iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa

I?aeeoaeia Aaeeia Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 372.3

?icaeoie /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino?

iieiaeoeo oeiey??a

13.00.02 – oai??y ? iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy

(oe?a?inueei? iiae)

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Io?aaeoeueea Ia?aa?eoaIao??aia,?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eainueea Aeea Einei?aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Eaca?aiei Iaoae?y ?aai?aia,

A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I. Eioethaeinueeiai, aeioeaio.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?nii.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 15 ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? 30 oaeeei

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.053.01 o
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio

iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, i. Ee?a,

aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 9).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, i. Ee?a,
aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 3 aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.I. ?oaeieoeueea

1

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeooiaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo
iaiiaeeeai oyaeoe aac aeeaioai?iiai aieeao ??aeii? e?oa?aoo?e ia
oi?ioaaiiy iniia iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, aaeaea e?oa?aoo?a – iaeei
?c aeoeaieo /eiiee?a noni?eueiiai aeoiaaiiy.

Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae aieeao ienoaoeoaa neiaa ia oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?
ia? aeaai? o?aaeeoe??: oe? i?iaeaie /anoeiai ii?oooaaeeny ua a i?aoeyo
Ieaoiia, A??noioaey, Ieooa?oa. ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e cana?ae/ea, ui
i?aaeiaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue o/aieo aoee: ?ieue ooaeiaei?o oai??a o
?icaeoeo iniaenoino? (I. Aaoo?i, O. Aoaaeei, I. Ia/e?ia, I. ?eaieeiaa,
A. Nooiieeinueeee); ineoio?c?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ni?eeiaiiy
ienoaoeueeeo yaeu (E. Aeaionueeee, I. Eaeoan, I. Eaiioue?a,
I. Iieaeaanueea, I. Ieeeoi?iaa); aeoiaaiiy eoeueoo?e /eoaiiy (N.
Iiaa?i?i, I. I?eiaeianueeee, I. ?oaae?i, I. *aiae?aa). Cia/iee aianie o
ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie /eoaiiy ye caniao aeoea?caoe?? i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a oa aeaea?aea ?o aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo c?iaeee
a?o/eciyi? iaaeaaiae, ienueiaiieee oa a?iiaaenuee? ae?y/? ?. O?aiei,
Eany Oe?a?iea, O. Ae/aanueea, I. Ae?aaiiaiia, N. ?oniaa, A. A??i/aiei,
N. Aaneeue/aiei, ?. Ia??iei oa ?i. I?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee
eeaniiai e iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy ciaeoee oaeiae a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo E. Ooeinueeiai, A. Aiaeiaiciaa, A. Noithi?ia, A.
Ino?iai?nueeiai, A. Oa?aiaoue?anueeiai, I. Aoiaeiaa, I. Ei?oa, O.
Eoaaioey oa ?i.

Aaaiiei aianeii o ?icaeoie iaoiaee/ii? aeoiee, a ia??oiooaaiiy ci?noo e
iaoiae?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a na?aaei?e caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie? noaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?o/eciyieo o/aieo I. Iaco?eaae/a, I. Aieioeii?, ?.
Ian?/ieea, A. Iaae?eueea, A.Noaiaieoeia oa ?i. I?iaeaie iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy a no/ani?e ii/aoeia?e oeie? Oe?a?ie aena?oeai? eeoa /anoeiai.
Ie?ai? aaaeeea? aniaeoe oe??? i?iaeaie a?aeia?aaeai? a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo
a?o/eciyieo o/aieo I. Naa/aiei, I. Ne?ei/aiei, I. Iaoi/oe oa ?i. O
?iaioao oeeo aaoi??a aecia/athoueny ia?oiiniiae e?oa?aoo?ii? ina?oe a
ii/aoeia?e eaioe? oeiee, ia??oioiaothoueny iniiai? aeiiae aei
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy, ?icaeyaeathoueny oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy o?ie?a
eeaniiai e iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a ?o aca?iica’yceo. Iaaiee iaoeiaee
?ioa?an noaiiaeyoue i?aoe? ?in?enueeeo o/aieo (I. Na?oeianueei?, I.
Aeaeaaeaeae oa ?i.), o yeeo ?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? aeoiaaiiy
oeiey??a-/eoa/?a.

Aiaeii/an aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e cana?ae/ea, ui oaeee aaaeeeaee aniaeo
iaoiaeeee iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy, ye ?icaeoie /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino?
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o no/anieo oiiaao, ia ciaeoia iaeaaeiiai
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo. Ine?eueee naia noi?iiaai?noue iaae/ie
naiino?eii? ?iaioe c eieaeeith ? iaei??th c ia?aaeoiia ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai
e aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?, i?iaeaia ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a noaea iniaeeai aeooaeueiith a iao
/an. Ii/aoeiaa oeiea ia aoai? ?? iiiaeaiiy aeiaaa? oai?/iai
ia?ainieneaiiy niaaeueie e ?ic?iaee iiaeo eiioeaioe?e.

O nenoai? oi?ioaaiiy /eoaoeueeeo iaae/ie /?eueia i?noea a?aeaiaeeoueny
o?ieai iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy. Iaeiae aiae?c iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano
cana?ae/o?, ui ??aaiue i?iaaaeaiiy oeeo o?ie?a ia caaaeaee a?aeiia?aea?
no/aniei aeiiaai. *anoi iniiaia oaaaa ia ieo i?eae?ey?oueny ae??oaiith
caaaeaiue, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey o?ie?a eeaniiai /eoaiiy: a?eueoa /anoeia
/ano a?aeaiaeeoueny oi?ioaaiith oaeeo yeinoae /eoaiiy, ye oaeaee?noue,
i?aaeeuei?noue, ae?aci?noue. Ia o?ieao ia??aeei aeii?io? aa?aae?ci,
caeaa eia?caoe?y i?ae /an aea/aiiy oai??a. Canoinoaaiiy i?eeii?a ?iaioe
c eieaeeith, i???iooaaiiy a eieaeeiaiio eie? cae?enith?oueny
aacnenoaiii, iiaa?oiai. Aiae?c iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai c iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy cana?ae/ea a?aenooi?noue o ieo ?c 1990 ?ieo nieneo
?aeiiaiaeiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeey o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, ui cia/ii
oneeaaeith? ?iaioo a/eoae?a ? a?ae?ioaea??a. Caeeoathoueny iaae??oaieie
caaaeaiiy iiiaeaiiy ci?noo e oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e o?ie?a
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy ye iniiaii? oi?ie ea??aieoeoaa naiino?eiei aeeoy/ei
/eoaiiyi. Aiane?aeie oeueiai iniiaia caaaeaiiy o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy – aeoiaaiiy aeoeaieo /eoa/?a oeyoii ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? – ?aae?co?oueny ia iiaiith i??ith. Cacia/ai? iaaeie?ee
aeiaaathoue aeeaieiai aiae?co ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? /eoaoeueeeo iaae/ie
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o no/anieo oiiaao ? ia oe?e iniia? aecia/aiiy oeyo?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie aeoiaaiiy
oeiey??a-/eoa/?a a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia nueiaiaeaiiy.

Ioaea, c?noaaeaiiy aeiia noni?euenoaa uiaei oi?ioaaiiy anaa?/ii e
aa?iii?eii ?icaeiooi? iniaenoino?, c iaeiiai aieo, oa ?nioth/ith
i?aeoeeith – c ?ioiai, aeicaiey? aeyaeoe i?ioe??//y ia no/aniiio aoai?
?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? oeiee:

— i?ae iiaeie aeiiaaie aei ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai oa aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo
o/i?a iaoe?iiaeueii? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee e iaaeinoaoi?i ??aiai
?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a;

— i?ae iaiao?aei?noth i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeoiaaiiy o/i?a-/eoa/?a ?
??aiai aioiaiino? a/eoae?a aei i?aai?caoe?? e i?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy;

— i?ae iio?aaith oai?aoe/iiai ia??oiooaaiiy iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo
/eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? oeiey??a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a o no/anieo oiiaao ?
a?aenooi?noth aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e
c aeaii? oaie.

Iayai?noue oeeo i?ioe??/ i?aeoaa?aeeea aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie e
coiiaeea aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy: “?icaeoie
/eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiue aoiaeeoue aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eaoaae?e
iiae ? iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao AEeoiie?nueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. ?. O?aiea ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia
?? eiiieaenii? oaie. A?i aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiee ?c caaaeaiiyie,
aecia/aieie iaa/aeueiith i?ia?aiith “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
iiae a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao” oa c aeiiaaie Aea?aeaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
i?ia?aie “Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy”).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?aai?caoe?y e i?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? a iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? iaa/aiiy
(4(3) eeane).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?ic?iaeoe oai?aoe/ii ia??oioiaaio
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/io nenoaio i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? iaa/aiiy (4-ee
eean 4-??/ii? ii/aoeiai? oeiee, 3?e eean 3-??/ii? ii/aoeiai? oeiee) oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe ?? aoaeoeai?noue.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy ??oioo?oueny ia i?eiouaii?, ui ??aaiue ?icaeoeo
/eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a cia/ii i?aeaeueoueny
ca oiia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaii?
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie iaa/aiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a. Oey
nenoaia ia?aaeaa/a?: a) i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a aei
i?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy
?ic?iaeaieo aeena?oaioii iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a;
a) i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? caiyoue c iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a ?acoeueoao?
iiiaeaiiy ?o ci?noo oa no?oeoo?e.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

— ia iniia? aiae?co o?einionueei?, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?,
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? oa iaa/aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e aecia/eoe noai aea/aiiy
aeaii? i?iaeaie a iaooe? e i?aeoeoe?;

— anoaiiaeoe ??aaiue ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a ia no/aniiio aoai?;

— noai?eoe aeeaeaeoe/io iiaeaeue nenoaiiiai ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a;

— ia iniia? ni?iaeoiaaii? aeeaeaeoe/ii? iiaeae? i?aeaiooaaoe aeiiii?aei?
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee aeey a/eoae?a (iai’yoee, nienie
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c oaie, nienie ?aeiiaiaeiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e
aeey o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a);

— oai?aoe/ii ia??oiooaaoe aeioe?euei?noue noai?aiiy ia caiyooyo ?c
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy iioeiaeueieo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo
oiia, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a; ia iniia? oeueiai ?ic?iaeoe
niaoe?aeueio nenoaio o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy aeey o/i?a 4(3) eean?a;

— aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii?
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie a oiiaao no/anii? ii/aoeiai? oeiee,
c?iaeoe aeniiaee e ocaaaeueiaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee o?einionuee? ?aea? i?i
i?ciaiiy e a?aeia?aaeaiiy ae?eniino? a ethaenuee?e na?aeiiino?, i?i
?aei?noue iiae e ieneaiiy; iieiaeaiiy i?i nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae ye
iaoiaeieia?/iee can?a iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo yaeu;
ae?aeaeoe/ia iieiaeaiiy i?i ?icaeoie ? oi?ioaaiiy oe?e?nii? iniaenoino?.

