IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?C?IEIA?? ?INEEI ? AAIAOEEE

OAAe*EIA Oaia?a Ieoaee?aia

OAeE 581.133.12:528.88.042.3+577.342:535.361.2

?IC?IAEA OAI?AOE*IEO INIIA OA IAOIAe?A

AeENOAIOe?EIIAI III?OI?EIAO NOAIO IIN?A?A

ICEII? IOAIEOe? CA AeIIIIIAITH NIAEO?IIAO??? C

AENIEEI NIAEO?AEUeIEI ?ICAe?EAIIssI

03.00.12 – o?c?ieia?y ?ineei

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Oea/oe Eaoa?eia Naiai?aia

?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa. a?aeae?eii

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oa?ae Ieueaa ?ooaai?aia

Euea?anueeee aea?aeoi?aa?neoao ?i. ?aaia O?aiea,

caa. eao. o?c?ieia?? ?ineei

aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie

Eyeueei Aaaeei ?aaiiae/

aee?aeoi? Oeaio?o Aa?ieini?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue Caie?

?inoeoooo aaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?inoeooo aioai?ee ?i. I.A.Oieiaeiiai IAI Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “30” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.212.01 i?e ?inoeooo? o?c?ieia??
?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252022, Ee?a-22, aoe.
Aaneeuee?anueea 31/17

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?c?ieia??
?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, aoe. Aaneeuee?anueea 31/17

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “27” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee O?ooaiia A.A.

Aeooaeuei?noue. Ia ii?ic? iiaiai oeny/ie?ooy noa? ana a?eueo
i/aaeaei?oei, ui oni?oe ao?oeeaiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano,
ca?eueooth/e iiaeeeaino? ethaeeie uiaei iiaioaaiiy iei i?inoi?o ? /ano,
ianooue iaaaciaeo oaeiai ?oei?aiiai oeneo ia a?inoa?o, ui i?ae caa?icith
aeyaey?oueny naia ?nioaaiiy aeeooy ia Caie?. Iaiao?aeiith oiiaith eiai
i?iaeiaaeaiiy ? ae??oaiiy i?iaeiaieue/i? i?iaeaie, i?e yeiio a
caaacia/oaaeinue a?aeoai?aiiy a?i?ano?n?a oa aeieia?/ieo oiia
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. I?e ae??oaii? oeeo ieoaiue aaaeeeaa ?ieue
iiaeiia iaeaaeaoe eiio?ieth ca noaiii ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a ye a ianooaaao
an??? a?inoa?e, oae ? ie?aieo ?? aeinenoai. Cie?aia, i?e ai?iaaaeaeaii?
?ioaineaieo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy ca?iiaeo iaea?aeaiiy ia’?eoeaii?
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai iin?a?a aeicaieeoue cae?enithaaoe
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaia oi?aae?iiy i?iaeoeoe?eiei i?ioeanii c o?aooaaiiyi
?aaeueieo iio?aa ?ineei, caaacia/oth/e aeieia?/io /enoioo ae?iuoaaii?
i?iaeoeoe?? oa iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. A oiio ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a
aeni?an-ae?aaiinoeee noaio ?ineei a i?ioean? ?o aaaaoaoe?? iacaaia
iaeiei ?c eeth/iaeo ieoaiue o?c?ieia?? ?ineei a ?iaioao ii iaea?aeaiith
i?ia?aiiaaieo o?iaea?a (Ie/eii?iae/, 1988).

Aaeee? ia?niaeoeae aeey oaeaeeiai iaea?aeaiiy ia’?eoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??
i?i noai iin?a?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, cie?aia,
caaacia/ai?noue ?ineei acioiei aeeaeaiiyi, ia aaeeeeo ieiuao iathoue
iaoiaee aeenoaioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee. Iniaeeai aeooaeueieie aiie noathoue
a oaia?aoi?o oiiaao ?eceeiaaiiai caiea?ianoaa, aeicaieyth/e i?eeiaoe
iaa?oioiaai? ??oaiiy uiaei ei?aeoe?? caoiae?a ii aeiaeyaeo ca iin?aaie,
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy aa?ioaoi?/ieo ?ano?n?a oa caa/aniiai
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo oe?i ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th.

