1

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIA A??IE*A AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

?ssCAIIA Aiae??e Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 622.24. 08: 550.822. 7

?IC?IAEA CAAEAIIAI I?IAIA?AeA??IEEA AeEss AO??IIss
?IAEAIA?II-AAIEIA?*IEO NAA?AeEIAEI IA EIIOEIAIOAEUeIIIO OAEUeO?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.15.10 — “Ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei”

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oaoiieia?? ? oaoi?ee aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo
?ia?o Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Ea?aeicia A?oo?
A?eaae?eiae/, Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? ? oaoi?ee aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iineaeueia
Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e a??ie/eo iaoei, eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai??;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe Aeai?eue/aiei ?ai? ?aaeieeiiae/,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueea a?aeae?eaiiy Oe?a?inueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai ?inoeoooo
i?ia?aeueieo ?ano?n?a (i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo aaioaoi?/ii? iaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie
(i.Aei?i?iiao-?ianuee).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “3” ethoiai 1999 ?. i 1400 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae08.080.06 i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e
a??ie/?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320027, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. Ea?ea
Ia?ena, 19).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
a??ie/?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “23” a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe
A. A. Neiaiiae/

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Inai?iiy ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei
eiioeiaioaeueiiai oaeueoo ieaaio ? aoae?aieoeoai ii?nueeeo i?iieneiaeo
nii?oae ? o?ainii?oieo eiioi?eaoe?e aeiaaathoue i?iaaaeaiiy
oe?ieiianooaaiiai ?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/iiai ?ica?aeoaaiiy c iaoith
io?eiaiiy a??ia?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aaieia?/io aoaeiao ?
?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/i? oiiae aeine?aeaeo?ieo ae?eueieoeue oeyoii ao??iiy
naa?aeeiaei c a?aeai?ii ea?io ? i?ia ??oio?a c i?i?iaeueiei ii?ooaiiyi
no?oeoo?e (iiiie?o?a).

Ca’ycaia c oeei ??cea ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ao??iiy aeeaieeo
iiaeaia?ii-aaieiai/ieo naa?aeeiaei (aei 200 i ii a?oioo i?e aeeaei?
aeaaoi??? aei 150 i) aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo niinia?a oa oaoiieia?/ieo noai ao?iiiy, a oaeiae
noai?aiiy iiaeo aoaeoeaieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a.

Aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy a?o/eciyiiai oa caei?aeiiiiai aeina?aeo iieaco?,
ui ao?iiiy aeeaieeo naa?aeeiaei o iaeei?ioo? oa?i?ie oa io?eiaiiy
iaeneiaeueii aeinoia??ii? iiaeaia?ii-aaieiai/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? caaacia/o?
iaa?oaeueiee can?a ao??iiy c aeei?enoaiiyi ciiiieo naa?aeeiaeiieo
i?enoinoaaiue (CNI) — i?eno?i?a aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aaioaoi?/ieo
aei?iaoaaiue oa i?iaiaiaeai?o. Aea ia aeaiee iiiaio i?e aeei?enoaii?
oe??? oaoiieia?? i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai a?aeae?aoe iiiie?oe o ii?iaeao
iiuaii-aeeienoiai eiiieaeno a oiiaao aa?oeeaeueieo ia?ai?uaiue
ieaacaniao /a?ac a?aenooi?noue iaae?eieo eiino?oeoe?e ci?iieo caaeaieo
i?iaia?aea??iee?a c aaoiiiiiei i?eaiaeii.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue noai?aiiy oai??? ?iaioe, i?aeoe/ieo
eiino?oeoe?e oa oaoiieia?? canoinoaaiiy ci?iieo caaeaieo
i?iaia?aea??iee?a c aaoiiiiiei i?eaiaeii aeey ao??iiy i?aeaiaeieo
iiaeaia?ii-aaieiai/ieo naa?aeeiaei coiiaeaia iio?aaaie
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueii? aaeoc?.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeiia?aea? ieaio iaoeiaeo ?ia?o eaoaae?e
«Oaoiieia?y ? oaoi?ea aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?iaio» Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa aea?aeathaeaeaoii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie A-3-95 «?icaeoie oai??? ? ?ic?iaea oaea?ieo
i?eeaae?a oa iaoai?ci?a aeey ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei a oneeaaeiaieo oiiaao».

Iaoa ?iaioe ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe —
anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a o caaeaiiio
i?iaia?aea??ieeo, yeee caaacia/o? a?aeae?aiiy iaii?ooaieo i?ia ??oio?a,
ia aac? yeeo ?ic?iaeoe eiino?oeoe?th ci?iiiai caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea
c aaoiiiiiei i?eaiaeii aeey ao??iiy ?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo naa?aeeiaei
ia eiioeiaioaeueiiio oaeueo?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe o ?iaio? ae??oothoueny oae? caaea/?:
1.?ic?iaea i?eioeeiiai? noaie ci?iiiai caaeaiiai i?iaiaiaeai?ieea, yea
a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai aei a?aeai?o i?ia a?oio?a. 2.Ocaaaeueiaiiy
iiia?aaei?o oai?aoe/ieo ?ia?o ? ooi/iaiiy ?ic?aooieiai? iiaeae? oa
iaoaiaoe/iee iien i?ioeano oaea?ii? aca?iiae?? aeaiaio?a nenoaie «aieie
— ea?iii?eeiaeueia o?oaa — ianeaeueiee a?oio». 3.Oai?aoe/i? oa
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iai/iai oeeeeo caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea c a?ae?aae?/iei i?eaiaeii. 4.?ic?iaea eiino?oeoe??
aaoiiiiiiai caaeaiiai i?iaiaiaeai?ieea aeey a?aeai?o i?ia a?oio?a a
i?ioean? ao??iiy ii?nueeeo naa?aeeiaei c aeei?enoaiiyi CNI.

?aeay aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeeo/aiiy aa?oeeaeueieo ia?ai?uaiue
ieaacaniao ia i?ioean caaeeaeaiiy caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea a ??oio,
ocaiaeaeaiiy aiie?ooaee ? /anoioe oaea??a aieea ii ea?iii?eeiaeueii?
o?oa? caaacia/o? a?aeae?aiiy i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?ia ??oio?a i?e ao??ii?
?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo naa?aeeiaei ia eiioeiaioaeueiiio oaeueo?.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Iinoaaeai? caaea/? ae??ooaaeeny oeyoii
ocaaaeueiaiiy ? aiae?co iaoaioieo ? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, i?iaaaeaiiy
oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaiiy
iieoii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ia?o, aiae?co oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, io?eiaiiai
a ?acoeueoao? noaiaeiaeo ? ae?iaie/eo ?nieo?a c ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi iniiaieo
?acoeueoao?a a i?aeoeeo ii?nueeeo ?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo ?ia?o.
Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao c
aeei?enoaiiyi niaoe?aeueieo noaiae?a. Ia?iaea io?eiaieo aeaieo ?
ia?aa??ea aaeaeaaoiino? iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae cae?enithaaeenue ia AII c
aeei?enoaiiyi cania?a iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, aeianai? ia caoeno:

1. Caaeeaeaiiy caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea a ianeaeueiee ??oio ca
iaeeie/iee oaea? a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?acoeueoao? iinooiiaiai ia?ai?uaiiy
i?ae ae??th 3-4 oaeeue aeaoi?iaoe?? ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oae, ye?
aeieeathoue a i?ioean? aca?iiae?? aeaiaio?a nenoaie «aieie —
ea?iii?eeiaeueia o?oaa — ianeaeueiee ??oio», ui iieno?oueny oaeeueiaei
??aiyiiyi eieeaaiue c o?aooaaiiyi aeeneiaoe?? aia?a?? o ao?iaiio
nia?yae? ? /enoiieanoe/ii? iiaeae? iii?o ??oioo caaeeaeaiith.

