Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie

OAeE 621.771.26.001.2.(043)

Einoe?y Anaaieiae TH??eiae/

?IC?IAEA AENIEICIININO?EEIAI IAOAEIEIIIICEOIIAI IAOEA??AEO IA AAC?
AOAEAOeAAI? NOAE?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16.01- “Iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaoae?a”

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee- 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aea?aeaai?e iaoaeo?a?ei?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (AeIaoAO)

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee-

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioanni? Oei?ia Aaea??e Einoyioeiiae/.
Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e Oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee iaoae?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaiiaaeiaa Ienaia Ieoaee?aia,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoth/a Eaai?aoi???th
“Iia? iaoa??aee oa aaca?aeo?aei? oaoiieia??”.

Eaiaeeoao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee, Aao?ooaaa
A??a Na?a?eiaia, Aea?aeaaiee iaoeiai- aeine?aeiee oa eiino?oeoi?nueei-
oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo o?oaii? i?iieneiaino? I?i?noa?noaa i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee Oe?a?ie (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), caa?aeoth/a a?aeae?eii
Iaoaeiciaanoaa oa oaoiieia?? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo /i?ii? iaoaeo?a?? (?*I), Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 3 ” eenoiiaaea 1999?. i 12-30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae.08.084.02. o Aea?aeaai?e
iaoa?a?ei?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320635, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?.
Aaaa??ia, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaii?
iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320635, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?.
Aaaa??ia, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “2” aeiaoiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe Eiia?ia I.I.

AEOOAEUeI?NOUe ?IAIOE

A?ae?iaeaeo?iee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie iio?aao? iino?eiiai
iie?ioaiiy yeino? eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ca ?aooiie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iiaeo iaoei?ieeo oaoiieia?/ieo i?eeii?a, ye? aeicaieythoue iaea?aeaoe
iioeiaeuei? cia/aiiy aeanoeainoae i?e aeei?enoaii?, cie?aia, no?oeoo?ieo
iiaeeeainoae eiiiiceoieo iaoa??ae?a.

Oey ?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aea?aeaai?e iaoaeo?a?ei?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ye
/anoeia aeine?aeaeaiue ii noai?aiith aeiiii?/ii? ? aeieia?/ii?
oaoiieia?? io?eiaiiy eiiiiceoieo iaoa??ae?a a ?aieao «Eiioeaioe??
?icaeoeo a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie aei 2010 ?ieo».

Iaeiei c i?ia?aneaieo iai?yie?a noai?aiiy aenieii?oeieo ianoeeueieo aei
ia?aa??ao eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ? oaaaeaiiy aei noaeaaiai ?icieaao
ca?iiiiae??aithth/eo aaaio?a, ye? ?i?oe?ththoue e?enoae?caoe?th ?
aeicaieythoue noai?eoe iaoaeieiiiiceoiee iaoa??ae, yeee i?e aenie?e
i?oeiino?, oaa?aeino? ? ciinino?eeino? i?aeoe/ii ia/ooeeaee aei iaeeaio
o ii??aiyii? c aoaeaoeaaenoeie noaeyie.

IAOA ?IAIOE

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ic?iaea eiino?oeoe?eiiai iaoaeieiiiiceoiiai iaoa??aeo
nenoaie “noaeue ea?a?ae” ?c caaeaiith ii?oieia??th ia?aeiii? ca?ieiii?
no?oeoo?e i?e aeei?enoaii? iaiaoaeaaeo ca?iiiiae??aithth/eo ? a?ioth/eo
aeiaaaie.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

— ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y ae?iaieoeoaa aenieiciinino?eeiai, ianoeeueiiai
aei ia?aa??ao iaoaeieiiiiceoo c aeei?enoaiiyi ye ca?iiiiae??aithth/iai
aaaioo a?aeoiae?a AAO «Caii??aeaiaiao?ea», ye? i?noyoue ea?a?ae e?aii?y;

— ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?iiai noaio, o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae;

— ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ea?aii?o?eaeiooai?thth/eo
i?e?ieaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a V oa Zr ia ?ici?? ia?aeiiiai ca?ia aonoai?oo
eiino?oeoe?eii? noae? cae/aeii? yeino?;

— ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ca?iiiiae??aithth/iai aieeao ?
oa?iie?iaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a ea?a?aee?aii??aeo /anoeiie — ci?oeithaa/?a ia
ii?oieia?th iae?i- ? i?e?ino?oeoo?e iaoaeieiiiiceoo a eeoiio noai?.

IAOEIAA IIAECIA ?IAIOE

1. Ia i?aenoaa? eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae
iaa?oioiaaia ? ia iiaeaeueieo nenoaiao aeiaaaeaia i?eioeei?aeueia
iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ye ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee aeciaaiieo
iaiaoaeaaeo niieo/aiue c ia?ciii?oii? iao?eoe? e?enoae?/iith ?ao?oeith.

2. C aeiiiiiaith AII ?ic?iaeai? ? ia aeine?aeieo ieaaeao
i?aeoaa?aeaeai? iiaeae? iiaaae?iee ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee a o?e?
ceeaea, ui e?enoae?co?oueny, ? i?iaiiciaaiee ?o iiaeaeueoee aieea ia
aeanoeaino? ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoaeieiiiiceoo.

3. Noai?aiee iaoaeieiiiiceoiee iaoa??ae, yeee ia? ia?a?nii aeenia?nio
noaca?ieiio no?oeoo?o aonoai?oo (i?ney cae?i/aiiy e?enoae?caoe??) c
aeei?enoaiiyi ye /anoeiie ca?iiiiae?aithaa/?a a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa
AAO «Cii??aeaiaiao?ea», ye? i?noyoue ea?a?ae e?aii?th, — i?oei?noue
iaoaeieiiiiceoo o 2,3 ?ace ? ciinino?ee?noue o 5 ?ac?a a?eueoa o
ii??aiyii? c aaciaith noaeeth No.3ni.

4. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? ? i?aeoe/ii aeiaaaeai? oaoiieia?/i? aniaeoe
iiaeeeaino? ?aaoethaaiiy aaee/eie ? ii?oieia?? ia?aeiiiai (eeoiai) ca?ia
aonoai?oo c o?aooaaiiyi iaoaeo?a?eii? ia?aae?noi??? ceeaea (aai
aacia?a?aiieeoi? caaioiaee), anoaiiaeaii oa?aeoa? aca?iica’yceo i?ae
?ici??aie eeoiai ? aa?y/aaeaoi?iiaaiiai ca?ia aonoai?oo i?e?ieaaiaaii?
eiino?oeoe?eii? noae? No.3ni.

I?AEOE*IA Oe?II?NOUe

?ic?iaeaia ? ?aae?ciaaia a eaai?aoi?ii-i?iieneiaiio aeeiiaii? oaoiieia?y
ae?iaieoeoaa aenieiciinio?eeiai iaoaeieiiiiceoiiai iaoa??aeo c
aeei?enoaiiyi ye ca?iiiiae??aithth/iai aaaioa ci?oeithaa/a a?aeoiae?a
ae?iaieoeoaa ea?a?aee?aii??aeo ae?ia?a AAO «Caii??aeaiaiao?ea». Oaeee
iaoa??ae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ?iai/eo /anoei
ae?ia?a, i?aoethth/eo i?e a?aenooiino? cia/ieo oaea?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue a
oiiaao ?ioaineaiiai aa?aceaiiai ciino: o?eeoe?ii?a, a?iiae, iaeth/eo
aaee?a oa ?i.

I/?eoaaiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo i?e ca?eueoaii? oa?i?io neoaeae ae?ia?a c
iaoaeieiiiiceoo o na?aaeiueiio ia 30% (ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy
?ioaineaiino? aa?aceaiiai ciino) neeaaea? a?ey 20000 a?i. ia 1 aa?aaao
ia ??e noiniaii aei aeaiaio?a oiaeiaeo o?eeoe?ii?a aaaeeeo aonaie/ieo
iaoei.

