i.), ye? aecia/athoue niaoeeo?eo ?nioaaiiy
eiaeii? c ieo. Noiniaii oeueiai oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy eeaneo?eiaai?
oaeei /eiii:

— ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?, ui noi?iiaai? ia canaaeao i?eaaoii? aeaniino? c
iiaeeeaei aeei?enoaiiyi i?aiaeieo a?aeiinei ainiiaea?thaaiiy
(oa?ia?nuee? ainiiaea?noaa, i?eaaoi? i?aei?e?inoaa, iniaeno? i?aeniai?
ainiiaea?noaa ianaeaiiy);

— aeoe?iia?i?, a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? yeeo aeiiii?/iith iniiaith ?
aeoe?iiiaaia aeani?noue (aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa, oiaa?enoaa c
iaiaaeaiith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth oa ?i.);

— eieaeoeai?, ui ?niothoue ia canaaeao ii?aeiaiiy aea?aeaaii? /e
i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia caieth ? iaeii c eieaeoeaieie oi?iaie
i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa (eieaeoeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
i?aei?e?inoaa, aea?aeainie, aa?io??ie oa ?i.).

?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y ?nioth/eo ainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiue ia?aaeaa/a?
cae?eniaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo caoiae?a uiaei iioei?caoe??
i?aai?caoe?eieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aaaeae?a
aieeao ia ?o ?icaeoie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “No/aniee ?icaeoie ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy” —
?icaeyioo? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i?, cie?aia a Noinuee?e iaeano? oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo
no?oeoo?.

Iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a ?eieiaeo oiiaao
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oneeaaeiaiiyi nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia:
aeenia?eoaoii oe?i ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo ? i?iieneiao
i?iaeoeoe?th, iiaeeaeaiiyi o?iainiai? e?ece, a?aenooi?noth iaeaaeiiai
?iaanooaaiiy ae?iaie/i? ? nioe?aeueii? noa?e, iaaeinoaoi?i
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iei caaacia/aiiyi, nioe?aeueiei caiaiaaeii naea.

O Noinuee?e iaeano? caaa?oeany ia?oee aoai caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie. Naeyie
io?eiaee naith /anoeo (iae) a caiaeueiiio oiiae? eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aac aeae?eaiiy a iaoo??. I?aai ia
ia? cae??ieaii o aeaeaiiio Na?oeo?eao? ia i?aai ia caiaeueio /anoeo
(iae), a a ie?aieo ainiiaea?noaao o Aea?aeaaieo aeoao ia i?aai i?eaaoii?
aeaniino? ia caiaeueio ae?eyieo. Ia ae?oaiio aoai? ia?aaeaa/a?oueny
?aoi?ioaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa o no?oeoo?e
?eieiaiai ni?yioaaiiy.

Noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1998 ?. a iaeano? eieaeoeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
i?aei?e?inoaa ?aoi?iiaaii o 342 aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa, a oiio /ene? 321
cae?eoiai ? 21 a?aee?eoiai oeio, 6 aa?io??i, c ieo 2 i?eaaoi?, 12
oiaa?enoa c iaiaaeaiith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth. Ooo ooieoe?iioaaei 84
eieaeoeaieo ? 34 aea?aeaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaa,
iae?/oaaeinue 365,6 oen. iniaenoeo i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noa ianaeaiiy,
noi?iiaaii 889 oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa. I?ioa iiceoeaieo c?ooaiue a
aa?a?i?e noa?? ?aa?iio ia a?aeaoeiny. Oae, o 1997 ?. ii??aiyii c 1990
?. caaaeueia ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
noaiiaeei 54,2%, cie?aia — ?ineeiieoeueei? — 60,5, oaa?eiieoeueei? —
47,5%.

Na?aae oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ae?iaieeii cia/ii? /anoeie
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, aa?aioii nioe?aeueii? caoeuaiino?
naeyi caeeoa?oueny a?iiaaenueeee naeoi?. ?aoi?ioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo
no?oeoo? a iaeano? cae?enithaaeiny a?aeiia?aeii aei /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa a iniiaiiio oeyoii noai?aiiy eieaeoeaieo i?aei?e?inoa,
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa oa oiaa?enoa c iaiaaeaiith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth,
ye? aeei?enoiaothoue i?aoeth aeaniee?a iaeiiaeo ? caiaeueieo ia?a.
Niaoeeo?/iith iniaeea?noth oeueiai i?ioeano a Noinuee?e iaeano? ?
canoinoaaiiy ia?aaaaeii aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Oi?ioaaiiy
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa a?aeaoaaeiny oeyoii i?eaaoecaoe?? iaeia
aea?aeaaieo ? eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa c
aecia/aiiyi eiaeiiio i?aoethth/iio iaeiiaiai iath caeaaeii a?ae
o?oaeiai? o/ano? ? aeaea/? oe?iieo iaia??a, aea?aaeaioieo eiai
aa?-oino?. ?o ae?yeuei?noue ?aaeaiaioo?oueny aea?aeaaith uiaei
i?ioeaaeo?e noai?aiiy, neeeeaiiy oa iiaiiaaaeaiiy cai??a, aeioneo
aeoe?e. Noai?aiiy aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa ii??aiyii c eieaeoeaieie
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie ni?eyei ciaioaiith oaii?a
niaaeo ae?iaieoeoaa, oi/ ? ia i?ecaaei aei i?aeaeuaiiy eiai
aoaeoeaiino?. Oae, o ?iiainueeiio ?aeii? na?aae ianoaaeaieo 48
ainiiaea?noa ooieoe?iio? 19 aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa cae?eoiai oeio.
Ae?iaie/? oa aeiiii?/i? iieacieee ?o ?icaeoeo iaaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 1.

Ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia 100 aa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue a oeeo ainiiaea?noaao o 1997 ?. ii??aiyii c 1990 ?. ciaioeeiny
ia 47,2%, oiae? ye o eieaeoeaieo — ia 62,5%. ??aaiue caeoeiaino? a oeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao noaiiaea a?aeiia?aeii 28,1 ? 26,4%. Niaae ae?iaieoeoaa ?
??cea cieaeaiiy eiai aoaeoeaiino? coiiaeth?oueny, ii?yae c ?ioeie
oaeoi?aie, canoinoaaiiyi canoa??eeo aeiiii?/ieo iaoai?ci?a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a.