2. Aeey a?aeiia?aeiino? iaeeaaea?iei oaoiieia?/iei ? eiino?oeoeaiei
aeiiaai ii? oiaai? a?ae?iaeaeaoi caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea iiaeiai
aeeiioaaoeny iaa??aiiaaaeaiei. ?iai/ee oeeee a?ae?iaeaeaoia, ui
caaacia/o? /anoioo oaea??a ia a?eueo 1 Aoe, ne?aeo? iienoaaoe c
o?aooaaiiyi ci?ie iane ii?oiaai? a?oie ia i?ioyc? oeeeeo ?
a?ae?ioaea?ieo yaeu a oeee?iae?? iaoai?cio, i?e oeueiio aeiionea?oueny
iaoooaaoe ae??th eeaiaiieo i?oaeei.

3. ?iai/a iaeanoue ci?ie iiaea/? ??aeeie aecia/a?oueny ae?aiaciiii
no?eei? ?iaioe a?ae?iaeaeaoia, ye?e ei?aao?oueny c o?aooaaiiyi
iaiaaeaiiy ii /anoio? oaea??a ? aaee/eie oiaeo ii?oiaai? a?oie, i?e/iio
inoaiiy iiaeiia ciaoiaeeoeny a iaaeao, ui caaacia/othoue ?ica?i aieea
oaea?iiai aocea aei oaeaeeino?, aecia/a?ii? oiiaith caaeeaeaiiy
ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oae a ianeaeueiee ??oio.

4. Ci?ia oaeaeeino? ?ooo aieea i?e eiai aenoeaio?e/iiio ?icoaooaaii? a
ei?ion? oaea?iiai aocea ? aca?iiae?? c? no?ieith inoaiiueiai, ia?
oa?aeoa? a?ia?aie?/ii? oaiaaini?aee. ?ioaineai?noue ia?inoaiiy
oaeaeeinoi ca?eueoo?oueny i?e c?inoaii? aaee/eie e?eueoeaaiai caci?o ?
ciaioaii? aenoeaio?eneoaoo ?icoaooaaiiy aieea a ei?ion? oaea?iiai aocea.
Aaee/eia e?eueoeaaiai caci?o ? iniiaiei ia?aiao?ii oaea?iiai aocea,
ci?iith yeiai aeinyaa?oueny ocaiaeaeaiiy ?oo?a aieea ? ii?oiaai? a?oie
a?ae?iaeaeaoia.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue ? a??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?iaioe caaacia/o?oueny cia/iei ianyaii oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeecueeith ca?aei?noth ?oi?o
?acoeueoao?a, a oaeiae aeaieie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai i?eno?ith a
ae?iaieoeoai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

· ?ic?iaeaia ? aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
oaea?iiai caaeeaeaiiy caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea a ianeaeueiee ??oio,
yea a?ae??ciy?oueny oei, ui i?e ae??oaii? oaeeueiaiai ??aiyiiy eieeaaiue
ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oae a?aoiao?oueny aioo??oi?e ii??, i?iii?oe?eiee
oaeaeeino? ci?uaiiy ?? ia?aoei?a, ? /enoiieanoe/ia iiaeaeue iii?o ??oioo
caaeeaeaiith. Oea aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe aaee/eio caaeeaeaiiy ca iaeeie/iee
oaea? c o?aooaaiiyi ni?eueiiai eieeaaeueiiai ? iinooiiaiai ia?ai?uaiiy
ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oae, a oaeiae /an i?ioeano a?aeai?o i?iae.

· Aia?oa aeeiiai? oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iai/iai
oeeeeo iecueei/anoioiiai (c /anoioith oiae?a ia a?eueo 1 Aoe)
iaa??aiiaaaeaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaoia, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny a yeino?
i?eaiaeo iaoai?cio ia?ai?uaiiy aieea caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea, ui
aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aeiionoeio iaeanoue ci?ie eiino?oeoeaieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?eno?ith.

· Anoaiiaeaiee aieea e?eueoeaaiai caci?o ia oaeaee?noue ?ooo aieea aeey
aeiaaeeo aenoeaio?e/iiai ?icoaooaaiiy ? aca?iiae?? c? no?ieith ei?iona
oaea?iiai aocea. Ci?ia aaee/eie e?eueoeaaiai caci?o aeicaiey? ocaiaeeoe
a /an? ?oo ii?oiaai? a?oie a?ae?iaeaeaoia c ?ooii aieea ia oiae? aiec,
aeiaeoeny iaiao?aeieo aeey aoaeoeaiiai ?oeioaaiiy ??oioo aia?aaoe/ieo
ia?aiao??a caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea.

Iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?icaeoeo oai??? oaea?iiai caaeeaeaiiy
ao?iaiai nia?yaeo a ianeaeueiee ??oio, oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii?
?iai/iai oeeeeo iecueei/anoioiiai iaa??aiiaaaeaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaoia,
io?eiaii? aiae?oe/ieo caeaaeiinoae, ui aeicaieythoue i?iaiicoaaoe ci?io
aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?eno?ith a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiino?oeoeaieo
ia?aiao??a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? i?eioeeiiai? noaie ?
eiino?oeoe?? aaoiiiiiiai caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea c a?ae?aae?/iei
i?eaiaeii A.CI-89, a oaeiae oaoiieia?? a?aeai?o iiiie?o?a aeey ao??iiy
ii?nueeeo naa?aeeiaei c aeei?enoaiiyi CNI.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Caaeaiee i?iaia?aea??iee A.CI-89,
oaoiieia?y a?aeai?o i?ia a?oio?a i?ieoee ae?iaie/? ?nieoe i?e ao??ii?
?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo naa?aeeiaei ia eiioeiaioaeueiiio oaeueo?
i.Naoae?i ? ia?aaeai? aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy Aeaeaeino?aei?e
ii?nuee?e ?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/i?e aeniaaeeoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeeny ia Ana?in?enuee?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano a
ao??ii? aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo naa?aeeiaei» a Oiinueeiio iie?oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? (Oiinuee, 1994?.), ia I?aeaea?aeaaiiio nai?ia?? «I?iaeaie
eiiieaeniiai canai?iiy iaae?» a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e a??ie/?e aeaaeai??
Oe?a?ie (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1995?.), ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei a oneeaaeiaieo oiiaao», i?enay/aii? 25-??//th
eaoaae?e «Oaoiieia?y ? oaoi?ea aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o»
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Aeiiaoeuee, 1996?.),
ia 2-e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aiooaeiiane? /eoaiiy” a IAA
Oe?a?ie (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998?.), ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? ?iai? aeaaeai?ea I.A. Oniaa a OIO (Oiinuee, 1998?.), ia
VIII Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? nooaeaio?a ? ani??aio?a
“Ioi?iia iaaeieeoiuei? na?aaee ? ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a a AeiiAeOO (Aeiiaoeuee, 1998?.), ia I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “XXI noi??//y — i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae
canai?iiy ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei” a IAA Oe?a?ie (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1998?.), ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e OOA? AeiiAeOO (1994-1997?.?.),
ia ia’?aeiaiiio nai?ia?? IAA Oe?a?ie (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 10 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?noeoue 160 noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a,
caaaeueieo aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 126
iaeiaioaaiue. Taenoiaa /anoeia i?noeoue 36 ?enoie?a, 24 oaaeeoe? ? 3
aeiaeaoee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee no/aniiio noaio ao??iiy
?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo naa?aeeiaei ia eiioeiaioaeueiiio oaeueo?.

A i?ae?icae?e? 1.1 ?icaeyioo? aenieoaoaoe?eii-oaoiieia?/i? aeiiae i?e
?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aei a?aeai?o i?ia ??oio?a ?
iniaeeaino? nii?oaeaeaiiy aeeaieeo naa?aeeiaei a ii?nueeeo oiiaao, ye? ?
ao?aeieie ia?aaeoiiaaie i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?/ii? noaie iaa?oaeueiiai
caniao ao??iiy c aeei?enoaiiyi CNI ? i?eioeeiiai? noaie caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea.