AI?IAAOe?ss ?IAIOE

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue
? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia: eiioa?aioe?yo «I CMB 94», Iae??aea, 1994,
«I?iaeaie no/aniiai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa», Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1995, 1996 e
1998, iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?e oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaoae?a AeIaoAO,
1999.

IOAE?EAOe??

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a 12 ia/aoieo i?aoeyo.

IANssA ? NO?OEOO?A ?IAIOE

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, n?iio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa
aeeeaaeaia ia 153 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 9 oaaeeoeue ?
39 iaethie?a. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 181 iaeiaioaaiue
a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

NOAI IEOAIIss

Aeanoeaino? iaoaeieiiiceoieo iaoa??ae?a caeaaeaoue a?ae aaaaoueio
ci?iieo oaeoi??a, cie?aia neeaaeo, oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy, oiia
aenieoaoaoe?? oa ?i. Oiio ui o?aooaaoe aieea ??cieo oaeoi??a aeoaea
neeaaeii, iia? iaoaeieiiiiceoe noai?ththoueny aieiaiei /eiii
aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii.

Aeey noai?aiiy eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a c iaoaeaaith iao?eoeath ?
aeenia?niei ia?aeiiei ca?iii aonoai?oo canoiniaothoue, a iniiaiiio,
?aoe?iiaeueiee i?aea?? nenoai eaaoaaiiy.

Aieea iiaeeeaeo ?aeiia?iaoe?e nenoai eaaoaaiiy ia ii?oieia?th ia?aeiieo
ca?ai aonoai?oo, iaa?oue i?e iayaiino? a ieo niieo/aiue ooaiieaaeeo
aeaiaio?a, aoaeoeaiee aei oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ioa?aaeo ?o aeenioe?aoe??.

C iaoith io?eiaiiy ae??aiica?ienoi? no?oeoo?e aiane?aeie oaciai?
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? canoiniaothoueny: a?a?aoe?y, caaa?ooaaiiy o iaai?oi?e
??aeei?, ia?iaea oeueo?acaoeii, oaeaeeeie /anoeieaie oa ?i.

E??i ?icaeyiooi? aeua ae?? ia aeenia?ni?noue ia?aeiieo (eeoeo) ca?ai
aonoai?oo ciai?oi?o iiaeeo?eoth/eo aeea?a canoiniao?oueny noai?aiiy
niaaeeiai ae??aiica?ienoeo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia?
eiiiiceoe?e «noaeue-ooaiieaae? (c oaiia?aoo?ith aeenioe?aoe?? ii?yaeea
16000N) iaiaoaeaa? niieo/aiiy, ieneaei? ? ea?a?aei? nenoaie».

Aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a c aeenia?niith
ia?aeiiith no?oeoo?ith aonoai?oo aeicaiey? iicia/eoe iai?yiee
aeine?aeaeaiue: noai?aiiy aeenia?niici?oeiaieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia?
eiiiiceoe?e «iai?aai?/ia ooaiieaaea niieo/aiiy — iaoae», ye? iathoue
aenieo i?oei?noue, i?aeaeuaio ciinino?ee?noue, caaeaiee ei?o?oe??io
oa?oy i?e aeinoaoi?e ieanoe/iino?; ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a io?eiaiiy
eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a c aeenia?niith ia?aeiiith no?oeoo?ith ?
aeei?enoaiiyi aia?ai?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e; ?ic?iaea neeaae?a
ca?iiiiae??aithth/eo ? a?ioth/eo aeiaaaie ? oaoiieia?e ?o aeaioiaeaiiy.

IAOA??AE ? IAOIAeEEA AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeee ia iiaeaeueieo nenoaiao, noaeaaiio ?icieaa?,
aeine?aeieo ceeaeao iaoaeieiiiiceoo ? iao?e/i?e noae? No.3ni,
iao?ia?ao?/ii aeine?aeaeoaaee ca?iiiiae??aithth/o aeiaaaeo (ae?iaeai?
a?aeoiaee ea?a?aee?aii??aiai ae?iaieoeoaa AAO «Caii??aeaiaiao?ea»).

Eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?oieia?? aonoai?oii? no?oeoo?e aaciai?
noae? i?iaiaeeee ia i’yoe aeine?aeieo ieaaeao, i?iaaaeaieo a ia/?
Oaiiaia. A ceeaeao ianith 0,3 ea ai?no aoaeaoeth a?aeiia?aeaa
0,14-0,22%; e?aii?th — a?ae 0,06 aei 0,30%, ia?aaioeth — a?ae 0,35 aei
0,50%, aethi?i?th — a?ae 0,1 aei 0,2%. Ceeaee ieaaie ? 4 ? ? 5
aeiaeaoeiai i?e?ieaaoaaee aaiaae??aith (aei 0,14%, ieaaea ? 4) ?
aaiaae??ai-oee?eii??aith (0,15% Zr ? 0,14% V, ieaaea ? 5) e?aaoo?aie.

I?ney iiaiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy ceeaee aeine?aeieo ieaaie ?ic??caee ia aea?
iieiaeie ii ae?aiao?aeuei?e ieiuei?. Iaeio i?aeaeaaaee aa?y/iio
a?eueiiio eoaaiith c noia?iith nooi?iith aeaoi?iaoe?? aei 320% ia
noa?aeaiue eaaae?aoiiai ia?a??co 12o12o450 ii, ae?oao aeine?aeaeoaaee a
eeoiio noai?. C?acee i?aeaeaaaee aa?ooaaiith o 10% aiaeiiio ?ic/ei?
oei?enoiai iao??th a?ae oaiia?aoo? 950-13000N c e?ieii 5000N.

I?iaiaeeee iaoaeia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia NEOPHOT-21 ? ioe?ieo
no?oeoo?ii/ooeeaeo iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae c?ace?a.

E??i aeua iienaiiai aenia?eiaioo ?aooo iaoiaeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?iaiaeeee noiniaii aei ?ic?iaey?iiai iaoaeieiiiiceoiiai iaoa??aeo.

I?e aenia?eiaiooaaii? ia i?ici??e ieine?e iiaeae? ye aiaeiaiao ??aeeio
aeei?enoiaoaaee ?icieaa a?iinoeueo?oo c aonoeiith a?ey 2900 ea/i 3, ye
ca?iiiiae??aithth/o aeiaaaeo eoe? aeeaiao?ii 0,5-3,5 ii ?c
a?aioeueiaaiiai iie?ae?eeai?aeo c aonoeiith -0,2 ea/i 3.

?ic?aooiie cia/aiue e?eoe/ii? oaeaeeino? oei??iaiiy i?iaiaeeany ia AII
iiae. IBM «Pentium II» c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ia ooieoe?th a?aeeeeea
(oaeaee?noue ?ooo /anoie) nooiaith e?iaiaoe/ii? a’yceino? ?icieaao ?
oeneo o oinoii/iiio eaiae?.

Ia neiino?oeiaai?e onoaiiaoe? «aa?y/iai iiaeaethaaiiy» aoei i?iaaaeaii
12 aeine?aeieo ieaaie eiiiiceoo ia aac? oe?ieicanoiniao?ii?
eiino?oeoe?eii? noae? No.3ni c aeiaaaeaie 2; 5; 10; 12; 15 ? 20% ia.
ca?iiiiae??aithaa/a neeaaeo: 40% o?. 0,5-1 ii + 20% o?. 1-2 ii + 40% o?.
2-3 ii, a oaeiae ??ciiai ca?iiaiai neeaaeo (12 ia. %), aeeth/ath/e ii
100% o?. 0,5-1 ii, 1-2 ? 2-3 ii a ?aeiia?iaoe?yo.

Ceeaee ?ic??caee ia aea? iieiaeie ii ae?aiao?aeuei?e ieiuei?, iaeio
iieiaeio aeine?aeaeoaaee a eeoiio noai?, a ae?oai? a?aea??aee c?acee,
ye? caaa?oiaoaaee a?ae oaiia?aoo? 900-11000N c e?ieii 500N.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ni?iaieo ceeae?a iineoaeeee i?aenoaaith aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? ieaaee ceeaea iaoaeieiiiiceoo c
iioeiaeueiith e?eueeinoth ? o?aeoe?eiei neeaaeii ca?iiiiae??aithth/i?
aeiaaaee.