Oai?aoe/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy: iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy i?i a?eia?
iniaeeaino? ineoieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a (A. Aa?a,
I. Caii?iaeaoeue, I. Eaeoan); i?i aca?iica’ycie iaa/aiiy e ?icaeoeo
(E. Aeaionueeee, A. Aeaaeaeia, E. Caieia, A. Einothe); i?i niaoeeo?eo
ni?eeiaiiy ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e o/iyie ii/aoeiaeo eean?a
(C. ?iiaiianueea, I. *aiae?aa); i?i oai?aoe/i? iniiae e ci?no
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a ii/aoeia?e eaioe? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee (I.
Na?oeianueea, I. Aeaeaaeaeae, I. Iaoi/oe).

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aeei?enoaii eiiieaen iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

· oai?aoe/i?: aiae?c o?einionueei?, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? oa
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iieaae/ee?a ? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e aeey
ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo; eiioaio-aiae?c oe?eueii?
aeieoiaioaoe??; iiaeaethaaiiy ae?yeueiino?; ??aiaaee oa
ii??aiyeueii-c?noaaiee aiae?c, oai?aoe/iee neioac, ocaaaeueiaiiy;

· aii??e/i?: niinoa?aaeaiiy, aan?aee, aieaooaaiiy, oanooaaiiy,
iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio. Aeei?enoaii iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee
oa ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??.

Aenia?eiaioaeueiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee: NO ?? 22, 24, 30
i. AEeoiie?a, 8 n?euenueeeo oe?e AEeoiie?nueeiai ?aeiio,
NO ? 2 i. Ioea/aaa Caea?iaonueei? iaeano?, NO oa oeiea-?ioa?iao n.
Ooiie? Ei?inoainueeiai ?aeiio AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?. Aenia?eiaioii aoei
ioiieaii 610 o/i?a, 75 o/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a (?c ieo o an?o aoaiao
aenia?eiaioo a?aee o/anoue 320 o/i?a oa 10 o/eoae?a).

I?aai?caoe?y oa aoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny
i?ioyaii 4 ?ie?a.

? aoai (1994-1995 ??.) – aea?? oa ia??oiooaaiiy oaie aeena?oaoe??,
aecia/aiiy ia’?eoa, i?aaeiaoa, iaoe, a?iioace, caaaeaiue; aea/aiiy
oai?aoe/iiai noaio aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie oeyoii aiae?co
o?einionueei?, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e; i?aai?caoe?y e i?iaaaeaiiy eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo c
iaoith c’ynoaaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a.

?? aoai (1995-1996 ??.) – oai?aoe/ia ia??oiooaaiiy oeyo?a oa oiia
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia nueiaiaeaiiy; aecia/aiiy iai?yie?a oa ci?noo
oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo; ?ic?iaea i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie
oi?ioaaiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a (4(3) eeane).

??? aoai (1996-1998 ??.) – i?aai?caoe?y e i?iaaaeaiiy oi?ioth/iai
aenia?eiaioo c iaoith aeyaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie
iaa/aiiy, aiae?c eiai ?acoeueoao?a, ?ic?iaea a?aeiia?aeieo i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaioaoe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeena?oaioii aia?oa
cai?iiiiiaaii iaoeiai ia??oioiaaio i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/io nenoaio
?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ia
caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? iaa/aiiy (4(3) eeane), ?ic?iaeaio ia iniia?
a?aooaaiiy iioeiaeueieo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo oiia
oi?ioaaiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a o a?aeiia?aeiino? c no/anieie aeiiaaie.
Iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy iaaoee ci?no ? no?oeoo?a o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy; i?ioean i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey aei ?o i?iaaaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ia aoai? iiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
oeiee. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iniiaith aeey noai?aiiy iaoiaee/ieo
iin?aiee?a c iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a 4(3) eeanao oa aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaa/aeueii-i?ia?aiii? aeieoiaioaoe?? aeey a/eoae?a ii/aoeiai? oeiee.
I?aeoeeith aeiaaaeaia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy eo?no iaoiaeeee oe?a?inueei? iiae oa
niaoeeo?n?a c iaoiaeeee iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao (aac aeiaeaoeiaeo ci?i iaa/aeueiiai ieaio oa i?ia?aie).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy e ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo
?iaioe a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a AEeoiie?nueei? caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
oeiee ?-??? nooiai?a ? 30 (aeia?aeea ? 154 a?ae 14.12.98 ?.). Iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy eaeoe?eieo ?
i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae a
ii/aoeiaeo eeanao o AEeoiie?nueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
?inoeooo? ?i. ?. O?aiea (aeia?aeea ? 403 a?ae 02.12.98 ?.).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? a
i?iaaaeaii? eiinoaooth/iai e oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo, aiae?c? ??aiy
?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a; a ia??oiooaaii?
oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a?aeiia?aeii
aei no/anieo aeiia oa noai?aii? i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie
oi?ioaaiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a (4(3) eeane). O aeena?oaoe?? ia
aeei?enoiaothoueny ?aea? aai ?ic?iaee, ui iaeaaeaoue ni?aaaoi?ai, ?acii
?c yeeie aoee iioae?eiaai? iaoeia? i?aoe?.

A??ia?aei?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? aeniiae?a caaacia/o?oueny
iii?ith ia o?einionuee?, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?
i?aeoiaee o aecia/aii? iniiaieo iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaith
iaoiaeieia??th no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno
aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoiae?a noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aoee
aeeeaaeai? a iia?aeiieaiiyo ia i?aeaoc?anueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo “Aea/aiiy ??aeii? iiae ? aeooiaiee ?icaeoie iniaenoino?
iieiaeoiai oeiey?a a iiiaeai?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e oeie? “ (i. Oiaiue, 1992
?.), “Ii/aoeiaa ina?oa a Oe?a?i?: no/ani?noue ? ia?niaeoeae” (i.
A?iieoey, 1994 ?.); ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“No/ania ii/aoeiaa oeiea: i?iaeaie, iiooee, ciao?aeee” (i. Oa?iii?eue,
1996 ?.); ia anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “?aai
Ia??iei e ooaa?aeaeaiiy aoiai?oa?ii? iaoee oa ina?oe” (i. AEeoiie?, 1997
?.), “Oaeineiiaeaiiy ii/aoeiai? ina?oe o na?oe? no/anieo iaaeaaia?/ieo
eiioeaioe?e” (i. Oa?nii, 1997 ?.) oa “Oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? a
caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie?” (i. N?ioa?iiieue, 1997 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. C aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie iaae?oeiaaii 12 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, ?c ieo 3 noaoo? – a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 5 noaoae – o ca??ieeao
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeue, 4 ?iaioe – o ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a ? oac
eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee
ianya iniiaiiai oaenoo aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 143 noi??iee. 2 noi??iee
caeiathoue 2 ?ethno?aoe??, ia 2 noi??ieao iiaeaii 5 oaaeeoeue, ia 40
noi??ieao ?ici?uaii 3 aeiaeaoee. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae noaiiaeoue
224 iaeiaioaaiiy e iiaeaiee ia 16 noi??ieao. ?iaioa a oe?eiio aeeeaaeaia
ia 203 noi??ieao.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O “Anooi?” ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy; noi?ioeueiaaii
eiai ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, a?iioaco, iaoo oa caaaeaiiy; aecia/aii
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae, iaoiaee, aenia?eiaioaeueio aaco oa
aoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a; a?aoiaioiaaii ?o a??ia?aei?noue ? iiaeaii
a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “C ?noi??? noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i?
iaoiaeeee /eoaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a” – i?iaaaeaii aiae?c iaoeiai?
e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy; aecia/ai? ia?aaeoiiae ca?iaeaeaiiy
iaoiaeeee /eoaiiy; ?ice?eoa ?ieue o ?? noaiiaeaii? a?o/eciyieo o/aieo,
iaaeaaia?a, ienueiaiiee?a oa a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a; c’yniaai?
iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo iaoiaeeee iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy ye aaeoc?
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee.

I?iaeaie aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a, ae?iaeaiiy a ieo naiino?eieo
/eoaoeueeeo iaae/ie c’yaeeeny aeaaii. ?ao?iniaeoeaiee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e
c oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aei O?O no.
iaoiaeeea /eoaiiy (eeaniiai ? iicaeeaniiai) ye aaeocue iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaoee noi?iiaaia ua ia aoea. Iaeiae oaea a OO? no. neeaeeny ia?aaeoiiae
ca?iaeaeaiiy iaoiaeeee /eoaiiy: a iai’yoeao Ee?anueei? ?on? ciaoiaeeii
na?ae/aiiy i?i cia/iee ?ioa?an iaoeo iiia?aaeiee?a aei aea/aiiy
e?oa?aoo?e. Ee?anueeee eiycue Aieiaeeie? Nayoineaaiae/ i?ae /an naiai
i?aae?iiy (978-1015 ??.) a?aee?ea niaoe?aeuei? iaenoa?i?, aea
ia?aienoaaeeny eieae, a i?ci?oa noai?ea oeiee aeey ae?oae ee?anueei?
ciao?. Aeeeaaeaiiy a oiai/ani?e oeie? aeiaaaei noai?aiiy i?ae?o/iee?a ?
iiooe?a oi?i, cania?a ? i?eeii?a “eieaeiiai iaa/aiiy”. Oae c’yaeeeny
ia?o? ?ic?iaee c iiaoeee e noee?noeee.