Noai i?iaeaie. Caeaaei?noue ai?noo oei?io?eo a?ae caaacia/aiiy ?ineei
acioiei aeeaeaiiyi aeicaiey? ae?aaiinooaaoe acioiee noaoon ?ineei ca
aeiiiiiaith niaeo?aeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee eenoe?a o aeaeei?e iaeano?.
Iaeiae a?aenooi?noue anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii??iinoae o?c?ieia??
aca?iica’yceo i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao ?ineei a
iioiaaiac? ia aeicaieyee ia?aeoe aei e?euee?nii? ioe?iee acioiiai
noaoono ?ineei.

E??i oiai, ?ino?oiaioaeuei? iiaeeeaino?, ye? ?nioaaee ia e?iaoeue 80-o
?ie?a, iaiaaeoaaee aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoeaieo niaeo?aeueieo aeanoeainoae
?ineei aeey aeenoaioe?eiiai aei??thaaiiy oei?io?eo. Canoinoaaiiy
iaoiae?a, ye? aacoaaeeny ia aei??thaaii? aiie?ooaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee
na?oeiaeo iioie?a, a?aeaeoeo a?ae ?ineeiiiai iie?eao, aeyaeee oe?eee
?yae iaaeie?e?a, cie?aia iecueeo ?o oi/i?noue, iniaeeai i?e cieaeaii?
i?iaeoeaiiai iie?eooy a?oioo ?ineeii?noth. A oiio aeioe?eueiei noaa
iiooe i?eioeeiiai iiaeo i?aeoiae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoeaieo
iiaeeeainoae niaeo?aeueiiai ?iciiae?eo ?ioaineaiino? na?oeiaiai neaiaeo,
ui iaaeoiaeeoue a?ae nenoaie a?oio-?ineeii?noue. Oeueiio ni?eyea oaeiae
iiyaa ia?oeo iaeao?a niaeo?iiao??a c aenieith niaeo?aeueiith
?icae?eueiith caeaoi?noth aeey aeenoaioe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue (Aaeyaa e
ae?., 1978; Goetz et al., 1982; Vane et al., 1984). Ia?o? ?acoeueoaoe,
iaea?aeai? ca ?o aeiiiiiaith, cana?ae/eee aaeee? iiaeeeaino?
niaeo?ineii?? c aenieei niaeo?aeueiei ?icae?eaiiyi aeey iaea?aeaiiy
ye?nii iiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? (Collins, 1978; Miller et al., 1985).

Aeaia ?iaioa ? ?acoeueoaoii ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ieo iniia oa iaoiae?a
aeenoaioe?eiiai iii?oi?eiao noaio iin?a?a iceii? ioaieoe? ia iniia?
niaeo?iiao??? c aenieei niaeo?aeueiei ?icae?eaiiyi. Oe? iaoiaee, c
iaeiiai aieo, iie?athoueny ia aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo ia?aiao??a na?oeiaeo
oaeeue, a c ae?oaiai, ia niaoeeo?/i?noue o?c?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae
?ineeiiiai i?aai?cio a ??ci? ia??iaee eiai ?icaeoeo oa a caeaaeiino?
a?ae oiia ae?iuoaaiiy, ui aeicaiey? ia?aeoe ia ye?nii iiaee ??aaiue
aeenoaioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee noaio iin?a?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeia ?iaioa iaae oaiith aeena?oaoe?? cae?enithaaeanue a
?aieao aeeiiaiiy ieai?a ?inoeoooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei, aea?aeathaeaeaoieo
oai oa i?iaeo?a AeEIO: 1986 -1990 ?.?. AeA “?ic?iaeoe oeiiao nenoaio
aeenoaioe?eiiai eiio?ieth (ONAeE) ca noaiii iniiaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? aeey ??cieo a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieo cii
?anioae?ee ia i?eeeaae? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa iceii? ioaieoe?”. (?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 01.89.0019060). 1991-1995 ?.?. AeA “?ic?iaea
aeenoaioe?eieo iaoiae?a aei??thaaiiy ia?aiao??a noaio iin?a?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, iaiao?aeieo aeey noai?aiiy ?o
iii?oi?eiao” (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0199 U000025). 1993-1995 ?.?. I?iaeo
AeEIO: “?ic?iaea nenoaie aa?iaeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao iin?a?a ca?iiaeo
aeey noai?aiiy aeieia?/ii /enoeo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy ca?ia” (?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 02.01.05/063-93). 1996-2000 ?.?. AeA “?ic?iaea
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iniia noai?aiiy nenoaie iii?oi?eiao iin?a?a ca?iiaeo
ca aeaieie niaeo?iiao??? o aeaeeiiio ae?aiacii?” (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
0199 U000026).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue noaea ?ic?iaea
oai?aoe/ieo iniia oa iaoiae?a aeenoaioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee caaacia/aiino?
?ineei acioiei aeeaeaiiyi oa i?iaiicoaaiiy o?iaeath ca aeiiiiiaith
niaeo?iiao??? c aenieei niaeo?aeueiei ?icae?eaiiyi o aeaeeiiio
ae?aiacii?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aoee aecia/ai? oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