Ieaaeo ceeaea iaoaeieiiiiceoo i?iaiaeeee a o?ueioaeaeo?iaei?e
ieaaeeuei?e aeaeo?iia/? i?noe?noth 1,5 o.

?icieaa ?iceeaaee /a?ac i?ii?aeiee oeaaeue a /aaoii? aeeeaieoe? eii?/ii?
oi?ie ?ici??ii 235o555o310 ii. Aaaaeaiiy ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee
cae?enithaaee a no?oi?iue ??aeeiai iaoaeo c aeei?enoaiiyi
aenia?eiaioaeueii? onoaiiaee aeey aaaaeaiiy, onoaiiaeaii? i?ae eooii 150
aei in? no?oiaith.

I?ney e?enoae?caoe?? ceeaie iaoaeieiiiiceoo «?icaeyaaee» ? a?aeae?aee
c?acee aeey no?oeoo?ii-o?i?/iiai aiae?co ? iaoai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue.
C?acee a?aeae?aeeny a oaiaaioe?aeueiiio iai?yieo ?c iiia?a/ieo oaiieao?a
ceeaea. I?e ii??aiyii? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo c eaai?aoi?ieie
aeine?aeeaie aoea aeyaeaia 95% ca?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a.

Aei?iaoaaiiy aeine?aeieo c?ace?a i?iaiaeeee ia oi?aa?naeuei?e aei?iai?e
iaoei? Fu 10000 e Z, iayoieeiaiio eii?? IE-30A, oaa?aeii??ao OE-2 ?
OI-2, a oaeiae niaoe?aeueiiio iaeaaeiaii?.

I?iaa?oiaoaai?noue iaea?aeaiiai iaoaeieiiiiceoo aecia/eee ca iaoiaeii
Nao?ia-Iai/einueeiai ia oaea?ieo c?aceao oeio Iaiaaea.

Aei?iaoaaiiy ia caa?thaai?noue i?iaiaeeee ia c?aceao 25o65o100 i?e
c’?aeiaii? aiaoeueino ii oeio «eano?a/ei oa?no».

O?eaioaoi?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia iaoei? oa?oy oeio I-22-I, aea
ye eiio?o?ei aeei?enoiaoaaee caaa?oiaaio noaeue 45 c oaa?ae?noth 42-45
HRC.

AeINE?AeAEAIIss IA IIAeAEUeIEO NENOAIAO IA?AIAO??A OAOIIEIA?*IIAI
I?IOeANO AE?IAIEOeOAA CIININO?EEIAI IAOAEIEIIIICEOO IA INIIA?

NOAE? No.3ni

Ia iiaeaeueieo nenoaiao c aeei?enoaiiyi aiaeiaiaiai ?icieaao oa
?i?ooth/eo /anoeiie aoei i?iaaaeaii ieceo aenia?eiaio?a aeey aecia/aiiy
iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa
iaoaeieiiiiceoo.

Aeine?aeaeoaaee:

— o?a?eoi??th iieueioo ? aecia/eee cia/aiiy e?eoe/ii? oaeaeeino?
iieueioo /anoeiie ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee, yea oei??ith?oueny o
no?oi?iue ?icieaao; ii?oieia?th iano/eo aaciaeo no?oiei;

— iioeiaeueiee ca?iiaee neeaae ? ?iciiae?e ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee
a o?e? ceeaea iaoaeieiiiiceoo.

I?e aea/aii? ?ooo aeenia?nieo /anoeiie ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee a
no?oiai? iano/iai aaciaiai iioieo o?aoiaoaaeiny, ui aonoeia aeiaaaee
aeua aonoeie aaco, ioaea ioeuenaoe?ei? oaeaeeino? /anoeiie iiaeii? aooe
iaiueoa ioeuenaoe?eieo oaeaeeinoae iano/iai na?aaeiaeua.

Ci?ia a?aeiinii? e?eueeino? c?oeioaoeony /anoeiie caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o
iaeneiaeueiiai ae?iao?o. Oa?aeoa? ooieoe??, yea aecia/a? cieaeaiiy
?aaeueii? oaeaeeino? iieueioo a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeo?aoe aaco, iiaeii
oyaeoe o aeaeyae? a?ia?aie?/ii? caeaaeiino?, yea c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
oeneo.

Nooi?iue aa??aoe?? oeneo aeo?eaiiy no?oiaith aieeaa? ia eiaa?aioio
aeiaaeeio no?oiaith o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c ci?iith /enea ?aeiieueaena. A
ae?aiacii? cia/aiue a?ae 60000 aei 210000 oene o oi?noii/iiio eaiae?
?iaea i?i?iaeueiee aieea ia eiaa?aioio aeiaaeeio no?oiaith. No?oi?iue
ia? iaeee eoo ?ice?eooy, ioeuenaoe?? ia niinoa?aaa?oueny, a oene aaco
??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiee ii anueiio ianyao no?oiaith.

I?e ?ic?aoiaaieo ia?aiao?ao eiaa?aioiino? aaciaiai no?oiaith iaea?eueo
iioeiaeueieie oaeaeeinoyie iieueioo /anoeiie ca?iiiiae??aithth/i?
aeiaaaee ? e?ioeaa? oaeaeeino? oei??iaiiy a ae?aiacii? -0,25-0,37 i/n.

?iciiae?e /anoeiie ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee a o?e? ceeaea
iaoaeieiiiiceoo aecia/a?oueny o?eueeeaioo??oiueith neiao???th a?aaee?ioo
nee aca?iiae??? i?e caa?aaeaii? iioieo /anoeiie o i?inoi?? oaeaeeinoae,
aeieeath/eo i?e e?enoae?caoe?? ?icieaao. Ia?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? e?eueeino? ca?iiiiae??aithth/i?
aeiaaaee i?iaiaeeee ia AII ca iaoiaeii e?ooiai noiaeaeaiiy c
aeei?enoaiiyi aeai?eoio Iiioa-Ea?ei.

Ca?aeii ?ic?aooieiaei aeaiei ? ?acoeueoaoai aeine?ae?a, i?aeoaa?aeaeaiei
ei?aeyoe?eiith ia?iaeith aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui iioeiaeueia e?euee?noue
ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee, iacaeaaeii a?ae iane ceeaea, iiaeiia
ciaoiaeeoenue a iaaeao 11-13%.

Iioeiaeueiee o?aeoe?eiee neeaae ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee
?ic?aoiaoaaany ca iaoaiaoe/iith iaoiaeeeith c aeiiiiiaith
iie?iii?aeueieo iiaeaeae ae?oaiai nooiaith ? n?iieaen-?ao?o/aoiai
ieaioaaiiy.

Aeyaeaii, ui noaa?eueii ae??aia eeoa ca?ii aonoai?oo iiaeiii
noi?ioaaoeny a cae?enoae?ciaaiiio ceeaeo i?ney aaaaeaiiy a iueiai
ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee ci?iii? aeenia?niino?, yea neeaaea?oueny
?c 40% o?. 0,50-1,00 ii, 20% o?. 1,00-2,00 ii ? 40% o?. 2,00-3,00 ii.

Aeei?enoaiiy ye aeenia?aaoi?a aonoai?oieo ca?ai aeiaaaee, yea
neeaaea?oueny o?eueee ?c iaei??? o?aeoe?? 0,5-1,00 ii, 1,00-2,00 ii ?
2,00-3,00 ii oaoiieia?/ii ia aoaeoeaii, oiio ui iaeii??aeia ca ca?iiaei
neeaaeii aeiaaaea naa?aao? a iaaiiio ianyc?, a ia ?iciiae?ey?oueny ii
onueiio ianyao ceeaea.

Aaaaeaiiy iaiueoa 11% ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee (3; 5; 8; 10%) ia
aeicaieeei noi?ioaaoe ??aiii??io e?enoae?/io no?oeoo?o.