Cia/iith iiae??th ia aoai? ca?iaeaeaiiy iaoiaeeee /eoaiiy a ii/aoeiaeo
eeanao noaea iiyaa a Oe?a?i? ia?oiai ae?oeiaaiiai aoeaa?y: ?aai Oaaei?ia
a “Acaoeao” 1574 ? 1578 ?ie?a ii?aeiaa o?eieia?/io aeoieo c aeaiaioaie
iaoiaeeee ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy.

Ia e?iaoeue OV??? noie?ooy aoee aecia/ai? iniiai? canaaee e?oa?aoo?ii?
ina?oe oeiey??a, o ?ic?iaoe? yeeo aeaeaoia ?ieue iaeaaeaea ?.
Aeoainueeiio oa A. Neiai?iae?. Nooue oeeo canaae ei?ioei aeeeaaeaii oae:
i?euaieaiiy ethaia? aei eieae, aei /eoaiiy – aaaeeeaee aniaeo
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe; oai?e aeey /eoaiiy iio?aaothoue ?aoaeueiiai
a?aeai?o; i?ae /an ni?eeoaaiiy c eieaeeith ne?ae aeio?eioaaoeny iaaiiai
?aaeeio; aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? ii?aeiaiiy anoaoe/ii? oa i?ciaaaeueii?
ooieoe?e /eoaiiy; ae??oaeueio ?ieue o ea??aieoeoa? naiino?eiei aeeoy/ei
/eoaiiyi a?ae?a?a? a/eoaeue.

O O?O noie?oo? a?aeaoaaany i?ioean iinooiiaiai noaiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee
/eoaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a. Oeueiio cia/iith i??ith ni?eyei noai?aiiy
ia?oeo oe?eueieo i?ae?o/iee?a aeey /eoaiiy, aaoi?aie yeeo aoee I. Eoe?o
(“A?aiaoeea”, 1854 ?.), O. Oaa/aiei (“Aoeaa?ue thaeii?onneee”, 1861 ?.),
I. Aeooiiae/ (“Eieaeea /eoaeueia aeey ii/aoe?aoe?a”, 1847 ?.). O
?ic?iaeo iaoeiai ia??oioiaaii? iaoiaeeee /eoaiiy na?aaeeie O?O noie?ooy
cia/iee aianie c?iaeee E. Ooeinueeee oa eiai iine?aeiaieee
(A. Aiaeiaicia, A. Noithi?i, A. Ino?iai?nueeee, A. Oa?aiaoue?anueeee,
I. Aoiaeia oa ?i.). I?e an?e ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e a?aei?iiino? iaoiaee/ieo
iiaeyae?a o/aieo, iaeaaaeeea?oeie aeinyaiaiiyie i?aeoeee noaee
caeeaaeai? ieie iniiae iaoiaeo iiynithaaeueiiai /eoaiiy oa ooaa?aeaeaiiy
iaiao?aeiino? aiae?co ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o ye iniiae iaa/aiiy e
aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?. E??i oiai, a/ai? i?eae?eyee aaeeeo
oaaao ?icaeoeo iiaeaiiy e ieneaiiy oeiey??a, ae?aciiio /eoaiith ye
caniao aeoea?caoe?? /eoaoeueeeo ?ioa?an?a, a oaeiae n?iaeiiio /eoaiith.

Aiae?c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii?, iaa/aeueii? oa ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e
e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
i?iaeaie aeoiaiiai aieeao ooaeiaeiueiai neiaa ia iniaeno?noue
oeiey?a-/eoa/a iaaoee a oie /an ia eeoa iaaeaaia?/iiai, aea e
nioe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o: aiie oaeethaaee ia eeoa a?o/eciyieo o/aieo,
iaoiaeeno?a, iaaeaaia?a, aea e i?ia?aneaieo ienueiaiiee?a oa
a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a. Aaaaeath/e /eoaiiy aaaeeeaei caniaii aeoea?caoe??
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a oa aeaea?aeii ?o aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo,
?. O?aiei, Eany Oe?a?iea, Ieaia I/?eea, N. Aaneeue/aiei, O. Ae/aanueea,
I. Ae?aaiiaiia, N. ?oniaa, O. Eoaaiaoeue, ?. Ia??iei a nai?o i?aoeyo
caa?oaee oaaao ia iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo i?ae?o/iee?a aeey
/eoaiiy; e?eoeeoaaee ni?iuai?noue iaoiae?a aeeeaaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?e a
oiai/ani?e oeie?; iaaeaaaee iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy naiino?eiiio
ni?eeoaaiith oeiey??a ?c eieaeeith; aeaaee i?i aeaeaiiy aenieiooaeiaei?o
oai??a aeey ae?oae.

Ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy iaoiaee/ia niaaeueia oai?/i ?icaeaaeany I.
?eaieeiaith, A. Aieoaeiaei, I. Aoaianue?aei oa ?i. A/ai?-iaoiaeenoe
?icaeyaeaee e?oa?aoo?o ye nea?aieoeth aeooiaieo iaaeaaiue ethaenoaa,
ii?oooaaee ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue ea?oaaiiy aeiiaoi?i /eoaiiyi
oeiey??a, aaaaeaee ca iio??aia eii?aeeioaaoe coneeey n?i’? oa oeiee c
iaoith ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueeeo ?ioa?an?a o/i?a. O oeae /an iii?oii c?inea
oaaaa aei ae?iaeaiiy iaae/ie naiino?eii? ?iaioe c eieaith (I. ?oaae?i,
N. Ieeeoi?ia oa ?i.).

O 50-60 ?ieao, i?ney aeayeiai niaaeo ?ioa?ano aei i?iaeai aeeoy/iai
/eoaiiy, ui aoa coiiaeaiee ia’?eoeaieie i?e/eiaie (?iee a?eie oa
i?neyai?iii? ?ic?ooe), i?iaeiaaeoaaany ?icaeoie iaoiaee/ii? aeoiee a
iai?yieo aecia/aiiy oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy ina?oiuei-aeoiaiiai cia/aiiy
eeaniiai e iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a ?o aca?iica’yceo. I?iaeiaaeoth/e e?au?
o?aaeeoe?? ieioeiai, a?aeii? a/ai? oa iaoiaeenoe N. ??ciaeoaia,
I. Eaiiiee?i, I. Ua?aaeia, ?. Aaeaiiae/, O. Einoaiei, A. Nooiieeinueeee
oa ?io? a nai?o i?aoeyo iaaieiooaaee, ui /eoaiiy iiaeiii neoaoaaoe
caniaii aeoiaiiai aieeao ia o/i?a, ?icoe?thaaoe e iiaeeaethaaoe ?o
e?oaic??, caaaa/oaaoe ciaiiy, ii?aeueiee oa aiioe?eiee aeina?ae
oeiey??a. Na?aae caaaeaiue o?ie?a /eoaiiy a/ai? aeae?eyee iaiao?aei?noue
?icaeoeo iaae/ie /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino?.

C?inoaiiy ?ioa?ano aei i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a o 60-o ?ieao
i?ae-oaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae iiyaith iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e, o yeeo
i?iiiioaaeiny aaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo caiyoue – o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy. Aei oeueiai /ano, oi/ o i?ia?aiao aeey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a
cia/eeiny iicaeeania /eoaiiy, aiaeeie aeey iueiai iaa/aeueiei ieaiii ia
a?aeaiaeeeeny. Ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui iicaeeania /eoaiiy iiaeiai
i?aai?ciaoaaoe eeaniaiae ?acii ?c a?ae?ioaea?ai. Oeueiio iaea ni?eyoe
nenoaia iicao?i/ieo caoiae?a: e?oa?aoo?i? ?aiee, ?a?e, a?eoi?eie oiui. C
/anii noo?aiaai?noue iaaeaaia?/ii? a?iiaaenueeino?, aeeeeeaia cieaeaiiyi
?ioa?ano ae?oae aei eieae, i?eioneea ooeaoe iia? oeyoe ea??aieoeoaa
iicaeeaniei /eoaiiyi.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aaeeny a 1965-68 i.?. i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
?in?enueeiai a/aiiai I. Na?oeianueei?, aeiaaee, ui a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao
iaiao?aeii cai?iaaaeeoe niaoe?aeuei? o?iee iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy, ye?
iathoue nai? niaoeeo?/i? caaaeaiiy, na?e ci?no oa iniaeea?
i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie. O 1969 ?ioe? nenoaia ?iaioe c aeeoy/ith eieaeeith,
?ic?iaeaia I. Na?oeianueeith, aoea caoaa?aeaeaia II ??ON?, a c 1972-73
i.?. cai?iaaaeaeaia e a Oe?a?i?. Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? e oaiaoeea
caiyoue ?c iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy aoee ?ic?iaeai? o a?aeae?e? ii/aoeiaiai
iaa/aiiy IAe? iaaeaaia?ee O?N? ca o/anoth a?o/eciyieo o/aieo
I. Ne?ei/aiei oa I. Aaooeaiea. Oaeei /eiii, ?c 1972 ?ieo o?ie
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy noaa a oe?a?inuee?e oeie? iniiaiith oi?iith
ea??aieoeoaa naiino?eiei aeeoy/ei /eoaiiyi.

A inoaii? aeanyoe??//y ie?ai? aniaeoe i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy
oeiey??a-/eoa/?a ciaeoee nai? ae??oaiiy a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo
o/aieo I. Ne?ei/aiei, I. Naa/aiei, I. Iaoi/oe, A. Oea/oe oa ?i.
Oai?aoe/io aaco iaoeo iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue caaaaoeee oae? iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, aena?oeai? a ?o ?iaioao: i?i oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe??
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? i?aeaioiaee o/i?a (I. Naa/aiei); i?i ia?oiiniiae
e?oa?aoo?ii? ina?oe a ii/aoeia?e eaioe? oeiee (I. Ne?ei/aiei); i?i
iniiai? aeiiae aei iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a (A. Oea/oe);
i?i aca?iica’ycie eeaniiai e iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy ye can?a oi?ioaaiiy
/eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a (I. Iaoi/oe); i?i
caaaa/aiiy ci?noo /eoaoeueeeo oi?iue (E. ?aaiiaa).