Anoaiiaeoe e?euee?ni? aca?iica’ycee i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a
eenoeao ?ineei ? aeine?aeeoe caeaaei?noue ?o a?ae oace ?icaeoeo ?ineei,
ni?oiaeo iniaeeainoae, ae?? aa?ioe/ieo oa a?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a.

Aea/eoe ?ioi?iaoeai? iiaeeeaino? niaeo??a a?aeaeooy oa ethi?ianoeaioe??
niaeo??a c aenieei niaeo?aeueiei ?icae?eaiiyi o aeaeei?e iaeano? .

?ic?iaeoe aeai?eoie ioe?iee ai?noo oei?io?eo, caaaeueiiai acioo a
eenoeao ?ineei oa i?iaeoeaiiai iie?eooy iin?a?a ia iniia? aeenoaioe?eii?
niaeo?iiao???.

Ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue eenoeiai? ae?aaiinoeee aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy
ca?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? .

Cae?enieoe ?ino?oiaioaeueio ?aae?caoe?th ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiae?a ioe?iee
ai?noo oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao ?ineei oa i?iaanoe ?o ae?iaie/?
aei?iaoaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Caeeaaeaii iaoeia? canaaee ioe?iee acioiiai noaoono ?ineei /a?ac
aei??thaaiiy oei?io?eo oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy e?euee?nieo aca?iica’yce?a
i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao ?ineei iceii? ioaieoe? a ??ci?
oace aaaaoaoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?oiaeo iniaeeainoae oa oiia
ae?iuoaaiiy.

Iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaii ?ioi?iaoeai?noue e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee oi?ie
niaeo?aeueieo e?eaeo a?aeaeooy eenoe?a c aenieei niaeo?aeueiei
?icae?eaiiyi aeey ae?aaiinoeee acioiiai noaoono ?ineei.

Aia?oa aecia/aii ainaiae? oi?i oei?io?eo a, ye? oi?iothoue aeaa oeaio?e
noieo na?oeiai? aia?a?? c ?ioaa?aeueiei iaeneioiii ethi?ianoeaioe?? i?e
735ii, ui iiaeeaeth? oyaeaiiy i?i iniaeeaino? aia?aicaaacia/aiiy
oioineioaoe/iiai aia?aoo ?ineei.

A?aeiaeaeaii /ooeea? aei ai?noo oei?io?eo oa caaaeueiiai acioo
i?ea?iaeuei? a?aeiini? niaeo?aeuei? ia?aiao?e a?aeaeooy oa
ethi?ianoeaioe?? ?ineei iceii? ioaieoe?, aoaeoeai? aeey aeenoaioe?eiiai
aecia/aiiy.

Iaea?aeaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?aeay i?iaiicoaaiiy o?iaeath ia iniia?
eenoeiai? ae?aaiinoeee aeenoaioe?eieie iaoiaeaie.

Iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaii? ioe?iee aaee/eie i?iaeoeaiiai
iie?eooy a?oioo ?ineeii?noth ?c ??ciei ai?noii oei?io?eo a ?ineeiiiio
iie?ea? oeyoii eiia?iiaaiiai aei??thaaiiy aiie?ooaeieo oa /anoioieo
oa?aeoa?enoee niaeo??a a?aeaeooy.