1. ?icaeoie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa

?iiainueeiai ?aeiio Noinueei? iaeano?

a oiio /ene?:

Iieacieee

Anueiai ii ?aeiio

eieaeoeai?

n?euenueeiain-

iiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaaaeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaaaea?aeaai? i?aei?e?i-noaa

1990

1997

1990

1997

1990

1997

1990

1997N?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa?aeaey, oen. aa

139,9

123,5

80,0

73,4

52,2

43,4

7,5

6,7Ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia 100 aa

n.-a. oa?aeue, oen. a?i.

anueiai:

88,9

39,2

92,0

34,5

83,2

43,9

97,7

61,1 a o. /.: ?ineeiieoeoaa

42,4

23,3

41,5

21,2

41,3

25,0

59,4

36,1oaa?eiieoeoaa46,515,950,413,242,018,938,325,0??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? (caeoeiaino?),%

39,0

-26,0

40,4

-26,4

48,5

-28,1

78,1

1,7

Aeaui aeu? ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? a aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoaao: AOCO
?i. Ui?na ? NCAO “Ia?aeii?anueea” ?iiainueeiai ?aeiio, ?i.
E.Ia?ena Iooeaeuenueeiai ?aeiio, AOCO “Naiai?anueea”
Eeiiaiaeieeinueeiai, “Aaouee?aueia” Eaaaaeeinueeiai ?aeiio, AOCO “Iaye”
O?inoyiaoeueeiai ?aeiio oa ?ioeo ca ?aooiie i?aai?caoe?eieo
ia?aoai?aiue, cie?aia noai?aiiy aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo eiiia?aoea?a
ia ?eieiaeo canaaeao, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aca?iiaea?aeieo aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei oiui.

Aeineoue cia/ia ieoiia aaaa o ae?iaieoeoa? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe?? a ?aa?ii? iaeaaeeoue eieaeoeaiei n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei
i?aei?e?inoaai, oi/a aeiiii?/i? oa ae?iaie/? iieacieee ?o ae?yeueiino?
cia/ii iia??oeeenue. ?acii c oei, ?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?thaaiiy ie?aieo
eieaeoeaieo i?aei?e?inoa — “Aa?io?i” Eaaaaeeinueeiai, ?i. A?aoaoa
?iiainueeiai ?aeiio oa ?i.), ye ? aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa,
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui ii?yae c caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieie i?iaeaiaie
(oe?iiooai?aiiy, e?aaeeooaaiiy oiui) ? e oae?, ae??oaiiy yeeo caeaaeeoue
a?ae naieo ae?iaiee?a. Oea, cie?aia, oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/i?
i?aai?caoe?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a (a?eaaae, oa?i),
ui ia a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai ?eieo.

Ia iao iiaeyae, iaeiei c iai?yi?a noaa?e?caoe?? ?icaeoeo aa?a?iiai
naeoi?a iiaea noaoe oi?ioaaiiy i?eaaoieo i?aei?e?inoa, ye? a iaeano?
noai?ththoueny ia i?eioeeiao iaeiiin?aiiai ea??aieoeoaa. Iae/ano?oa iei
? eieeoi?e ea??aiee i?aei?e?inoaa. A ?o ae?yeueiino? iioe?aiiy iaaoee
i?aiaei? a?aeiineie, ye? i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano canoiniaothoueny a
a?eueoino? ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i.

A oeeo ainiiaea?noaao ii?aeiothoueny iniaeno? ?ioa?ane i?aoe?aieea, ye
aeanieea, c ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie oa eieaeoeaieie oi?iaie i?aai?caoe??
i?aoe? ? ae?iaieoeoaa. Oae, o A?eii?euenueeiio ?aeii? aoee noai?ai?
aea? i?eaaoi? aa?io??ie. Iaeia c ieo aa?io??ia “Oe?a?ia,” noai?aia o
1997 ?., ia? ca?iiai-ao?ye?aie/ee ae?iaie/ee iai?yiie c ?icaeiooei
iiei/ii-i`yniei neioa?noaii. Ooo eiaeiiio ainiiaea?th aeae?eaia
caiaeueia /anoea (iae) a iaoo?? a?ae 6,2 aei 7 aa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue caeaaeii a?ae i?noey ?icoaooaaiiy
ae?eyiee ? aeaeaii Aea?aeaaiee aeo ia i?aai i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia
caieth. Caiaeueiee ? iaeiiaee ia? aeanieee ia?aaeaee a i?aiaeo aa?io??i?
a inia? ea??aieea-aeanieea. Oaeei /eiii, caa?aaeany oe?e?ni?noue
?nioth/iai caiaeueiiai ? iaeiiaiai eiiieaeno, ui aeicaiey? aoaeoeai?oa
aeei?enoiaoaaoe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo oaoi?eo, canoiniaoaaoe
i?ia?aneai? oaoiieia??.

A ainiiaea?noa? i?iaaaeaia aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueea ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y,
cie?aia, noai?aia iiaa nenoaia i?ae?icae?e?a, ui i?aoeththoue ye
naiino?ei? noa’?eoe ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia aeiaia??ieo canaaeao. Iaeiai?
ea??aieee i?ae?icae?e?a, ?yaeia? i?aoe?aieee ianooue
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ye?noue ? e?euee?noue ae?iaeaii? i?iaeoeoe??,
no?iee oa ianyae aeeiiaiiy ?ia?o oa iineoa.

I?aiaeia ieaoa ca caiaeueio /anoeo (iae) ca?aeii c oiiaaie aeiaiai?o
i?aeeyaa? nai?/ani?e nieao? iacaeaaeii a?ae ?acoeueoao?a ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? aa?io??ie. Iiee ui aiia noaiiaeoue 400 ea ca?ia, 50 ea
oeoe?o ? 10 ea ie??, a c i?aeaeuaiiyi aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ?? ca?eueoeoe.