I?e aaaaeaii? a ?icieaa a?eueoa 13% ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee
ci?iiiai o?aeoe?eiiai neeaaeo (iai?eeeaae 15 aai 20%) ii?ooo?oueny
nooe?euei?noue e?enoaeeo? a, ui oi?iothoueny, ooai?ththoueny
naa?aaaoe?ei? ciie, ioi/ai? aaciaeie eaaa?iaie. Oiio a iiaeaeueoeo
eaai?aoi?ieo ? aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo aenia?eiaioao e?euee?noue
ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee i?eeiaeany iioeiaeueia — a?ey 12%.

AeINE?AeAEAIIss AIEEAO I?E?IEAAOTH*EO EIIIICEOe?E AEAIAIO?A IA
?ICI?? CA?IA AONOAI?OO NOAEAAI? IAO?EOe? A EEOIIO ?
AA?ss*AAeAOI?IIAAIIIO NOAIAO

Aoee i?iaaaeai? eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? ae??
aeaiaio?a VIIa i?aea?oie Ia??iaee/ii? nenoaie aeaiaio?a Ae.?.
Iaiaeaea??aa ia ii?oieia?th aonoai?oii? no?oeoo?e eiino?oeoe?eii? noae?
No.3ni a eeoiio ? aa?y/aaeaoi?iiaaiiio noaiao.

I?e?ino?oeoo?a aeine?aeieo noaeae on?o ieaaie i?ney oa?iiia?iaee ye a
eeoiio, oae ? aa?y/aaeaoi?iiaaiiio noaiao yaey? niaith
oa?eoiia?oaineoiee eiiaeiia?ao, ui aeeth/a? a?ey 70% I ? 30% O.

?ici?? ia?oaineoieo aieie aa??th?oueny a?ae 2 aei 6 iei, ia?oaineo
iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ye aacno?oeoo?iee aai ae??aiiaie/aoee 2-3 aae?a. A
i?e?ino?oeoo?? ceeae?a ieaaie ? 4 ? ? 5 niinoa??aa?oueny iiyaa
o?iinoeoii? neeaaeiai? 7-8 aae?a ii, ui iiaeia iiynieoe cieaeaiiyi
i?iaa?oiaoaaiino? i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeae ?c-ca ?i?oe???oth/iai aieeao
ia?ic/eieaoeony iiai?noth a aonoai?o? i?e iaa??a? oa?i?/ii no?eeeo
/anoeiie i?ii?aeieo oac.

Aiae?coth/e iaae? ?icae?eo eieeoi?o aonoai?oieo ca?ai c?ace?a,
caaa?oiaaieo a?ae 13000N, iiaeia a?aecia/eoe iayi?noue a i?ea?ai?/i?e
ae?eyioe? a?ei? n?oee ia??aiiaaaeiiai oa?eoa, yeee oi?io?oueny
aiane?aeie aeenioe?aoe?? ii??aiyii oa?i?/ii iano?eeeo noeueo?ae?a ?
nee?eao?a ii iaaeai ca?ai aonoai?oo, aiane?aeie /iai i?ea?aie/i?
ae?eyiee caaaa/othoueny iaeiieiaiieie ?iiaie e?aii?th ? n??ee, i?e
oeueiio iaio ianeai? ?iie aoaeaoeth a?aeoeneothoueny ona?aaeeio ca?ia ca
?aooiie nee aeaeo?inoaoe/iiai a?aeooiaooaaiiy, ? eieaeueia
eiioeaio?aoe?y aoaeaoeth o i?ea?aie/ieo ciiao i?e oeueiio iiaea
cieaeoaaoeny aei 0,0016%. Ia o?eueee aaniethoi? cia/aiiy oa?i?/ii?
no?eeino? ca?iiiiae??aithth/eo /anoeiie aecia/athoue ?o ni?iiiaei?noue
i?ioenoiyoe aeeooc?eiiio ia?ai?uaiith a?aieoeue ca?ai ca
?ae?enoae?caoe?eiei iaoai?ciii, a oaeiae ?o ?ici??e, i?ae/anoeieia?
a?aenoai? oa ?i. .

Aa?y/a aeaoi?iaoe?y c ianooiiith oaciaith ia?ae?eoae?caoe??th i?eaiaea
aei iii?oii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae aaee/eie
aoi?eiiiai ca?ia aonoai?oo. Ii??aiyii c eeoei noaiii i?iyaey?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y aei cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo? ii/aoeo ?ioaineaiiai c?inoaiiy
ca?ai, naiai ?iaeo «uaae?» ia oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoyo ?ici??o ca?ia
aonoai?oo iina?aaeiuei na?ae/aoue i?i no?eioth/ee ia?ai?uaiiy a?aieoeue
aieeao ea?a?ae?a ii i??? ae/a?iaiiy ?o oa?i?/ii? no?eeino?. O?aaa
aeoiaoe, ui ia?aaeoth/a ?ioaineaia aa?y/a aeaoi?iaoe?y ni?eyea
iaiaeii??aeiiio iiae??aiaiith /anoeiie ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ci?uaiith
oaiia?aoo? ?ic/eiaiiy o aenieioaiia?aoo?io ciio.

Iiae??aiaiiy ia?aeiiiai ca?ia aonoai?oo a i?e?ieaaiaaieo noaeyo
aeine?aeieo ieaaie i?e aaaaeaii? aei oeooiaiai neeaaeo neeueieo
ea?aii?o?eaeinoai?thth/eo aeaiaio?a ia a?aeaoaa?oueny, oiio ui noai?ai?
ieie /anoeiee ?c o?i?/ieo niieoe oi?iothoueny a no?oeoo?? ceeaea aaea
i?ney ca?iaeaeaiiy ? c?iuaiiy a?eie ia?aeiieo aeaiae?eo?a.

Aiae?coth/e aeai? ii ?ici??iiio ?iciiae?eo aonoai?oieo ca?ai, iiaeia
a?aecia/eoe, ui i?e iaa??a? o iaaee?eoe/io ciio c?ace?a aeine?aeieo
noaeae on?o ieaaie aeyaey?oueny e?i?eia caeaaei?noue ?ici???a aoi?eiiiai
(i?e aeoiaeiiio aa?y/aaeaoi?iiaaiiio) ? ia?aeiiiai, a eeoiio noai? ca?ia
aonoai?oo (?en. 1).

Oeae aoaeo aeyaey?oueny iaaii aiane?aeie no?oeoo?ii? niaaeeiaino? oa
iaoaeo?a?eii? ia?aae?noi??? iaoaeiae?iaa.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
noaa?e?caoe?y ca?aiii? no?oeoo?e aonoai?oo ca ?aooiie «aa?’???a»
aiaeiaaiiiai oa?aeoa?o ia iiaea aeeiioaaoe iniiaio ?ieue, a o?eueee
aeiiii?aei? ooieoe?? i?e i?aaaethth/iio aieeao aeenia?nieo, aaaeei- aai
ia?ic/eiieo i?e iaa??a?, cciai? aaaaeaieo o ?icieaa /anoeiie aeciaaiiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, ui iaa?oioiao? iiooe iiaeo ca?iiiiae??aithaa/?a ?
oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue aeey noai?aiiy i?ea?iaeueieo ca aeanoeainoyie
eiiiiceoe?e.

O?CEEI-O?I?*I? OA?AEOA?ENOEEE I?IIIIO?II?

CA?IIIIAe??AITHTH*I? AeIAAAEE

sse ca?iiiiae??aithth/o aeiaaaeo iaie cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
a?aeoiaee AAO «Caii??aeaiaiao?ea», ye? i?noyoue ea?ai?oiae, aea?? yeeo
aoa iaoiiaeaiee ?o o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie, cie?aia oaiia?aoo?iei
?ioa?aaeii aeenioe?aoe??, eiao?oe??ioii oaieii?ia?aeiino? ? nooiaiai
o?i?/ii? ?iaeoeaiino?.

