I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

AeA?AEAAIA IAOAEO?A?EIA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

THOEAAE* Ieaa Iaaeiae/

OAeE: 669.14. 018.294: 625.151/: 621.785. 36.545: 001:5

?IC?IAEA, AEI?IAOAAIIss OA

AI?IAAAeAEAIIss ?AAEEI?A ? OAOIIEIA??

OA?I?*II? IA?IAEE ?AIIEO

?AEIE C ?IAeOEOe?EIIAI IAA??AO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.16.01 —

«Iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaoae?a»

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaoae?a Aea?aeaaii?
iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee)

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AeIEAEAIEIA ?AAI ?AI?IAE*

AeIaoAO, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith

oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaoae?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?iaeia Aaiiaae?e
Ieoaeeiae/, I?eaeiai?ianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee oeaio?aeueii? eaai?aoi???
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe Aao?ooaaa A??a Na?a??aia, Aea?aeaaiee
iaoeiaiaeine?aeiee oa eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo o?oaii?
i?iieneiaino? i?i?noa?noaa i?iieneiai? iie?oeoe? Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/a
a?aeae?eaiiyi iaoa??aeiciaanoaa, oaoiieia?? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee, iaa??ao
oa ioieiaeaeaiiy iaoaeo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo /i?ii? iaoaeo?a?? IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e i?iaeai
no?oeoo?ioai?aiiy oa aeanoeainoae /i?ieo iaoae?a (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “08” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 1200 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.084.02 o Aea?aeaai?e iaoaeo?a?ei?e
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320635,Oe?a?ia, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. Aaaa??ia,
4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? AeIaoAO
(320635, Oe?a?ia, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. Aaaa??ia, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “06“ eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
I.I. Eiia?ia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iacaaaeath/e ia aaeee? oni?oe a aaeoc? i?aeaeuaiiy
no?eeino? ?aeie ?ic?iaeaiith ?aoe?iiaeueieo oaoiieia?e ci?oeiaiiy ?aiieo
?aeie no??ei/ieo ia?aaiae?a ia i?eae?eyeiny iaeaaeii? oaaae. A iei?oi?e
/an, o ca’yceo c iaaeinoaoiueith no?ee?noth ?aiieo ?aeie, ia
iaeiaaaioaaeai?oeo ae?eyieao aioo??oiueicaaiaenueeeo cae?cie/ieo
oeyo?a, oa?i?i neoaeae no??ei/ieo ia?aaiae?a ?noioii ieae/a
?aaeaiaioiaaiiai. Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei niiniaii i?aeaeuaiiy ?oiuei?
no?eeino? ? oa?iici?oeiaiiy c iaa??ao no?oiaie aeniei? /anoioe (NA*).
I?ioa ca?ac ?nioth/a oaoiieia?y ia caaacia/o? aeinoaoith noaa?euei?noue
neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae, ia aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe aenieoaoaoe?ei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aiieo ?aeie, ui aeiaaathoueny. O ca’yceo c oeei
iaiao?aeii i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, iia’ycaieo c aea/aiiyi ?
?ic?iaeith oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a, ?aaeei?a oa oaoiieia?? oa?i?/iiai
ci?oeiaiiy ?aiieo ?aeie oeyoii aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? oai?aoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?aoe?iiaeueia oa aeiiii?/ia aeo?a/aiiy
aia?ai?ano?n?a ? iaoaeo. I?e oeueiio iinoa? iio?aaa aea/aiiy
iniaeeainoae e?iaoeee oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
ci?oeiaiiio oa?? ?aeie a i?ioean? iaa??ao oa ioieiaeaeoaaiiy. Oe?
ianoaaeie iaoiiaeththoue aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? iia’ycai? c?
noai?aiiyi iiai? oaoiieia?? ? ?aaeei?a oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ?aiieo ?aeie c
?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ie?ai?
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeai? a caeeth/ieo ca?oao
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o: «?ac?aaioaoue e inaieoue oniaa?oainoaiaaiioth
oaoiieiaeth e iai?oaeiaaiea oi?i/iaiey n iaa?aaa OA* ino?yeia e ?aiiuo
?aeuenia», Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1987; «Enneaaeiaaoue, ?ac?aaioaoue e
aiaae?eoue oniaa?oainoaiaaiioth oaoiieiaeth caeaeee OA* ?aeueniauo
aeaoaeae a oeaoa no?aei/iuo ia?aaiaeia», Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1989;
«?ac?aaioaoue e eniuoaoue iai?oaeiaaiea e oaoiieiaeth ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
aiaeiaicaeooiiai ioeaaeaeaiey ino?yeia e ?aiiuo ?aeuenia»,
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1992.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeaii? ?iaioe iieyaaea a ?ic?iaoe?,
aei?iaiaoaaii? oa ai?iaaaeaeaii? ?aaeei?a ? oaoiieia?? ?iaeoeoe?eiiai
oa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy ?aiieo ?aeie no??ei/ieo ia?aaiae?a, ui
i?aoeththoue a oiiaao i?iieneiaeo cae?cieoeue. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??oeee ianooii? caaea/?:

-aea/eee oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia aenieoaoaoe?eio no?ee?noue oa?i?/ii
ci?oeiaieo c iaa??ao NA* ?aiieo ?aeie;

-aecia/eee iaiao?aeiee ??aaiue oa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy ?aeie ca
?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co oiia aenieoaoaoe??;

-aeine?aeeee o?ce/i? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao, ui
nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy aonoai?oii? no?oeoo?e;

-aeine?aeeee e?iaoeeo oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue i?e aacia?a?aiiio iaa??aaii?;

-aea/eee ca’ycie ia?aiao??a ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao c? no?oeoo?ith,
oaa?ae?noth ? aeeaeiith oa?iici?oeiaiiai oa?o;

-?ic?iaeee ia?aiao?e ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao ?aiieo ?aeie;

-aea/eee aieea e?ioeaaiai no?oeoo?iiai noaio i?ney iaa??ao NA* ia
e?iaoeeo oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue i?e aacia?a?aiiio ioieiaeaeai?;

-?ic?iaeee ? aei?iaoaaee ioieiaeaeoaaeuei? i?eeaaee aeey oa?i?/iiai
ci?oeiaiiy ?aeie c iaa??ao NA*;

-aeine?aeeee, ?ic?iaeee oa aei?iaoaaee ?aaeeie oa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy
?aiieo ?aeie c aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao i?e ?oiueiio
ia?ai?uaii? o aa?o?aiee ea?aooe? ?c caaaeaiith oaeaee?noth.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Anoaiiaeaia iaeia c iniiaieo
i?e/ei ooai?aiiy iaieea?a aieiai? a?ai? aieiaie ?aiieo ?aeie, oa?i?/ii
ci?oeiaieo c iaa??ao NA* ca a?aeiiith oaoiieia??th — ooai?aiiy a
ia?ao?aei?e (aei aa?y/aeaoaiiai iaoaeo) cii? no?oeoo?e ca?ienoiai
ia?eeoo, ui ia? aenieo ieanoe/i?noue.

Anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? ?ioa?aaee oaiia?aoo? ii/aoeo oa e?ioey oaciaeo
ia?aoai?aiue i?e aacia?a?aiiio iaa??aaii? ? ioieiaeaeoaaii? ?aeeia?
noae? I76A aaoaeoi?aeiiai neeaaeo.

Anoaiiaeaia oeeee?/i?noue oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey i?e ?iaeoeoe?eiiio
iaa??aaii? NA* ?aiieo ?aeie ? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai oeeee?/iiai ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao aeey
caaacia/aiiy ae??aiica?ienoi? no?oeoo?e ?aeie.

?ic?iaeai? ia ??ai? aeiaoiaeo (A.n. ?1700067 e ?1788043) i?eeaaee aeey
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? iiaea/? ioieiaeaeoaaeueiiai /eiieea c ?aaoeueiaaieie
oaieio?ce/ieie aeanoeainoyie ia iiaa?oith eaoaiiy ?aeee.

Aia?oa iiaoaeiaai? ae?aa?aie ?iciaaeo aonoai?oo, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
no?oeoo?iiio noaio i?ney iaa??ao NA* ?aeeiai? noae? I76A aaoaeoi?aeiiai
neeaaeo noiniaii aei caaa?ooaaiiy ?aiieo ?aeie a oiiaao oeaoa no??ei/ieo
ia?aaiae?a (OeNI) Ea?/ainueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai caaiaeo (EIC) ?i.
Aieeiaa.

?ic?iaeai? ia?aiao?e aieeao ia e?iaoeeo ia?aoai?aiiy i?e oa?i?/iiio
ci?oeiaii? cae?cie/ieo ?aeie ?50 ? ?65, ui caaacia/othoue /anoeiaee
?cioa?i?/iee ?iciaae ia?aioieiaeaeaiiai aonoai?oo i?e
aacia?a?aii-iine?aeiaiiio niinia? ioieiaeaeoaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ia iniia? aeeiiaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ?iaeoeoe?eiiai oeeee?/iiai
iaa??ao ia oi?ioaaiiy e?ioeaai? no?oeoo?e ?aeeiaeo noaeae i?ney
ni?aea?iiai ioieiaeaeoaaiiy aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y ?iaeoeoe?eii?
oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ?aiieo ?aeie oeio ?65 c? noaeae I76A, I76AO ? ?50 c?
noaeae E74 oa I74O, ui caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy iaeii??aeiino? no?oeoo?e ?
oaa?aeino? ii an?e aeiaaeei? ? ii ia?aoeio aie?aee i?e i?aeaeuaii? ??aiy
aeanoeainoae ? aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino? a?aeiinii aa?y/aeaoaieo ?aeie.

Iaea?aeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ? oai?aoe/i? aeai? aeey oa?i?/iiai
ci?oeiaiiy c iaa??ao NA* ?aiieo ?aeie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
?iaeoeoe?eii? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaoe? oeyoiaeo cae?cie/ieo ?aeie.