O e?ioe? ia?oiai ?icae?eo c?iaeaii aeniiaee, aea, cie?aia, cacia/aii:

1. Aoai noaiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee /eoaiiy a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao ?icii/aany c
iiyaith ia?oeo i?ae?o/iee?a aeey /eoaiiy (na?aaeeia O?O no.) ? o?eaaa
aei ii/aoeo OOno. C oeueiai /ano iaoiaeeea /eoaiiy ?icaeaa?oueny ye
aaeocue iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee.

2. Iaoiaeeea iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ?icaeaaeany
iia?euei?oa, o?eaaeee /an ?icaeyaeaeany eeoa ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia
iicao?i/ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe e ooaa?aeeeany eeoa c 70-o ?ie?a OO no.,
eiee iniiaiith oi?iith ea??aieoeoaa naiino?eiei aeeoy/ei /eoaiiyi noaa
o?ie iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy.

3. Aei na?aaeeie OO no. coneeeyie aaaaoueio iieie?iue o/aieo oa
iaaeaaia?a aoee ?ic?iaeai? iniiai? oai?aoe/i? canaaee aeoiaaiiy
oeiey??a-/eoa/?a, ye? ei?ioei aeeeaaeaii oae:

— /eoaiiy e aiae?c aenieiooaeiaei?o oai??a, o yeeo a?aeia?aaeathoueny
aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/aniino? e ae?aaea?oueny na?oiaeyaeia iiceoe?y
aaoi?a, ? aeoeaiei /eiieeii aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo oeiey??a;

— ii?aeiaiiy i?ciaaaeueii? e anoaoe/ii? ooieoe?e ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e
ni?iiiaeia c?iaeoe /eoaiiy caniaii ia eeoa i?ciaiiy iaaeieeoiuei?
ae?eniino?, ?icaeoeo naiino?eiiai ieneaiiy, a e oi?ioaaiiy aenieeo
anoaoe/ieo ?aeaae?a, aeoeaii? aeeoo?ai? iiceoe??;

— ??aaiue ?aeaeii-anoaoe/iiai aiae?co ooaeiaei?o oai??a cia/iith i??ith
aieeaa? ia ?icaeoie /eoaoeueei? aeoeaiino? o/i?a;

— naiino?eia /eoaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a iio?aao? ea??aieoeoaa c aieo
aei?ineeo: noeo?eia /eoaiiy ia? iaaaoeaiee aieea ia aeeoeio;

— ?icaeoie iaae/ie /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? ? aaaeeeaith ia?aaeoiiaith
aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? caniaaie ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e.

4. No/ania iaoiaee/ia iaoea, aeei?enoiaoth/e e?au? iaaeaaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie, aecia/eea iniiai? iai?yiee e?oa?aoo?ii? ina?oe
oeiey??a; anoaiiaeea aeiiae aei ai?iue o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a uiaei
?iaioe c eieaeeith; ie?aneeea ci?no oa no?oeoo?o caiyoue ?c iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy. Iaeiae ae??oaiiy ia?oi/a?aiaiai caaaeaiiy no/anii? oeiee –
oi?ioaaiiy aeooiaii aaaaoi? iniaenoino? a?iiaaeyieia noaa?aiii? Oe?a?ie
– iio?aao? aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo ?aca?a?a ?? ii/aoeiai? eaiee. Oe?e?,
ie?aneai? a Aea?aeaai?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia OO?
noie?ooy”) oa a Eiioeaioe?? e?oa?aoo?ii? ina?oe (I. Aieioeia,
?. Ian?/iee, I. Ne?ei/aiei, I. O?iiei), aeiaaathoue iiiaeaiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a?aeiia?aeii aei oiia nueiaiaeaiiy. Ana
oea coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a. Cia/i? iiaeeeaino? aeey ae??oaiiy
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue caeeaaeai? a oaeineiiaeaii? ci?noo iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy, a cai?iaaaeaeaii? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe?? e
i?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a, o i?aeaeuaii? ?o aoaeoeaiino? oeyoii oaeineiiaeaiiy
oi?i ? aeei?enoaiiy iae?aoe?iiaeuei?oeo iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a iaa/aiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iniiae ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a” – ?icaeyaeathoueny
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy /eoa/?a iieiaeoiai
aeioe?eueiiai a?eo; aeine?aeaeothoueny iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? canaaee
i?aai?caoe?? o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a 1-4(1-3) eeanao; iiaea?oueny
iien eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo oa aiae?c noaio ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ia no/aniiio aoai?.

Iaeaaaeeea?o? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie
?ic-aeyaeathoueny ia iniia? aea/aiiy iaoeiaeo i?aoeue E. Aeaionueeiai,
A. Aeaaeaeiaa, Ae. Aeueeii?ia, E. Caieiaa, A. Einothea (aa?iica’ycie
iaa/aiiy e ?icaeoeo); I. Aaeueia??ia, I. Eaiioue?aa, I. Oaeec?ii?
(oi?aae?iiy iaa/aiiyi ia iniia? oai??? iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiaeo
ae?e); I. Caii?iaeoey, I. Eaeoana (a?eia? iniaeeaino? ineoieia?/iiai
?icaeoeo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a). O ?icae?e? aeaoaeueii aiae?cothoueny
iniaeeaino? ni?eeiaiiy e ?icoi?iiy ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e o/iyie
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a (I. Ne?ei/aiei, A. Aa?a, A. Nie?iia, I. *aiae?aa,
C. ?iiaiianueea). O ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e aoee aecia/ai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ui noaee iniiaith
iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino?
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a:

— iaa/aiiy iiaeiii eoe iiia?aaeo ?icaeoeo, aeia?aaeaeaoe eiai, aanoe ca
niaith. Aiaeii/an ne?ae o?aoiaoaaoe e cai?ioi?e aieea ?icaeoeo ia
iaa/aiiy. Oaea ae?aeaeoe/ia ?aei?noue ? iniiaith iaoeiai i?aai?ciaaiiai
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano (E. Aeaionueeee);

— ienoaoeoai iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy i?iyaey?oueny eeoa oai, aea aiii
nie?a?oueny ia i?iya ?i?oe?aoeae, naiino?eiino?, oai?/i? aeoeaiino?
oeiey??a (A. Einothe);

— i?aaeeueiee aeia?? niinia?a ea?oaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth c
o?aooaaiiyi iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiaeo ae?e ni?ey? ?icaeoeia?
naiino?eiino? o/i?a o caeiaoaaii? ciaiue (I. Aaeueia??i, I. Eaiioue?a,
I. Oaeec?ia);

— iieiaeoee oe?eueiee a?e – iioeiaeueiee ia??iae aeey oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo, ii?aeueieo oyaeaiue, caaaa/aiiy ii/ooo?a,
?icaeoeo cae?aiinoae oa ?ioa?an?a o/iy. Aaeeeo ?ieue o aeeoo? aeeoeie
oeueiai a?eo a?ae?a?a? eieaa ye iiaooi?e can?a aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo
(I. Caii?iaeaoeue, I. Eaeoan);

— o i?ioean? ?iaioe iaae ooaeiaei?i oai?ii iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe oeie
ni?e-eiaiiy a iieiaeoeo oeiey??a (aiae?oe/iee, neioaoe/iee,
aiae?oeei-neioaoe/iee) oa ??ai? ni?eeiaiiy e ?icoi?iiy ieie ooaeiaeiuei?
e?oa?aoo?e (?ai?iaeoeoeaiee, aiioe?eii-nthaeaoiee,
?ioo?oeaii-ooaeiaei?e, aeaiaioa?iee ona?aeiieaii-ooaeiaei?e) (A. Aa?a,
I. Ne?ei/aiei, C. ?iiaiianueea).

Ia iniia? aiae?co i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo o/aieo
(I. Ne?ei/aiei, I. Iaoi/oe, I. Na?oeianueei? oa ?i.) o aeena?oaoe??
?icaeyaeathoueny iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? canaaee i?aai?caoe?? o?ie?a
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a 1-4(1-3) eeanao: c’yniaothoueny niaoeeo?/i?
iaa/aeueii-aeoiai? oe?e? caiyoue; ?ice?eaa?oueny nooue iiiyooy “oei
i?aaeeueii? /eoaoeueei? ae?yeueiino?”; aecia/athoueny iieacieee
/eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino?; iiaea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea aoai?a ?icaeoeo
/eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? oa ?icaeyaea?oueny no?oeoo?a o?ie?a
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith iaoeo iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue noaee oae? iieiaeaiiy:

— ye ??ciiaeaee iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoa eeania e iicaeeania /eoaiiy ia
?cieueiaai? iaeia a?ae iaeiiai, oni?o e?oa?aoo?ii? ina?oe oeiey??a
cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o aca?iica’yceo. Iaeiae aiie iathoue
nai? niaoeeo?/i? iaa/aeueii-aeoiai? oe?e?. Aieiaia caaaeaiiy o?ie?a
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy – aeoiaaiiy aeoeaieo /eoa/?a oeyoii ?icaeoeo
/eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a (I. Na?oeianueea,
I. Ne?ei/aiei, I. Iaoi/oe);

— /eoaoeueea naiino?ei?noue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth a /eoa/a
iioea?a, ui ciooothoue eiai caa?oaoeny aei eiea, ? nenoaie ciaiue,
oi?iue ? iaae/ie, ye? aeathoue eiio iiaeeea?noue ?c iaeiaioith cao?aoith
nee ? /ano ?aae?coaaoe nai? aaaeaiiy o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iniaenoith e
noni?eueiith iaiao?aei?noth (I. ?oaae?i, I. Na?oeianueea);

— ia’?eoeaiei iieacieeii /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? oeiey?a ? no?eea
iaiao?aei?noue ? caeaoi?noue /eoaoe eieae ca ona?aeiieaiei aeai?ii.
Ciai?oi?ie i?iyaaie ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? iniia /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino?
?: a) ciaiiy oe?ieiai eiea aeinooiieo eiea; a) noi?iiaai?noue iaae/ie
ei?enooaaiiy iniiaieie i?eeiiaie ?iaioe c eieaith; a) ?ioa?an aei
/eoaiiy (I. Na?oeianueea);

— iaa/aiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a cae?enith?oueny ca aoaiaie (i?aeaioia/ee,
ii/aoeiaee, iniiaiee, caaa?oaeueiee). Oe? aoaie caeaaeaoue a?ae ??aiy
noi?iiaaiino? oaoi?ee /eoaiiy, ai?iiy neooaoe, ni?eeiaoe e
a?aeoai?thaaoe i?i/eoaia, aiie a?ae??ciythoueny caaaeaiiyie, oiiaaie
iaa/aiiy oa no?oeoo?ith caiyoue (I. Na?oeianueea, N. Aei?ioaiei,
I. Iaoi/oe).