A ?acoeueoao? cae?eniaieo ia?aoai?aiue aa?io??ia aeinyaea iiceoeaieo
c?ooaiue. sseui o 1990 ?. ae?iaie/? ? aeiiii?/i? iieacieee oeueiai
ainiiaea?noaa aoee a??o?, i?ae ii ?aeiio ? iaeano?, oi o 1997 ?. aiie
iie?ioeeenue(oaae.2).

Ca o/anoth e?eueeio aeaniee?a a Noinuee?e iaeano? noai?ththoueny
oiaa?enoaa c iaiaaeaiith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth. Aea aecia/eoenue uiaei
?acoeueoao?a ?o ae?yeueiino? aeaui ia?aae/anii.

A iaeano? i?enei?aieie oaiiaie ?icaeaathoueny iniaeno? i?aeniai?
ainiiaea?noaa ianaeaiiy (IIA), naeyinuee? (oa?ia?nuee?) ainiiaea?noaa
(oaae. 3).

2. Iieacieee ae?yeueiino? i?eaaoii? aa?io??ie “Oe?a?ia” o 1997 ?.

A?eii?euenueeee ?aeii Noinueea iaeanoue IieacieeeAa?io??ia “Oe?a?ia”a
na?aae-iueiio ia ainiiaea?-noai % aei aa-?io??ie “Oe?a?ia”a
na?aae-iueiio ia ainiiaea?

noai % aei aa-?io??ie “Oe?a?ia”N?eueainioa?aeaey,
aa2309,02338,0o2429,0oAe?iaeaii ia 100 aa

n?eueainioa?aeue:

aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe??, oen.a?i.
55,637,667,635,764,2ca?ia,oe1300,01030,079,21088,083,7oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a,
oe
2208,7845,238,3839,038,0iieiea,oe283,7236,883,5222,078,2i’yna an?o
aeae?a,oe47,041,087,246,097,8??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino?,%9,8-28,9-38,7i.-27,5-37,3i.

3. Ae?iaieoeoai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? a Noinuee?e
iaeano?(ii eaoaai??yo ainiiaea?noa)

1990 ?. 1997 ?.Iieacieeea?iia-aenuee?

ianaea-iiy oa?-ia?nuee?a?iia-aenuee?

ianaea-iiy oa?-ia?nuee?

N?eueainioa?aeaey, oen.aa1617,997,60,11449,2194,327,7
%94,35,7-86,711,61,7Ae?iaieoeoai, iei. a?i.:aaeiai?
i?iaeoeoe??1357,6521,7 -491,8519,48,1
%72,227,8-48,251,00,8a o. /. ?ineeiieoeoaa740,1229,8-309,8271,06,2
%76,323,7-52,846,21,1
oaa?eiieoeoaa617,5291,9-182,0248,41,9
%67,932,1-42,157,50,4

Aeei?enoiaoth/e 5,7% n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue, IIA o 1990 ?.
ae?iaeee 27,8% aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe??, a o 1997 ?. — ia 11,6% caie?
a?aeiia?aeii 51% i?iaeoeoe??. *anoea oaa?eiieoeueei? i?iaeoeoe?? a ieo
cia/ii a?eueoa, i?ae ?ineeiieoeueei?, ca aeeeth/aiiyi ea?oiie?.

Aieaoia ianoaaeaiiy iieacaei, ui o 98% i?aoethth/eo eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ? 93% — aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa
iniiaiei aeioiaeii aeey caaacia/aiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy n?i`? ? aeioiae
a?ae IIA, a a?aeiia?aeii 60% ? 47% i?aoethth/eo a iacaaieo
ainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiiyo iathoue ?aaeuei? eiooe ca ?aooiie
?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??, ae?iaeaii? naia a iniaenoiio i?aeniaiiio
ainiiaea?noa?.

I?e??no ae?iaieoeoaa a?aeaoaa?oueny aac aeiaeaoeiaeo eai?oaeueieo
aeeaaeaiue, i?ioa canoiniao?oueny ia?aaaaeii ?o/ia i?aoey. Oae, cao?aoe
aeeai? i?aoe? ia iaeio aieiao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, naeiae ia
ae?iuoaaii? ? a?aeaiae?ae? a 2-5 ?ac?a aeu?, i?ae o a?iiaaenueeiio
naeoi??.

A?eueo aeineiiaeei ??ciiaeaeii i?eaaoiiai i?aei?e?inoaa ca
i?aai?caoe?eiei ci?noii ? oa?ia?nuee? ainiiaea?noaa, ye? ??ciyoueny a?ae
iniaenoeo i?aeniaieo a?eueoeie ?ici??aie caieaei?enooaaiiy, aiie iathoue
iiaeeea?noue iaoai?coaaoe ae?iaie/ee i?ioean, iioeiaeueii i?aai?coaaoe
eiai. A Noinuee?e iaeano? o 1997 ?. ooieoe?iioaaei 889 oaeeo
ainiiaea?noa, ye? ae?iaeee 0,6% aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Iaaoaa? ?icaeoeo oa?ia?noai ? a ?iiainueeiio ?aeii?,
aea caiaeueia ieiua o ei?enooaaii? oa?ia??a o 1997 ?. ii??aiyii c 1994
?. c?inea ia 22%.

I?iaaaeaia iaie ianoaaeaiiy iieacaei, ui iacia/ia e?euee?noue naeyi
(2%), i?aoethth/eo a eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noaao, aeyaeea aaaeaiiy
i?aai?coaaoe naeyinueea (oa?ia?nueea) ainiiaea?noai. Oea iiynith?oueny
oei, ui, c iaeiiai aieo, aiie iiaiththoueny caeeoeoenue iaeei ia iaeei
c? nai?ie ae?iaie/eie i?iaeaiaie, a c ?ioiai — iaeiiai aaaeaiiy noaoe
oa?ia?ii caiaei, iio??ai? ciaiiy c aa?iiii??, ciioaoi??, iaoai?caoe??,
aeiiii?ee, iae?eo, oaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa, ai?iiy i?aoethaaoe ia ??cieo
aeaeao oaoi?ee.