?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y oa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy noeneei eiii?an?eiei
iia?o?yi c iaa??ao NA* ?aiieo ?aeie oeio ?50, yea ai?iaaaeaeaia a OeNI
EIC ?i. Aieeiaa (i. Ea?/). I?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy no??ei/ieo ia?aaiae?a
c ?aiieie ?aeeaie, ci?oeiaieie ii iia?e oaoiieia??, aeyaeee
aenieoaoaoe?eio no?ee?noue a 1.1-1.2 ?ace aeuo, i?ae o na??eieo. ??/iee
aeiiii?/iee aoaeo o niiaeeaa/a neeaa 448 500 e?a. (a oe?iao 1987 ?.).
?aaeeie ? iaeaaeiaiiy aeey oa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy c ?iaeoeoe?eiiai
iaa??ao aiaeiiia?o?yiith noi?ooth aei?iaoaai? i?ae /an aeioneo
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? ia?o?? ?aiieo ?aeie oeio ?65 ? iiaeooue aooe
canoiniaai? ia no??ei/ieo i?aei?e?inoaao.

Iniaenoee aeeaae caeiaoaa/a. An? ?acoeueoaoe, ui neeaaeathoue iniiaiee
ai?no ?iaioe, aoee io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii, iniaeeai o?, ui
neeaaeathoue caaaeuei? aeniiaee ? iaoeiao iiaecio.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia:
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Nithc iaoee e i?aeoeee e 100-eaoeth
Iao?iaee», Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1987; Ananithci?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? «Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa iaoaeeii?ieaoa iooai oa?ie/aneie e
oa?iiiaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee», Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1988; 2-io
I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? Oe?aiinueeeo iiaeaia?ia-iaoaieeia o Eueaiai,
Euea?a, 1995; 1-?e I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioeii
«Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy a aeaeo?ioaoieoei», Euea?a, 1995; ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?e oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaoae?a o 1998 a.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ai?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaiee o 8 ?iaioao: 2
noaooyo, 4 ca??eao oac iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e, 2 aaoi?nueeeo
na?aeioeoaao.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
5 ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ?
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 170 noi??ieao ae?oea?nueeiai oaenoo,
i?noeoue 5 oaaeeoeue, 45 iaethie?a. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e
aeeth/a? 151 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Noai ieoaiiy

?aii? ?aeee ae?iaeythoue c? cae/aeieo oeyoiaeo ?aeie, i?e aenieoaoaoe??
aiie i?aeaeathoueny oaeiio ae ciino ? ooai?aiith aeaoaeo?a, ye ?
cae/aei? cae?cie/i? ?aeee caaaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy. Iaeiae, oiiae ?iaioe
?aeie ia i?iieneiaeo cae?cieoeyo a?eueo aei?noe?, i?ae ia aei?iaao
caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo iieaco?, ui iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea? aeey
aenieoaoaoe?? a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao aeanoeaino? iathoue ?aii? ?aeee c?
noae?, ui i?noeoue 0.76-0.82%C, aei 0.07%V ? aei 0.015%Ti aai i?aeaeai?
oa?i?/iiio ci?oeiaiith c ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao aiaeiiia?o?yiith
noi?ooth ia iaeii??aeio no?oeoo?o oeio ni?a?oo aai o?iinoeoo
caaa?ooaaiiy. Aaiaae?e aeicaiey? ?aae?coaaoe aoaeo aeenia?n?eiiai
ci?oeiaiiy oa?eoii? neeaaeiai? ia?eeoo a aa?y/aaeaoi?iiaai?e noae? ?
ciaioeoe noeeuei?noue aei c?inoaiiy ca?ia a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
aonoai?oecaoe??. Oeoai o ?aeeiaeo noaeyo (ca aeaieie “Oe?IEEIao”)
ca?eueoo? i?aeieanoeieiao a?aenoaiue ? oiaueio ieanoei oeaiaioeoo aac
ci?ie ?ici??o ca?ia aonoai?oo ? ia?eeoieo eieii?e. Iaeiae, oa?i?/ia
ci?oeiaiiy ?aiieo ?aeie c oaeeo noaeae c ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao c
aeei?enoaiiyi aiaeiiia?o?yiiai ioieiaeaeoaaiiy, aea/aia a iei?oi?e /an
iaaeinoaoiuei, oiio oey i?iaeaia caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiith.

Iaeei c aaeeeeo iinoa/aeueiee?a ?aeie, — iaoeiia?iao «Acianoaeue», —
aeieaaey? iaoae ia aac? ea?/ainueeeo ?oae, ye? i?noyoue oinoi?, ui, a
cia/i?e i??? aecia/a? nooi?iue ?icaeoeo aeaiae?eoii? e?eaaoe?? ?
aaee/eio ca?ia a i?aeinueiaeo ae?eyieao, ? ieo’ye, caeaoiee aei
e?eaaoe?? a iaaaeeeiio ia’?io iaoaeo (i?e?ie?eaaoe??) aei cia/ieo
aaee/ei. Oe? aeaiaioe aeyaeythoue oaeiae ?noioiee aieea ia e?iaoeeo
oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue i?e iaa??aaii? ? ioieiaeaeoaaii? ?aeeiaeo noaeae.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo Ea?/ainueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai caaiaeo ?i.
Aieeiaa (iaea?eueo ?icaeiaii? no/anii? ae?iaie/i? aace ii aeaioiaeaiith
no??ei/ieo ia?aaiae?a) iiai? aa?o?aii? ea?aoee, ca?eueoaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?eno?ith NA* ? aeei?enoaiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaiai
iaa??aaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy aeiaaaei aea/aiiy oiia iaa??ao ?
ioieiaeaeoaaiiy ?aeie, aiae?co i?e oeueiio o?ce/ieo ? oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo
i?ioean?a ,ui a?aeaoaathoueny, aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?o aonoai?oecaoe?? ?
?iciaaeo ia?aioieiaeaeaiiai aonoai?oo, ?ic?iaee ?aaeei?a ?iaeoeoe?eiiai
iaa??ao ? oa?iici?oeiaiiy.

Iaoa??ae oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo ?aaeei?a oa oaoiieia?? oa?i?/iiai
ci?oeiaiiy aeeiioaaee a ae?iaie/eo oiiaao ia iacaaa?oiaaieo ?aiieo
?aeeao I a?oie, ui iinoaaeythoueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeiiaaie AeANO
24182-80 oeio P65 c noaeae ia?ie I76A, I76AO, oeio P50 c noae? ia?ee
I74O (IE «Acianoaeue»), neeaae yeeo caaacia/o? iaee?au? aeey
aenieoaoaoe?? a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao oa?aeoa?enoeee, a oaeiae ?aeeao oeio
P50 c eeniaai-eiiaa?oi?ii? noae? E74 ae?iaieoeoaa Aei?i?ianueeiai
iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo ?i. Aeca?aeeinueeiai.

Ioe?ieo yeino? ?aeie, ye? ci?oeiai? ca aenia?eiaioaeueieie ?aaeeiai ia
aeine?aeieoeueei-i?iieneiaiio iaeaaeiai?, i?iaiaeeee a a?aeiia?aeiino? c
ii?iaie AeANO 24182-80, OO 14-2-651-85 ? OO 14-12-412-91. ?aeee, ui
a?aeiia?aeaee aeiiaai ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, ?ooaee ia i?iieneia?
?nieoe ? aeeaaeaeeny aei eie?? oeyoiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ??ciiiai?oieo
iaoaeo?a?eieo i?aei?e?inoa, aea ca ieie anoaiiaethaaeiny niinoa?aaeaiiy
c ianooiiith o?enaoe??th noaae?e ciino i?e aenieoaoaoe??.

Aenia?eiaioe uiaei ?iaeoeoe?eii? oa?iiia?iaee ? a?aei?aoethaaiiy
?aaeei?a oa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy ?aeie aeeiioaaee ia onoaiiaoe? NA* EIC
?i. Aieeiaa, canoiniaoth/e aeaooeaoooeiaee aai o?aoeaoooeiaee ?iaeoeoi?e
iiooaei?noth aei 100 aai 250 eAo ?, a?aeiia?aeii, iaoeiiee iiooaei?noth
100 eAo aai oe?enoi?iee (OI*-250-24-312-2OOE4 iiooaei?noth 250 eAo)
ia?aoai?thaa/ /anoioe, i?e oaeaeeinoyo ia?ai?uaiiy ?aeie o aa?o?aiiio
i?eeaae? o 5-6.7 aai 8.3 ii/n ? iiooaeiino?, ui a?aeae?a?oueny, o 100
aai 130-200 eAo. Aea/aiiy aieeao oa?aeoa?o ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai
iioieo ii aeiaaeei? ?iaeoeoi?a ia oaiia?aoo?ia iiea ?aeie, ui
iaa??aathoueny, cae?enithaaee c?noaaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aei???a (ca
aeiiiiiaith oetheniao?a) iai?oaeaiino? iaai?oiiai iiey ?iaeoeoi?a ?
oaiia?aoo?e o aieiaoe?.

Oaiia?aoo?ia iiea o aieiaoe? ?aeee i?e iaa??aaii? NA* o?enoaaee
aeaeo?e/iei iioaioe?iiao?ii ENI-2 ca aeiiiiiaith o?iiaeue-aethiaeaaeo
(O-A) oa?iiia?, aaaaeaieo o aieiaeo /a?ac ioa??, aeeiiaiee ye
no?ae/anoee eii?/iee eaiae, i?inaa?aeeaiee c aieo i?aeioae c iaoith
onoiaiiy aoaeoo eieaeueiiai ia?aa??ao, ? caea?aiaaieo ia aeeaei? 1-17
ii a?ae iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy.

A aenia?eiaioao oaiia?aoo?a iiaa?oi? aecia/aeany aaciina?aaeiuei
i??iiao?ii «I?ii?iue», oaiia?aoo?a na?aaeiaeua aei??thaaeany ?oooiei
oa?iiiao?ii, eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/? ioe?ithaaee ca aiae?cii e?eaeo
ioieiaeaeoaaiiy, caienaieo ia aeeaei? 1 ii ? 3.3 ii a?ae iiaa?oi? ?aeee,
ui ioieiaeaeo?oueny.