A i?ae?icae?e? 1.2 ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aeyaeai? iaaeie?ee
?aeniaiai ? oeaiaieaaaeueiiai iaa?oaeueiiai ao??iiy ? iaa?oioiaaia, c
oi/ee ci?o aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy caaeaieo i?iaia?aea??iee?a aeey a?aeai?o i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo
i?ia ??oio?a, ia?niaeoeai?noue oaoiieia?/ii? noaie iaa?oaeueiiai ao??iiy
naa?aeeiaei c aeei?enoaiiyi CNI.

A i?ae?icae?e? 1.3 i?eaaaeaii iaeyae eiino?oeoeaieo noai no/anieo
caaeaieo oa a?a?aoe?eieo a?oioiiin?a ? i?iaia?aea??iee?a, ye?
?aae?cothoue aia?a?th i?aei?ia?iiai ? neeaea?iiai aaioaaeo,
aeaeo?iaia?a?th, aia?a?th noeneiai iia?o?y ? iai??ii? aiaee.
I?iaiae?ciaai? ?o ia?aaaae ? iaaeie?ee. Iacaaaeath/e ia iiaeeea?noue
?aaoethaaiiy a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ia?aiao??a caaeaee, iayai?noue
ca’ycoth/iai aeaiaioo i?ae i?eaiaeii, ?ici?uaiei ia eieeaath/iiony
ieaacaniao, ? aeei?enoiao?iei i?eno?i?i ?iaeoue iaiiaeeeaei a?aea??
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?ia ??oio?a ca aeiiiiiaith iaoai?/ieo caaeaieo
a?oioiiin?a ? i?iaia?aea??iee?a. A?aoiaoth/e a?aenooi?noue aoaeoeaieo ?
iaae?eieo eiino?oeoe?e aeaeo?ioaea?iee?a oa iaiaaeaio ii aeeaei?
iaeanoue canoinoaaiiy iiaaiii?ea?aeo, iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei ?
iai?aaeaiiy, ca’ycaia c ?ic?iaeith a?ae?ii?eaiaeiiai caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea. Ia?niaeoeai?noue i?iaia?aea??ieea c a?ae?aae?/iei
i?eaiaeii coiiaeth?oueny iacaeaaei?noth eiai ?iaioe a?ae aeeaeie
caio?aiiy a ii?a, iiaeeea?noth oi?aae?iiy ? eiio?ieth ca i?ioeanii
a?aeai?o i?iae ? aeaiaeith i?aeaaaeaiiy aia?a?? a?ae aaea iayaiiai ia
noaei? ao?iaiai ianino.

A i?ae?icae?e? 1.4 cai?iiiiiaaia i?eioeeiiaa noaia ci?iiiai caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea c aaoiiiiiei a?ae?aae?/iei i?eaiaeii. I?eioeei eiai
?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a?ae?iaeaeaoi i?eno?ith noai?th?
cai?ioii-iinooiiaa ia?ai?uaiiy caoaao?a, ye? i?e oiae? aaa?o
i?aei?iathoue aieie, aecaieyth/e eiai a e?ioe? oiaeo. Aieie, iaaeath/e
i?ae ae??th aeanii? aaae, caaaea? oaea? ii eiaaaeeo, iiaeeaeyth/e
ea?iii?eeiaeueio o?oao a ??oio. I?ney oeueiai caoaaoe ia?ai?uothoueny
aiec, c’?aeiothoueny c aieeii, ? aeae? ?iai/ee oeeee iiaoi?th?oueny.

A e?ioe? ?icae?eo noi?ioeueiaai? caaea/? oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?acoeueoaoai oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
?iaioe caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea c a?ae?aae?/iei i?eaiaeii, ye?
cae?enithaaeenue a iai?aaeaii? “a?ae ?oeio?iiai iaoa??aeo — aei iaoeie”.

A i?ae?icae?e? 2.1 ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oaea?ieo
nenoai a ao??ii?, aeeiiai? ?.A.Aeaenaiae?iaei, I.Ae.Ae?iiaei,
A.Ae.Aiae?a?aei, TH.Ae.Aacniiiaei, E.?.?aaiiaei, E.I.Eiaaiii,
A.I.?aa??eii, A.ss.?oa?iooaeiii, A.A.Nieie?inueeei, A.N.Oiiaiei,
N.N.Oai?inoianueeei, ?.A.Oieiaeiaei, ?.A.Oaeeiaieeiaei oa ?ioeie.
Iieacaia iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeyaeo i?ioean?a a oaea?i?e nenoai? caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea c oi/ee ci?o oaeeueia?e iaoai?ee.

Aei iei?oiueiai /ano ?ic?iaeaii ?yae iaoiaeee, aecia/ath/eo caeii ci?ie
coneeue, ui aeieeathoue a i?ii?aei?e eaioe? ? ia eiioaeo?
ii?iaei?oeioth/iai ?ino?oiaioo c a??ie/ith ii?iaeith, a /an?.
A?eueo?noth aeine?aeiee?a cai?iiiiiaai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiene ?iai/eo
i?ioean?a a oaea?ieo nenoaiao i?e ao??ii? i?oeieo neaeueieo ii??ae,
aeinoaoiuei oi/ii a?aeaeaath/eo ae?eni? yaeua. Iaeiae, io?eiai?
caeaaeiino?, aiane?aeie a?aeciaee o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ?
iaaaioaaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee a??ie/eo ii??ae, ia iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
i?e aea/aii? i?ioeano oaea?iiai caaeeaeaiiy a ianeaeueiee ??oio.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? ii?nueeiai i?iaia?aeai?o a i’yeeo ? iooeeo ii?iaeao
A.N.Oiiaiei aoea cai?iiiiiaaia oi?ioea aeey aecia/aiiy ci?uaiiy
ia?aoei?a eieiieiai? o?oae, ui aeicaieeoue io?eiaoe cia/aiiy caaeeaeaiiy
i?iaia?aea??ieea ca iaeeie/iee oaea?. Iaeiae, a a?aeiia?aeiino? c
?ic?aooieaie, i?iaaaeaieie ii aeai?e oi?ioe?, a ii/aoeiaee iiiaio
?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaeeue aeaoi?iaoe?e oi?aoeue i?ii?aeii? eaiee,
eiioaeooth/i? c a??ie/ith ii?iaeith, ia?ai?uo?oueny a noi?iio aieea.
Iaa?aeiia?aei?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ae?eniiio iieiaeaiith ?a/ae
iiynith?oueny iaa??iei caaaeaiiyi ii/aoeiaeo oiia caaea/?. E??i oiai,
oey iiaeaeue iiynith? caaeeaeaiiy eieiieiai? o?oae o?eueee ca ?aooiie
i?oaeii? aeaoi?iaoe??, ia a?aoiaoth/e iinooiiaiai ia?ai?uaiiy
i?iaia?aea??ieea a ?oeio?iee ??oio.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeicaieea ?ic?iaeoe i?aeo?ae aei oai?aoe/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaea?ii? nenoaie aeey aenieoaoaoe?? a ianeaeueiiio
a?oio?.