Ae?iaie/? iieacieee ae?yeueiino? oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa ?iiainueeiai
?aeiio na?ae/aoue i?i ?o ni?iiiaei?noue caaacia/oaaoe ae?iaieoeoai
iaaii? e?eueeino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, ?aoe?iiaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy caie?. O 1997 ?. o?iaeaei?noue oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a o oa?ia??a
aoea aeua ia 42%, i?ae o ainiiaea?noaao noni?eueiiai naeoi?a, ea?oiie?
— o o?e ?ace. I?ioa oiiae ?aae?caoe?? ia caaacia/othoue i?eaooeo.
Caneoaiao? ia oaaao aeina?ae aeayeeo naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo)
ainiiaea?noa a ?aa?ii?. Oae, oa?ia?ii I.A.Ao?aeeeith c eiaeiiai
aaeoa?a iaea?aeaii 29,4 oe ca?iiaeo ? 394 oe oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, a
I.I.Eaeoaith — 35 oe niiyoieeo.

Iaeaea an? ainiiaea?noaa oa?ia??a ?iiainueeiai ?aeiio
niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia ae?iaieoeoa? ?ineeiieoeueei? i?iaeoeoe??. A?eueoa
iieiaeie oa?ia??a ia oo?eio? i?yei? ooaeiae, a ua o?aoeia ia? iaeio-aea?
aieiae aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae oa naeiae. Iaaeinoaoiuei caaacia/ai?
naeyinuee? (oa?ia?nuee?) ainiiaea?noaa iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieie
?ano?naie. Oaea noaiiaeua ? a ?ioeo ?aeiiao iaeano?.

I?e aieaooaaii? aoea a?aecia/aia iaeiinoaei?noue oa?ia??a uiaei
ca?eueoaiiy ?i ?ici???a caiaeueieo ae?eyiie. Ia nueiaiaei? a ?aeii? aiie
noaiiaeyoue 25-32 aa, iaeiae oeueiai iaaeinoaoiuei aeey iioeiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Iniiai? iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy” — iaa?oioiaai? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, iai?yie iiaeaeueoiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa a
ainiiaea?nuee? no?oeoo?e ?eieiaiai oeio c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo ? i?aai?caoe?eieo oaeoi??a.

Aiae?c ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy aea? ciiao c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui a?ae ?acoeueoaoeaiino? ?iaioe ainiiaea?noa a?iiaaenueeiai
naeoi?a caeaaeaoeia noai caaacia/aiiy noni?euenoaa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeith i?iaeoeoe??th, noai?aiiy iaeaaeiiai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai na?aaeiaeua a aa?a?iiio naeoi??. Aea ia
i?noeyo no?eio?oueny ae??oaiiy caeiiiaeaa/i a?aaoeueiaaieo ieoaiue
aacia?aoeiaeiiai aeoiaeo c? nai?th /anoeith (ia?i) c ainiiaea?noaa,
ia?aaea/? caiaeueieo /anoie (ia?a) a i?aiaeo. Aeiaaa? ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy
?iciiae?eo /anoie i?ae e?eueeiia ainiiaea?nueeeie no?oeoo?aie,
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iiainoai?thaai? i?aei?e?inoaa (oiiae
i?aiaee, i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, o?iainiaiai noaio oiui), iaeaaeiiai
th?eaee/iiai ioi?ieaiiy a?aeiinei (oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai??a, aeaea/a
na?oeo?eao?a ia i?aai ia caiaeueio /anoeo(iae) oa ?i.), aecia/aiiy
?ici??o i?aiaeii? ieaoe oiui.

Iaea?eueo i?enoiniaaieie aei ?eieiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy a
aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ?aa?ii? iathoue aooe i?aei?e?inoaa, ui aacoaaoeiooueny
ia i?eaaoi?e aeaniino? ? eieaeoeai?e oi?i? i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa.
Ca oeeo oiia eiaeai i?aoe?aiee ciiaea iiai?oa ?aae?coaaoe naaa ye
aeanieea caie? ? iaeia, a oaeiae iaoeia c oeueiai cene, a aeey
i?aei?e?inoaa i?e iioeiaeuei?e eiioeaio?aoe??, noai?thaaoeiooueny oiiae
aeey aoaeoeaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iathaaiiy caie? ? iaeia i?ae naeyiaie — oea nooo?aee e?ie aei oi?ioaaiiy
i?aei?e?inoa ?eieiaiai oeio, aea aeineoue iaaeinoaoi?e, uia ci?ieoe
ae?iaie/? a?aeiineie, oa?aeoa? ?o i?aoe?.

Aoaeue-yea, iaa?oue aeineoue i?ia?aneaia oi?ia ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia
iaaoaea ?icaeoeo, yeui ia a?aeaoaeooueny i?ioeane ?? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ?
noai?aiiy iaeaaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai oa i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Ie i?iiiio?ii ?aoi?ioaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
i?iaiaeeoe a iai?yi? ii?aeiaiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia caieth ? iaeii ?c
eieaeoeaieie oi?iaie i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa i?e caa?aaeaii? iaaooeo
nenoaiieo ca`yce?a, i?e aoaeoeaiiio aeei?enoaii? cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa,
cie?aia caie? o neeaae? ainiiaea?noa a?iiaaenueeiai naeoi?a c
o?aooaaiiyi ?o aaeaioaoe?? aei ?eieiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy.
Aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee? i?ae?icae?ee iiaeii? o?ainoi?ioaaoenue a
aeiiii?/ii-naiino?ei? ina?aaeee, ye? iathoue aooe neeaaeiaeie
eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, aeoe?iia?ieo
oiaa?enoa, i?eaaoieo i?aei?e?inoa oiui. Iaie aecia/ai? iniiai? oaeoi?e,
ye? aieeaathoue ia ?icaeoie ainiiaea?noa (?en.).

Iaoa??aee i?iaaaeaieo iieooaaiue aeathoue i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeo-aaoe i?i
iaaeinoaoith ?ioi?iiaai?noue naeyi uiaei cae?enithaaieo ?aoi?i, a oiio ?
ciaa??o a ieo. Oae, ia caieoaiiy: “sseei oi?iai ainiiaea?thaaiiy Ae
iaaea?oa ia?aaaao” ? “*e i?aeo?eio?oa Ae i?ioeane i?eaaoecaoe???”, “*e
oio?ee a Ae i?aai?coaaoe aeanio ni?aao?” a?aeiia?ae? ia?aaaaeii aoee —
“ia ciath”.