E?iaoeeo oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue aeine?aeaeoaaee iaoiaeii
aeeoa?aioe?eii-oa?i?/iiai aiae?co, aeiiiaithth/e eiai
aa?ooaaeueii-i?e?in?oeoo?iei iaoiaeii. ?a?no?aoe?th i?ioean?a oaciaeo
ia?aoai?aiue aeeiioaaee aeaieii?aeeiaoiei naiiienoeai IAeN-021 ?
aeaeo?e/iei naiiieniei iioaioe?iiao?ii ENI-4. Caaa?oiaai? (c
??ciiiai?oieie oaeaeeinoyie c?acee), i?aeaeaaaee iaoaeia?ao?/iiio
aeine?aeaeaiith, aei??thaaiith i?e?ioaa?aeino? ia i?eeaae? IIO-3.

?ic?iaeo ?aaeei?a oa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy c iaa??ao NA* aeeiioaaee ia
iniia? aiae?co iaoa??ae?a eaai?aoi?ieo ? i?iieneiaeo aenia?eiaio?a c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee io?eiaieo aeaieo. C ?aeie, ye? aoee
ia?iaeai? ca aeine?aeieie ?aaeeiaie, ae??coaaee iiia?a/i? oaiieaoe c
iiaiei i?io?eai ?aeee, ye? oe?ooaaee c aeaio noi??i ? aei??thaaee ia ieo
oaa?ae?noue i?eeaaeii OE-2 (?ieaaee) acaeiaae in? ? ia aee?oaeeao a
oaoiaiio ii?yaeeo, o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeiiaaie AeANO 24182-80.
Ioe?ithaaee eiio?ao?aoe?th ? aeeaeio ci?oeiaiiai oa?o, aeine?aeaeoaaee
i?e?ino?oeoo?o ia “NEOPHOT-21”.

Aea??eiai c oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie oaiieao?a ae??coaaee c?acee, ui
i?aeaeaaaee ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiio aiae?co oa? ca oa?ii aai
aeine?aeaeoaaee ia ?ano?iaiio aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? /a?ac eiaei? 2 ii,
ii/eiath/e a?ae iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy. ?aioaai?anueeo ceiieo i?iaiaeeee a
cae?ciiio K(- aei?ii?iaii?, ?a?no?aoe??th ?ioa?oa?aioe?eieo iaeneioi?a
110 ? 220. Aecia/aee ae?enia o?ce/ia ooe?aiiy, ??aaiue i?e?iiai?oae ?
aaee/eie iaeanoae eiaa?aioiiai ?icn?thaaiiy.

Iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea? ii io?eiaiei ?acoeueoaoai ?aaeeie
a?aei?aoeueiaoaaee a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao ia aenia?eiaioaeuei?e onoaiiaoe?
NA*. I?e iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoaoao c iaoaeo ?aeie ae??coaaee c?acee, ui
i?aeaeaaaee oa? ca oa?ii aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiio aiae?co (can?a
?aie?e) ? ?nieoai ia ?ic?ea, a a?aeiia?aeiino? c AeANO 1497-84 ? AeANO
1497-73. C?acee ae??coaaee c iine?aeiaieo oaiieao?a oaeei /eiii, uia
a?aenoaiue i?ae iiacaeiaaei?ie inyie oeee?iae?ee?a aei??aithaaea aeaii
ae?aiao?ai ?iai/i? /anoeie, ui aeicaieeei io?eiaoe ?iciiae?e
oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino? a iiia?a/iiio ia?aoei? aie?aee ?aeee. C?acee
aeey ?nieo?a ia oaea?iee caei ca AeANO 9454-78 ae??coaaee c? ci?oeiaii?
ae?eyiee aie?aee ?aeee o iiacaeiaaeiueiio iai?yi?, o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
AeANO 18267-82 oa OO 14-2-651-85, ? c ia?ao?aeii? ciie oaeei /eiii, uia
ieaeiy a?aiue ieiaea e??cue iaaeo aeo?aeiiai aa?y/aeaoaiiai ?
oa?iiia?iaeaiiai iaoaeo. Iiaa?oiaao oaa?ae?noue aei??thaaee oaa?aeii??ii
OO-2I a o?ueio oi/eao o iai?yieo iiacaeiaaeiuei? in? iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy.
Ci?oeiaiiy ii aeeaei? acaeiaae iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy ioe?ithaaee
aei??thaaiiyi eia?oeeoeaii? neee i?eeaaeii “Aaaa-1” c aei??thaaeueiei
i?eno?i?i aeey aeeaeie ( 5 ? ( 10 ii.

Aea/aiiy oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia aenieoaoaoe?eio

no?ee?noue oa?i?/ii ia?iaeaieo ?aiieo ?aeie

Aeine?aeaeoaaee ?aaeeie, i?eeiyo? ia an?o no??ei/ieo i?aei?e?inoaao
Oe?a?ie. Uia io?eiaoe iaea?eueoo aeeaeio ci?oeiaiiy i?e iino?ei?e
iiooaeiino? no?oio a ?iaeoeoi?? ? iaci?ii?e aeo?ao? iia?o?y, iaiao?aeii
i?i?i?coaaoe oaoi?/ii iiaeeeao oaeaee?noue ?ooo ?aeee o aa?o?aiiio
aa?aaao?, a iaoiio aeiaaeeo — a?ey 5 ii/n, ui aeae?eueea i?aeaeuo?
aeeaeio ci?oeiaiiy ? oaa?ae?noue, cia/aiiy yeeo ia caaeiaieueiythoue
aeiiaai ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, i?e oeueiio ??cei iaaea?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?eno?ith NA*.

Aeey ca?eueoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?eno?ith NA* ? i?aeaeuaiiy ieoiii?
iiooaeiino? i?e iaa??aaii? aoa aeei?enoaiee o?aoeaoooeiaee ?iaeoeoi?
iiooaei?noth aei 200 eAo ? oe?enoi?iee ia?aoai?thaa/ /anoioe no?oio, —
oea aeicaieeei ca?eueoeoe oaeaee?noue ia?ai?uaiiy ?aeie a aa?o?aiee
ea?aooe? aei 8.3 ii/n.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee, i?eeiyoeo a OeNI EIC ?i.
Aieeiaa ye ?iai/eo aeey iiaea?i?ciaaiiai onoaiiaee NA*, iiceoeaieo
?acoeueoao?a ia aeaee.

Oaeei /eiii, canoiniao?i? a iao /an ia no??ei/ieo i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie
?aaeeie ? iaeaaeiaiiy oa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy ?aiieo ?aeie, c iaa??ao NA*
ia caaacia/othoue a?aeiia?aeiino? ?oi?o aeanoeainoae aeiiaai OO
14-12-412-91.

Ia o?ueio i?aei?e?inoaao Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano? aoee iinoaaeai? ia
i?iieneia? ?nieoe oa?i?/ii ci?oeiai? c ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao noeneei
eiii?ani?iei iia?o?yi i?e oaeaeeino? ia?ai?uaiiy 8.3 ii/n a oiiaao EIC
?i. Aieeiaa na??ei? ?aii? ?aeee oeio ?50 ? ?65 a eiiieaeo? no??ei/ieo
ia?aaiae?a. Aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?o aeaoaeo?a iieacaei, ui, o iniiaiiio, an?
?aeee i?aeaeathoueny ooai?aiith iaieea?a aieiai? a?ai? ? noe?aiith
iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy. I?e oeueiio noe?aiiy i?io?ea? c iaioith
?ioaineai?noth, ? aiii coiiaeaii iaaeeeoeiaei oa?eoii a iiaa?oiaaiio
oa?? oiaueiith aei 3 ii /a?ac neeueio ao?aoo aoaeaoeth a i?ioean?
i?ieaoee ? ianooiii? i?ioeoeieaiii? ia?iaee ? /a?ac iaaeinoaoith
oaeaee?noue ioieiaeaeoaaiiy iiaa?oi?.

Oa?aeoa? ?icoaooaaiiy e?i?e ??aii? oaa?aeino? aeicaiey? ae?eoe aeniiaeo,
ui ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y oa?iici?oeiaiiai c iaa??ao NA* iaoaeo ?aeie
i?io?ea? iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii a oa?ao c oaa?ae?noth a?ae HRC 29 aei HRC
20, oiaoi a cii? ia?aoiaeo a?ae oa?iici?oeiaiiai aei aeo?aeiiai iaoaeo.
Aeeaeia ?icoaooaaiiy noiaeeiee iaieeao a?aeiia?aea? aeeaei? aeoiaeo
ia?ao?aeii? ciie ia aieiao a?aiue aieiaee. I?ney ci?oeiaiiy ia?ao?aeia
ciia ia iaae? c aeo?aeiei aa?y/aeaoaiei iaoaeii ia? iaeneiaeueio
e?euee?noue ca?ienoiai ia?eeoo, iaea?eueoo ieanoe/i?noue a ia?aoei?
?aeee ? neeaaea?oueny c? noi?o? ae??aii ieanoei/aoiai ? ca?ienoiai
ia?eeo?a, oaa?ae?noue ?? HRC 30-23. I?e iaaeinoaoiueiio ci?oeiaii? aiia
? ia ?aii?e noaae?? aenieoaoaoe?? ina?aaeeii ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??
aieiai? a?ai? ? iiaea noaoe aeinoaoi?i oaeoi?ii aeey ca?iaeaeaiiy ?
aeieeiaiiy eiioaeoii-aoiiethaaeueiiai aeaoaeoo. Oiio ooai?aiiy no?oeoo?
ca?ienoiai ia?eeoo i?e ioieiaeaeoaaii? noeneei iia?o?yi iai?eionoeii ia
a?aenoaiyo a?ae iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy, ui ? iaioeie ca aeeaeio ?icoaooaaiiy
iaeneioio eiioaeoii? aeioe/ii? iai?oaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, iaiao?aeii aoei aeine?aeaeoaaoe ia?aiao?e oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee, ye? iiaeooue aieeaaoe ia ci?oeiaiiy iaoaeo iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy,
ia?ao?aeii? ciie aie?aee ? ia e?iaoeeo ooai?aiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy aeaieo
no?oeoo? a iiaa?oiaaeo ? ia?ao?aeieo oa?ao, c’yniaoaaoe i?e/eie,
/a?ac ye? a?aeaoaa?oueny ooai?aiiy no?oeoo? ca?ienoiai ia?eeoo o
aieiaoe? ?aiieo ?aeie.