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy oai?aoe/iiai noaio i?iaeaie aoa i?iaaaeaiee
eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio, yeee ia?aaeaa/aa: aieaooaaiiy o/i?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a oa ?o aaouee?a c iaoith c’ynoaaiiy noaaeaiiy aei
eieae, aecia/aiiy iai?yie?a /eoaoeueeeo ?ioa?an?a ? anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiy
/eoaoeueei? eoeueoo?e; i?iaaaeaiiy aan?ae c o/eoaeyie c iaoith
c’ynoaaiiy ?o ia?ciaiino? uiaei niaoeeo?ee o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy
oa aeyaeaiiy o?oaeiiu?a, iia’ycaieo c i?aai?caoe??th e i?iaaaeaiiyi
caiyoue; iaaeaaia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiei i?ioeanii ia
o?ieao iicaeeaniiai e eeaniiai /eoaiiy;

aiae?c ieai?a-eiiniaeo?a o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai e eeaniiai /eoaiiy.

A aieaooaaii? acyei o/anoue 610 o/i?a, 1160 aaouee?a; o aan?aeao aoei
caae?yii 170 o/eoae?a. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a cana?ae/ea, ui eeoa /anoeia
ae?oae (38%) /eoa? aaaaoi, aaaaea? /eoaiiy na?i oethaeaiei caiyooyi. O
cia/ii? /anoeie oeiey??a (23%) a?ae-nooiy aeaiaioa?ia a?ae?ia?ao?/ia
a?aiioi?noue. Noaeaeaiiy oeiey??a i?i i?i/eoaio eieao /anoi
aeyaeythoueny noaiaea?oieie, iicaaaeaieie iniaeno?niiai noaaeaiiy aei
i?i/eoaiiai. Aieaooaaiiy, i?iaaaeaia na?aae aaouee?a, cana?ae/eei, ui
eeoa 35% iieoaieo /eoathoue ?aaoey?ii, ?aooa – a?ae aeiaaeeo aei
aeiaaeeo aai cian?i ia /eoathoue. 77% aeoeaieo /eoa/?a oe?eaaeyoueny a
iniiaiiio ia??iaee/iith i?anith, i?eaiaeieoeueeeie oa aeaoaeoeaieie
oai?aie. Ca oaeeo oiia o/eoaeyi aaaeei niiae?aaoeny ia aeiiiiiao
aaouee?a o ni?aa? oi?ioaaiiy /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? oeiey??a.

C iaoith c’ynoaaiiy noaio ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? o/i?a
aaciina?aaeiuei ia caiyooyo aoei i?iaaaeaii iaaeaaia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy
ca ae?yeuei?noth a/eoae?a ? oeiey??a ia 306 o?ieao eeaniiai e
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy, i?iaiae?ciaaii oaeo ae e?euee?noue
ieai?a-eiiniaeo?a o?ie?a oa i?iaaaeaii aan?aee c o/eoaeyie e o/iyie.
Oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy eaai?aoi?iiai aenia?eiaioo aoei anoaiiaeaii ??aaiue
noi?iiaaiino? a o/i?a iaae/ie naiino?eii? ?iaioe c eieaith (cie?aia,
aeeiiaiiy ieie oaeeo i?eeii?a, ye ?iaioa c? ci?noii o e?ioe? eieaeee,
noeneee ia?aeac, ciaoiaeaeaiiy eieae ca ciai?oi?ie e aioo??oi?ie
iciaeaie oa ?i.).

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo aeicaieea c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui ??aaiue ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a ia a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai nueiaiaeaiiy. Iniiaieie iieacieeaie
oeueiai ?: a?aenooi?noue o a?eueoino? oeiey??a (62%) ?ioa?ano aei
/eoaiiy ye aei iaeiiai ?c cania?a i?ciaiiy ioi/oth/iai na?oo,
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy oa aeaea?aea anoaoe/ii? ianieiaee; iaaeinoaoi?e
??aaiue ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie, ye? aeathoue o/iyi iiaeeea?noue ?c
iaeiaioith cao?aoith nee oa /ano ei?enooaaoeny eieaith (? iaa/aeueiith,
? iaiaa/aeueiith) ca ona?aeiieaiei aeai?ii. Oae, ciaiiy i?i i?eeiie
naiino?eii? ?iaioe c eieaith aeaaaeeny ia 70,6% a?aea?aeaieo o?ie?a
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy, a ai?aae, ni?yiiaai? ia oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie
/eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino?, i?iiiioaaeeny a/eoaeyie oe?eani?yiiaaii eeoa
ia 23,5% a?aea?aeaieo o?ie?a, ai?ciaee/ii – ia 7%, ia ieaioaaeeny
acaaae? – ia 69,5%. Iae?e oa ioe?ithaaiiy ??ai?a canai?iiy ae?oueie
i?eeii?a ?iaioe c eieaith cae?enithaaeeny eeoa ia 18% a?aea?aeaieo
o?ie?a. O ?acoeueoao? ciiaee naiino?eii canoinoaaoe oae? iaeiioe?ai?o?
i?eeiie, ye ei?enooaaiiy ci?noii o e?ioe? eieae, 12,2% o/i?a;
ciaoiaeaeaiiy eieae ca ciai?oi?ie oa aioo??oi?ie iciaeaie – 15,3%;
neeaaeaiiy ieaio i?i/eoaiiai – 15,5%; noeneee ia?aeac – 14%; ioi?ieaiiy
ea?oee ia i?i/eoaio eieao – 3,4% oeiey??a 4(3) eean?a.

Na?aae i?e/ei aeyaeaieo iaaeie?e?a iaeaaaeeea?oeie ? oae?:
1) iaaeinoaoiy ia?-ciai?noue o/eoae?a ?c aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi o?ie?a
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy e a?aenooi?noue oe?eani?yiiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a, ui cia/iith i??ith aeeeeeaii iacaaeia?eueiei
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iei caaacia/aiiyi ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaia?a;
2) a?aenooi?noue iaoeiai ia??oioiaaiiai nieneo ?aeiiaiaeiaaii?
e?oa?aoo?e aeey o/i?a 1-4(1-3) eean?a, ui cia/ii oneeaaeith? ?iaioo
a/eoae?a, a?ae?ioaea??a ? naiino?eio /eoaoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue oeiey??a;
3) a?aenooi?noue nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe?? e i?iaaaeaiiy
o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii?
nenoaie oi?ioaaiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a o ii/aoeiaeo eeanao” –
ia??oioiaothoueny oe?e? oa aea?? iai?yie?a iiaeaeueoi?
aeine?aeieoeueei-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe; iiaea?oueny aeeaeaeoe/ia
iiaeaeue ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a;
aecia/athoueny iioeiaeuei? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i? oiiae
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy. Ooo aea iaoeiai
ia??oioiao?oueny nenoaia aenia?eiaioaeueieo o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy;
iieno?oueny i?ioean cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ei?eaoth/i? nenoaie ?icaeoeo
/eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a oa i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c
eiai ?acoeueoao?a.

Aecia/ath/e oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino?
o/i?a, ie ia iaee ia iao? iiaio a?aeiiao a?ae ?nioth/i? iei?
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie iaa/aiiy oeiey??a /eoa/?a. Ae??oaiiy
i?iaeaie ie aaa/aee ia?aaeon?i a iioei?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano. Oea aeiaaaei ona?aeiieaiiai aeai?o oaeiai aa??aioa iaa/aiiy,
yeee ca aeaieo oiia caaacia/oaaa ae iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeao aoaeoeai?noue
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie i?e ?aoe?iiaeueieo cao?aoao /ano e coneeue o/eoae?a
oa o/i?a (TH. Aaaainueeee). ?acii ?c oei, a?aoiaoth/e no/ani? aeiiae oa
ea?oth/enue ?acoeueoaoaie eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo, ie aaaaeaee ca
iaiao?aeia aianaiiy iaaieo ei?aeoea ? aeiiiaiaiue o ci?no ? no?oeoo?o
o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a 4(3) eeanao. Cacia/eii, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a eeoa ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai?
iaa/aiiy a ii/aoeia?e oeie? iaoiiaeaii ia’?eoeaieie i?e/eiaie. Ii-ia?oa,
oeae aoai ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iniaeeai aaaeeeaee,
ine?eueee a?i ? ia?ao?aeiei i?ae ii/aoeiaeie oa na?aaei?ie eeanaie
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee e cia/iith i??ith aieeaa? ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
e?oa?aoo?ii? ina?oe a iaeaooiueiio. Ii-ae?oaa, a no/ani?e iaoiaeeoe?
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy caaa?oaeueiee aoai iaa/aiiy ? iaeiaio
aeine?aeaeaiei, ui cia/ii oneeaaeith? i?aeaioiaeo a/eoae?a aei
i?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a 4(3) eeanao.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei
canoiniaaii iaoiae iiaeaethaaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. O
aeena?oaoe?? iiaea?oueny aeaoaeueiee iien aeeaeaeoe/ii? iiaeae?
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.
Ia?oee eiiiiiaio aeeaeaeoe/ii? nenoaiii-ae?yeuei?nii? iiaeae? –
i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey aei i?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy –
neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio iine?aeiaieo aoai?a, aeio?eiaiiy yeeo
ia?aaeaa/a? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy oe?eani?yiiaaii? ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa c
iaoith ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueeeo iaae/ie oeiey??a. Ae?oaee eiiiiiaio –
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy – ia?aaeaa/a?,
ii-ia?oa, nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei ?o i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaiiy,
ii-ae?oaa  noai?aiiy ia oeeo o?ieao iioeiaeueieo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
? iaoiaee/ieo oiia aeey ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? o/i?a.