?icaeoie oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy aeiaaa? a?aooaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei iia`ycai? c
ethaeeiith ? a?aeia?aaeathoue ?? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?
o?oaeiao ii-aaae?ieo: iioeaaoe?th o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? oa oi?ioaaiiy
a?aeiioaiiy aei i?aoe?, o?oaeiao aaeaioaoe?th, i?aeiniaeno?ni?
a?aeiineie, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee ee?iao o eieaeoea?,
i?ioi???ioaoe?th oiui.

Aea? o?aoeie iieooaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aoe?aiee?a
aaaeathoue i?aoethaaoe a iaaaeeeeo (5-7 /ie.) eieaeoeaao
(ainiiaea?nueeeo i?ae?icae?eao), iniiaieie i?eioeeiaie a?aeiinei a yeeo
? aeia?ia?euei?noue, naiino?ei?noue, caaaeueia caiaea ?
ca?ioa?aniaai?noue. Naia c oaeith /enaeuei?noth i?aoethth/eo ?nio?
a?eueoa iiaeeeainoae i?ae?a?aoe ethaeae, ye? noie?iii noaaeyoueny aei
i?aoe?, iathoue i?eaeecii iaeiaeiao eaae?o?eaoe?th. E??i oiai, ?i
iaei?ino?oa iaeaaiaeeoe a?aeiineie a oaeiio eieaeoea?, aeinyaoe
aca?ii?icoi?iiy. Nioe?ieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy i?aoethth/eo a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? iieacaei, ui na?aae oaeoi??a, ye? niiioeathoue aei i?aoe?
c iaea?eueoith naiia?aeaea/ath e??i i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo (iieaoa
i?aoe?, a?aeiineie aeaniino?), aaaiia i?noea iin?aeathoue oaeoi?e
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o (oaae.4).

Iaea?eueo i?enoiniaaieie aei ae?yeueiino? a ?eieiaeo oiiaao
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? iaea?eueo i?eaeaoieie uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ainiiaea?noa a?iiaaenueeiai naeoi?a, ye na?ae/eoue
aeina?ae Noinueei? iaeano?, iathoue aooe i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? oi?ie,
aea aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee? i?ae?icae?ee ooieoe?iiothoue ia
eiiia?aoeaieo canaaeao.

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4. I??i?eoaoi?noue /eiiee?a, ye? ni?eythoue i?aoe?

c iaea?eueoith naiia?aeaea/ath (aeai? nioe?ieia?/ieo ianoaaeaiue)

Ieoiia aaaa iiceoeaieo a?aeiia?aeae ?aniiiaeaio?a a ??cieo
ainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiiyo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaaA
oe?ei-io,%Aa??aioe a?aeiia?aeaeEieaeoea-i? n?eueaini-

i?aei?e?i-

noaa%Aeoe?i-ia?i? oiaa-?enoaa%Aea?aea-ai? i?ae-i?e?i-noaa
%I?aoe?aiee-aeaniee2359216796458092?iaioa ia iinaae?

ea??aieea

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6

8

14

6Aeniea iieaoa i?aoe?2439516897529396Ca?eueiaiiy ca iaye?nio ?iaioo

22

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75

43

48

86

30I?iaeoeoeaia i?aoey eieaa ii ?iaio?

180

71

154

89

21

37

73Iino?eiee eiio?ieue731276165?iaioa ca
i?ecaaiiyi2359213276549687E?euee?noue iieoaieo255o173o56o o

A a?eueoino? ?aoi?iiaaieo ainiiaea?noa iaeano? niaoe?ae?noe, ea??aieee
na?aaei?o eaiie i?iaeiaaeothoue i?aoethaaoe, ye ? ?ai?oa, ia
a?aoiaoth/e oiia ?eieo. Aaaaea?ii, ui ia oeeo iinaaeao iiaeiia aooe
ethaeeia, yea a ii?yae ?c ciaiiyi oaoiieia?e, iiaea cae?enithaaoe
eiia?oe?eio ae?yeuei?noue, canoiniaoaaoe aeiiii?/i? aaaeae?
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, caaacia/oaaoe aoaeoeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy ae?iaie/eo
i?ae?icae?e?a.

I?iiiio?oueny ?aae?coaaoe caoiaee c ia?ai?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a ia aac?
aeui? oeiee aeey iaaoooy niaoe?ae?noaie ciaiue c iaiaaeaeiaioo.
?acoeueoaoeaiei ? aeina?ae ainiiaea?noa i?eaaoii? aa?io??ie “Oe?a?ia”
A?eii?euenueeiai, OIA “I??y” Eiiioiinueeiai ?aeii?a, ye? ei?enoothoueny
iineoaaie eiinoeueoaio?a c oeeo ieoaiue ia aeiaia??ieo canaaeao.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui 86% ea??aiee?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aeui? oa
na?aaeiuei? eaiie ? niaoe?ae?no?a a noni?eueiiio naeoi?? iathoue aeuo ?
na?aaeith niaoe?aeueio ina?oo, c ieo 32,0% — aeuo. Oaeee iioaioe?ae
eaae?o?eiaaieo i?aoe?aiee?a ciiaea naaa yeiaeiiai?oa ?aae?coaaoe i?e
eieaeoeaieo oi?iao i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa (90% ?aniiiaeaio?a
aaaeathoue i?aoethaaoe naia a eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao). Eaae?o?eiaai? niaoe?ae?noe eii/a iio??ai? ? a
naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noaao.