Aea/aiiy, ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia?aiao??a

iaa??ao NA* ?aiieo ?aeie

Iaoiaeii aeeoa?aioe?eii-oa?i?/iiai aiae?co aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui cia/aiiy
e?eoe/ieo oi/ie Ac1 ? An3 aeine?aeii? noae? I76A (0.8%) i?e na?aaei?e
oaeaeeino? iaa??ao 0.12 °C/n neeaaeathoue, a?aeiia?aeii, 728 ? 780°C.
Aeyaeaia iayai?noue aeineoue cia/iiai oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ioa?aaeo i?ae
oi/eaie Ac1 ? An3 , ia aeanoeaiai aeey noaeae c ai?noii 0.8%N.

Iiaia ?ic/eiaiiy aeeth/aiue aaoaeoi?aeiiai oeaiaioeoo cae?i/oaaeiny i?e
a?eueo aenie?e oaiia?aoo?? — 820°C, ui iia’ycaia c ia??aiii??i?noth
?icaeoeo i?ioeano aonoai?oecaoe?? a i?e?iia’?iao iaoaeo, aiane?aeie
??cei ae?aaeaii? aeaiae?eoii? e?eaaoe??. I?e oaiia?aoo?ao, ui eaaeaoue
aeaui aeua ??aiy ??aiiaaaeii? A1, ooai?aiith aonoai?oo ia?aaeo?
noa?i?aeecaoe?y ia?eeoiiai oeaiaioeoo ? ?ae?enoae?caoe?ei? i?ioeane o
oa?eo?. A oeae iiiaio a i?e?ino?oeoo?? iaoaeo a?aeaoaathoueny i?ioeane,
ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei cieaeaiiy ??aiy a?eueii? aia?a??, i?ney /iai
ooai?ththoueny ia?o? ii?oe?? iecueeiaoaeaoeaaiai aonoai?oo, oiaoi
ooai?aiiy aonoai?oo ii/eia?oueny i?e iaaaeeeiio ia?aaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e
aaoaeoi?aeii? ??aiiaaae A1 i?ney o?eaaeiai ?ieoaaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo ?
i?io?ea? ae?ae ieyai; e?ioeaaee oa?eoi-aonoai?oiee noai aeinyaa?oueny ca
?aooiie ?ic/eiaiiy o oa?eo? /anoeiai aai iiai?noth noa?i?aeeciaaieo
/anoie oeaiaioeoo ? aeeooc?? aoaeaoeth aei o?iioo O — A — ia?aoai?aiiy.
I?e oeueiio iai?aaeaiee a?aae??io eiioeaio?aoe?? aoaeaoeth i?e iae?e
oaeaeeino? aonoai?oecaoe??, a?ae iiaa?oi? O — Oe aei iiaa?oi? O — A
i?enei?th? iiae?e oeaiaioeoieo ieanoei. Cia/aiiy oeueiai i?ioeano
?noioii c?inoa? i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e. I?e oaiia?aoo?ao, ui cia/ii
ia?aaeuothoue ??aiiaaaeio A1, i?ioeane noa?i?aeecaoe??, ooai?aiiy
aonoai?oo, ae?iaeaiiy ca?ai oa?eoo ia iaaiiio aoai? niieo/athoueny,
aiane?aeie /iai iiaeeeai ia?aoai?aiiy oa?eoo a iecueeiaoaeaoeaaee
aonoai?o c ianooiiei iane/aiiyi eiai aoaeaoeai ca ?aooiie ?ic/eiaiiy a
aonoai?o? oeaiaioeoieo aeeth/aiue. Ca?ia aonoai?oo, ui ooai?youeny,
iaiaeii??aei? ca ai?noii aoaeaoeth ? eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a. Oiio
??aiiaaaeia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy O+A c aaniethoiei i?i?ioiii a?eueii? aia?a??
aeinyaa?oueny /a?ac ?yae iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a, yeei a?aeiia?aea?
a?aeiinia cieaeaiiy ??aiy a?eueii? aia?a??. Aiane?aeie oeueiai
cae?i/aiiy ooai?aiiy aonoai?oo ci?uo?oueny a iaeanoue a?eueo aenieeo
oaiia?aoo?. I?ney ooai?aiiy aonoai?oo a iueiio a?aeaoaa?oueny aeeooc?eia
ae??aithaaiiy aoaeaoeth, i?e/iio oaeaee?noue oeueiai i?ioeano caeaaeeoue
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e iaa??ao, /ano ia?aaoaaiiy i?e aeai?e oaiia?aoo?? ?
aeenia?niino? aeo?aeieo oa?eoi-oeaiaioeoieo /anoie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue i?e aacia?a?aiiio
oaeaee?niiio iaa??aaii? cae?enithaaee iaoiaeii aeeoa?aioe?eii-oa?i?/iiai
aiae?co. ?acoeueoaoe ocaaaeueithaaee o aeaeyae? oa?iie?iaoe/ii?
ae?aa?aie iaa??ao, ui neeaaea?oueny c e?i?e ii/aoeo oa e?ioey ooai?aiiy
aonoai?oo, ? e?i?? e?ioey ?ic/eiaiiy ea?aeaei-oeaiaioeoieo /anoeiie. A
i?ioean? i?enei?aiiai iaa??ao noae? I76A i?aeaeuaiiy oi/ee Ac3
a?aeaoaa?oueny cai?ioii i?iii?oe?eii i?aeaeuaiith na?aaeiuei? oaeaeeino?
iaa??ao: i?e i?aeaeuaii? na?aaeiuei? oaeaeeino? iaa??ao aei 8.6°C/n ?
aei 78.2°C/n oaiia?aoo?a oi/ee Ac3 i?aeaeuoaaeany, a?aeiia?aeii, aei
940°C ? aei 850°C. ?noioia i?aeaeuaiiy cia/aiue oaiia?aoo?e Ac1
ii/eia?oueny i?e ca?eueoaii? oaeaeeino? iaa??ao (12°C/n. I?e oaeaeeino?
iaa??ao 90°C/n An1=830°C.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e oiia?eueiaiiio (0.014-0.24°C/n) ? i?enei?aiiio
(1-50°C/n) aacia?a?aiiio iaa??aao ?aeeiai? noae? I76A aaoaeoi?aeiiai
neeaaeo (0.81% N) ?nio? oe?ieee iaaee?eoe/iee ?ioa?aae oaiia?aoo?
(Ac1-An3), a yeiio i?e iaa??aaii? eaeooue i?ioeane ae?ia?iiy ?
noa?i?aeecaoe?? oeaiaioeoieo ieanoei. ??cea ?icoe?aiiy ciie /anoeiai?
aonoai?oecaoe?? ? ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie ?? ?icoaooaaiiy a ia?aoei? aie?aee
?aeee a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e i?aeaeuaii? iiooaeiino? no?oio ?iaeoeoi?a c 170
eAo aei 180 eAo.

?ic?iaeaia o?ce/ia iaaeeaeaiiy aeey ioe?iee e?ioeaaeo oaiia?aoo? iaa??ao
iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy ?aeie c iaa??ao NA*, aiae?c yeiai iieacaa, ui
oi?aae?iiy iaa??aaiiyi iiaea aooe caaaeaia aei aa??thaaiiy iiooaeiino?
aai iai?oaeaiino? iaai?oiiai iiey.

Anoaiiaeaia, ui iai?oaeai?noue iaai?oiiai iiey o?aoeioooeiaiai
?iaeoeoi?a, i?aeeeth/aiiai a iaeei eaioetha c oe?enoi?iei
ia?aoai?thaa/ai /anoioe, ci?ith?oueny acaeiaae eiai iiacaeiaaeiuei? in?
iaae iiaa?oiath eaoaiiy ca aa?iii?eiei caeiiii. Oai?aoe/ii aeiaaaeaii,
ui ca ?aooiie oeueiai oaiia?aoo?a iaa??ao a /ano ia? oeeee?/iee
oa?aeoa?. A ?acoeueoao? aieiaea i?aeaea?oueny ?iaeoeoe?eiiio
oa?iioeeeeoaaiith a iaeano? aonoai?oiiai noaio iaoaeo. Aenia?eiaioaeueia
ia?aa??ea i?ioeano iaa??ao NA* aie?aee ?aeee P50 ia aeeaei? 4 ii a
iaeano? aeoeaiiai aeae?eaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oii? aia?a?? (i?e 180 eAo aei
aeeaeie 9 ii) i?aeoaa?aeeea aeaiee aeniiaie. Eieeaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iiaea
aeinyaaoe 200°C. A ?acoeueoao? oaeoe/iee /an ia?aaoaaiiy iaoaeo i?e
iaeneiaeueieo oaiia?aoo?ao iaa??ao nei?i/o?oueny, a?aeiia?aeii,
oaeaee?noue ?inoo ?ici??o aonoai?oiiai ca?ia oaoaa?. I?e oeueiio
aeeooc?ei? i?ioeane a aonoai?o? aiane?aeie i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
i?enei?ththoueny, ? aiiiaai?caoe?y a?aeaoaa?oueny iaaaaaoi oaeaeoa.