Aecia/aii niiniae aoaeoeaiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy oi?ie niaeo?aeueieo e?eaeo
a?aeaeooy, aei??yieo aeenoaioe?eii ca aeiiiiiaith iaeiii?iiaiaaeo
niaeo?iiao??a c aenieith niaeo?aeueiith ?icae?eueiith caeaoi?noth.

?ic?iaeaii aia?aoo?o aeey i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? iaoiae?a
aeenoaioe?eiiai aei??thaaiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo oa acioo, ui ia ia?
aiaeia?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee
aeenoaioe?eiiai aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao oa
aia?aoo?a aeey ?o ?ino?oiaioaeueii? ?aae?caoe?? i?ieoee aei?iaoaaiiy a
ae?iaie/eo oiiaao ? ?aeiiaiaeothoueny aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? a nenoai? iii?oi?eiao noaio iin?a?a iceii?
ioaieoe? c iaoith iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaiiai ieaioaaiiy aianaiiy acioieo
aeia?ea, oanooaaiiy no?an?a ?ineei, i?iaiicoaaiiy o?iaeath oa
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy aa?ioaoi?ee, a oaeiae a aeieia?? aeey
oanooaaiiy oeyoii a?i?iaeeeaoe?? aeieia?/ii-iaaeaaiiieo/ieo neooaoe?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Caeiaoaa/ ? aaciina?aaei?i aeeiiaaoeai
an??? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe. Iei iniaenoi ?ic?iaeai? ?iai/?
a?iioace, nieaiiaai? aeine?aee, i?iaiae?ciaai?, ?ioa?i?aoiaai? ?
ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a, ye? noinothoueny ?ic?iaee
iaoeiaeo iniia ae?aaiinoeee acioiiai aeeaeaiiy ?ineei oa i?iaiicoaaiiy
o?iaeath, iiina?aaeeiaaieo /a?ac oei?io?e. ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a oa
aia?aoo?e aeey aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao ?ineei ca
aeaieie aei??thaaiiy ?o niaeo?aeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee cae?enithaaeanue o
o?niiio ni?a?ia?oieoeoa? ?c ae.a.i.Ei/oaae N.I. A oe?eiio iniaenoee
aianie caeiaoaa/a neeaaea? 70% an??? ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aoee
i?aaenoaaeai? ia iaoeiaeo ia?aaeao, eiioa?aioe?yo, c’?caeao oa
eiia?anao: ananithci?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aaeaioeaiua ?aaeoeee i?e
oi?ie?iaaiee aeoeaiinoe oioineioaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa” (Ioueii-ia -Ioe?,
1980; ananithci?e ia?aae? “Ethieianoeaioiua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey a
naeueneii oicyenoaa e ia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe” (I?inuee, 1985);
ananithci?e eii?aeeiaoe?ei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e ia?aae? “Iia?aoeaiay
aeeaaiinoeea ieoaiey n/o eoeueoo? a eioaineaiuo nenoaiao caieaaeaeey”
(Iineaa, 1987); V-iio oe?a?inueeiio aiioii?/iiio c’?cae?
(Iaaii-O?aieianuee, aa?anaiue,1987); ananithci?e ia?aae? “Iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe oaeia?aiee ia iniiaa ii/aaiii-?anoeoaeueiie aeeaaiinoeee
(Iineaa, 1987); ananithci?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??” Oaeoi?u n?aaeu e
i?aaiecaoeey ia?ae/iiai i?ioeanna oioineioaca (*a?i?a?a,1989);
ananithci?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?eiaiaiea iaoiaeia
aeenoaioeeiiiie aeeaaiinoeee a naeueneii oicyenoaa (*a?i?a?a, 1989);
ananithci?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeoeoeeiiiue i?ioeann, aai
iiaeaee?iaaiea e iieaaie eiio?ieue” (Na?aoia, 1990); i?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iioe/aneia, ciaeo?iiao?e/aneia e ?aaeeiiao?e/aneia
iai?oaeiaaiea aeey yeieiae/aneiai iiieoi?eiaa”, (I?inuee, 1991); 2-iio
c’?cae? Oe?.oiaa?enoaa oiciieiaia ?ineei (Ee?a, 1993); 2-iio
Oe?a?inueeiio c’?cae? a?io?ce/iiai oiaa?enoaa (Oa?e?a, /a?aaiue 1998);
11-io eiia?an? oaaea?aoe?? ?a?iiaenueeeo oiaa?enoa o?c?ieia?a ?ineei
(Aa?ia, Aieaa?ey, 1998); XII-io i?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an? ii oioineioaco
(Aoaeaiaoo, Aaia??y, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 43 iaoeia? i?aoe?.
?c ieo: 1 iiiia?ao?y, 25 noaoae o i?ia?aeieo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 12 oac,
5 iaoaio?a oa aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e, a yeiio cae?eniaiee aiae?c no/aniiai noaio aeine?aeaeaiue c
?ic?iaee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iniia aeenoaioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee noaio
?ineei ca aeaieie aeoeaiiai oa ianeaiiai ciiaeoaaiiy o aeaeeiiio
ae?aiacii?, iieno ia’?eo?a oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, /ioe?ueio
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa
aeaio aeiaeaoe?a. Inoaii? aeeth/athoue: ?ic?iaeo niinia?a ei?aeoe??
niaeo?aeueieo e?eaeo a?aeaeooy i?e aeenoaioe?eiiio aei??thaaii? ?o
iaeiii?iiaiaaeie niaeo?iiao?aie c aenieei niaeo?aeueiei ?icae?eaiiyi oa
iaoa??aee c ?ic?iaee i?eeaae?a aeey aeenoaioe?eiiai aei??thaaiiy ai?noo
oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 396 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, a oiio /ene? 43 oaaeeoeyo oa 73 ?enoieao. Nienie
oeeoiaaiii? e?oa?aoo?e ia?aoiao? 392 iaeiaioaaiiy.