Oe? a?aeoiaee i?aaenoaaeythoue iaoai?/io noi?o, yea neeaaea?oueny ?c
ea?a?aea e?aii?th, naae? ? e?enoae?/iiai e?aii?th, oeaie?a aoa?eueieo
o?oa, aith ? a?aeo ea?ai?oiaeiaeo iaa??aa/?a. O a?aeaaeao a?aeoiaee
ciaoiaeyoueny o aeaeyae? nia/aieo «ei?ae?a» c aeeth/aiiyie aeoeaiiai
aoi?eiiiai ea?ai?oiaea.

Iayai?noue a neeaae? ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee aeoeaieo aoaeaoeth ?
aoi?eiiiai SiC, a oaeiae ?iaeoeaiiai ea?ai?oiaeo aeicaieeoue, ?iia??ii,
i?e noai?aii? iaoaeieiiiiceoo ae??oeoe aeaa caaaeaiiy: caaacia/eoe
iiae??aeaiiy ia?aeiieo ca?ai aonoai?oo ca ?aooiie a?aeai?o oaiea a?ae
?icieaao ea?ai?oiaeii, a oaeiae caaacia/eoe i?oeia coeaieaiiy a?aieoeue
?icae?eo oac ca ?aooiie ?aaeoe?? i?ae noaeaaei ?icieaaii, eiiiiiaioii,
yeee i?noeoue aoaeaoeue, ? aoi?eiiei (aeoeaiei) ea?a?aeii e?aii?th.

AeINE?AeAEAIIss IAOAI?*IEO ? OAOIIEIA?*IEO

AEANOEAINOAE IAOAEIEIIIICEOO

Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae no?oeoo?e, ii?oieia?? ia?aeiieo ca?ai aonoai?oo,
iaoai?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae ?ic?iaeaiiiai iaoaeieiiiiceoo
i?iaiaeeee c aiaeiaii — noaeeth No.3ni, aeieaaeaiith a ia?oai?anuee?e
ia/? ? ?iceeoith a /aaoiio aeeeaieoeth ia AeIE (i.Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee).

I?e?ino?oeoo?a ceeae?a iaoaeieiiiiceoo ?c ca?iiiiae??aithth/ith
aeiaaaeith, ui i?noeoue ea?ai?oiae, ia? ianooii? oa?aeoa?i? iciaee,
a?ae??ciyth/? ?? a?ae aiaeiaiai? noae?:

— a?aenooi?noue iiae?eo ceeaea iaoaeieiiiiceoo ia ciie
e?enoaeino?oeoo?ii? iaa?aeiia?aeiino?, oa?aeoa?ii? aeey eiino?oeoe?eieo
noaeae;

— a?aenooi?noue a o?e? ceeaea iaoaeieiiiiceoo eeaa?ieo aeaoaeo?a;

-oi?ioaaiiy ii onueiio ianyao cae?enoae?coaaaoiainy ceeaea
iaoaeieiiiiceoo noaaeaiae?eoiiai ainaiaeth o aeaeyae? nioiai? no?oeoo?e.

No?oeoo?a ia?aeiieo e?enoae?o?a iaoaeieiiiiceoo c 12% ia.
ea?a?aee?aii??ai? aeiaaaee noi?ioaaeany o aeaeyae? /a?oiie nio (?en. 2)
?c aeenia?nieo a?eie aeaiae?eo?a (?en. 3). Ca?iaeaeaiiy e?enoae?a
a?aeaoaaeiny ia iiaa?oi? ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee, iai?yiie
c?inoaiiy a?eie a?aeiia?aea? i?i?ioio a?aae??ioa eiioeaio?aoe?eii?
iaiaeii??aeiino?. ?icaeoie aeaiae?eoiiai c?inoaiiy a?aeaoaaeiny
iaeii??aeii aei iiaiiai cieeiaiiy ??aeeioacii? neeaaeiai? a ?icieaa?, ui
e?enoae?co?oueny.

Eiiiiiaioe e?enoae?/iiai ainaiaeth aeenia?ni?, c iaeneiaeueiei ?ici??ii
ia?aeiieo a?eie aei 0,2 ii o oi?i? «iaeueo?enuee?o o?ano?a» ?c
ca?iiiiae??aithth/ith aeiaaaeith o oeaio??. Caeaaei?noue i?ae
aeaiae?eoiei ia?aiao?ii no?oeoo?e iaoaeieiiiiceoo ? oiiaiei e?eoa???i
ioe?iee oa?i?/ii? noaa?eueiino? ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee iaeaea a
on?o aeiaaeeao ia? aeno?aiaeueiee oa?aeoa? c iieiaei iaeneioiii.

A cii? eiioaeoo iao?eoe? ? /anoeiee ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee
?ici??ii aei 1,8-2,0 ii niinoa??aa?oueny iiae??aiaiiy iie?aae?e/iiai
oa?eoo, a a?aeiioaiiy iecueei- ? a?nieiaoaeaoeueai?uath/eo aaaio?a ia
ci?ith?oueny. Ia a?aenoai? aei 20 iei a?ae ia??oa??? aeiaaaie
niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ca?ia = oace aei 6-7 aaeo, a a?aeiioaiiy
oa?eoo ? ia?oain?oo aa??th?oueny aei 60 ? 40% a?aeiia?aeii.

Aoaeo aeenia?aoaaiiy no?oeoo?e aeyaey?oueny a ?acoeueoao? aeeooc?eiiai
eiioaeoo ?c noai?aiiyi nee?oeeae?a i?ae «iaaie?eath/ei» ca?ia
ea?ai?oiaea «aoi?eiiei» SiC ? noaeaaith iao?eoeath.

Ia? i?noea o?inoaiiy ca?iiiiae??aithth/eo /anoeiie aai caoiieaiiy ciie
i?aeieaao c?inoath/ei e?enoaeii, ui iiaea i?eaanoe aei iiaeaeueoiai
iiae??aiaiiy aeaiae?eo?a i?e ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe??.

A?aieoe? ia?aeiieo ca?ai aonoai?oo iao?eoe? iaoaeieiiiiceoo iaeaioiaai?
aeenia?nieie /anoeieaie ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee ? iathoue
ae?aiao? a?ey 150-200 iei (?en. 4). Ii?oieia?y ia?aeiieo ca?ai ia?
?aeue?o nioiaiai oeio, ui noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae i?i?i?caoe??
oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? aeoeaiino?, yea ?i?oe?th? i?ioeane ?ae?enoae?caoe??.

O?aaa a?aecia/eoe, ui iaa?oue i?e?iianyae io?eiaiiai iaoaeieiiiiceoo
noaiiaeyoue niaith aaaaoioaci? nenoaie, ? oiio aeaiaioe no?oeoo?e
a?ae??ciythoueny ia o?eueee ca ?ici??ii, oi?iith ? i???ioaoe??th ca?ai,
aea e ca e?euee?noth ? aca?iiith ianyaiaith /anoeith aeaio (aai a?eueoa)
oac iao?eoe?, ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee ? «ca’ycee» (?en. 5).

O ii??aiyii? c aiaeiaiaith noaeeth, iaae? ia?aeiieo ca?ai aonoai?oa
iaoaeieiiiiceoo noaiiaeyoue a?eueo aeoeaiee aeaiaio no?oeoo?e,
a?ae?a?ath/ee iaaio ?ieue a ca?iaeaeaii? oa ai?a?eyoe?? aeaoaeo?a,
ca?iaeaeaii? ? ?iciianthaeaeaii? o??uei, i?io?eaiith i?ioeano
i?aeca?aiiiai ?oeioaaiiy, iaoiiaeth? ?icaeoie niaoeeo?/ieo ca?iiiaaeiaeo
i?ioean?a, cie?aia i?ineiacoaaiiy ? i?a?aoe?th aeaoaeo?a.