I?e aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio ?iaeoeoe?eiiio oeeee?/iiio iaa??aaii? aei
iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeai? oaiia?aoo?e iiaa?oi? a 1180°C aeinyaioo? ?
iaea?eueo? cia/aiiy aeeaeie iiaii? ? /anoeiai? aonoai?oecaoe?? o 9 ? 17
ii. I?e oeueiio a aeaieo iaeanoyo ?ici?? aonoai?oiiai ca?ia ia a?eueo
?8, a ia aeeaei? 4 ii ca?ii cae??aith?oueny aei ?12. Iiae??aiaiiy
aonoai?oieo ca?ai ? ciaioaiiy iaeanoae eiaa?aioiiai ?icn?thaaiiy a
i?ioean? ?iaeoeoe?eiiai oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy aeua oaiia?aoo?e An3
eiio?ieth?oueny aenieith u?euei?noth aeeneieaoe?eieo no?oeoo? a
aonoai?o? ? ooai?thaaieie aaeeeeie aee?eaeaiiyie e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee
(a/a.

I?aeaeuaiiy u?eueiino? aeaeo?iiaai?oii? aia?a??, ui aaiaeeoueny o ?aeee
i?e aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio ?iaeoeoe?eiiio oeeee?/iiio iaa??aaii?,
i?eaiaeeoue i?e ??aieo oiiaao ioieiaeaeoaaiiy aei i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy
aeenia?niino? ia?eeoo, aaee/eie oaa?aeino? ia iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy, a ciiao
iiaii? ? /anoeiai? aonoai?oecaoe??, aeeaeie ci?oeiaiiy.

Iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy ?ici??o aonoai?oiiai ca?ia, ia?aiao??a oiiei?
no?oeoo?e ? oaa?aeino? i?e iiooaeiino? 180 eAo ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiio caci??
io?eiai? ia aeeaei? 4 ii, aea eiioaeoi? cnoai? iai?oae a i?ioean?
aenieoaoaoe?? ?aeie iiaeooue aeinyaaoe iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy. I?e
oaeiio ?aaeei? iaa??ao ?aeie eieeaaiiy aoaeaoeth a iaaeao ia?i/iiai
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo aieeaathoue iacia/ii ia eieeaaiiy oaa?aeino? ? aeeaeie
ci?oeiaiiy. Aeaiee ?aaeei ai?iaaaeaeaiee a i?aeoeeo EIC ?i. Aieeiaa,-
a?i caaacia/ea i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? i?e ioieiaeaeoaaii? noeneei
eiii?an?eiei iia?o?yi na??eieo ?aiieo ?aeie oeio ?50 a 1.1-1.2 ?ace.
?aaeei i?ieoia aei?iaoaaiiy i?e aeaioiaeaii? aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai?
ia?o?? ?aeie oeio ?65, caaa?oiaaieo aiaeiiia?o?yiith noi?ooth c
?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao.

?ic?iaea ? i?iieneiaa aei?iaiaoaaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy ?

?aaeei?a aacia?a?aii-iine?aeiaiiai caaa?ooaaiiy ?aiieo

?aeie c ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao

Aea/eee aieea no?oeoo?iiai noaio i?ney iaa??ao NA* aie?aee ?aeee ia
e?iaoeeo ?iciaaeo ia?aioieiaeaeaiiai aonoai?oo. Aonoai?oecaoe?th c?ace?a
i?iaiaeeee a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao i?e oaiia?aoo?ao, a?aeiia?aeieo
oaiia?aoo?ai iaa??ao ia?oi? ? ae?oai? oaiia?aoo?ieo cii aie?aee ?aeee.
Aeey ia?oi? oaiia?aoo?ii? ciie oaiia?aoo?a aonoai?oecaoe?? aoea i?eeiyoa
830°C, aeo?eiea 10 oa. Aea?aiee ?aaeei caaacia/oaaa ooai?aiiy
aonoai?oiiai ca?ia ?7-8 ii oeae? 1 AeANO 5639-81, ui a?aeiia?aeaei eiai
?ici??o a no?oeoo?ieo ciiao aie?aee (caaa?oiaaii? aiaeiiia?o?yiith
noi?ooth ?aeee): o iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy, ia aeeaei? 0-1.5 ii ? ia aeeaei?
8-12 ii — iaae? ia?oi? ? ae?oa?e oaiia?aoo?ieo cii, oiaoi a iaeanoyo c
??aiai oaa?aeino?, ui ?aaeaiaioo?oueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeiiaaie OO
14-2-651-85 ? OO 14-12-421-91.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue e?iaoeee ia?aoai?aiue aonoai?oo ocaaaeueiai?
o aeaeyae? oa?iie?iaoe/ii? ae?aa?aie. I?e iiaoaeia? ae?aa?aie a?aee?e
/ano aeeiioaaee c iiiaioo aeinyaiaiiy c?aceii oi/ee An1. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
a ?aeeia?e noae? I76A aaoaeoi?aeiiai neeaaeo (0.81%N), yeo
ia?aioieiaeaeoaaee i?e oaeaeeinoyo ioieiaeaeoaaiiy ( 26°C/n aei
oaiia?aoo? ( 500°C, aonoai?o cacia? i?ii?aeiiai ?iciaaeo, a ia?eeoiiio
ia?aoai?aiith ia?aaeo? aeae?eaiiy iaaeeeoeiaiai oa?eoo a ?ioa?aae?
oaeaeeinoae ioieiaeaeoaaiiy 0.22-69°C/n, e?eoe/ia oaeaee?noue aa?ooaaiiy
i?e oeueiio neeaaea? 195°C/n, oaiia?aoo?a ii/aoeo ia?oaineoiiai
ia?aoai?aiiy Ii aei??aith? 230°C.

A?ae a?aeiieo OEAe ?aeeiaeo noaeae iiae?aiiai o?i?/iiai neeaaeo aeaio
ae?aa?aio a?ae??ciythoue iayai?noue iaeano? aeae?eaiiy
no?oeoo?ii-a?eueiiai oa?eoo, a?eueo aenieee ?ioa?aae oaiia?aoo? ii/aoeo
oa?eoi-ia?eeoiiai ia?aoai?aiiy, a oaeiae iaioa no?ee?noue aonoai?oo a
iaeano? i?ii?aeiiai ia?aoai?aiiy.

Aeey ae?oai? oaiia?aoo?ii? ciie aonoai?oecaoe?th i?iaiaeeee i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 755°C ia i?ioyc? 5 oa. Oaeee ?aaeei iaa??ao aeicaieea
io?eiaoe ??ciica?ienoee aonoai?o, aiaeia?/iee iaea?aeoaaiiio o ae?oa?e
no?oeoo?i?e cii? a i?ioean? iaa??ao NA* aie?aee ?aeee. ?ioa?aae
oaeaeeinoae ioieiaeaeoaaiiy neeaaeaa 0.12-238°C/n.

C ii??aiyiiy ae?aa?ai, iiaoaeiaaieo aeey aeaio ?aaeei?a aonoai?oecaoe??,
aeo?ea?, ui aiie iathoue noiae? no?oeoo?i? iaeano?: ooai?aiiy oa?eoo,
ia?eeoo, i?ii?aeieo no?oeoo? ? ia?oaineoo. Iaeiae, aonoai?o, io?eiaiee
ii ae?oaiio ?aaeeio, ia? iaio o?eaaeee — iaeanoue oa?eoi-ia?eeoiiai
?iciaaeo ci?uaia e?ai?o/ ii oei/ania?e oeae?. Oea iia’ycaia c oei, ui a
iaaee?eoe/i?e iaeano? oaiia?aoo? aonoai?o iaiaeii??aeiee ii aoaeaoeth,
ui i?ecaiaeeoue oaeiae aei ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? ia?eeoiiai
ia?aoai?aiiy. A?aei?iiith iniaeea?noth ae?aa?aie ? iayai?noue iaeano?
ooai?aiiy ca?ienoiai ia?eeoo a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 730-580°C. I?e
ioieiaeaeoaaii? ?aeeiai? aaoaeoi?aeii? noae? c iaaee?eoe/iiai ?ioa?aaeo
oaiia?aoo? iaa??ao a?ae?aco i?ney aeae?eaiiy iaaeeeoeiaiai oa?eoo a
?ioa?aae? oaeaeeinoae ioieiaeaeoaaiiy 45-0.12°C/n a?aeaoaa?oueny ?iciaae
aonoai?oo ia ca?ienoee ia?eeo. Oea iia’ycaia c /anoeiaith oaciaith
ia?ae?enoaeecaoe??th a i?ioean? iaa??ao aei oaiia?aoo?, ui aeae?eueea
ia?aaeuothoue An1. Ea?aeaei? /anoee i?e iaaee?eoe/i?e oaiia?aoo??
?ic/eithaaeeny ia iiai?noth ? i?e a?aeiinii iia?eueiiio ioieiaeaeoaaii?
c?ace?a (c? oaeaee?noth 25-0.12°C/n) aiie neoaeeee oeaio?aie ?iciaaeo ii
aaii?iaeueiiio iaoai?cio aonoai?oo, yeee ?o ioi/o?, ui aeeeeeaei
ooai?aiiy ca?ienoiai ia?eeoo. Aonoai?o, a?aeaeaeaiee a?ae ea?a?aeieo
/anoie, ia?aoai?th?oueny a ia?eeo ieanoei/aoee.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue aeicaieeee i?eeiyoe
??oaiiy i?i noai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaiai ioieiaeaeoaaeueiiai i?eeaaeo
aeey aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? iiaea/? oeaaeaaaioa ii aeiaaeei? ni?aea?a.
I?eno??e aei?iaoaaii a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao (aeey oaeaeeino? ia?ai?uaiiy
?aeie o 8.3 ii/n), caoeuaiee aaoi?nueeei na?aeioeoaii (A.n. ?1700067) ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiee a i?aeoeeo OeNI EIC ?i. I.E.Aieeiaa. A ni?aea? aaaaeaiee
ia?oi?iaaiee iao?oaie c ?aaoeyoi?aie oeneo ? aeo?aoe iia?o?y. Oea
aeicaiey? oeyoii ia?a?iciiae?eo iia?o?yiiai iioieo i?ae ia?oi?iaaiith
ieanoeiith i?iii?oe?eii cieaeoaaoe oene ia aoiae? ? aeoiae? ni?aea?a,
ci?uoaaoe i?i?ioi aeo?ao iia?o?y a oo aai ?ioo noi?iio, aiaeii/an
ci?ithth/e oaeaee?noue ioieiaeaeoaaiiy ii aeiaaeei? ?aiii? ?aeee a oiae?
aa?ooaaiiy. I?e oeueiio oi?ia e?eai? «oaiia?aoo?a — /an» caa??aa?oueny
iaci?iiith, a oiiae ?iciaaeo aonoai?oo aeecuee? aei ?cioa?i?/ieo, — oea
aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe noaa?eueio o?iinoi-ni?a?oio no?oeoo?o ?
oaa?ae?noue o ci?oeiaiiio oa?? aie?aee. A ?acoeueoao? aeinyaa?oueny
??aiii??i?noue aa?ooaaiiy ia iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy, eieeaaiiy oaa?aeino? ia
ia?aaeuothoue IA 15.