A i?ae?icae?e? 2.2 cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue oaea?ii?
aca?iiae?? aeaiaio?a nenoaie “aieie—ea?iii?eeiaeueia o?oaa—ianeaeueiee
??oio”. Ca?aeii ?e, aieie ianith ma caaaea? ia??iaee/i? oaea?e c?
oaeaee?noth Va ii aa?oiueiio e?ioeth ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oae aeiaaeeiith
lo, yea oie?a?oueny a aea?e, caaeeaeyth/e ?? a ianeaeueiee ??oio. C aieo
??oioo, a aea?ei?e cii? o aaoiaea, ae?thoue neee eiaiaiai Re ? aieiaiai
Ra iii??a, a?aeiia?aei? /enoiieanoe/ii? iiaeae? ??oioo. I?eeia?oueny, ui
ea?iii?eeiaeueia o?oaa a iiiaio oaea?o iaii?ooia ? iaiai?oaeaia.
Aeiionea?oueny oaeiae, ui oaea?ia nenoaia iiaea aooe oyaeaia ye
noa?aeiaaa, a i?ioean ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaeeue aeaoi?iaoe?e a i?e —
iienaiee iaeiiaei??iei oaeeueiaei ??aiyiiyi c o?aooaaiiyi aeeneiaoe??
aia?a?? ca ?aooiie aioo??oiueiai oa?oy ? ?icn?thaaiiy a
ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oa?. I?e oeueiio eiie?aoi? cia/aiiy eiaa?eoi?/iiai
aeae?aiaioo eieeaaiue i?eeiyo? ia i?aenoaa? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo,
io?eiaieo TH.Ae.Aacniiiaui ? A.A.Eieiiieoeai. Oiio ui oaea?ia
aei?noe?noue aieea a aeae?eueea ?ac?a a?eueoa oaea?ii? aei?noeino?
ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oae, oi aieie, a a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie
ss.A.Iaiiaei oa I.Ae.Ae?iiaa, ?icaeyaea?oueny ye aaniethoii aei?noea
o?ei. Ea?iii?eeiaeueia o?oaa cai?ith?oueny noa?aeiai oaei? aea aeiaaeeie
? c a?aeiia?aeiith ieiuath iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio F (?en.1).

?en.1. ?ic?aooieiaa noaia oaea?ii? aca?iiae?? aeaiaio?a nenoaie «aieie —
ea?iii?eeiaeueia o?oaa — ianeaeueiee ??oio»

A?euei? eieeaaiiy noa?aeiy c aioo??oi?i iii?ii, i?iii?oe?eiei oaeaeeino?
ci?uaiiy eiai ia?aoeio, iienothoueny ??aiyiiyi:

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???2?. ???¶?A? ???2?C ???¶?A????u y??????1/4???I??Times New
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a???2?p? ???2 ???2?p? ???2(O
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??????????????????????????????????????????????.)(,(1)aea u — a?aeoeeaiiy
?icaeyaeoaaiiai ia?aoeio a?ae iieiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae a oi/oe? c
eii?aeeiaoith x, i (a?nue x iai?aaeaia a?ae i?noey c?oeiaiiy aei
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??????????????????????????????????????????????A? — eiaa?eoi?/iee
aeae?aiaio eieeaaiue, 1/n; t — iioi/ia cia/aiiy /ano, n; a — oaeaee?noue
?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaee? aeaoi?iaoe?? a ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oa?, i/n.

A?aie/i? oiiae aeey ??oaiiy caaea/? oi?ioeththoueny ne?aeoth/ei /eiii:

· A eiioaeoiiio ia?aoei? aieea ? ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oae aeieea? i?oaeia
neea, ui a??aiiaaaeo? neeo ?ia?oe?? aieea

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? ??oioo, ui ?oeio?oueny, i?oaeia neea c aieo ia?oi? a??aiiaaaeo?oueny
neeith iii?o ??oioo caaeeaeaiith

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Roman Cyr?IY???-?????? ???2y???o?p? ???2+???e??
???2Ii/aoeia? oiiae caaea/? iathoue aeaeyae:

· A?aeoeeaiiy on?o ia?aoei?a ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oae aei??aith? ioeth

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????????????????????????????????????????????????.(4)· Oaeaee?noue
eiioaeoiiai ia?aoeio aieea ? ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oae aecia/a?oueny
oaeaee?noth c?oeiaiiy, on? ?io? ia?aoeie o?oae iaii?ooi?

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oiiaaie (2-5), io?eia?ii ae?ace aeey aecia/aiiy aaee/eie ? oaeaeeino?
ia?ai?uaiiy aoaeue-yeiai ia?aoeio, a oaeiae coneeey, ui aeieea? a iueiio

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?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue A.Ae.Aiae?a?aa,
TH.Ae.Aacniiiaa, A.I.Ai/eianueeiai, I.I.Caeainueeiai, A.A.Eaa/a,
*.Oayi?aeco aeey ?icaeyaeoaaii? iaie oaea?ii? nenoaie c?iaeaia
i?eiouaiiy, ca?aeii yeiio aaee/eia caaeeaeaiiy i?iaia?aea??ieea ca
iaeeie/iee oaea? aecia/a?oueny ae??th ia?oeo 2-4 oaeeue aeaoi?iaoe??. C
o?aooaaiiyi ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?yaeo aeine?aeiee?a ii aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueii?
oaea?ii? iane aeey aoaeoeaiiai caaeeaeaiiy a i’ye? ? iooe? ??oioe iana
aieea i?iaia?aea??ieea i?eeia?oueny ??aiith 50 ea.

?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy aaee/eie caaeeaeaiiy i?iaia?aea??ieea ca
iaeeie/iee oaea? a ??ciiiai?oi? ??oioe iaaaaeai? a oaae.1.

Oaaeeoey 1 — ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy aaee/eie caaeeaeaiiy i?iaia?aea??ieea
ca iaeeie/iee oaea? (ma=50 ea, Va=1,5 i/n, lo=1 i.)

Y?oioEiaiaee ii??, IIeoiiee ii?? ii aieia?e iiaa?oi?, I/iCaaeeaeaiiy ca
iaeeie/iee oaea?, iiAeeia oaa?aei? eiinenoaioe??990048003.42Aeeia
iieooaa?aeie eiinenoaioe??528045203.55I?nie u?eueiee19600107002.22I?nie
na?aaeiuei? u?eueiino?1320098003.29Noaeeiie ooaiieanoe/iee.
Noi?nue.39602440 — 42403.57Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeaaeooue iiaeeea?noue
ioe?ieoe cia/aiiy caaeeaeaiiy i?e caaeaieo o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoyo ?oeio?iiai ??oioo, aea?aieo eiino?oeoeaieo ? aia?aaoe/ieo
ia?aiao?ao i?eno?ith oa /an a?aeai?o i?iae caaeaii? aeiaaeeie.

A i?ae?icae?e? 2.3 aeeiiaiee oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ?iai/iai oeeeeo
caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea, ye?e neeaaea?oueny c ni?eueiiai ia oiae?
aaa?o ? ie?aiiai ia oiae? aiec ?ooo ii?oiaai? a?oie a?ae?iaeaeaoia ?
aieea oaea?iiai aocea.

I?e neeaaeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ?iai/iai oeeeeo a?ae?iaeaeaoia
i?iaia?aea??ieea a?aoiaai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ia’?iieo ii?oiaaeo a?ae?iaeaeaoi?a, io?eiaieo E.A.A?aoii,
?.O.Aiooaeiii, I.?.Eae?i?/aiei, A.O.Eenaeueiaei, A.?.Iaoaea/?iei,
A.?.Ieeeioeii, A.I.Iiaee?aeeoaaui, E.A.Oieioiaei, A.A.ssniaei oa ?ioeie.

Aea/aiiy e?iaiaoeee ? aeeiai?ee ii?oiaai? a?oie a?ae?iaeaeaoia
aeeoa?aioe?eii? ae?? c aeaieeaiaiiith nenoaiith aiaei?iciiae?eo, ui
aeei?enoiao?oueny a yeino? i?eaiaeo iaoai?cio ia?ai?uaiiy aieea,
aeicaiey? iiae?eeoe eiai ?iai/ee oeeee ia /ioe?e oace:

1. ?iai/ee o?ae ii?oiaai? a?oie i?ae ae??th oeneo ??aeeie aaa?o
(o?eaae?noue t1).

2. A?eueiee o?ae ii?oiaai? a?oie i?ae /an ia?anoaiiaee eeaiai?a c
ieaeiueiai iieiaeaiiy a aa?oi? (o?eaae?noue t2).

3. ?iai/ee o?ae ii?oiaai? a?oie i?ae ae??th oeneo ??aeeie aiec
(o?eaae?noue t3).

4. A?eueiee o?ae ii?oiaai? a?oie i?ae /an ia?anoaiiaee eeaiai?a c
aa?oiueiai a ao?aeia ieaei? iieiaeaiiy (o?eaae?noue t4).

?oo ii?oiy ia ?iai/iio oiae? iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi:

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??ciiiai?oia, aaee/eia aeiaeaoeiaiai oeneo aecia/a?oueny ia aeey anueiai
oeeeeo, a ie?aii aeey oiaeo a iaeio noi?iio.