?nioaaiiy ?ioeo oi?i, cie?aia oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa, iniaenoeo
i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noa ianaeaiiy ? iiceoeaiei yaeuai, oi/a aiie ia
iiaeooue noaoe aecia/aeueieie oi?iaie uiaei cia/iiai i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ? ni?iiiaeiino? a iiai?e i??? ae??oeoe
i?iaeiaieue/o i?iaeaio. I?iiiio?oueny oa?ia?noai ?icaeaaoe a iai?yi?
aeinyaiaiiy iioeiaeueiino? ae?iaieoeoaa (300-400 aa) oeyoii eiiia?oaaiiy
? i?aiaee caie?, caiaeueieo /anoie (ia?a). Ainiiaea?noaa ae ianaeaiiy
iio?aaothoue i?aeo?eiee ? aeiiiiiae ia?o ca ana ca ?aooiie caaacia/aiiy
?o caniaaie iaei? iaoai?caoe??, oae ye ?icaeoie inoaii?o ia nueiaiaei?
caaacia/o? i?iaeoeoaie oa?/oaaiiy aaciina?aaei?o ae?iaiee?a ? i?eiineoue
iaiao?aei? aeioiaee a athaeaeao naeyinueei? n?i’?.

Aeaeueoee ?icaeoie ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a aa?a?iiio
naeoi?? aaa/a?oueny o iai?yi? eiiia?oaaiiy i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noa
ianaeaiiy, naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa c i?aei?e?inoaaie
a?iiaaenueeiai naeoi?a ii aeeiiaiith n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ia?o,
o?ainii?oiiio, na?a?niiio ? aaoa?eia?iiio ianeoaiaoaaiith, ia?a?iaoe? ?
caooo i?iaeoeoe?? ? ia oe?e iniia? i?aeaeuaiith
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

AENIIAEE

1. ?icaeoie aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia? cae?enithaaoenue oeyoii
noaiiaeaiiy aaaaoioeeaaeiino? aeiiii?ee i?e ??aiii?aaiiio ?icaeoeo
??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy. I?e oeueiio aecia/aiiy oi?ie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye oi?ia aaaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa, ui
coiiaeaia ?nioth/ei nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei oeeaaeii ? ye?nieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie (oi?iith aeaniino?, i?aai?ca-oe?eiith iiaoaeiaith
ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo?, aeiiii?/ieie a?aeiineiaie oa ?i.), ye?
aecia/athoue niaoeeo?eo ?nioaaiiy eiaeii? c ieo.

2. Noai?aia aea?aeaaith caeiiiaeaa/a aaca oa caoiaee ii cae?eniaiith
aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie (aeciaiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia caieth, i?eaaoecaoe?y
? ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa, ?iciathaaiiy caie? ? iaeia, i?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy i?aaa
naeyi ia i?eaaoio aeani?noue) caeeaee iniiao aeey noai?aiiy iiaeo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ni?iiiaeieo ooieoe?iioaaoe a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?
(?iaeea?aeoaeuei?, aeoe?iia?i?, eieaeoeai?).

3. ?icaeoie ??cieo i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a
?acoeueoao? ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy oa i?eaaoecaoe?? ia noi?iaiaeaeoaaany
aiaeii/an oaeineiiaeaiiyi aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ui
i?ecaaei aei iineaaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?ioa?ano oiaa?iae?iaiee?a uiaei
?acoeueoao?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia caaacia/eei aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa a
aeiaei?e c ?nioth/eo oa iiaeo oi?iao ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

4. ?aoi?ioaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa a oiiaao ?eieo
i?iiiio?oueny i?iaiaeeoe a iai?yi? ii?aeiaiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia
caieth ? iaeii c eieaeoeaiith oi?iith i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, ui
ni?eyoeia caa?aaeaiith iioaioe?eieo nenoaiieo ca`yce?a i?e aoaeoeaiiio
aeei?enoaii? cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? iniaeeai caie?.

5. Iio?aao? a?eueo aeaaaeaiiai i?aeoiaeo ianiaa noai?aiiy aeoe?iia?ieo
oiaa?enoa a aa?a?iiio naeoi??, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii iini?oiiai
aaei?i?no?oaaiiy c aeiiouaiiyi iiieeie o aeei?enoaii? i?aaiaeo aeo?a ?
aac a?aooaaiiy aeoiee naeyi. Aeoe?iioaaiiy iaeiiaeo ? caiaeueieo ia?a
iiaea i?ecaanoe aei ao?aoe i?aaa aeaniino? ia ieo, a oiia?eueiaiee ia?a
eai?oae?a ia caaacia/oaaoeia noaa?eueiino? aeieaoe aeea?aeaiae?a. E??i
oiai iani?eeiyoi? aeiiii?/i? oiiae a aea?aeaa? ? i?e/eiith nei?i/aiiy
e?eueeino? aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa a ?aa?ii?.

6. I?ioean ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ?aoi?iiaaieo eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa iiaeiai cae?enithaaoenue o
iai?yi? noai?aiiy ? oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-ae?iaie/eo no?oeoo? oa
aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ooieoe?iioaaiiy aioo??oiuei-ainiiaea?nueeeo
i?ae?icae?e?a: ai?iaaaeaeaiiy naiio?iainoaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy ? ?iciiae?e
i?eaooe?a, naiino?eia cae?eniaiiy o?iainiaeo iia?aoe?e. No?oeoo?i?
i?ae?icae?ee aeioe?eueii noai?thaaoe ia canaaeao eiiia?oaaiiy,
aeio?eioth/enue iioeiaeueii? /enaeueiino? i?aoethth/eo a ieo (6-7 /ie.).

7. Iniaeno? i?aeniai? ainiiaea?noaa ianaeaiiy a ia??iae ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee ii?yae c aeeiiaiiyi ooieoe?e naiicaaacia/aiiy i?iaeiaieuenoaii
oa o?oaeiai? caeiyoino? i?iaeiaaeoaaoeiooue ae?iaeyoe iaaio e?euee?noue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? ia aioo??oi?e ?eiie
i?iaeiaieuenoaa. Aea ca oiia ia?aaaaeaiiy ?o/ii? i?aoe?, aeniei?
o?oaeii?noeino? ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??, a?aenooiino? cania?a iaei?
iaoai?caoe?? ? aa?aioiaaii? nenoaie caooo i?iaeoeoe?? ainiiaea?noaa
ianaeaiiy iinooiiai ae/a?iothoue na?e iioaioe?ae. Aeioe?eueii
i?aai?ciaoaaoe eiiia?aoeae ii caeoi?ae? ? ia?a?iaoe? i?iaeoeoe??,
oaoi?/iiio, oaoiieia?/iiio ? aaoa?eia?iiio ianeoaiaoaaii? ainiiaea?noa
ianaeaiiy.