I?e aeei?enoaii? aeaii? eiino?oeoe?? ni?aea?a ooiiaee aoaeo cieaeaiee ia
15-10%. Oa?i?/ia ci?oeiaiiy ?aeie ?50 c? noae? E74 c
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ?iaeoeoe?eiiai oeeee?/iiai iaa??ao ca aeiiiiiaith
aeaiiai iaeaaeiaiiy aeicaieeei a 1.1-1.2 ?ace i?aeaeueoe ?oith
aenieoaoaoe?eio no?ee?noue.

Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai ioieiaeaeoaaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy i?e ia?iaoe?
?aeie ?65 c? noaeae I76A, I76AO ? I76O iieacaei iecueeee ??aaiue
ci?oeiaiiy, ia a?aeiia?aeiee aeiiaai OO 14-12-412-91.

Oaoi?/ia ??oaiiy, nea?iaaia ia ?aae?caoe?th a?eueo aei?noeeo ?aaeei?a
ioieiaeaeoaaiiy ?aeie oeio ?65 ?aae?coaaee a niaoe?aeuei?e eiino?oeoe??
A-ia?aciiai iao?oaea. ?ic?iaeaiee ni?aea? c ea?iaaiei ci?iaiiyi
eiao?oe??io?a oaieia?aeaea/? i?e aeeoa?aioe?eiaai?e iiaea/?
aiaeiiia?o?yii? noi?o? ii eiai aeiaaeei? aei?iaoaaiee a i?iieneiaeo
oiiaao OeNI EIC ?i. I. E. Aieeiaa ? caoeuaiee aaoi?nueeei na?aeioeoaii
(A.n. ?1788043). A?i caaacia/o? ioieiaeaeoaaiiy iiaa?oi? ?aeee, ui
?ooa?oueny i?e oaeaeeino? 8.3 ii/n a ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae
ioieiaeaeoaaiiy 1-170°C/n ? aeicaiey? ea?oaaoe i?ioeanii ?iciaaeo
ia?aioieiaeaeaiiai aonoai?oo ia ??ci?e aeeaei?, noai?thaaoe iaea?eueo
aea?aeio e?eao ioieiaeaeoaaiiy, cae?enithaaoe ?iciaae aonoai?oo a oiiaao
aeecueeeo aei ?cioa?i?/ieo aai i?e aacia?a?aiiio ioieiaeaeoaaii?, iiaea
aooe aeei?enoaiee aeey aa?ooaaiiy an?o oei?a ?aeie c ??ciiiai?oiei
o?i?/iei neeaaeii iaoaeo. Oae, aeey ia?iaee ?aiieo ?aeie ?50 iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? ?aaeeie iia?o?yiiai ci?oeiaiiy, ?ic?iaeai? aeua, a aeey
ci?oeiaiiy ?aeie oeio ?65 iaeaaeeoue canoiniaoaaoe aiaeiiia?o?yiee
?aaeei ?iaioe ni?aea?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi ?ic?iaeaiiai ?aaeeio ioieiaeaeoaaiiy, i?ney
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ?iaeoeoe?eiiai oeeee?/iiai iaa??ao ?aeie c? noae?
I76AO, ui i?noeoue aoaeaoeue ia aa?oiueiio ? ieaeiueiio iaaeao ia?i/iiai
neeaaeo, anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo aenieee ??aaiue oaa?aeino? (i?e
iaeii??aei?e no?oeoo?? o?iinoeoa ? ni?a?oo aa?ooaaiiy),
a?aeiia?aeath/ee aeiiaai OO 14-2-651-85 a ia?aoei? aie?aee ?aeee
aeinyaiooi a iaaeao a?aieoe? ciie iiaii? aonoai?oecaoe?? ia aeeaei? a?ae
0 aei 8.5 ii. Ciia iaaee?eoe/ieo oaiia?aoo? iaa??ao An1-An3 ?ici?uaia ia
aeeaei? 9-17 ii, ui ia?ae?eaa? aeiiae OO 14-2-651-85 ? OO 14-12-412-91
aei i?e?ino?oeoo?e ?aiieo ?aeie. I?ioa, a?ae aeeaeie 9 ii aei 11.5 ii ii
in? ia?aoeio aie?aee a no?oeoo?? iaoaeo e?euee?noue ca?ienoiai ia?eeoo
ia ia?aaeuo? 5-15%, ui i?aeoe/ii ia aeyaey? aieeao ia i?aeaeuaiiy
ieanoe/iino?. Ia aeeaei? a?eueo 11.5 ii e?euee?noue ca?ienoiai ia?eeoo
20%, ia aeeaei? 17 ii aiii c?inoa? aei 50%, ui aaaea a aeai?e iaeano?
aei c?inoaiiy oaea?ii? a’yceino?. A c?aceao, ui ae??caeenue aeey ?nieo?a
ia oaea?iee caei oae, ui iaeia c a?aiae ni?aiaaeaea c iaaeath iii?ae
ia?ao?aeiith ? iaci?oeiaiith ciiith, oiaoi caoiiethth/eo ia?ao?aeiee
oa?, KCU neeaaeaei 0.59 IAeae/i2. A a c?aceao, iaeia c a?aiae yeeo
i?eeyaaea aei iiaa?oi? aie?aee, KCU neeaaeaei 0.523 IAeae/i2, oaea?ia
a’yce?noue aeo?aeiiai aa?y/aeaoaiiai iaoaeo neeaaeaea 0.230 IAeae/i2.
Oaeei /eiii, ci?oeiaiiy ?aeie ii ?ic?iaeaiiio ?aaeeio i?aeaeuo? oaea?io
a’yce?noue o 2 ?ace a ii??aiyii? c aeo?aeiei, ui ia?aaeuo? aeiiae OO
14-2-651-85 a 1.5 ?ace. I?e oeueiio e?ioeaaa oaa?ae?noue ?aeie ia
ia?aaeuoaaea aeiiae, anoaiiaeai? OO 14-2-651-85, a oaa?ae?noue ii
aeiaaeei? a?aeiia?aeaea ?i. Ia?ao?aeia ciia ?noioii ci?oeithaaeanue aei
aeeaeie 12.0 ii ia oaa?ae?noue ia ieae/a IA 300, ooo i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?
aeae?eaiiy ca?ienoiai ia?eeoo. Cia/aiiy oaa?aeino? ia aee?oaeeao
ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiionoeiei aeiiaai
ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a.

Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui i?e ca?eueoaii?
?ioaineaiino? aacia?a?aiiai ioieiaeaeoaaiiy aiaeiiia?o?yiith noi?ooth
a?aeiinii iiaiai ?aaeeio o aieiaoe? ?aeee ii an?e aeeaei?
ooai?ththoueny, a iniiaiiio, ia?eeoi? no?oeoo?e, ii?oieia?y yeeo
ci?ith?oueny c a?aenoaiith a?ae iiaa?oi?. Iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy iaae
oei/aniaiai iii?o ((a= 1176 IIa) ? oaeo/ino? ((o=794 IIa) ciaoiaeyoueny
ia aeeaei? 6.5 ii. Oe?e aea aeeaei? a?aeiia?aea? i?i?ioi ieanoe/iino?,
(5=6%, (=55-58% ? iaeneioi oaa?aeino?, a oaeiae i?i?iaeueiee ?ici??
aonoai?oiiai ca?ia ?12 ii oeae? AeANO 5639-82. A?eueo iecuee? cia/aiiy
oaa?aeino? ? oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino? ((a=1010 IIa ? ( o=710 IIa) ia
aeeaei? 1-3 ii ca’ycai? c iayai?noth a no?oeoo?? ie?aieo oa?eoieo aieie,
ui i?aeaeuothoue ieanoe/i?noue aei (5=7%, ( = 60%. I?e ia?aoiae? a?ae
ci?oeiaiiai oa?o aei ia?ao?aeiiai oaa?ae?noue ? i?oeiino? aeanoeaino?
cieaeothoueny, aiaeii/an a?aeaoaa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoe/iino?. Oae?
iiaeeo?eaoe?? aeanoeainoae aeeeeeai? ca?eueoaiiyi /anoee ca?ienoiai
ia?eeoo a no?oeoo?? ia?ao?aeiiai oa?o. Aiane?aeie oeueiai ia aeeaei?
14.5 ii niinoa??aa?oueny iaeneiaeueia ieanoe/i?noue — (5= 8,5%, (=68%, a
ia aeeaei? 17.5 ii,- ia iaae? ia?ao?aeiiai oa?o ? iaci?oeiaiiai iaoaeo,
— aaee/eia iaae? i?oeiino? ? oaeo/?noue ??cei cieaeothoueny ?
aeinyaathoue i?i?iaeueieo cia/aiue: (a= 600 IIa, (o= 300 IIa, ui iaioa
cia/aiue iaci?oeiaiiai iaoaeo c cia/aiiyie (a=720 IIa ? ( o= 400 IIa i?e
(5=5%, ( =45%.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaiai aei?iaiaoaaiiy iiai? oaoiieia?? ?
?ic?iaeaieo ?aaeei?a ioieiaeaeoaaiiy c aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai
?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao aoea aeiouaia aeine?aeia ia?o?y ?aiieo ?aeie ?65
? anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ioean oa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy i?e a?ae?aaoeueiaaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao?ao ?aea noaa?eueii (eieeaaiiy iiooaeiino? no?oio a
?iaeoeoi?? ia ia?aaeuoaaei 1 eAo). I?ney oa?iiia?iaee oaa?ae?noue
iiaa?oi? ?aeie i?aei?ia?oueny c ??aiy IA 248-293 aei IA 343-388 o
oeaio?? ? aei HB 363-415 ia e?ioeyo. Ca?eueoaiiy oaa?aeino? ia e?ioeyo
?aeie a oaeeo iaaeao ni?eyoeeai a?aeaeaa?oueny ia ?oi?e aenieoaoaoe?ei?e
no?eeino?, eieeaaiiy oaa?aeino? ii aeiaaeei? ?aeie a iniiaiiio ia
ia?aaeuoaaei IA 30. Ci?ithaaiiy aeeaeie ci?oeiaiiai oa?o a ??ciiiai?oieo
?aeeao neeaaeaei 11-14 ii. ??cieoey a oaa?aeino? i?ae e?aith oa i?aaith
aee?oaeeaie ia ia?aaeuoaaei HRC 3.5.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

1. Canoiniaoaai? a iao /an o?aaeeoe?ei? ?aaeeie ? oaoiieia?y oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee ?aiieo ?aeie c aeei?enoaiiyi ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao ia
caaacia/othoue a iiai?e i??? aeiiae ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a.