Ia iniia? neiino?oeiaaii? aeeaeaeoe/ii? iiaeae? aoa aecia/aiee ci?no
iiaeaeueoi? aeine?aeieoeueei-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, yeee aeeth/aa:
1) i?aeaioiaeo iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo (nieneo iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c
i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a aeey ei?enooaaiiy a/eoaeyie; nieneo
?aeiiaiaeiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeey o/i?a 1-4 (1-3) eean?a; iai’yoie aeey
a/eoae?a oa o/i?a; nenoaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy aeey o/i?a 4(3) eean?a oa iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aei ieo);
2) i?iaaaeaiiy oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo a 4(3) eeanao n?euenueeeo oa
i?nueeeo oe?e; 3) aiae?c e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo iieaciee?a iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

Aiane?aeie iiooeo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy ye iniiaii? oi?ie ea??aieoeoaa naiino?eiei aeeoy/ei /eoaiiyi
aoei aecia/aii e iaoeiai ia??oioiaaii ?yae ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ?
iaoiaee/ieo oiia, na?aae yeeo iaeaaaeeea?oeie ? oae?:

— nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei i?aai?caoe?? e i?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy, yeee aeyaey?oueny a oiio, ui o?iee noaiiaeyoue niaith oe?e?nio
noeoii?noue aca?iiiia’ycaieo ? aca?iicoiiaeaieo aeaiaio?a, i?e oeueiio
eiaeai ?c ieo ?aae?co? niaoeeo?/io iaoo (?icaeoie /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? o/i?a) e iaeii/anii caaaeuei? oe?e? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano;

— aeia?? niaoe?aeueieo ai?aa, aaaaeaiiy oeiey??a o iaa/aeuei? neooaoe??
e aeaee ae?yeueiino? c eieaith, ni?yiiaai? ia ?icaeoie /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino?;

— cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a iaaeaaia?ee ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ia o?ieao
iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy oeyoii i?aai?caoe?? ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey
oa o/i?a;

— aiioe?eia iane/ai?noue caiyoue, canoinoaaiiy ?a?iaeo oi?i iaa/aiiy;

— aeoea?caoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, noai?aiiy i?iaeaiieo neooaoe?e
ia o?ieao;

— cae?eniaiiy i?aei?aaeiaoieo ca’yce?a c o?ieaie eeaniiai /eoaiiy;

— c?acie iiceoeaiiai noaaeaiiy a/eoaey aei eieae, aei /eoaiiy;

— oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ioe?ithaaiiy ia o?ieao iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy.

Aeioe?euei?noue aeai?o naia oaeeo oiia iaa/aiiy ia??oioiao?oueny:
a) oa?aeoa?ii iaaeie?e?a, aeyaeaieo o ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiy
eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo; a) iii?ith ia oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy,
aeeeaaeai? a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo a?aeiieo o/aieo oa iaaeaaia?a: i?i ?ieue
iaaeaaia?/ii i?aai?ciaaii? ae?yeueiino? a ?icaeoeo oeiey??a
(A. Aeaaeaeia, E. Caieia, A. Ethae?inueea, A. Einothe oa ?i.); i?i
i?eeiie aeoea?caoe?? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?aoe? o/i?a (?. Ea?ia?,
I. Iaothoe?i oa ?i.); i?i ?ieue iiceoeaieo aiioe?e oeiey??a o i?ioean?
canai?iiy ciaiue (ss.A. Eiiainueeee, E. Ooeinueeee, E. Aeaionueeee,
A. Nooiieeinueeee, I. Ne?ei/aiei oa ?i.); i?i cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a
iaaeaaia?ee ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ia o?ieao (N. Eenaieiaa, O. Aiiiaoa?e? oa
?i.); i?i aca?iica’ycie o?ie?a eeaniiai e iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy
(I. Na?oeianueea, I. Iaoi/oe); i?i cia/aiiy iniaeno?nieo ?en iaaeaaiaa a
i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?e (O. Aoaaeei, A. Nooiieeinueeee oa ?i.);
i?i ?ieue ioe?iee a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? (A. Aiaiue?a,
A. Nooiieeinueeee, I. Ne?ei/aiei); a) a?aooaaiiyi caeiaooe?a ia?aaeiaiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo oa ?acoeueoao?a aeanii? 17-??/ii? ?iaioe a
caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie?.

Oi/a iacaai? oiiae a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aaea ai?iaaaeaeothoueny a
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?, iiaecia cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaie i?aeoiaeo
iieyaa? a ?o eiiieaeniiio cai?iaaaeaeaii? ia o?ieao iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy
a 4(3) eeanao. E??i oiai, aeey ?aae?caoe?? oaei? oiiae, ye aaaaeaiiy
oeiey??a o iaa/aeuei? neooaoe?? e aeaee ae?yeueiino? c eieaith,
ni?yiiaai? ia ?icaeoie /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino?, iaie aia?oa aoea
cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia niaoe?aeueieo ai?aa (iaa/aeueieo, o?aioaaeueieo oa
eiio?ieueieo).

Ia iniia? aecia/aieo iioeiaeueieo oiia aoea ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia
aenia?eiaioaeueieo o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a 4(3) eeanao oa
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei ?o i?iaaaeaiiy. Iaei??th c iniaeeainoae
cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie noaei aaaaeaiiy aei ia? caiyoue ??ciiai oeio:
o?aaeeoe?eieo (iniiaiee oei o?ieo) oa iao?aaeeoe?eieo (o?iee-ca?oe,
?ioaa?iaai? o?iee, o?iee-EAE, o?iee-iiaei?iae? oa ?i.). Iaoa oaeiai
i?aeoiaeo iieyaa? a oiio, uia iaeneiaeueii caoe?eaaeoe oeiey??a
caiyooyie c iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy, a cia/eoue, ?icaeaaoe ?ioa?an aei
naiino?eii? ae?yeueiino? c eieaith. O aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaii aeaoaeueiee
iien oe??? i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie.

Iniiaiee aoai aenia?eiaioo (1996-1997 i.?.) iiaeiai aoa iieacaoe, /e
caaacia/o? ?ic?iaeaia ei?eaoth/a nenoaia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo
/eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a. Oaanue eiiieaen
aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiaeeany c aeio?eiaiiyi oeiiaeo oiia iaa/aiiy,
ine?eueee caaaeaiiyi aenia?eiaioo aoei anoaiiaeaiiy iniiaieo iieaciee?a
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie iaa/aiiy a aoaeue-ye?e
caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie?. C oe??th iaoith iaie aoei aecia/aii aeanyoue
3-o eean?a (3-??/ia ii/aoeiaa oeiea) oa 4-o eean?a (4-??/ia ii/aoeiaa
oeiea) o i?nueeeo oa n?euenueeeo oeieao ?c caaaeueiith e?euee?noth 320
o/i?a oa 10 o/eoae?a. O i’yoe eeanao iaa/aiiy cae?enithaaeiny
o?aaeeoe?eii, a a ia?aeaeueieo (eiio?ieueieo) – ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaie
i?ia?aiith, yea ia?aaeaa/aea: iciaeiieaiiy a/eoae?a, caae?yieo o
i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioo, c noooth aeine?aeaeaiiy; aea/aiiy ieie
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? aeieoiaioaoe??, i?aeaioiaeaii? aeena?oaioii;
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a/eoaeyie a eiio?ieueieo eeanao niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaii?
nenoaie o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy. Ine?eueee ia’?eoeaieie iieacieeaie
/eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? (ca I. Na?oeianueeith) ? no?eeee ?ioa?an
oeiey??a aei /eoaiiy, ciaiiy oe?ieiai eiea eiea, caeaoi?noue aea?aoe
iaiao?aeio eieao e i?i/eoaoe ?? c iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaei
ina?oiuei-aeoiaiei aoaeoii, i?ia?aia ia?aa??ee aoaeoeaiino?
cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? aeeth/aea:
a) aeyaeaiiy oe?ioe /eoaoeueeiai e?oaici?o oeiey??a; a) iae?e
noi?iiaaiino? iaae/ie naiino?eii? ?iaioe c eieaith; a) c’ynoaaiiy
noaaeaiiy ae?oae aei naiino?eiiai /eoaiiy. I?ia?aeieie iaoiaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia oeueiio aoai? noaee: niinoa?aaeaiiy ca /eoaoeueeith
ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a ia o?ieao iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy; aan?aee c? oeiey?aie
oa a/eoaeyie; aieaooaaiiy o/i?a; ??aiaaee oa ii??aiyeueii-c?noaaiee
aiae?c iaea?aeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe c?noaaeyeeny c
e?euee?nieie oa ye?nieie iieacieeaie niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaieo
eiio?ieueieo ?ia?o (?o c?acee iaaaaeaii a aeiaeaoeao aei aeena?oaoe???).
E?euee?ni? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy ocaaaeueiai? o
aeaeyae? oaaeeoeue.