?aieia?y ia?aeiii? ca?aiii? no?oeoo?e, ui oi?io?oueny i?e
e?enoae?caoe??, iiaoi?thth/a noaaeaiae?eoio aoaeiao, i?aeaeuo?
i?oei?noue iaoaeieiiiiceoo ca ?aooiie iiaeaaeaiiy i?ioean?a
?ae?enoae?caoe?? ? i?aeaeuaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? noaa?eueiino? a?aieoeue,
ia?aoeiaeaeath/eo aeeooc?eiiio ia?a?iciiae?eo eiiiiiaio?a iao?eoe?, ui
i?aeaeuo? caaaeueiee caian eiino?oeoeaii? i?oeiino? iaoaeieiiiiceoo.

Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui iino?ei?noue na?aaeiueiai aoi?e/iiai ?ici??o ca?ia
aonoai?oo iaoiiaeaia iaeiaeiaith na?aaeiueith i?oei?noth iaaeoacii?
iiaa?oi? iiae?eo. Aea ?c ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? ca?iiiiae??aithth/i?
aeiaaaee aeenia?n?y i?oeiino? noeaieaiiy i?aeoacieo iiaa?oiae c?inoa? —
a iaoa??ae? oi?iothoueny ia o?eueee a?eueo i?oei?, o ii??aiyii? ?c
na?aaei?ie, aea e iineaaeai? a?aieoe? ca?ai aonoai?oo. Iiaeia aeoiaoe,
cia/ia aeenia?n?y i?oeiino? a?aieoeue ca?ai iaoaeieiiiiceoo iiaea aooe
iane?aeeii ye a?aaee?ioo i?aeoacieo aioo??oi?o iai?oaeaiue, oae ?
iayai?noth oace-ca’ycee, yea noaiiaeoue niaith aaoa?ioaciee iaoa??ae.
I?aeoacia iiaa?oiy iiae?eo ioi/aia i?aeaeuoth/ei oaa?ae?noue ?
i?oei?noue ae??aiiaie/anoei ia?oaineoii, yeee ooai?th?oueny aiane?aeie
ia?ane/aiiy — oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio aoaeaoeai ?c neeaaeo
ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee, i?e oeueiio iae?ino?oeoo?a iao?eoe?
caeeoa?oueny oa?eoiith.

Noi?iiaaia eeoa ca?ii aonoai?oo a?aeiia?aea? 6-7 iiia?ai ? ia ia?
noeeueiino? aei c?inoaiiy.

?icaeyaeath/e iniiai? oaoiieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ic?iaeaiiai
iaoaeieiiiiceoiiai iaoa??aeo, iiaeia aecia/eoe oae? a?aei?ie a?ae
aeanoeainoae iao?e/ii? noae? (oaae. 1):

Oaaeeoey 1.

Aeanoeaino? iaoaeieiiiiceoo ? aaciai? noae?

Aeanoeaino?IaoaeieiiiiceoNo.3niIaaea i?oeiino? (a), IIa940380Iaaea
oaeo/ano? (0,2), IIa300240Iaaea aoiieaiino? (u),
IIa45-70190-210Aa?aceaiee ciin, a/ni20,251,44A?aeiinia iiaeiaaeaiiy,
%823

Oe? iniaeeaino? aeanoeainoae iaoiiaeai? niaoeeo?eith ii?oieia??
i?e?ino?oeoo?e iaoaeieiiiiceoo, na?aae yeeo iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeie ?
aeiaeaoeiaa aca?iiae?y «aoi?eiiiai» ea?ai?oiaeo ? iao?e/iiai ?icieaao;
ci?ia oiiei? e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e ca’ycee; noai i?aeca?aiieo ?
i?aeoacieo a?aieoeue. ?ic/eiaiiy ianeao «ca’ycee», coiiaeaia
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi o iaoae? aeiaeaoeiaeo aeeneieaoe?e, iaaaaeaieo
ieanoe/iith aeaoi?iaoe??th, coiiaeth? a?aenooi?noue nooe?eueiino?
eaaiaaiiai oa?eoo (iao?eoe?).

I?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? iaoaeieiiiiceoo iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaia oei, ui
ca?iiiiae??aithth/a aeiaaaea, yea oaiaeeoueny a iiiie?oiee i?ney
e?enoae?caoe?? iao?e/iee ?icieaa, ia? aioo??oiueica?aiio ii?eno?noue
(ii?e ?ici??ii aei 0,8 iei iathoue aai ie?oaeo, aai aeoyaiooo oi?io),
oea coiiaeth? aeayeo «i?aeaeaoeea?noue» iaoaeieiiiiceoo iaaaaeai?e
ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe??, i?aeaeuoth/e oei naiei eiino?oeoeaio eiai
i?oei?noue.

Oeae iaoaeieiiiiceo ? iaiaaeii caa?thaa?iei, ine?eueee iayai?noue
/anoeiie, ye? i?noyoue ea?a?ae e?aii?th, ii?ooo? nooe?euei?noue
iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo. Aei oiai ae ea?ai?oiae ?c neeaaeo
ca?iiiiae??aithth/i? aeiaaaee, aiane?aeie naiai aenieiai oa?i?/iiai
iii?o, a?aeie?aieth? ciio oa?i?/iiai aieeao oaa a?ae iniiaiiai
iaoa??aeo, noai?thth/e oei naiei ia?aaeoiiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy o??uei.

A oe?eiio i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aa?aceaiiai ciino iaoaeieiiiiceoo iiaeia
iiynieoe iayai?noth a eiai neeaae? ca?iiiiae??aithth/eo /anoeiie
ea?a?aeo e?aii?th c oaa?ae?noth a?ey HV = 38 AIa. Iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy
aa?aceaiiai ciino neeaaea? 0,25 a/ni2, ui o 5 ?ac?a aeua, i?ae o
aiaeiaia?e noae?.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeeeaaeaiiai aeua iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui iaea?eueo
aeioe?eueiei aoei a aeei?enoaiiy iaoaeieiiiiceoo aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
aeaoaeae, i?aoethth/eo i?e cia/iiio aa?aceaiiio ciin? ? a?aenooiino?
?ioaineaieo oaea?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, cie?aia o?eeoe?ii?a, iaeth/eo o?e, a
oaeiae e?oiiiaaaa?eoieo aeaoaeae oeio ii?oe?, aai oeaio, i?aoethth/eo a
ia?ao oa?oy.

AEIEIA?*IA IOe?IEA

I?aai?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa iaoaeieiiiiceoiiai iaoa??aeo c aeei?enoaiiyi
a?aeoiae?a ea?a?aee?aii??aeo ae?ia?a o aeaeyae? ca?iiiiae??aithth/i?
aeiaaaee aeicaieeoue:

— cae?enieoe eiiieaenio ia?a?iaeo a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa
ea?a?aee?aii?a?aeo ae?ia?a ? i?aai?coaaoe iaeia?aeoiaeia ae?iaieoeoai;

— caeiiiieoe ? a?eueo iiaii, a oaeiae ?aoe?iiaeueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne.

AENIIAEE

1. A oiiaao aeiiii?? aeao?oeeoieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ? aia?ai?ano?n?a
eiio?ieue ? ?aaoethaaiiy ?ici???a ? ii?oieia?? ia?aeiii? ca?aiii?
no?oeoo?e aonoai?oo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a iaoiiaeth?
aeioe?euei?noue ?ic?iaee ? inai?iiy aaeaeaaoii? cai?ie, a ie?aieo
a?iaaeeao, neeaaeiieaaiaaieo (o o./. ? aenieieaaiaaieo) noaeae
iaoaeieiiiiceoaie, ?ic?iaeaieie ia iniia? aoaeaoeaaenoeo noaeae
cae/aeii? yeino?.

2. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? ? i?aeoe/ii aeiaaaeai? oaoiieia?/i? i?eeiie
?aaoethaaiiy aaee/eie ? ii?oieia?? ia?aeiiiai (eeoiai) ca?ia aonoai?oo c
o?aooaaiiyi iaoaeo?a?eii? ia?aae?noi??? ceeaea, anoaiiaeaii oa?aeoa?
aca?iica’yceo i?ae ?ici??aie eeoiai ? aa?y/aaeaoi?iiaaiiai ca?ai
aonoai?oo.