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaaeinoaoi? ci?oeiaiiy iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o ?aiieo ?aeie
oiiaeaia iayai?noth iaaeeeoeiaiai oa?eoo, ui ni?ey? noe?aiith iiaa?oi?
eaoaiiy, a ia?ao?aeia ciia o aieiaoe? ? ?i?oe?aoi?ii ieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? aieiai? a?ai?, ui aaaea aei ooai?aiiy iaieea?a. Ooai?aiiy
no?oeoo? ca?ienoiai ia?eeoo iai?eionoeia ia a?aenoaiyo, iaioeo aeeaeie
iaeneioio eiioaeoii? aeioe/ii? iai?oae.

3. ?ic?iaeai? iia? o?ce/ia ? iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeae? iaa??ao NA* ?aeie.
Aia?oa iieacaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e a i?ioean? ?iaeoeoe?eiiai
iaa??ao ia? oeeee?/iee oa?aeoa?, aiii i?yii i?iii?oe?eii i?aeaeuaiith
iiooaeiino?, cieaeaiith eiao?oe??ioo ?icn?thaaiiy ? oaeaeeino?
ia?ai?uaiiy a ?iaeoeoi??. Oeeee?/i?noue ? ci?iia oaeaee?noue
?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao aeathoue iiaeeea?noue canoiniaoaaoe i?e
oa?i?/i?e ia?iaoe? ?aeie oaiia?aoo?e aei 1200°C.

4. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aeeiaa aoaeaoeaaa noaeue I76A ia? oe?ieee
iaaee?eoe/iee ?ioa?aae oaiia?aoo?, ia aeanoeaee aeey noaeae
aaoaeoi?aeiiai eeano. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui a ?acoeueoao? i?enei?aiiai
aacia?a?aiiai iaa??ao noae? I76A i?e oaeaeeino? o 0.1-90°C/n
niinoa??aa?oueny ia??aiii??ia ci?uaiiy e?eoe/ieo oi/ie Ac1 ? Ac3. A
iaaee?eoe/iio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? a?aeaoaa?oueny iaiiaia ia?aoai?aiiy
ia?eeoo a aonoai?o, ui aaaea i?e ianooiiiio ioieiaeaeoaaii? aei
ooai?aiiy no?oeoo? ca?ienoiai ia?eeoo a ia?ao?aei?e cii?, oe?eia yei? ia
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aaeei?a ioieiaeaeoaaiiy, a aecia/a?oueny aaee/eiith
iiooaeiino? no?oio ?iaeoeoi?a.

5. Aeyaeai? iia? iniaeeaino? i?ioeano aonoai?oecaoe?? iaoaeo aie?aee
?aeie i?e aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio ?iaeoeoe?eiiio oeeee?/iiio iaa??aaii?
(i?e oaiia?aoo?? 1180°C), a iane?aeie /iai ?aea oi?ioaaiiy ia e?oiii
ca?ienoiai, a ae??aiica?ienoiai aonoai?oo (ca?ii ?8-12 ii oeae? AeANO
5639-82), ui iaoiiaeaii aenieith u?euei?noth aeeneieaoe?e ? aaeeeeie
i?e?iaee?eaeaiiyie e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee; ia? i?noea ciaioaiiy ?ici??o
iaeanoae eiaa?aioiiai ?icn?thaaiiy a e?enoaeao oa?eoo i?ney ci?oeiaiiy ?
?icoe?aiiy ia?ao?aeii? ciie /anoeiai? aonoai?oecaoe??. ?aoe?iiaeueia
ii?aeiaiiy aeaieo no?oeoo?ieo ? noano?oeoo?ieo ia?aiao??a c ?iciiae?eii
oaa?aeino? ii aeeaei? aia?oa io?eiaia ia a?aenoai? 4 ii a?ae iiaa?oi?
eaoaiiy, aea iaea?eueo a??ia?aeii ?icoaooaaiiy iaeneioio eiioaeoii?
cnoaii? iai?oae.

6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy u?eueiino? aeaeo?iiaai?oii? aia?a??, ui
aaiaeeoueny o ?aeeo ?, aiane?aeie oeueiai, oaeaeeino? ? oaiia?aoo?e
iaa??ao i?e ?? oeeee?/iino? a /ano i?ecaiaeeoue i?ney ioieiaeaeoaaiiy
aei i?aeaeuaiiy aeenia?niino? ia?eeoa, iiaa?oiaai? oa iaeneiaeueii?
oaa?aeino? ? aeeaeie ci?oeiaiiy ia aaee/eio oaa?aeino?, ia iaioa HRC
32.5.

7. Iioeiaeueieie ia?aiao?aie iaa??ao NA* ?aiieo ?aeie, i?e yeeo
eieeaaiiy aoaeaoeth a iaaeao ia?i/iiai o?i?/iiai neeaaeo aieeaathoue ia
cia/ii, ui caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy iieaciee?a yeino? iaoaeo aie?aee,
?: iaa??aaiiy i?e iiooaeiino? no?oio a ?iaeoeoi?? aeey ?aeie oeio ?65 —
180 eAo, aeey ?50 — 170-175 eAo.

8. Aia?oa iiaoaeiaai? OEAe ?aeeiai? noae? I76A i?e iaa??aaii? aei
oaiia?aoo? a iaeano? iiaii? ? /anoeiai? aonoai?oecaoe??. Aeyaeai? ?ai?oa
iaa?aeii? aeey aeaii? ia?ee noae? iaeano? aeae?eaiiy iaaeeeoeiaiai
oa?eoo, i?ii?aeiiai ia?aoai?aiiy ? ooai?aiiy ca?ienoiai ia?eeoo a
?acoeueoao? ?iciaaeo ia?aioieiaeaeaiiai aonoai?oo, ui ooai?eany a
iaeano? iaaee?eoe/ieo oaiia?aoo? iaa??ao. Iiaoaeiaai? aeey ?aeeiai?
noae? OEAe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee i?iieneiaeo ?aaeei?a
oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ?aeie.

9. ?ic?iaeaia ? aei?iaoaaia a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao iiaa iaeaaeiaiiy aeey
iiaea/? ia aieiaeo ?aeee aiaeiiia?o?yii? noi?o? c ?aaoeueiaaieie ii eiai
aeiaaeei? eiao?oe??ioaie oaieia?aeaea/? caoeuaia aaoi?nueeei
na?aeioeoaii (A.n. ?1788043). Aia?oa a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao aeine?aeaeai?
iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue ? ?iciiae?e oaa?aeino? a aieiaoe?
?aiieo ?aeie i?e ioieiaeaeoaaii? niie?eiei, noeneei eiii?ani?iei,
caieiaeaiei noeneei eiii?ani?iei iia?o?yi oa aiaeiiia?o?yiith noi?ooth,
? ia iniia? oeueiai ?aeiiaiaeiaaiee iiaee iioeiaeueiee ?aaeei
ioieiaeaeoaaiiy.

10. Iaea?eueo aeniea ci?oeiaiiy ?aeie aeinyaiooi i?e aeei?enoaii? iiai?
oaoiieia?? aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ?iaeoeoe?eiiai oeeee?/iiai iaa??ao c
ianooiiei /anoeiaei ?cioa?i?/iei (i?e aacia?a?aiiio ioieiaeaeoaaii?)
?iciaaeii aonoai?oo a ia?eeoi?e iaeano?, i?e yeiio o aieiaoe?
oi?iothoueny aenieiaeenia?nia ia?eeoia i?e?ino?oeoo?a ? ?iciiae?e
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? oaa?aeino? aeecueeee aei iioeiaeueiiai aeey
oiia aenieoaoaoe?? ia i?iieneiaeo cae?cieoeyo.

11. ?ic?iaeaia, aei?iaoaaia ? ai?iaaaeaeaia iiaa ioieiaeaeoaaeueia
iaeaaeiaiiy aeey aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? iiaea/? noeneiai eiii?ani?iiai
iia?o?y ia iiaa?oith eaoaiiy aieiaee ?aeee, yea caoeuaia aaoi?nueeei
na?aeioeoaii (A.n. ?1700067). Canoinoaaiiy aeaiiai iaeaaeiaiiy aeey
aa?ooaaiiy ?aiieo ?aeie ?50 c iaa??ao NA* i?aeaeueei ?oith
aenieoaoaoe?eio no?ee?noue a 1.2 ?ace. ??/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo ?aaeei?a ? oaoiieia?? oa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy ?aiieo
?aeie neeaa 448 oen. ea?aiaaioe?a (a a?ioiaiio aea?aaeaio? a?aeiinii
1987 ?.). Nei?i/aia aeo?aoa iaoaeo i?e ae?iaieoeoa? ? o?aoe ia ?aiiio
no??ei/ieo ia?aaiae?a.