Ia’?eoe oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iniiaiei ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoea iceia ioaieoey (Triticum
aestivum), yea ? aieiaiith ca?iiaith eoeueoo?ith ia caii?e eoe? a
oe?eiio, oa ia Oe?a?i? cie?aia. Anueiai aeei?enoaii a?eueoa o?ueio
aeanyoe?a ni?o?a a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? naeaeoe??.

Eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao caaacia/aiiy ?ineei acioiei
aeeaeaiiyi, a oaeiae ae?? oaeeo oaeoi??a ye ?ioaineai?noue na?oea,
oaiia?aoo?e oa aieiaicaaacia/aiiy ?ineei ia ca’ycie i?ae ai?noii
oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao, aeeiiai? ia icei?e ioaieoe? ni?oo
Ethoanoeain-7, yeo ae?iuoaaee a oiiaao ee?iaoe/ii? eaia?e AEO-73 oa
aaaaoaoe?eii? ieiuaaeee. Eaai?aoi?i? oa aeenoaioe?ei? aei??thaaiiy
niaeo?aeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee a?aeaeooy oa ethi?ianoeaioe?? eenoe?a, a
oaeiae ai?noo a ieo oei?io?eo oa caaaeueiiai acioo, i?iaaaeai? ia icei?e
ioaieoe? ??cieo ni?o?a c ae?eyiie ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy aeine?aeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa ?O?A IAI Oe?a?ie “Aeaaaoa”, iie?a IAI “Ae?oa” i.Ni?ea
*a?eanueei? iaeano?, ae?iaie/eo iin?a?a eieainio “Oeyoii Eai?ia” i.Oceia
Ee?anueei? iaeano? oa eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noa Aieeinueei? iaeano?
(n.Iiain?eee oa E?uei), aeine?aeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
I?ai?/ii-Eaaeacnueeiai ?inoeoooo aa?io?i?? oa a?oioiciaanoaa (no.Aace??
Aen?eeianueeiai ?aeiio E?aniiaea?nueeiai e?ath).