Oaaeeoey 1

Oe?ioa /eoaoeueeiai e?oaici?o oeiey??a

(e?iaoeue iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo, a na?aaeiueiio ia o/iy)

Eeane3 (3-??/ia ii/ao. oeiea)4 (4-??/ia ii/ao. oeiea)C?noaaeaiiy aeaieo
cana?ae/o?, ui ??ai? ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? o/i?a 3-o eean?a
(3-??/ia ii/aoeiaa oeiea) oa 4-o eean?a (4-??/ia ii/aoeiaa oeiea)
nooo?ai ia a?ae??ciythoueny. Iaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue o
eiio?ieueieo eeanao cia/ii aeu? a ii??aiyii? c ?acoeueoaoaie,
iaea?aeaieie a cae/aeieo eeanao. Ianaiia?aae cia/ii ?ioaineai?oa ooo
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?icoe?aiiy /eoaoeueeiai e?oaici?o oeiey??a: ia e?iaoeue
?ieo i?ioyaii 30-oaeeeiiiai ienueiiaiai iieooaaiiy o/i? eiio?ieueieo
eean?a iaceaathoue o na?aaeiueiio 36 a?aeiieo eiea oa ?o aaoi??a, oiae?
ye o cae/aeieo — eeoa 12.

C iaoith ia?aa??ee ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? iaae/ie naiino?eii? ?iaioe c
eieaith a niaoe?aeuei? eiio?ieuei? ?iaioe aoee aeeth/ai? caaaeaiiy, ye?
ia?aaeaa/aee i???iooaaiiy a eie? iaciaeiieo eieaeie, ciaoiaeaeaiiy
iaiao?aeii? eieaeee na?aae cai?iiiiiaaieo ca aecia/aiee /an, neeaaeaiiy
ieaio i?i/eoaiiai, aecia/aiiy aieiaii? aeoiee oai?o, ai?iiy
ei?enooaaoeny eaoaeiaii oa ?i. I?ae /an aecia/aiiy ??aiy noi?iiaaiino?
iaae/ie naiino?eii? ?iaioe c eieaith ca 100% iaie aoei acyoi aacaeiaaiia
aeeiiaiiy an?o caaaeaiue, ye? o/aiue aeeiioaaa o 4-o eiio?ieueieo
?iaioao, ui i?iaiaeeeeny i?ioyaii iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo. Anueiai aoei
aecia/aii 4 ??ai? noi?iiaaiino? oeeo iaae/ie: iecueeee (aei 50%
aeeiiaieo caaaeaiue), caaeia?eueiee (50% — 70%), oi?ioee (70% -90%),
a?aei?iiee (90% — 100%). sse cana?ae/eee ?acoeueoaoe
ii??aiyeueii-c?noaaiiai aiae?co, ??ai? noi?iiaaiino? iaae/ie /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? o/i?a cae/aeieo ? eiio?ieueieo eean?a nooo?ai
a?ae??ciythoueny: a?aei?iiee ? oi?ioee ??aaiue aeyaeaii o 81% o/i?a
eiio?ieueieo eean?a ? eeoa a 28% o/i?a cae/aeieo eean?a. E??i oiai,
aieaooaaiiy oeiey??a iieacaei, ui a ?acoeueoao? iaa/aiiy ca
cai?iiiiiaaiith nenoaiith a a?eueoino? c ieo oi?io?oueny iiceoeaia
noaaeaiiy aei eieae e naiino?eiiai /eoaiiy: a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao
iacaaee /eoaiiy nai?i oethaeaiei caiyooyi 82 % o/i?a, oiae? ye o
cae/aeieo — eeoa 38 %. I?e oeueiio iioeae /eoaoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
oeiey??a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a aeyaeeeny a?eueo ona?aeiieaieie e
??ciia?/ieie.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy cana?ae/ea cia/ia
c?inoaiiy ia’?eoeaieo iieaciee?a /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? o/i?a: ciaiiy
oe?ieiai eiea aeinooiieo eiea, noi?iiaaiino? iaae/ie naiino?eiiai
ni?eeoaaiiy c eieaith, ?ioa?ano aei /eoaiiy. Ioaea, cai?iiiiiaaia
nenoaia ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ca oiia
no?iaiai ?? aeio?eiaiiy aa?aioo? i?aeaeuaiiy ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee iaa/aiiy, oiaoi ? aoaeoeaiith.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaei
iiaeeea?noue noi?ioethaaoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. I?iaaaeaia a oai?aoe/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo aniaeoao aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy e?oa?aoo?ii? ina?oe
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, ui ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith ?o aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo.
Iniiaiei iai?yieii o aeoiaaii? oeiey??a-/eoa/?a ? ?icaeoie ?o
/eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino?.

2. Aeeaeaeoe/io iiaeaeue i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, ni?iaeoiaaio ia iniia? aea/aiiy
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? oa iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e e aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a
eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo, neeaaeathoue aeaa iniiai? eiiiiiaioe:
a) oe?eani?yiiaaia iiaoaiia i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey aei i?iaaaeaiiy caiyoue
c iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy; a) i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy ye iniiaii? oi?ie ea??aieoeoaa naiino?eiei ni?eeoaaiiyi oeiey??a
?c eieaaie.

3. ?ic?iaeaia ia iniia? iaaeaaia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ia nenoaia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a iieyaa?: a) a i?aeaioiaoe?
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a, ae?ae iaiao?aeieo o/eoaeyi aeey
i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaiiy caiyoue c iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a?aeiia?aeii
aei no/anieo aeiia (nieneo ?aeiiaiaeiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeai
oi?ioaaiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a, nieneo oai??a aeey iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a
1- 4 (1-3) eeanao, na??? iai’yoie aeey naiino?eii? ?iaioe c eieaith oa
?i); a) a noai?aii? niaoe?aeueii? nenoaie o?ie?a iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy
(4(3) eeane), aaeineiiaeaieo ca no?oeoo?ith oa ci?noii, iiaoaeiaaieo ia
iniia? a?aooaaiiy eiiieaeno iioeiaeueieo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ?
iaoiaee/ieo oiia aeey aca?iiae?? a/eoaey e o/i?a oa ni?yiiaaieo ia
oi?ioaaiiy aeoeaieo /eoa/?a.

4. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iaaeaaia?/iee i?ioean cai?iiiiiaaii?
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie oi?ioaaiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a aeicaiey?
cia/ii i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a: ?icoe?eoe ?o e?oaic??, noi?ioaaoe iaae/ee naiino?eiiai
ni?eeoaaiiy c eieaith, i?aeaeueoe ?ioa?an aei eieae ye aei aeaea?aea
ciaiue oa anoaoe/ii? ianieiaee.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ae??oo? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy /eoaoeueei?
naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a iiaiith i??ith. Iiaeaeueoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaathoue oae? aniaeoe aeaii? i?iaeaie, ye aeio?eiaiiy
i?eioeei?a ianooiiino? e iine?aeiaiino? a i?ioean? aeoiaaiiy
oeiey??a-/eoa/?a ii/aoeiaeo, na?aaei?o oa noa?oeo eean?a; ?ieue n?i’? o
aeoiaaii? /eoaoeueeeo ?ioa?an?a ae?oae a oiiaao nueiaiaeaiiy; ?icoe?aiiy
oaiaoeee ooaeiaei?o oai??a aeey o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a a?aeiia?aeii aei
no/anieo aeiia, ca?eueoaiiy ?o e?eueeino? oa yeino?. E??i oiai,
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aee?eaa? ia?niaeoeae aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo
i?ia?ai ?c iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aiiaea?/oe E.?., I?aeeoaeia A.A. Oieueeei?i? oa e?oa?aoo?i? oaenoe o
«Oeie? i?ioani?a Iae?aee» // Ii/aoeiaa oeiea. — 1995. — ? 8. — N.58-60.

2. I?aeeoaeia A.A. Aeieia?/ia aeoiaaiiy ia o?ieao iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy o
3-4 eeanao// Ii/aoeiaa oeiea. – 1997. — ? 12. — N. 45-50.

3. I?aeeoaeia A.A. Iicaeeania /eoaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ye iaaeaaia?/ia
i?iaeaia // Ii/aoeiaa oeiea. — 1998. — ? 7. — N.18-22

4. I?aeeoaeia A.A., Oaoei E.I. Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii?
ina?oe: 3a. iaoe.-iaoiae. i?aoeue / TH. A?eyaa oa ?i. — E.; Oa?nii:
I?eioi? oeiee, 1997. -N. 174-176.

5. I?aeeoaeia A.A. Iae? oieueeei?i? aeai?e ia o?ieao iicaeeaniiai
/eoaiiy a ii/aoeia?e oeie? // Oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?: Ca. iaoiae. ?aeii. / Ca ?aae.
A.N.Nai?ee?ia. — N?ioa?iiieue, 1997. — N. 57-59.

6. I?aeeoaeia A.A., Oaa/oe O.I. Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aeeeaaeaiiy ??aeii?
e?oa?aoo?e a iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? A.I.Nooiieeinueeiai // Oi?aae?iiy
i?ioeanii a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?: Ca.
iaoiae. ?aeiiaiae. /Ca ?aae. A.N.Nai?ee?ia. — N?ioa?iiieue, 1997. — N.
19-21.

7. I?aeeoaeia A.A. A.I.Nooiieeinueeee i?i ?ieue eieae a aeooiaiiio
noaiiaeaii? ethaeeie // Aea/aiiy iiaeo oai o oe?eueiiio eo?n?
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e: Iaoiae. ca. — AEeoiie?: Aeae-ai. aacaoe
«AEeoiie?», 1998. — N. 214-219.

8. I?aeeoaeia A.A. Aeei?enoaiiy ia?iaeiciaa/iai iaoa??aeo ia o?ieao
iica-eeaniiai /eoaiiy a ii/aoeia?e oeie? // No/ania ii/aoeiaa oeiea:
i?iaeaie, iiooee, ciao?aeee: Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iae. iaoeiai-i?aeo. eiio.
— Oa?iii?eue, 1996. — N. 34-35.

9. I?aeeoaeia A.A. Iiac?? aeeaeeueia aeaea?aei // Aea/aiiy ??aeii? iiae
? aeooiaiee ?icaeoie iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oeiey?a a iiiaeai?e
iaoe?iiaeuei?e oeie?: Oace aeiiia. i?aeaoc. iaoeiai-i?aeo. eiio. —
Oiaiue, 1992. — N. 99-101.