8. A?eueo aeineiiaeeie oi?iaie, ui aacothoueny ia i?eaaoi?e aeaniino?,
caeeoathoueny naeyinuee? (oa?ia?nuee?) ainiiaea?noaa oa i?eaaoi?
i?aei?e?inoaa. I?ioa ?nioth/? ?ici??e caieaei?enooaaiiy oa?ia??a ia
caaacia/othoue ?aoe?iiaeuei? ianyae ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeey ca?eueoaiiy
?ici???a caiaeueieo ae?eyiie ia i?noeyo iio??aii ae??oeoe ieoaiiy uiaei
ia?aaea/? a i?aiaeo oa?ia?ai caiaeue caiano ? ?aca?aiiai oiiaeo, a
oaeiae caiaeueieo /anoie (ia?a) naeyi-aeaniee?a.

9. I?e noai?aii? i?eaaoieo i?aei?e?inoa iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe oa, ui
ia?aaea/a caiaeueiiai iath i?eaaoieeo a i?aiaeo ia aa?aioo?
i?aiaeiaeaaoeth i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy ? oei naiei ao?a/athoueny aa?aio??
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo naeyi.

10. Ca iei?oi?o aeiiii?/ieo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy i?aiaea iiaeiia noaoe
iniiaiith oi?iith ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei a ainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiiyo.
Oea ni?eyoeia caa?aaeaiith oe?e?niino? caiaeueieo oa iaeiiaeo
eiiieaen?a, e?auiai ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

Aaeineiiaeaiiy a?aeiinei i?ae i?aiaea?yie ? i?aiaeiaeaaoeyie iiaeiii
aacoaaoenue ia i?eioeeiao aa?aioiaaiino? nieaoe iaoiiaeaii? aeiaiai?ii
i?aiaeii? ieaoe, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?acoeueoao?a ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?, yea ia/enethaaoeiaoueny c a?aoiaoaaiiyi ianya?a
aeeaaeaiiai o ae?iaieoeoai eai?oaeo.

11. Iaiao?aeii noai?eoe iaeaaei? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oiiae, ye? a
ni?eyee aaeaioaoe?? i?aoe?aiee?a aei ?eieiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa
iioeaaoe?? aei i?aoe?. A naia: iaeaaei? oiiae aeeooy ? i?aoe?,
ii?aeueia ? iaoa??aeueia noeioethaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy eieaeoea?a c
o?aooaaiiyi ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae i?aoe?aiee?a, i?aeo?eiaiiy
iaeaaeiiai i?e?iee?iaoo oiui.

Nienie ioae?eaoe?e ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??:

1. ?iceioia I.A. Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oaeoi?e ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy // Aeiiii?ea AIE.-1998.-? 9.-N.85 -87.

2. ?iceioia I.A. ?icaeoie i?eaaoieo ainiiaea?noa // Aa?i?ieii. — 1998.
— ?11 — 12.- N. 34 -36.

3. ?iceioia I.A. I?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia nae? //
A?niee Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — 1998. — Aeione
2. — N. 253 — 255.

4. ?iceioia I.A. ?ieue nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaeoi??a a
noeioethaaii? i?aoe? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aoe?aiee?a. Ca.
“Iniaeeaino? ?eieo i?aoe? Oe?a?ie ia no/aniiio aoai?” //Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. — Iieoaaa, IE?, 1998. n. 207-210.

Aiioaoe??

?iceioia I.A. ?icaeoie oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia nae?

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.01- aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa ? i?aai?caoe?y
ae?iaieoeoaa — ?inoeooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI, Ee?a,1999.

Aeeeaaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oa
?icaeoeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Noinueei?
iaeano? (eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa,
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa, naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ? iniaenoeo
i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noa ianaeaiiy), ?ice?eo? oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaee/i? ?
i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ?o noai?aiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oiia ? oaeoi??a
?o ?icaeoeo, iiai?oiai aeei?enoaiiy iioaioe?aeo eiaeii? c oi?i, ?o
ni?a?nioaaiiy, caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oi?ia ainiiaea?thaaiiy, aeani?noue, ?aoi?ioaaiiy,
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y, i?aiaea, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oaeoi?e,
aoaeoeai?noue.

?iceioiay A.A. ?acaeoea oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey ia naea.

Aeenna?oaoeeae anoue ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.01.-yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa. Einoeooo aa?a?iie yeiiiieee, OAAI, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeiaaiu oai?aoe/aneea e iaoiaee/aneea iniiau
nicaeaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoee ?acee/iuo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey
ia naea. N o/aoii iiuoa inouanoaeyaiuo ?aoi?i a Oe?aeia e ca aa
i?aaeaeaie, auoiae ec e?ecena a aa?a?iii naeoi?a, e?iia
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia ia iae?i e iee?i — o?iaiyo,
aeaeeony /a?ac ?aoi?ie?iaaiea ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe, caiaeueiuo
ioiioaiee, ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a
?uii/iua i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua no?oeoo?u, ?acaeoea iiiaioeeaaeiie
yeiiiieee.

I?e yoii aieueoia aieiaiea aeieaeii oaeaeyoueny
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneei aniaeoai ?acaeoey oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey,
eco/aiea e oiaeia eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo iiiiaaao a?aoiaioe-?iaaoue
yeiiiie/aneoth oeaeaniia?aciinoue aiaae?aiey oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey,
niinianoaoao aaeaioaoeee o?oaeaieeia naea e ?uii/iui oneiaeyi.
Noaiiaeaiea iiauo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey a aa?a?iii naeoi?a Oe?aeiu eiaao
oanioth naycue n o?ainoi?iaoeeae /anoe ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe ia
caieth a /anoioth iooai iaaaaiey iaaeaeo ?aaioathueie ia iae.