A ?acoeueoao? ??oaiiy ??aiyiiy (13) c o?aooaaiiyi nei?i/oth/eo iicia/ie

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ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe cia/aiiy ?iai/iai oiaeo S=0,5 i,
ui caaania/o? iaiao?aeio /anoioo oaea??a caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea, a
oaeiae caeaaei?noue ia??iaeo ?iai/iai oeeeeo a?ae?iaeaeaoia a?ae iiaea/?
ia eiai i?ea?ae ??aeeie, yea ia? e?i?eiee oa?aeoa?. Aeiionoeia iaeanoue
ci?ie ia?aiao?o Q iaiaaeo?oueny, c iaeiiai aieo, aeiiaaie ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a aei /anoioe oaea??a caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea (ia a?eueo 1
Aoe), c ?ioiai aieo — i?i?iaeueii iiaeeeaith iiaea/ath ?iai/i? ??aeeie,
yea caaacia/o? ?iaioo iaoai?cio

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a?ae oiai, aa?oeeaeueia aai iioeea iieiaeaiiy a naa?aeeiaei? caeia?
i?iaia?aea??iee, aieie iiaea ?icoaoiaoaaoeny a?aeiinii ei?iona
eiioeaio?e/ii aai aenoeaio?e/ii. I?e eiioeaio?e/iiio ?icoaooaaii? ?oo
aieea a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae ae??th neee oyae?iiy, aeooiaooth/ie neee, nee
eiaiaiai ? a?ae?aae?/iiai iii?o. A aeiaaeeo iaea?eueo eiia??iiai
aenoeaio?e/iiai ?icoaooaaiiy aieea aeiaea?oueny neea oa?oy ia ei?ion
oaea?iiai aocea.

??oaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiiai ??aiyiiy ?ooo aieea cae?enith?oueny /enaeueiei
caniaii ?oiaa-Eoooa ia AII, i?e oeueiio i?inoaaeo?oueny ci?ia aeaeyaeo
aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai ??aiyiiy a /an?, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aaeeio ?ooo
??aeeie, yea iao?ea? aieie.

Aeey aeiaaeeo aenoeaio?e/iiai ?icoaooaaiiy aieea i?e eai?ia?iiio ?aaeei?
oa/?? ??aeeie ??aiyiiy ?ooo aieea ia? aeaeyae

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? ??^??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
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?MathType??a? ???u?????????»????-?????<???<????<‚ ???<†???<U???<???<` ???<!???u?th??????wmetafile8? ??F??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ? A$???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy?$??§ ?? ???&? ?MathType??? ???u?????????"????-?????Hu???H????H? ???H‡ ???u?????????"????-????IO???I !???-?????BOe???& ???u?? ???????"????-????.????N???-??????V???–????– ????–,!???HU???HL!???-????¬?"???¬c#???-???? ?? u???? o???? H???? C???? ‘???? &???u y??????1/4???I?Times New Roman Cyr?I???-????2o O???.????2g ss???2????2– ?en. 2. Oai?aoe/ia caeaaei?noue oaeaeeino? iaae?iiy aieea a?ae i?ieaeaiiai oeyoo i?e aaee/ei? e?eueoeaaiai caci?o , ??aiiio 3 ii (1), 4 ii (2) ? 5 ii (3). ma=50 ea, D=79 ii Ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ooo caoaao?a c ?ooii aieea ia oiae? aiec i?iaiaeeoueny aeey iaea?eueo eiia??iiai aeiaaeeo aenoeaio?e/iiai ?icoaooaaiiy. I?e oeueiio, c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai ?oeioaaiiy ??oioo, a oaeiae iaae?eii? ?iaioe nenoaie “caoaaoe i?eaiaeo — aieiaea aieea” i?iaeoo?oueny aaee/eia e?eueoeaaiai caci?o, ??aia 5 ii. E?eoa???i ocaiaeaeaiiy ? oiiaa: iioi/ia cia/aiiy ia?ai?uaiiy aieea iiaeiii aooe a?eueoa iioi/iiai cia/aiiy ia?ai?uaiiy ii?oiaai? a?oie a?ae?iaeaeaoia ia oiae? aiec, oiaoi xaieea(t)>xii?oi.a?.(t).(23)Aeey oeueiai aoaeothoueny a?ao?/i?
caeaaeiino? ia?ai?uaiiy ii?oiaai? a?oie ? aieea a?ae /ano. C ?en.3
aeaeii, ui aeey caiia?aaiiy ia?aae/aniiio c’?aeiaiith caoaao?a c aieeii
ianith 50 ea i?e aaee/ei? e?eueoeaaiai caci?o 5 ii ? iaeneiaeueii
aeiionoei?e iiaea/? ia i?ea?ae a?ae?iaeaeaoia 75 e/oaee a?aenoaaaiiy a
/an? iiaeiii ia?aaeuoaaoe 0.07 n.

?en. 3. Ocaiaeaeaiiy a /an? ?ooo ii?oiaai? a?oie (2) ia oiae? aiec c
?ooii aieea, ui iaaea? (1)

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aenia?eiaioaeueiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea c a?ae?aae?/iei i?eaiaeii.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.1 noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ? aecia/ai? caaea/?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.2 iaaaaeaiee iien aenia?eiaioaeueii? onoaiiaee,
aei??thaaeueia ? ?a?no?oth/a aia?aoo?a.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.3 aeeeaaeaia iaoiaeeea aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a i?ae?icae?e? 3.4 — ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii?
ia?iaee ? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.5 iaaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii aecia/aiith
aieeao aaee/eie e?eueoeaaiai caci?o ia oaeaee?noue ?ooo aieea oaea?iiai
aocea ia oiae? aiec. Aeey aieea ianith 10, 30 ? 50 ea i?e aa??thaaii?
aaee/eie e?eueoeaaiai caci?o a ?acoeueoao? noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee aeaieo
io?eiai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ui aeicaieythoue ai?ieneioaaoe caeaaei?noue,
yea aeine?aeaeo?oueny. Aecia/ai? ei?aeyoe?ei? a?aeiioaiiy.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.6 i?iaaaeaii aiae?c io?eiaii? a ?acoeueoao? ia?iaee
?yaeo inoeeeia?ai ocaaaeueiaii? oeeeeia?aie ?iai/iai oeeeeo i?eaiaeiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaoia aeeoa?aioe?eii? ae?? c aeaieeaiaiiith nenoaiith
aiaei?iciiae?eo. Ii iaaaaeai?e ia ?en.4 oeeeeia?ai? iiaeia a?aecia/eoe
ianooiia:

1. Eeaiaiia i?oaeeia ia aeyaey? ?noioiiai aieeao ia oaeaee?noue ?ooo
ii?oiaai? a?oie, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iiaeeea?noue oai?aoe/iiai iieno
?iai/iai oeeeeo a?ae?iaeaeaoia aac a?aooaaiiy ?? ae??.

2. Na?aaei?e oene ??aeeie a neeiaiio oeee?iae?? a?ae?iaeaeaoia i?e oiae?
ii?oiaai? a?oie aaa?o aeua, i?ae i?e oiae? aiec, ui coiiaeaii
a?aei?ii?noth iaaaioaaeaiiy (i?e oiae? aaa?o ii?oaiue i?aei?ia? aieie,
i?e oiae? aiec — ?aea aac iueiai).

3. Ii oe?e aea i?e/ei? ?ioaineai?noue c?inoaiiy oaeaeeino? ?ooo
ii?oiaai? a?oie a?ae?iaeaeaoia i?e oiae? aaa?o ieae/a, i?ae i?e oiae?
aiec. Oaeaee?noue a e?ioe? ?iai/iai oiaeo ia ia?aaeuo? aaee/eio V=Q/f,
yea aecia/a?oueny iiaea/ath ??aeeie ia i?ea?ae a?ae?iaeaeaoia (aea —
eiao?oe??io aeoieo).