?ineeie iceii? ioaieoe? a oiiaao aaaaoaoe?eiiai aeine?aeo ae?iuoaaee a
9-oee?eia?aiiaeo iinoaeeiao ia n??iio /i?iicai? c inaie (iin?a) ? aei
iiaiiai aeic??aaiiy o?iaeath (na?iaiue ianooiiiai ?ieo). Ca ii?io
acioiiai aeeaeaiiy aoea i?eeiyoa aeica aeia?ea, ?aeiiaiaeiaaia
AEo?aeoeueeei (1968) aeey ae?iuoaaiiy ca?iiaeo o aaaaoaoe?eieo
aeine?aeao c a?oioiaeie eoeueoo?aie. I?e caeeaaeoe? aeine?aeo
noai?thaaee ??ci? ??ai? oiiiaiai acioiiai aeeaeaiiy: aac aianaiiy
aeia?ea a a?oio — ??aaiue 0N ; ia 7,5 ea aaniethoii nooiai a?oioo
aeiaeaaaee ii 1,06 a acioo, oinoi?o ? eae?th — ??aaiue 1N aai 2,12 a
acioo oa 1,06 a oinoi?o ? eae?th — ??aaiue 2N. O aa??aioao 0,5N oa 0,75
N aeia?eaa aianai? a e?eueeino?, ui noaiiaeee 0,75 oa 0,5 a?ae 1N.
Acio, oinoi? ? eae?e aianai? o aeaeyae? nieae NH4NO3, KH2PO4 oa K2SO4. O
aa??aioao c i?aeaeeaeaiiyi aeiaeaoeiaa aianaiiy aeia?ea cae?eniaii o
oaco aeoiaeo a o?oaeo c ?ic?aooieo ii 1,06 a acioo, oinoi?o ? eae?th
(aa??aioe 0N+I; 1N+I oa 2N+I) oa a oaco eiein?iiy-ii/aoeo oea?o?iiy ii
0,53 a oeeo aeaiaio?a a iinoaeeio, aea ?inei ii 20 iaaii?a (aa??aioe
0N+I+II, 1N+I+II oa 2N+I+II). Aieia?noue a?oioo -35%, 60 oa 75% a?ae
eiai iiaii? aieiai?ieino? – caaacia/aia eiio?ieueiaaiei ii aac? iieeaii.

A oiiaao iieueiaiai aeine?aeo aenie? ??ai? acioiiai aeeaeaiiy noai?ai?
aianaiiyi aeia?ea i?ae iin?a a e?eueeino? 120, 240 oa 360 ea ae?th/i?
?a/iaeie ia aaeoa?. O eiio?ieueiee aa??aio aeia?eaa ia aiineeenue.

Iiaeaeuei? aeine?aee c aieeao ??cieo ??ai?a acioiiai aeeaeaiiy ia
i?aai?caoe?th i?aiaioiiai aia?aoo oei?iieano?a aeeiiai? ia eoeo?oaec?
( Zea mays) a?a?eaeo Eieaeoeaiee 244 IA. ?ineeie ae?iuai? a 16-oe
e?eia?aiiaeo iinoaeeiao Aaaia?a a i?uai?e eoeueoo?? ?c aeiaeaiiyi
iiaeeaii? noi?o? Aaeue?eaaey. Ai?no acioo a aa??aioao neeaaeaa: 0,08 a
ia 1 ea i?neo (aeica 1N) oa 0,75; 0,5; 0,25; 0,1 a?ae oe??? aeice aeey
noai?aiiy ??cieo ??ai?a acioiiai aeao?oeeoo. Aeey caaacia/aiiy oiia
iaaeeeoeo acioiiai aeeaeaiiy aeica acioo ca?eueoaia a 3 oa 5 ?ac?a a?ae
aeice 1N . Iiaeeai? noi?o? aoee caaeainiaai? a?aeiia?aeieie e?eueeinoyie
aeaiaio?a eae?th, oinoi?o oa eaeueoe?th.