N o/aoii oi?iu e noauaeoia nianoaaiiinoe oi?iu oicyenoaiaaiey
eeanneoeoee?iaaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii: eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua, aeoeeiia?iua,
eieeaeoeaiua.

I?iaaaeai aiaeec nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee ?acaeoey oi?i
oicyenoaiaaiey, o?iaiy eo yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ia i?eia?a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee Noineie iaeanoe. Iniiaiui
iai?aaeaieai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey oicyenoaaiiuo oi?ie?iaaiee ?aaeiia yaeeinue
nicaeaiea i?aaei?eyoee, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo iino?iaia ia
eniieueciaaiee o?oaea nianoaaiieeia eiouanoaaiiuo e caiaeueiuo iaaa.
I?aaenoaaeaiu iie ainoaea?noaaiiuie, eieeaeoeaiuie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie, aeoeeiia?iuie oiaa?euanoaaie.
Auoaoeacaiiua i?aaei?eyoey ioiinyony e iauanoaaiiiio naeoi?o
i?iecaiaenoaa, yaeyynue iniiaiuie caieaiieueciaaoaeyie (89,7%).

A aeaiiuo oicyenoaaiiuo oi?ie?iaaieyo ca naieeaoiee ia?eiae (1990-1997)
ioia/aii eaoano?ioe/aneia iaaeaiea noieiinoiuo e iaoo?aeueiuo
iieacaoaeae, a /anoiinoe eaeao nieaeaiea o?iaeaeiinoe
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo e eae
?acoeueoao ii/oe a 2 ?aca oiaiueoeeinue i?iecaiaenoai aaeiaie
i?iaeoeoeee.

I?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey aeoeeiia?iuo
oiaa?euanoa cae?uoiai oeia, eioi?ua caieiatho iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan
n?aaee ?aoi?ie?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee iaeanoe. Iiuo eo ?aaiou
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaaeinoaoi/iii eniieueciaaiee iioaioeeaea aeaiiie
oi?iu oicyenoaiaaiey, oae eae iaania/eaatho iacia/eoaeueiia i?aauoaiea
o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa e aai yooaeoeaiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n eieeaeoeaiuie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie.

Iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuie a ieaia nio?aiaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iioaioeeaea e onoie/eainoe yeiiiieee yaeythony /anoiua i?aaei?eyoey,
ooieoeeiie?othuea ia iniiaa a?aiaeu caiaeueiuo e eiouanoaaiiuo iaaa e
eieeaeoeaiie oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee iaaiiiai o?oaea. Ia aeaiiii yoaia iie
i?aaenoaaeaiu iiea aua aaeeie/iuie /anoiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie,
noi?ie?iaaaoeieny ii i?eioeeio aaeeiiee/iiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey a eeoea
auaoaai ?oeiaiaeeoaey eieeaeoeaiiai oicyenoaa, eioi?ue a?aiaeoao
caiaeueiua e eiouanoaaiiua iae o naieo iaeiinaeue/ai. ?ani?ino?aiaiea
oaeie oi?iu caaeneo io aeiaa?ey /anoieeo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee n
a?aiaeiaeaoaeyie.

Ia?yaeo n eieeaeoeaiuie a iaeanoe ?acaeaathony e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
oi?iu oicyenoaiaaiey. Oae, nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a iaania/aiee ianaeaiey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeeae ia?yaeo n i?aaei?eyoeyie
iauanoaaiiiai naeoi?a ea?atho ee/iua iiaeniaiua oicyenoaa ianaeaiey. Ii
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi n iaeiie noi?iiu — a ieaia oaaee/aiey iauaiia
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee — yoi iieiaeeoaeueiia yaeaiea, a n ae?oaie — a
ee/iuo iiaeniaiuo oicyenoaao oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu a aieueoae
noaiaie inouanoaeythony ca n/ao ?o/iiai o?oaea. Yoo i?iaeaio iiaeao
?ac?aoeoue iaania/aiea eo n?aaenoaaie iaeie iaoaiecaoeee.

Ia?niaeoeaiie oi?iie oicyenoaiaaiey yaeythony e?anoueyineea(oa?ia?neea)
oicyenoaa. Iaeiaei, iaaieueoea ?acia?u eo caieaiieueciaaiey,
iaaeinoaoi/iia iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia iaania/aiea, i?iaeaiu n
?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee, ianiaa?oaiiay i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oicyenoaaiiay
no?oeoo?a a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie oi?iicyo eo ?acaeoea.

Oieueei i?e oneiaee nicaeaiey ?aaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee, eaaeaeia ec
oicyenoaaiiuo oi?ie?iaaiee niiaeao caiyoue ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoi a oao
aeaeao aeayoaeueiinoe, aaea iii niiaeao aieaa yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue
naie iioaioeeae e iiauoaoue yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oi?ia oicyenoaiaaiey, nianoaaiiinoue, ?aoi?ie?iaaiea,
?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey, a?aiaea, nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea oaeoi?u,
yooaeoeaiinoue.

L.A. Rozkoshna. Developing of the forms of business.

Thesis is represented as the manyscript.

Dissertation for scientific degree of Candidate of Economical Sciences
(specialty 08. 06. 01 — Economics of Agricultural Enterprises and
Management of Production) — Institute of Agrarian Economics of UAAS,
Kyiv, 1999.

Main results of the research of the issue related to farming and
developing of the forms of business in agricultural sector in Sumy
region are given (collective agricultural enterprises, joint-stock
companies, peasant and personal farms).

Theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of organizational and
economical relations for functioning, efficiency every single form
potential complete exploitation and their co-existence are clarified.

Basic improvement direction for agricultural enterprises reforming into
market-oriented business structures by arranging the proper inter-farm
environment considering their social and psychological development
conditions and factors are drafted.

Key words: form of business, sharing, property, reforming,
reorganization, restructuring, renting, organization and economical
relation, efficiency, inter-farm environment, social and psychological
factors.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 28.05.99 ?. Oi?iao 60o84 1/16. Iai?? ae?oe.

Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,0. Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0. Oe?aae 100. Cai .? 16.

AeIAe ?inoeoooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI.

252127, i.Ee?a, aoe.Aa?i?a iai?iie,8

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