?en.4 Ocaaaeueiaia oeeeeia?aia ?iai/iai oeeeeo a?ae?iaeaeaoia caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea. 1 — e?eaa V=f (t), 2 — e?eaa p=f (t)

Iaaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii aecia/aiith caeaaeiino? o?eaaeino?
?iai/iai oeeeeo a?ae iiaea/? ??aeeie. ?ica?aeiino? i?ae ?ic?aooieiaeie ?
oaeoe/ii ci??yieie aaee/eiaie ia ia?aaeuothoue 3.8%. Iiaoaeiaaia ii
e?aieai caeaaei?noue T=f(Q) ia? e?i?eiee oa?aeoa? ? aea? iai/ia iiaeaiiy
i?i aeiionoeio iaeanoue ci?ie ia?aiao?o Q. Iaeii/ania inoeeeia?aooaaiiy
oaeaeeino? ?ooo ii?oiaai? a?oie ? aieea i?e eiino?oeoeaiiio caaacia/aii?
a?aenoaaaiiy ia aaee/eio, yea ia?aaeuo? 0.07 n, aeicaiey? c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i a?aenooi?noue ia?aae/anii?, aei iaianaiiy oaea?o ii
eiaaaeeo, aca?iiae?? caoaao?a ? aieea, ui aiai?eoue i?i aaeaeaaoi?noue
cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ?iai/iai oeeeeo caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.7 i?eaiaeyoueny aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii aecia/aiith
aaee/eie caaeeaeaiiy ca iaeeie/iee oaea? a iaeeica?i?noee i?nie ?
ooaiieanoe/iee noaeeiie, a oaeiae inoeeeia?aie oaeaeeino? caaeeaeaiiy
ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oae i?iaia?aea??ieea.

Aeia?a ocaiaeaeai?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? ?ic?aooieiaeo aeey oiia
aenia?eiaioo aeaieo, aiae?c io?eiaieo inoeeeia?ai (i?aeoaa?aeaeoth/eo,
ui caaeeaeaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae ae??th ia?oeo 3-4 oaeeue
aeaoi?iaoe?e) aiai?youe i?i aaeaeaaoi?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoaiaoe/ii?
iiaeae? i?ioeano oaea?ii? aca?iiae?? aeaiaio?a nenoaie “aieie —
ea?iii?eeiaeueia o?oaa — ianeaeueiee ??oio”.

Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue a??ia?aei?noue aeeeaaeaieo a ae?oaiio ?icae?e?
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? eiino?oeoe?? caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea c aaoiiiiiei i?eaiaeii ? oaoiieia?? eiai canoinoaaiiy.

A i?ae?icae?e? 4.1 oyaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaii? ia i?aenoaa?
i?iaaaeaieo oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaee
eiino?oeoe?? caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea c a?ae?aae?/iei i?eaiaeii
(?en.5). Caaeaiee i?iaia?aea??iee A.CI-89 ia?aaeaecia/aiee aeey a?aeai?o
iiiie?oieo i?ia ??oio?a i?uaii-aeeiynoiai eiiieaeno, noiniaieo aei 1-4
eaoaai??? ii ao??iino?. Aeei?enoiao?oueny a yeino? ci?iiiai ?ino?oiaioo
i?e nii?oaeaeaii? ?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo naa?aeeiaei iaa?oaeueiei
caniaii ii oaoiieia?? c aeei?enoaiiyi CNI.

?en.5 Caaeaii? i?iaia?aea??iee A.CI-89: 1,2-aioneiee ? aeioneiee
eeaiaia, 3-oeee?iae?, 4 iaiaaeoaa/?, 5-ii?oaiue, 6-ooiaoa/, 7-iii?ia
aooeea, 8-i?oaeeia, 9-oyaa, 10-ei?ion a?ae?iaeaeaoia, 11-caoaaoe,
12-aieie, 13-ei?ion oaea?iiai aocea, 14-eiaaaeei, 15-ea?iii?eeiaeueiee

Oaoi?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?ic?iaeaiiai caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea A.CI-89
iaaaaeaia a oaae.2.

Oaaeeoey 2 — Oaoi?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea A.CI-89

Ciai?oi?e ae?aiao? aaoiaeo, ii89Ae?aiao? i?iae, ii76Aeiaaeeia ?aeno,
i0.6Oei i?eaiaeo iaoai?cio ia?ai?uaiiy aieeaA?ae?aae?/ieeIiaea/a ?iai/i?
??aeeie, e/oaee.55-75Ia?aiaae oeneo ia a?ae?iaeaeaoi?, IIa0.5-1.0Iana
aieea, ea50Aenioa iaae?iiy aieea, i0.5*anoioa oaea??a,
Aoe0.7-1.0Aaaa?eoi? ?ici??e: aeiaaeeia, ii

ae?aiao?, ii4550

93Iana, ia a?eueo, ea95A i?ae?icae?e? 4.2 iaaaaeaia cai?iiiiiaaia
oaoiieia?y canoinoaaiiy i?eno?ith, oni?oii ai?iaiaaia a ae?iaie/eo
oiiaao.

A i?ae?icae?e? 4.3 aeeeaaeai? iaoa ? iaoiaeeea ae?iaie/eo ?nieo?a.
Iiaiee ianya ae?iaie/eo ?nieo?a caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea A.CI-89
aeeth/aa o?e aoaie: caaiaenuee? (i?ney aeaioiaeaiiy), noaiaeia? (a
eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao) ? iiia?aaei? ae?iaie/?. Iiia?aaei? ae?iaie/? ?nieoe
i?iaiaeeeeny ia oaeueo? i.Naoae?i, ia ae?eueieoe? ?ia?o Aeaeaeino?aei?e
ii?nuee?e ?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/i?e aeniaaeeoe?? i?e ao??ii? naa?aeeiaei c
IAeN “Ae?aaac” ii oaoiieia?? c aeei?enoaiiyi CNI.

A i?ae?icae?e? 4.4 iaaaaeai? aeai? ?acoeueoao?a a?aeai?o i?ia a?oio?a,
aeeiiaieo cai?iiiiiaaiei caaeaiei i?iaia?aea??ieeii ? ooaoieie caaeaiei
? aoeneo?iei i?iaia?aea??ieeaie. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iieaco? i/aaeaei?
ia?aaaae ?ic?iaeaiiai c?acea c oi/ee ci?o yeino? iaea?aeoaaii? i?iae ?
aeaiaee aenieoaoaoe??. A?aecia/a?oueny aenieee aeo?ae ea?ia,
a?aenooi?noue ii?ooaiue no?oeoo?e i?iae. Iayai? eiioaeoe ??oio?a /?oei
aeneiaeai?. I?iaaaeai? eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae a?ae?a?aieo i?ia aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i
iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?iaia?aea??ieea A.CI-89 aeey ??oaiiy
?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo caaea/.

A i?ae?icae?e? 4.5 ?icaeyioo? ia?niaeoeae canoinoaaiiy caaeaieo
i?iaia?aea??iee?a c aaoiiiiiei a?ae?aae?/iei i?eaiaeii a ii?nuee?e ?
nooiiooi?e ?iaeaia?i?e aaieia??, iniiai? iai?yiee ianooiieo oai?aoe/ieo
? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

AENIIAEE

Aeena?oaoe?y ? cae?i/aiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith ?iaioith, a ye?e ia
i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeaii ??oaiiy aeooaeueii? caaea/?, yea iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? aaoiiiiiiai
caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea aeey ao??iiy ?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo
naa?aeeiaei ia eiioeiaioaeueiiio oaeueo? ii oaoiieia?? c aeei?enoaiiyi
ci?iieo naa?aeeiaeiieo i?enoinoaaiue, ui caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? ?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?ioeano a?aeai?o i?iae ianeaeueieo ??oio?a a oiiaao
aa?oeeaeueieo ia?ai?uaiue ieaacaniao.

Iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iieyaathoue a
ianooiiiio:

1. Aeeo/aiiy aieeao aa?oeeaeueieo ia?ai?uaiue ieaacaniao ia i?ioean
caaeeaeaiiy i?iaia?aea??ieea a ??oio, ocaiaeaeaiiy aiie?ooaee ? /anoioe
oaea??a aieea ii ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oa? caaacia/o? a?aeae?aiiy
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?ia ??oio?a ci?iiei caaeaiei i?iaia?aea??ieeii c
aaoiiiiiei a?ae?aae?/iei i?eaiaeii ? iaaeath/ei ia ?iai/iio oiae? aieeii
i?e ao??ii? ?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo naa?aeeiaei ia eiioeiaioaeueiiio
oaeueo?.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue oaea?iiai caaeeaeaiiy caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea a ianeaeueiee ??oio, iniiaaia ia ??oaii? oaeeueiaiai
??aiyiiy eieeaaiue ea?iii?eeiaeueii? o?oae c o?aooaaiiyi aeeneiaoe??
aia?a?? a ao?iaiio nia?yae? ? /enoiieanoe/ii? iiaeae? iii?o ??oioo
caaeeaeaiith. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaee/eia caaeeaeaiiy ca iaeeie/iee oaea? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ?oeio?iiai ??oioo i?e
ian? aieea 30-70 ea ? oaeaeeino? c?oeiaiiy c eiaaaeeii 1-2 i/n
aecia/a?oueny ae??th 3-4 oaeeue aeaoi?iaoe??, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
i?iaiicoaaoe ia?aiao?e caaeeaeaiiy i?iaia?aea??ieea ca iaeeie/iee oaea?,
a oaeiae /an i?ioeano a?aeai?o i?iae.

3. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ?iai/iai oeeeeo iaa??aiiaaaeaiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaoia aeeoa?aioe?eii? ae??, ye?e aeei?enoiao?oueny a yeino?
i?eaiaeo iaoai?cio ia?ai?uaiiy aieea, ui aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aeiionoei?
iaeano? ci?ie oaoiieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?e i?eeiyoeo eiino?oeoeaieo
ia?aiao?ao i?eno?ith. ?iai/a iaeanoue iiaea/? ??aeeie ia i?ea?ae
a?ae?iaeaeaoia iaiaaeo?oueny aeiiaaie aei /anoioe oaea??a caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea (ia a?eueo 1 Aoe) ? i?i?iaeueii iiaeeeaith iiaea/ath,
ui caaacia/o? caione i?eno?ith (i?e S=0.5 i Q=55…75 e/oaee).

4. Caeaaei?noue ci?ie oaeaeeino? ?ooo aieea a /an? a aeiaaeeo eiai
aenoeaio?e/iiai ?icoaooaaiiy a ei?ion? oaea?iiai aocea ia? oa?aeoa?
a?ia?aie?/ii? oaiaaini?aee. ?ioaineai?noue c?inoaiiy oaeaeeino?
ca?eueoo?oueny i?e c?inoaii? aaee/eie e?eueoeaaiai caci?o, ci?iith yeiai
iiaeia aeiaeoeny iaiao?aeieo aia?aaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a i?iaia?aea??ieea, ?
ciaioaii? aenoeaio?eneoaoo. A oeae aea /an, aaee/eia e?eueoeaaiai caci?o
iiaeiia caaacia/oaaoe c’?aeiaiiy caoaao?a ? aieea, ui aa?aioo? iaae?eio
?iaioo i?eno?ith.

5. Ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ooo ii?oiaai? a?oie a?ae?iaeaeaoia c ?ooii aieea ia
oiae? aiec aeeeth/a? eiai ia?aae/ania c’?aeiaiiy c caoaaoaie, ui
iiceoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia ?iaio? i?iaia?aea??ieea. I?e ian? aieea 50
ea, aaee/ei? e?eueoeaaiai caci?o 5 ii ? iiaea/? ??aeeie ia i?ea?ae
a?ae?iaeaeaoia 75 e/oaee a?aenoaaaiiy ii?oiaai? a?oie a /an? iiaeiii
ia?aaeuoaaoe 0.07 n.

6. Aaeaeaaoi?noue cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeecueeith ca?aei?noth aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?
oai?aoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae (i?e aecia/aii? ia?aiao??a ?iai/iai oeeeeo
i?iaia?aea??ieea ?ica?aeiino? i?ae ?ic?aooieiaeie ? oaeoe/ii cai??yieie
aaee/eiaie ia ia?aaeuoaaee 3.8 %, aaee/eie caaeeaeaiiy ca iaeeie/iee
oaea? — 7 %).

7. Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o
noai?aia eiino?oeoe?y caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea c a?ae?aae?/iei
i?eaiaeii A.CI-89 aeey ?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?e ao??ii?
ii?nueeeo naa?aeeiaei ii oaoiieia?? c aeei?enoaiiyi ci?iieo naa?aeeiaei
i?eno?i?a. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y a?aeai?o i?ia. Ae?iaie/eie ?nieoaie
caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea a Aeaeaeino?aei?e ii?nuee?e
?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/i?e aeniaaeeoe?? aeiaaaeaia ieo i?aoeacaeaoi?noue ?
aoaeoeai?noue a?aeai?o i?ia c i?i?iaeueiei ii?ooaiiyi no?oeoo?e a
ii?iaeao i?uaii-aeeiynoiai eiiieaeno. Oeei i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
a??ia?aei?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ianooiieo ?iaioao:

1. Eaeeie/aiei I.E., ?onaiia A.A., ?ycaiia A.I. Iaoiaeeea i?iaeoe?iaaiey
eiino?oeoeaiuo e ?aai/eo ia?aiao?ia caaieiuo aeae?ioaea?iuo iaoei //
Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoieee e oaoiieiaee ao?aiey neaaaeei ia oaa?aeua
iieaciua eneiiaaiua. — Aeaoa?eiao?a: Ecae. O?aeueneiai ai?iiai
einoeoooa. — 1993. — n. 97-102.

2. Ea?aeicia A.A., ?ycaiia A.I. ?ac?aaioea e enneaaeiaaiea nuaiiuo
caaeaiuo a?oioiiinia aeey ioai?a aeiiiuo i?ia i?e ao?aiee ii?neeo
neaaaeei ii oaoiieiaee “Wire line” // I?iaeaiu iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
i?ia?anna a ao?aiee aaieiai?acaaaei/iuo neaaaeei. Oacenu aeieeaaeia
Ana?inneeneie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee. — Oiine: Ecae. Oiineiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa. — 1994. — n.24-25.

3. ?ycaiia A.I. I aeeyiee aaee/eiu eieueoeaaiai caci?a ia nei?inoue
nioaea?aiey aieea oaea?iiai ocea n iaeiaaeueiae // Ao?aiea neaaaeei a
ineiaeiaiiuo oneiaeyo. — Aeiiaoee: Ecae. Aeiiaoeeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa.-1996. — n.72-75.

4. Ea?aeicia A.A., Eaeeie/aiei I.E., THoeia E.A., THoeia A.N., ?onaiia
A.A., ?ycaiia A.I. ?ac?aaioea ao?iaiai nia?yaea ni nuaiiuie a?oioiiinaie
aeey ioai?a i?ia a?oioia e auiieiaiey aaioaoie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a
neaaaeeiao ii oaoiieiaee “Wire line” // Ao?aiea neaaaeei a ineiaeiaiiuo
oneiaeyo. — Aeiiaoee: Ecae. Aeiiaoeeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oaoie/aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa. — 1996. — n.26-28.

5. Ea?aeicia A.A., ?ycaiia A.I. Iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue oaea?iiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey yeaiaioia nenoaiu “aiae — ea?iii?eaiiay o?oaa —
ianeaeueiue a?oio” // Ao?aiea neaaaeei a ineiaeiaiiuo oneiaeyo. —
Aeiiaoee: Ecae. Aeiiaoeeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa.
— 1996. — n.132-135.