I?e aea/aii? iiaeeeaino? oanooaaiiy iaaeeeoeo acioiiai aeeaeaiiy e??i
eoeo?oaece oa iceii? ioaieoe? a yeino? iiaeaeueiiai ia’?eoo aeei?enoai?
oaeiae /ooeea? aei iaeiie/aiiy i?o?ao?a ?ineeie ia??ea (Cucumis
sativum). ?ineeie ia??ea ae?iuoaaee a a?oioia?e eoeueoo?? a iinoaeeiao
?ie?noth 8 ea a ee?iaoe/i?e eaia?? (ni?o I?aeeinueeee) oa aaaaoaoe?ei?e
ieiuaaeoe? (ni?o ?iaeie/ie). Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?oio:i?nie:oi?o neeaaeaei
4:5:2 (oii). I?ia?aeueiee acio aeiaeaaaee a aeicao 0,1; 0,2 oa 0,5 a
ae?th/i? ?a/iaeie ia 1 ea noi?o? (aa??aioe 1N, 2N oa 5N
a?aeiia?aeii).Oiiae ae?iuoaaiiy a ee?iaoe/i?e eaia??: 12-aiaeeiiee
na?oeiaee ia??iae, ?ioaineai?noue ooo/iiai ina?oeaiiy – aeecueei 150
Ao/i2, oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y – 25(N, eiai aieia?noue – a?ey 70%. I?e
cao?iaii? ?ioaineai?noue ia ia?aaeuoaaea 50 Ao/i2. Ina?oeaiiy a oaieeoe?
aoei i?e?iaei?i, ?ioaineai?noue eiai neeaaeaea a?ey 100-150 Ao/i2.
Oaiia?aoo?a aaeaiue aei??aithaaea 25-30iN, aii/?-15-20iN, aieia?noue
iia?o?y-aei 90%. Oaiia?aoo?i? oiiae ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei ia aaaaoaoe?ei?e
ieiuaaeoe? aecia/aeeny iiaiaei?ie oiiaaie eeiiy oa na?iiy i?nyoe?a.
?ioaineai?noue ina?oeaiiy aeinyaaea 500-550 Ao/i2. Iieea o an?o
aeiaaeeao cae?eniaii ca iio?aaith. Cieaeaio ?ioaineai?noue ina?oeaiiy a
eaia??, oaieeoe? oa ia aaaaoaoe?ei?e ieiuaaeoe? noai?aii cao?iaiiyi
/anoeie iinoaeei a?eith aaaiaiyiith oeaieiith.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii ia ??cieo ??aiyo: oei?iieano -eenoie-
?ineeia-aa?ioeaiic.

A?aea?? ?ineeiiiai iaoa??aeo c ae?iaie/eo iin?a?a aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
ia?aeaeueii c aeenoaioe?eieie eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue cae?eniaii
ocaeiaae o?ane iieueioo a oi/eao, a?aenoaiue i?ae yeeie aeae?aeanue ca
oaaeeoeath aeiaaeeiaeo /enae. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoai? iiai?noth
?icai?ioo? eenoee aa?oiueiai y?ono, a c iiiaioo caaa?oaiiy ?icaeoeo
oeaaiaiai eenoea aei oace iiei/ii-aineiai? noeaeino? ca?ia — inoaii?e.
Na?aaeiy eiioeaio?aoe?y oei?io?eo a eenoeao aei??yia ?c noie an?o
eenoe?a oe?eeo ?ineei.

O?oiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ineei aecia/ai? caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie
iaoiaeaie.

Eiioeaio?aoe?y oei?io?eo a eenoeao ?ineei aei??yia niaeo?iiao?e/ii ?c
aoeaoiiiaeo aeoyaeie iaaaaeie eenoe?a iaaii? ieiu? ca iaoiaeii A?iiia
(1949), ai?no caaaeueiiai acioo a eenoeao –oei?ai?iiei iaoiaeii,
iiaeeo?eiaaiei Ii/eieii (1969).

?a?no?aoe?y niaeo??a a?aeaeooy eenoe?a a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao
cae?eniaia ia aeaii?iiaiaaiio niaeo?ioioiiao?? NO-18 (N?N?) a
aiaeiaiaiio oa oeeo?iaiio aeaeyae?. Aa?iaeenoaioe?ei? niaeo?iiao?e/i?
aei??thaaiiy iin?a?a aeeiiai? ca aeiiiiiaith iaeaoo ai?oiaiai
niaeo?iiao?a c aenieei niaeo?aeueiei ?icae?eaiiyi, aeaioiaeaiiai
A?iieoeueeei iioeei-iaoai?/iei caaiaeii ? iano?i?iei a ?inoeooo?
i?eeeaaeieo o?ce/ieo i?iaeai i?e A?ei?onueeiio aea?aeoi?aa?neoao?. I?e
ciiaeoaaii? c ai?oo aa?oieueioo Ea-26 c aenioe 100 i a iiea ci?o
niaeo?aeueiiai i?eeaaeo iiiaaeaea ieiuaaeea ?ici??ii 7o1,68 i2.
E?euee?noue aei??yieo niaeo??a ocaeiaae o?ane iieueioo noaiiaeea 8-12.