3. Ia i?aenoaa? ii??aiyeueiiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ? ia iiaeaeueieo nenoaiao
(?c canoinoaaiiyi ?II) aeiaaaeaia i?eioeei?aeueia iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ye ca?iiiiae??aithth/eo aeiaaaie aeciaaiieo iaiaoaeaaeo
o?i?/ieo niieoe, ia?ciii?oieo e?enoae?/i?e ?ao?ooe? iao?eoe?.

4. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii ye /anoeiee ca?iiiiae??aithaa/?a
aeei?neoiaoaaoe a?aeoiaee ae?iaieoeoaa ea?a?aee?aii??aeo ae?ia?a AAO
«Caii??aeaiaiao?ea», ye iaea?eueo aeiiii?/ieo ? iioeiaeueieo ca
oaieio?ce/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ? e?enoaeiii?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie.

5. ?ic?iaeaia ? ?aae?ciaaia a eaai?aoi?ii-i?iieneiaeo oiiaao oaoiieia?y
ae?iaieoeoaa aenieiciinino?eeiai iaoaeieiiiiceoiiai iaoa??aeo c
aeei?enoaiiyi ye ca?iiiiae??aithth/eo aaaio?a-ci?oeithaa/?a a?aeoiae?a
ae?iaieoeoaa ea?a?aee?aii?a?aeo ae?ia?a.

6. Noai?aii iaoaeieiiiiceoiee iaoa??ae, ?c ia?a?nii aeenia?niith
no?oeoo?ith aonoai?oo, yeee ia? i?oei?noue o 2,3 ?ace ? ciinino?ee?noue
o 5 ?ac?a a?eueoa o ii??aiyii? c aaciaith noaeeth ANo.3ni. Oaeee
iaoa??ae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ?iai/eo /anoei
ae?ia?a, i?aoethth/eo (i?e a?aenooiino? cia/ieo oaea?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue)
a oiiaao ?ioaineaiiai aa?aceaiiai ciino, — o?eeoe?ii?a, a?iiae, uie,
iaeth/eo o?e ? ?i.

7. I/?eoaaiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo i?e ca?eueoaii? oa?i?io neoaeae ae?ia?a
ia 30% ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy iii?o aa?aceaiiio ciino neeaaea a?ey
20000 a?i. ia ??e, noiniaii aei aeaiaio?a oiaeiaeo o?eeoe?ii?a ( ia 1
aa?aaao).

IA?AE?E IIOAEEEIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Einou?y A.TH., Oei?ia A.E.. Aunieii?i/iue iaoaeeieiiiiceo aeey
o?eaioaoie/aneeo ia?. // Iao/iua o?oaeu I?eaeiai?ianeie ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeaaeaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u.Auione 7, // Aeiai?iiao?iane,
Oeaio? aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe, 1998, — N. 83.

1. Einou?y TH.O., Oei?ia A.E., Einou?y A.TH. Aeeyiea
no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey ia iaoaie/aneea naienoaa iaoaeeieiiiiceoiiai
iaoa?eaea “No3ni-SiC” // I?eaeiai?ianeee iao/iue aanoiee.
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998a. ?110, N.16-19.

2. Oei?ia A.E., Einou?y A.TH. Oaiiiaiieiaey i?i/iinoe eiino?oeoeeiiiuo
iaoaeeieiiiiceoia. // Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee
no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u. Aeiai?iiao?iane, -IAANeA 1998, -? 5,
/anoue2, N. 118-120.

3. Oei?ia A.E., Einou?y TH.O., Einou?y A.TH. Aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey
iaoaeeieiiiiceoiuo iaoa?eaeia aeey ecaioiaeaiey ?aai/eo i?aaiia
caiea?ieiuo no?ieoaeueiuo iaoei. // Nai?iee I?eaeiai?ianeie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u.
Aeiai?iiao?iane, -IAANeA 1998, -? 5, /anoue2, N. 109-111.

4. Oei?ia A.E., Einou?y A.TH. Ai?y/ay aeaoi?iaoeey e aeaiae?eou anoaee
aeey iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee.// Iao/iua o?oaeu I?eaeiai?ianeie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u. Auione 8,
/anoue 1. Aeiai?iiao?iane, IONI IAANeA, 1999, N.43.

5. Einou?y A.TH. Oi?i/iaiea noaeino?ieoaeueiuo noaeae oa?ii-eiioeueniie
ia?aaioeie.// Iao/iua o?oaeu I?eaeiai?ianeie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee
no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u . Auione 8, /anoue 1. Aeiai?iiao?iane, IONI
IAANeA. 1999, N.59.

6. Oei?ia A.E., Einou?y A.TH. Nicaeaiea aunieii?i/iuo aaoa?ioaciuo
eiiiiceoeee ia aaca ieceioaea?iaeenouo noaeae.// Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia
I?eaeiai?ianeie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u.
Auione 8, /anoue 1. Aeiai?iiao?iane, IONI IAANeA 1999, N. 103 — 104.

7. Oei?ia A.E., Einou?y A.TH. Iee?ieaae?iaaiea e ca?ii aonoaieoa
no?ieoaeueiuo noaeae. // O?oaeu eiioa?aioeee «?NIA-94» Iaeaaaea. 1994. —
N. 3-4.

8. Oei?ia A.E., Einou?y A.TH., Eeinoa/ O.A. Aaiiao?ey eceiaeieoe e
aiecio?iiey e?enoaeeecothuaainy ?anieaaa. // O?oaeu eiioa?aioeee
“I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”. Aeiai?iiao?iane, Ecae-ai
IAANeA, 1995. — N. 18.

9. Oei?ia A.E., Einou?y TH.O., Einou?y A.TH. Caeiiiia?iinoue
oi?ie?iaaiey no?oeoo?u neioaoe/aneeo eciinoieeeo iaoa?eaeia iieo/aiiuo
?aineioacii // O?oaeu eiioa?aioeee “I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”. Aeiai?iiao?iane, Ecae-ai IAANeA, 1995.- N. 22.

10. Einou?y TH.O., Oei?ia A.E., O?ioaieia I.A., Einou?y A.TH, I?eiaa
I.A., Caeeianeay A.A.. Eciinionoie/eaua iaoaeeieiiiiceoiua iaoa?eaeu,
a?ie?iaaiiua ecioa?ie/aneeie iiiie?enoaeeaie. // O?oaeu eiioa?aioeee
“I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”. Aeiai?iiao?iane, Ecae-ai
IAANeA, 1995.- N. 55-56.

11. A.TH.Einou?y, A.E.Oei?ia, I.A.I?eiaa, A.A.Caeeianeay. No?oeoo?iua
iniaaiiinoe iaoaeeieiiiiceoia, iieo/aiiuo i?e iiiiue ia?iii?iaeueiiai
eceo/aiey. // O?oaeu eiioa?aioeee “I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”. Aeiai?iiao?iane, Ecae-ai IAANeA, 1995.- N. 48.

Einoe?y A.TH. ?ic?iaea aenieiciinino?eeiai iaoaeieiiiiceoiiai iaoa??aeo
ia aac? aoaeaoeaai? noae? — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.16.01 «Iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea
iaoae?a». — Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

Caoeuathoueny ?acoeueoaoe aiae?oe/ieo oa aenia??iaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ca ?ic?iaeith iaoaeieiiiiceoiiai iaoa??aeo, yeee ia?
ia?a?nio aeenia?nio noaca?aio no?oeoo?o aonoai?oo (ii cae?i/aith
e?enoae?caoe??) c aeei?enoaiiyi o yeino? /anoie — ca?iiiiae??aithaa/?a
ea?a?aen?e?oe?eoo?eioth/eo a?aeo?ae?a ae?iaieoeoaa AAO
«Caii??aeaiaiao?ea» — i?oei?noue iaoaeieiiiiceoo o 2,3 ?ace oa
ciinino?ee?noue o 5 ?ac?a a?eueoa a ii??aiyii? c aaciaith noaeeth No3ni.