6. Ea?aeicia A.A., ?ycaiia A.I. Ia?niaeoeau ?ac?aaioee caaeaiuo
ono?ienoa aeey ioai?a iiiieeoia i?e ao?aiee ii?neeo neaaaeei n
eniieueciaaieai nuaiiuo neaaaeeiiuo i?eniiniaeaiee // Ao?aiea neaaaeei a
ineiaeiaiiuo oneiaeyo. — Aeiiaoee: Ecae. Aeiiaoeeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. — 1996. — n.130-132.

7. ?ycaiia A.I. E aii?ino oaea?iiai iia?oaeaiey i?iaiioai?ieea a
ianeaeueiue a?oio // O?oaeu 2-e iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee
“Yiooaeiianeea /oaiey” — Aeiai?iiao?iane: Ecae. Iaoeeiiaeueiie ai?iie
aeaaeaiee Oe?aeiu. — 1998. — n.58-59.

8. Ea?aeicia A.A., ?ycaiia A.I. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee oaea?iie
nenoaiu caaeaiiai i?iaiioai?ieea // Na. Iao/i. O?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu. ?3,
Oii 2 Aaieiaey iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo e oaoiieiaey ?acaaaeee. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA Oe?aeiu. — 1998. — n.234-238.

9. Eaeeie/aiei I.E., Ea?aeicia A.A., ?onaiia A.A., ?ycaiia A.I., THoeia
E.A. Iiaua oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa ao?aiey neaaaeei a oneiaeyo ii?neiai
oaeueoa // Na. Iao/i. O?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu. ?3, Oii 2 Aaieiaey iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo e oaoiieiaey ?acaaaeee. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA Oe?aeiu. —
1998. — n.255-258.

10. Ea?aeicia A.A., ?ycaiia A.I., Ieeeiaoe A.E. Aiaeec ?aai/aai oeeeea
caaeaiiai i?iaiioai?ieea n aeae?aaee/aneei i?eaiaeii //
Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoieee e oaoiieiaee ao?aiey neaaaeei ia oaa?aeua
iieaciua eneiiaaiua. — Aeaoa?eiao?a: Ecae. O?aeueneie ainoaea?noaaiiie
ai?ii-aaieiae/aneie aeaaeaiee. — 1998. — n. 170-177.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a ?iaioao, ui ioae?eoaaeeny a ni?aaaoi?noa?,
neeaaea?oueny: [1] — iien oa iaa?oiooaaiiy oac ?iai/iai oeeeeo
a?ae?iaeaeaoia aeeoa?aioe?eii? ae??; [2],[4],[9]- iien caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea c a?ae?iaeaeaoiii; [5],[8] — iaoaiaoe/iee iien oaea?ii?
aca?iiae?? aeaiaio?a nenoaie «aieie—ea?iii?eeiaeueia o?oaa—ianeaeueiee
a?oio»; [6] — aiae?c no/anieo oaoii/ieo caniaia a?aeai?o i?ia a?oio?a
aeey aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? noaie ci?iiiai caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea; [10] — iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ?iai/iai oeeeeo caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea c a?ae?iaeaeaoiii.

Aiioaoe?y

?ycaiia A.I. ?ic?iaea caaeaiiai i?iaia?aea??ieea aeey ao??iiy
?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo naa?aeeiaei ia eiioeiaioaeueiiio oaeueo?. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoi?/ieo iaoe ii niaoe?aeueiino? 05.15. 10. — “Ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei” —
Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi ?ic?iaee caaeaieo i?iaia?aea??iee?a
aeey a?aeai?o i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?ia ??oio?a a ianeaeueieo ii?iaeao a
oiiaao aa?oeeaeueieo ia?ai?uaiue ieaacaniao i?e ao??ii? aeeaieeo
ii?nueeeo ?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo naa?aeeiaei. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?oe/iiai
iaeyaeo cai?iiiiiaaia i?eioeeiiaa noaia ci?iiiai caaeaiiai
i?iaia?aea??ieea c aaoiiiiiei a?ae?aae?/iei i?eaiaeii ? a?eueii
iaaeath/ei ia ?ia?oie/iio oiae? aieeii. Aeeiiaiee iaoaiaoe/iee iien
i?ioeano oaea?ii? aca?iiae?? aeaiaio?a nenoaie “aieie — ea?iii?eeiaeueia
o?oaa — ianeaeueiee ??oio”. C iaoith iiaiaeaeaiiy a /ano ?ooo ii?oiaai?
a?oie a?ae?iaeaeaoia c ?ooii aieea i?iaaaeai? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
?iai/iai oeeeeo i?iaia?aea??ieea. ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ciaeoee i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a oiae? eaai?aoi?ieo ?nieo?a ? c’yaeeeny aacith
aeey noai?aiiy i?aeoe/ii? eiino?oeoe?? i?iaia?aea??ieea, oni?oii
ai?iaiaaii? a ae?iaie/eo oiiaao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ii?nueea ao??iiy, naa?aeeiaeia, caaeaiee
i?iaia?aea??iee, oaea?ia nenoaia, a?ae?iaeaeaoi, iiaiaeaeaiiy.

Aiiioaoeey

?ycaiia A.I. ?ac?aaioea caaeaiiai i?iaiioai?ieea aeey ao?aiey
eiaeaia?ii-aaieiae/aneeo neaaaeei ia eiioeiaioaeueiii oaeueoa. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.10. — “Ao?aiea neaaaeei” —
Iaoeeiiaeueiay ai?iay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ?ac?aaioee caaeaiuo i?iaiioai?ieeia
aeey ioai?a i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?ia a?oioia a ianeaeueiuo ii?iaeao a
oneiaeyo aa?oeeaeueiuo ia?aiauaiee ieaainiiaaiey i?e ao?aiee aeoaieeo
ii?neeo eiaeaia?ii-aaieiae/aneeo neaaaeei. Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeoe/aneiai
iaci?a i?aaeeiaeaia i?eioeeieaeueiay noaia nuaiiiai caaeaiiai
i?iaiioai?ieea n aaoiiiiiui aeae?aaee/aneei i?eaiaeii e naiaiaeii
iaaeathuei ia ?aai/ai oiaea aieeii. Auiieiaii iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea
i?ioeanna oaea?iiai acaeiiaeaenoaey yeaiaioia nenoaiu “aiae —
ea?iii?eaiiay o?oaa — ianeaeueiue a?oio”. N oeaeueth niaeaniaaiey ai
a?aiaie aeaeaeaiey ii?oiaaie a?oiiu aeae?iaeaeaaoaey n aeaeaeaieai aieea
i?iecaaaeaiu oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ?aai/aai oeeeea i?iaiioai?ieea.
?acoeueoaou oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee iaoee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea a oiaea
eaai?aoi?iuo eniuoaiee e yaeeenue aacie aeey nicaeaiey i?aeoe/aneie
eiino?oeoeee i?iaiioai?ieea, oniaoii ai?iae?iaaiiie a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oneiaeyo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ii?neia ao?aiea, neaaaeeia, caaeaiie i?iaiioai?iee,
oaea?iay nenoaia, aeae?iaeaeaaoaeue, niaeaniaaiea.

Summary

Ryazanov A.N. The development of a hammer sampler for drilling of
engineering-geological holes on the continental shelf. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the application of the Candidate of Technical Sciences degree
on speciality 05.15.10 — “Drilling of holes” — National mining academy
of Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk, 1998.

The thesis is devoted to the problems of the development of hammer
samplers used for taking soil samples of soft rocks under condition of
mother ship’s vertical moving during the drilling of deep sea holes. On
the basis of the analytical review the principle scheme of the removal
hammer sampler was suggested. The self-contained hammer sampler is
hydraulically operated and has a falling bullet when working motion. The
mathematical description of stroke interaction’s process of elements of
system “a pin—a core sampler—soft rock” is made. For the purpose of time
accordance of hydromotor piston’s motion with the motion of a pin,
theoretical researches of sampler’s working cycle were provided. The
results of theoretical researches were confirmed during the laboratory
tests and became the base of creation of sampler’s practical design,
successfully tested in industrial conditions.

Key words: sea drilling, hole, hammer sampler, impacting design,
hydromotor, accordance.

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