I?aeeoaeia A. A. ?icaeoie /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.
– ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.02 – oai??y oa iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy
oe?a?inueei? iiae. – Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? oai?aoeei-aenia?eiaioaeueiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?iaeaie
?icaeoeo /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino? o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. O ?iaio?
aena?oeaii ?noi??th oa no/aniee noai i?iaeaie, aecia/aii e iaoeiai
ia??oioiaaii oeyoe ?? ae??oaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/io
nenoaio iaa/aiiy oeiey??a-/eoa/?a, yea ?ic?iaeaia c o?aooaaiiyi no/anieo
aeiia ? aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue o?ie?a iica-eeaniiai /eoaiiy
ia iniia? noai?aiiy iioeiaeueieo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo
oiia. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe
a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a e iaea?aeaii iiceoeai? ye?ni? oa e?euee?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?icaeoie /eoaoeueei? naiino?eiino?, nenoaia iaa/aiiy
oeiey??a-/eoa/?a, o?aooaaiiy no/anieo aeiia, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?,
o?iee iicaeeaniiai /eoaiiy, iioeiaeuei? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oa
iaoiaee/i? oiiae, iiceoeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Iiaeeoaeiay A. A. ?acaeoea /eoaoaeueneie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe ieaaeoeo
oeieueieeia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.02 – oai?ey e iaoiaeeea iao/aiey
oe?aeineiio ycueo. – Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao eiaie
I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony oai?aoeei-aenia?eiaioaeueiui enneaaeiaaieai
i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey /eoaoaeueneie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe o/aueony ia/aeueiuo
eeannia. A ?aaioa inaauaiu enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea i?iaeaiu,
ii?aaeaeaiu e iao/ii iainiiaaiu iooe aa ?aoaiey.

?ao?iniaeoeaiue aiaeec iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?u aeae
aiciiaeiinoue aaoi?o naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi iaoiaeeea eeanniiai
/oaiey a ia/aeueiie oeiea ia/aea ?acaeaaoueny n iiyaeaieai ia?auo
o/aaieeia aeey /oaiey (n?aaeeia XIX aaea), oiaaea eae aiaeeanniia /oaiea
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy yaeyeinue ninoaaiie /anoueth aiao?i/iie
ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou e iaoiaeeea aiaeeanniiai /oaiey ooaa?aeeeanue
oieueei n 70-o aiaeia OO noieaoey. E yoiio a?aiaie oneeeyie iiiaeo
iieieaiee o/aiuo e iaaeaaiaia auee ?ac?aaioaiu aaaeiaeoea oai?aoe/aneea
iniiau ainieoaiey oeieueieeia-/eoaoaeae.

Nia?aiaiiay iaoiaee/aneay iaoea, eniieuecoy eo/oea i?eia?aoaiey
iaaeaaiae/aneiai ianeaaeey, ii?aaeaeeea iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey
eeoa?aoo?iiai ia?aciaaiey ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia, onoaiiaeea o?aaiaaiey e
ciaieyi, oiaieyi e iaaueai o/aueony ia/aeueiuo eeannia ioiineoaeueii
?aaiou n eieaie. Iaeiaei ?aoaiea aeaaiie caaea/e nia?aiaiiie oeieu –
oi?ie?iaaiea aeooiaii aiaaoie ee/iinoe a?aaeaeaieia noaa?aiiie Oe?aeiu –
o?aaoao iaiiaeaiey o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna a oeaeii e
eniieueciaaiey iiauo ?aca?aia ia/aeueiiai iao/aiey a /anoiinoe.

O?iaaiue iiaeaioiaee oeieueieeia-/eoaoaeae 1-4(1-3) eeannia a
ii?aaeaeythuae noaiaie caaeneo io oniaa?oainoaiaaiey iiaeaioiaee
o/eoaeae e i?iaaaeaieth o?ieia aiaeeanniiai /oaiey, iineieueeo yoe o?iee
yaeythony iniiaiie oi?iie ?oeiaiaenoaa naiinoiyoaeueiui aeaoneei
/oaieai. A nayce n yoei aaoi?ii i?aaeeiaeaia
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaoiaee/aneay nenoaia iao/aiey oeieueieeia-/eoaoaeae,
eioi?ay ?ac?aaioaia n o/aoii nia?aiaiiuo o?aaiaaiee e iicaieyao
aeinoe/ue iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe o?ieia aiaeeanniiai /oaiey ia iniiaa
ni-caeaiey iioeiaeueiuo ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneeo e iaoiaee/aneeo
oneiaee. A ?aaioa ?ane?uoa nouiinoue e aeaaony aeaoaeueiay
oa?aeoa?enoeea yoeo oneiaee, aaaeiaeoeie n?aaee eioi?uo iacaaiu:
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue iaaeaaiaa ia o?ieao aiaeeanniiai
/oaiey; aaaaeaiea o/aueony a oaeea neooaoeee e aeaeu oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua niinianoaotho ?acaeoeth eioa?ana e eieaa,
oi?ie?otho iaauee /eoaoaeueneie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe; inouanoaeaiea
iaaei?aaeiaoiuo naycae n o?ieaie eeanniiai /oaiey, iocuee, ?eniaaiey e
ae?.; oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo oi?i caiyoee ii
aiaeeanniiio /oaieth (o?iee-io/aou, o?iee-yeneo?nee, o?iee-EAI,
eioaa?e?iaaiiua o?iee e ae?.); eniieueciaaiea yeaiaioia iaaeaaiaeee
nio?oaeie/anoaa ia caiyoeyo ii aiaeeanniiio /oaieth iooai i?aaiecaoeee
niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/eoaey e o/aueony; yiioeeiiaeueiay
ianuuaiiinoue caiyoee, aaaaeaiea ea?iauo oi?i iao/aiey;
oniaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu ioeaieaaiey ia o?ieao aiaeeanniiai /oaiey e
ae?. Iaycaoaeueiuie o?aaiaaieyie e ?aaeecaoeee yoeo oneiaee aaoi?
aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey iacuaaao nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e
eiiieaeniia eo eniieueciaaiea.

Aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth i?aaeeiaeaiiie nenoaiu iao/aiey
oeieueieeia-/eoaoaeae yaeyaony oi, /oi iia o/eouaaao ia oieueei
aic?anoiua e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe o/aueony ieaaeoeo eeannia, ii
e iaoeeiiaeueiua. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oaeie iiaeoiae i?iyaeyaony a
iaiiaeaiee niaea?aeaiey aiaeeanniiai /oaiey: a nienea i?iecaaaeaiee,
?aeiiaiaeiaaiiuo aeey naiinoiyoaeueiiai /oaiey, i?aiaeaaeatho
i?iecaaaeaiey oe?aeineeo ienaoaeae-eeanneeia, eieae nia?aiaiiuo
ioa/anoaaiiuo ienaoaeae e i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeeanii?u, eo/oea ia?acoeu
oe?aeineiai oieueeei?a. A oeaeii niaea?aeaiea ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee iai?aaeaii ia ainieoaiea o ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia eo/oeo
/aeiaa/aneeo ea/anoa, ia ?acaeoea iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey.

Aaoi?ii ?ac?aaioaiu e i?aaenoaaeaiu a i?eeiaeaieyo e aeenna?oaoeee
o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneea iaoa?eaeu aeey o/eoaeae e o/aueony: nienie
iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?u ii i?iaeaiai ?acaeoey /eoaoaeueneie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia; eiiniaeou o?ieia aiaeeanniiai
/oaiey (4(3) eeannu); nienie ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u aeey o/aueony
1-4 (1-3) eeannia; iaiyoee aeey naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou n eieaie; oaenou
niaoeeaeueiuo eiio?ieueiuo ?aaio aeey ii?aaeaeaiey o o/aueony 4(3)
eeannia o?iaiy noi?ie?iaaiiinoe iaaueia naiinoiyoaeueiiai iauaiey n
eieaie e ae?.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey e ?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeee iaoee i?aeoe/aneia
i?eiaiaiea a o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiii i?ioeanna e i?eaaee e oeo/oaieth
oaeeo ea/anoaaiiuo e eiee/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iao/aiey
oeieueieeia-/eoaoaeae, eae oe?ioa /eoaoaeueneiai e?oaici?a,
noi?ie?iaaiiinoue iaaueia /eoaoaeueneie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e
iieiaeeoaeueiiai ioiioaiey aeaoae e naiinoiyoaeueiiio /oaieth.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?acaeoea /eoaoaeueneie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, nenoaia
iao/aiey oeieueieeia-/eoaoaeae, o/ao nia?aiaiiuo o?aaiaaiee, iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe o?ieia aiaeeanniiai /oaiey, iioeiaeueiua
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea e iaoiaee/aneea oneiaey, o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneea
iaoa?eaeu, iieiaeeoaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Pidluzhna H.V. Development of Reader’s Independence of Junior Pupils. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate Degree in Pedagogics by speciality 13.00.02 —
Theory and methods of teaching the Ukrainian language. — M.Drahomanov
National Pedagogical University, Kyiv, 1999.

The research deals both theoretically and experimentally with the
development of reader’s independence of junior pupils. The dissertation
considers the history and present state of the problem and is focused on
the scientifically grounded ways of its solution. It suggests a
methodics organizational system of teaching junior pupils as readers.
The system is worked out according to modern demands and makes it
possible to raise the efficiency of home-reading classes due to optimal
psychological, pedagogical and methodics conditions. The basic ideas of
the dissertation applied in the process of teaching junior pupils have
given results with positive qualitative and quantitative
characteristics.

Key words: development of reader’s independence, system of teaching
pupils as readers, consideration of modern demands, raising the
efficiency of home-reading classes, optimal psychological, pedagogical
and methodics conditions, positive characteristics.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 25.02.99. Oi?iao 60o90/16.

Oi.ae?oe.a?e. 1.25. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1.0 Iai?? ionaoiee.

Aa?i?oo?a Times New Roman. Ae?oe ??cia?ao?/iee.

Oe?aae 100. Caiiaeaiiy 37.

Iie?a?ao?/iee oeaio? AEeoiie?nueeiai iaae?inoeoooo.

i. AEeoiie?, aoe. Aaeeea Aa?aee/?anueea, 40.

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