Iaa?oioiaaia oa aeiaaaeaia i?eioeeiiaa iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy o
yeino? ca?iiiiae??aithth/eo aeiaeaoe?a aeciaaieo iaiaoaeaaeo o?i?/ieo
c’?aeiaiue, ia?ciii?oieo e?enoae?/i?e ooaoao? ia?oeoe?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ca?ii aonoai?oo, ca?iiiiae??aithth/ee aeiaeaoie,
ea?a?aee?aii??ae a?aeoiaee, iaoaeieiiiiceoiee iaoa??ae, ciinino?ee?noue.

Einou?y A.TH. ?ac?aaioea aunieieciininoieeiai iaoaeeieiiiiceoiiai
iaoa?eaea ia aaca oaea?iaeenoie noaee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.01 «Iaoaeeiaaaeaiea e oa?ie/aneay ia?aaioea
iaoaeeia». — Ainoaea?noaaiiay iaoaeeo?ae/aneay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu.
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

Caueuathony ?acoeueoaou aiaeeoe/aneeo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee
ii nicaeaieth iaoaeeieiiiiceoiiai iaoa?eaea, eiathuaai ecia/aeueii
aeenia?nioth noaca?aiioth no?oeoo?o aonoaieoa (ii ieii/aiee
e?enoaeeecaoeee) n eniieueciaaieai a ea/anoaa /anoeoe —
ca?iieciaeue/eoaeae ea?aeaee?aiieeniaea?aeaueo iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa
IAI «Caii?iaeiaiaoii?».

Auei i?iaaaeaii 12 iiuoiuo ieaaie eiiiiceoa ia aaca noaee No.3ni n
aeiaaaeaie 2; 5; 10; 12; 15 ? 20% ia. ca?iieciaeue/eoaey ninoaaa: 40%
o?. 0,5-1 ii + 20% o?. 1-2 ii + 40% o?. 2-3 ii, a oaeaea ?aciiai
ca?iiaiai ninoaaa (12 ia. %), aeeth/ay ii 100% o?. 0,5-1 ii, 1-2 ? 2-3
ii a ?aeiiaeiaoeeyo.

?aieiaey oi?ie?othuaeny i?e e?enoaeeecaoeee ia?ae/iie ca?aiiie no?oeoo?u
aonoaieoa, iiaoi?yy noaaeaiae?eoiia no?iaiea, iiauoaao i?i/iinoue
iaoaeeieiiiiceoa ca n/ao iiaeaaeaiey i?ioeannia ?ae?enoaeeecaoeee e
iiauoaiey oa?iiaeeiaie/aneie noaaeeueiinoe a?aieoe, i?aiyonoaothueo
aeeoooceiiiiio ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth eiiiiiaioia iao?eoeu, /oi iiauoaao
iauee caian eiino?oeoeaiie i?i/iinoe iaoaeeieiiiiceoa.

Yoe iniaaiiinoe naienoa iaoneiaeaiu niaoeeoeeie ii?oieiaee
iee?ino?oeoo?u iaoaeeieiiiiceoa, n?aaee eioi?uo iaeaieaa aaaeiuie
yaeythony: aeiiieieoaeueiia acaeiiaeaenoaea «aoi?e/iiai» ea?ai?oiaea e
iao?e/iiai ?anieaaa; eciaiaiey oiieie e?enoaeee/aneie no?oeoo?u naycee;
ninoiyiea iaaeca?aiiuo e iaaeoaciuo a?aieoe. ?anoai?aiea ianneaa
«nayce», iaoneiaeaiiia iaeiieaieai a iaoaeea aeiiieieoaeueiuo
aeeneieaoeee, iaaaaeaiiuo ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeeae, iaoneiaeeaaao
ionoonoaea nieioiinoe eaae?iaaiiiai oa??eoa.

Iioeiaeueiia ni/aoaiea iaoaie/aneeo naienoa e nii?ioeaeaiea aa?aceaiiio
eciino, ii n?aaiaieth n aaciaie noaeueth, o iaoaeeieiiiiceoiiai
iaoa?eaea, n ?ann/eoaiiui ia YAI eiee/anoaii e a?aioeiiao?e/aneei
ninoaaii ca?iieciaeue/athuae aeiaaaee ( 12% ia. 40% o?. 0,5-1 ii + 20%
o?. 1-2 ii + 40% o?. 2-3 ii) aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao iieo/aiiiai
no?oeoo?iiai ninoiyiey. Oae iaee/ea a iaaeaeoaaoaeyo aeaiae?eoia
aeenia?niuo /anoeoe ca?iieciaeue/athuae aeiaaaee i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth
aeene?aoiuo iaaieueoeo o/anoeia oae iacuaaaiiai ia?oaineoa aeaoi?iaoeee,
oi?i/iythuaai eiiiiceo, /oi aucuaaao ia?aianuuaiea aeaoaeoaie
e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoee ioaeaeueiuo iee?iiauaiia iaoaeee/aneie iao?eoeu
e aicieeiiaaieth eieaeueiuo naeeiathueo iai?yaeaiee.

Iiauoaiea noaiaie nii?ioeaeaiey aa?aceaiiio eciino naycaii n
ioiineoaeueiie aiiiaaiecaoeeae iaoaeeieiiiiceoa e noaaeeecaoeeae
aaiiao?e/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee ianneaa oacu-nayce, noi?ie?iaaaoeany aaeece
ca?iieciaeue/athuae aeiaaaee o?iinoi-ia?oaineoiua o/anoee, i?e ieioiii
o?eaieiioaeoa, aini?eieiatho ia naay iniiaioth iaa?oceo, a ni/aoaiee n
/anoeoeaie ca?iieciaeue/athuaai a?ie?othuaai aaaioa (HV = 38 AIa) e
iyaeie iniiaie (eaae?iaaiiue inaaaeioa??eo) – nieaeatho eiyooeoeeaio
o?aiey e eciin. Iineieueeo /anoeoeu oi?i/iythuae aeiaaaee ?aaiiia?ii
?ani?aaeaeaiu a iao?eoea – iie iiieaeatho oaiia?aoo?o iiaa?oiinoe o?aiey
e oeo/oatho aioeo?eeoeeiiiua naienoaa, i?i/iinoue iaoaeeieiiiiceoa a 2,3
?aca e eciininoieeinoue a 5 ?ac aieueoa ii n?aaiaieth n aaciaie noaeueth
No3ni.

Ia iniiaaiee auoaeceiaeaiiiai iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi iaeaieaa
oeaeaniia?aciui auei au eniieueciaaiea iaoaeeieiiiiceoa aeey
ecaioiaeaiey aeaoaeae, ?aaioathueo i?e cia/eoaeueiii aa?aceaiii eciina e
ionoonoaee eioaineaiuo oaea?iuo iaa?ocie, a /anoiinoe, o?eeoeeiiia,
iaethueo oae, a oaeaea e?oiiiaaaa?eoiuo aeaoaeae oeia ii?oe?, eee oeaio
?aaioathueo a ia?ao o?aiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ca?ii aonoaieoa, ca?iieciaeue/athuay aeiaaaea,
ea?aeaee?aiieeniaea?aeauea iooiaeu, iaoaeeieiiiiceoiue iaoa?eae,
eciininoieeinoue.

Kostirya Vsevolod Y. Development of high resistance to abrasive wear a
new metallic-composite material on base of carbonium steel. —
Manuscript.

The dissertation for defending the degree of Candidate of Technical
Science, speciality 05.16.01 «PHYSICAL METALLURGICAL AND HEAT TREATMENT
OF METALS». State Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine. Dnepropetrovsk,
1999.

Development high resistance to abrasive wear a new composite material of
the «steel — SiC» system . Metodic of a research simulation,
experimental researches on ingots. Possibility of regulation of the
morphology of a cast grain aystenit is proved in view of metallurgical
historai of ingot, is placed, the choice of grain-granylated additive is
reasonable. To make up optimal volumetric parametrs of the additives
ensuring to an aggregate, with a matrix from steel St.3sp, — durability
940IPa and resistance to abrasive wear 0,25g/sm2. Sphere of use are the
machine works.

Key words : grain of aystenite, SiC – grain-granulated, metallic-
composite material, SiC- contained ware, high resistance to abrasive
wear.

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