12. ?ic?iaeai?, aei?iaoaai? ? i?eeiyo? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a OeNI ?i.
Aieeiaa iia? ?aaeeie, iaeaaeiaiiy ? oaoiieia?y oa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy c
iaa??ao NA* aiaeiiia?o?yiith noi?ooth ?aiieo ?aeie oeio ?65, ui
caaacia/othoue aeiiae ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a uiaei e?ioeaai?,
iiaa?oiaai? oaa?aeino? ? iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae, c iaeii/aniei
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaea?ii? a’yceino? ci?oeiaiiai oa?o a 1.5 ?ace.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a ?iaioao:

1. E aii?ino oi?i/iaiey ?aiiuo ?aeuenia no?aei/iuo ia?aaiaeia / E.A.
Aeieaeaieia, A.I. Eauaiei, A.I. Eeeiaiei, TH.A. ?ooaiia, I.I. THoeaae/
// Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue.- 1991.- ?1.- N.
36-37.

2. Oa?ie/aneia oi?i/iaiea ?aiiuo ?aeuenia n eiaeoeoeeiiiiai iaa?aaa /
E.A. Aeieaeaieia, I.I. THoeaae/, A.I. Eeeiaiei, TH.A. ?ooaiia //
I?iaeaiu iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa: ?anioaeeeaineee
iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiue iao/ii-oaoie/aneee nai?iee.- Eeaa: Oaoiiea, 1993.-
Aui. 110.- N. 35-42.

3. A.C. ?1700067 NNN?, IEE N 21 D 9/04. Ono?ienoai aeey caeaeee
ino?yeia no?aei/iuo ia?aaiaeia / TH.A. ?ooaiia, A.O. Oei/aiei, A.A.
Oeaee/, A.A. Eeaaeia, A.I. Na?iaiaa, I.I. THoeaae/, A.I. Eaeaaiia
(NNN?).- ?4625422/02; Cayaeaii 26.12.88; Iioae. 23.12.91, Athe. ?47.- C.
105.

4. A.C. ?1788043 A1 NNN? N 21 D 9/04. Ono?ienoai aeey caeaeee ?aeuenia
/ TH.A. ?ooaiia, A.O. Oei/aiei, A.A. Oeaee/, I.I. THoeaae/, I.E.
Eeueyoaiei, A.A. Aaneeueaa, I.I. Ia?aaa?caa (NNN?).- ?4954075/02;
Cayaeaii 31.05.91; Iioae. 15.01.93, Athe. ?2.

5. ?ooaiia TH.A., THoeaae/ I.I., Aaaaiei O.A. Iiauoaiea n?iea neoaeau
ioaaonoaaiiuo yeaiaioia iooe aioo?ecaaiaeneiai aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai
o?ainii?oa// Nithc iaoee e i?aeoeee e 100-eaoeth Iao?iaee: Oacenu
aeieeaaeia e niiauaiee. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: I*I NNN?, 1987.- iae.- N.
117-118.

6. Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey aonoaieoecaoeee a iaaee?eoe/aneii eioa?aaea
oaiia?aoo? ia oi?ie?iaaiea no?oeoo?u ca?ienoiai ia?eeoa a
n?aaeiaoaea?iaeenoie noaee / N.A. Oaaei?iaa, I.I. THoeaae/, A.I.
Eeeiaiei, I.A. Aeoaaa // Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa iaoaeeii?ieaoa iooai
oa?ie-/aneie e oa?iiiaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee: Oacenu aeieeaaeia ia
Ananithciie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee.- Aeiai?iiao?iane: I*I NNN?,
1988.- 15 n.

7. THoeaae/ I.I., Ieoaeueia I.I. Aenia?oia nenoaia aaoiiaoeciaaiiai
aeai?o ?aaeei?a iiaeooeieiiai iaa??aaiiy: Oace aeiiia?aeae 2-ai
iiaeia?iaeiiai neiiicioia Oe?aiinueeeo iiaeaia?ia-iaoaieeia o Eueaiai.-
Eueaia: Aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao «Eueaianueea iieioaoiiea», 1995.-
4-6 o?aaiy.- N. 108.

8. Ieoaeueia I.I., THoeaae/ I.I. Iaoaiaoe/ia caaacia/aiiy yenia?oiii
nenoaie aeai?o ?aaeeiia iiaeooeieiiai aeaeo?iiaa?iaaiiy // Iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaethaaiiy a aeaeo?ioaoieoei: Oace aeiiiaiaeae 1-i Iiaeia?iaeiii
iaoeiai-oaoii/iii eiioa?aioeii.- Eueaia: Aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao
«Eueaianueea iieioaoiiea», 1995.- 19-22 aa?aniy.- N. 163-164.

THoeaae/ I.I. ?ic?iaea, aei?iaoaaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a oa
oaoiieia?? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ?aiieo ?aeie c ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao.-
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.16.01 — iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea
iaoae?a.- Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1998.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?noeoue oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei noai?aiiy ?aaeei?a oa oaoiieia??
oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ?aiieo ?aeie c ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
?aeeiaa aoaeaoeaaa noaeue I76A ia? oe?ieee i?aee?eoe/iee ?ioa?aae
oaiia?aoo?, ia aeanoeaee noaeyi aaoaeoi?aeiiai eeano. A ?acoeueoao?
i?enei?aiiai aacia?a?aiiai iaa??ao noae? I76A i?e oaeaeeino? iaa??ao
0,1-90°C/n niinoa??aa?oueny ia??aiii??ia ci?uaiiy e?eoe/ieo oi/ie Ac1
oa Ac3 . O i?aee?eoe/iiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? a?aeaoaa?oueny iaiiaia
ia?aoai?aiiy ia?eeoo a aonoai?o, ui i?ecaiaeeoue i?e iine?aeoth/iio
ioieiaeaeaii? aei noai?aiiy no?oeoo? ca?ienoiai ia?eeoo a ia?ao?aei?e
cii?. Iaea?eueo aeniea ci?oeiaiiy ?aeie aeinyaiooi i?e
aeei?enoaii? aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ?iaeoeoe?eiiai oeeee?/iiai
iaa??aaiiy c iine?aeoth/ei /anoeiaei ?cioa?i?/iei (i?e
aacia?a?aiiio ioieiaeaeaii?) ?iciaaeii aonoai?oo o ia?eeoi?e
iaeano?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?aii? ?aeee, ?iaeoeoe?eia iaa??aaiiy, aaoaeoi?aei?
noae?, oa?i?/ia ia?iaea, ia?eeoia i?e?ino?oeoo?a.

THoeaae/ I.I. ?ac?aaioea, ii?iaiaaiea e aiaae?aiea ?aaeeiia e oaoiieiaee
oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee ?aiiuo ?aeuenia n eiaeoeoeeiiiiai iaa?aaa.-
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.01 — iaoaeeiaaaeaiea e oa?ie/aneay ia?aaioea
iaoaeeia.- Ainoaea?noaaiiay iaoaeeo?ae/aneay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu,
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa niaea?aeeo oai?aoe/aneea e yenia?eiaioaeueiua
?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee ii nicaeaieth ?aaeeiia e oaoiieiaee
oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee ?aiiuo ?aeuenia n eiaeoeoeeiiiiai iaa?aaa.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?aeueniaay oaea?iaeenoay noaeue I76A yaoaeoieaeiiai
ninoaaa eiaao oe?ieee iaaee?eoe/aneee eioa?aae oaiia?aoo? ia
naienoaaiiue aeey noaeae yaoaeoieaeiiai eeanna. A ?acoeueoaoa
onei?aiiiai iai?a?uaiiai iaa?aaa noaee I76A i?e nei?inoe iaa?aaa
0,1-90°C/n iaaethaeaaony ia?aaiiia?iia niauaiea e?eoe/aneeo oi/ae Ac1
e Ac3, a iaaee?eoe/aneii eioa?aaea oaiia?aoo? i?ienoiaeeo iaiieiia
i?aa?auaiea ia?eeoa a aonoaieo, /oi aaaeao i?e iineaaeothuai
ioeaaeaeaiee e ia?aciaaieth no?oeoo? ca?ienoiai ia?eeoa a ia?aoiaeiie
ciia. Iaeaieaa aunieia oi?i/iaiea ?aeuenia aeinoeaiooi i?e
eniieueciaaiee aunieioaiia?aoo?iiai eiaeoeoeeiiiiai oeeeee/aneiai
iaa?aaa n iineaaeothuei /anoe/iui ecioa?ie/aneei (i?e iai?a?uaiii
ioeaaeaeaiee) ?aniaaeii aonoaieoa a ia?eeoiie iaeanoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aiiua ?aeuenu, eiaeoeoeeiiiue iaa?aa, yaoaeoieaeiua
noaee, oa?ie/aneay ia?aaioea, ia?eeoiay iee?ino?oeoo?a.

Ushkewych O.P. Elaboration, testing and introduction of new behaviors
and technologies of heat treatment frame rail by inducting heating.-
Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by specialty 05.16.01.- Physical
metallurgy and heat treatment of metalls.- State Metallurgical Academy
of Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk, 1998.

Research work consists of the theoretical and experimental investigation
for creating behaviors and technologies of heat treatment for frame rail
by inducting heating. An eutectoid steel — M76V used for rail has a
large temperature ranges of stage transformation. Accelerated heating
process of rail steel — M76V at the heat rates of around 0.1 to
90°C/sec. has increased irregular start and finish austenitized
temperatures. A width of the rail head transition zone depends on the
inducting heat level, and after any cooling consists of nodular
pearlite structure. The commercial head process both of high temperature
inducting cyclical heating and accelerated cooling including almost
isothermally pearlite transformation leads to higher hardening, higher
resistance to wear and fatigue of the running surface, that is produced
by the best possible pearlite interlamellar, and unique properties of
rail.

Key words: frame rail, induction heating, eutectoid steel, heat
treatment, pearlite structure.

Caeiaoaa/ THoeaae/
I. I.

PAGE 1

PAGE 19

Похожие записи