Niaeo?aeuei? ?iciiae?ee ?ioaineaiino? na?oeiaiai iioieo, a?aeaeo? a?ae
iin?a?a, o ae?aiacii? 420-840 ii ca?a?no?iaai? o aeaeyae? oeeo?iaeo
ianea?a, ye? caienai? ia iaai?oiee iin?e. Ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a
aeenoaioe?eieo aei??thaaiue cae?eniaii ca aeiiiiiaith AII a eaai?aoi?ieo
oiiaao ca ?ic?iaeaieie aeai?eoiaie.

Aeae?eaiiy oei?iieano?a ?c iacio?eo eenoe?a eoeo?oaece iaeiiai y?ono
i?iaaaeaii oeyoii aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai oeaio?eooaoaaiiy aiiiaaiao?a
eenoe?a (Neeaaaa, 1978). Aooa?ia ?cieyoe?eia noi?o i?noeea: 0,4I
naoa?ice, 0,1 I O?eoeeio (?I 7,8), 0,3I anei?aaoo iao??y, 0,5%
aeueaoi?io oa 5 iM MgCl2.

?icae?eaiiy i?aiaio-a?eeiaeo eiiieaen?a oei?iieano?a cae?eniaii oeyoii
aeaeo?ioi?aco a iie?ae?eeai?aeiiio ieineiio aae? ca?aeii iaoiaeo
Aiaea?nii (1978).

Niaeo?e iiaeeiaiiy, ethi?ianoeaioe?? oa caoaeaeaiiy /a?aiii?
ethi?ianoeaioe?? aei??yi? ia niaeo?ioeoi?eiao?e/i?e onoaiiaoe?, c?a?ai?e
o a?aeae?e? a?io?i?? oioineioaco ae.a.i. N.I. Ei/oaae (1986) ?c
niaeo?aeueiei ?icae?eaiiyi 0,5 ii. Niaeo?e neiuei-caeaii?
ethi?ianoeaioe?? ?acii ?c /a?aiiith ca?a?no?iaai? ia aaoiiaoeciaai?e
onoaiiaoe?, noai?ai?e ia aac? iiiio?iiaoi?a IAe?-12 ?c niaeo?aeueiei
?icae?eaiiyi 1ii. A yeino? aeaea?aea caoaeaeaiiy ethi?ianoeaioe??
aeei?enoaii acioiee eaca? ?c aeiaaeeiith oaee? aei?ii?ithaaiiy 337,2 ii.
Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy neaiae/ooi aei??aithaaei 100:1. ?acoeueoaoe
aei??thaaiue ?a?no?iaaii o oeeo?iaiio oa aiaeiaiaiio aeaeyaeao.

Ia?o? oa ae?oa? iio?aei? a?ae niaeo??a ia/eneai? ia AII ca oi?ioeaie
Naaeoeueeiai (1964).

An? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ia?iaeai? noaoenoe/ii c aeei?enoaiiyi
ia?aiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a, aeey yeeo aoa aecia/aiee ??aaiue cia/eiino?
0,05. ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?e ?ic?aoiaai? ca iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a.
An? iaoaiaoe/i? ?ic?aooiee iathoue noaoenoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy.

?IC?IAEA IAOEIAEO INIIA Ae?AAIINOEEE CAAACIA*AIINO?

?INEEI ACIOIEI AEEAEAIIssI CA NIAEO?AEUeIEIE

OA?AEOA?ENOEEAIE NIAEO??A A?AeAEOOss EENOE?A O AEAeEI?E IAEANO?

Noai i?aiaioiiai aia?aoo iceii? ioaieoe? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy
caaacia/aiiy ?ineei acioiei aeeaeaiiyi.

?ic?iaea aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ioe?iee acioiiai noaoono ?ineei ca
aeiiiiiaith niaeo?iiao??? o aeaeeiiio ae?aiacii? iio?aaoaaea /?oeiai
oyaeaiiy i?i iniaeeaino? aieeao acioiiai aeeaeaiiy ia ye?ni? oa
e?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e i?aiaioii? nenoaie oioineioaoe/iiai aia?aoo ?ineei,
ye? ? aecia/aeueieie o oi?ioaaii? niaeo?aeueieo aeanoeainoae ?ineei o
aeaeei?e iaeano?.

Ia ii/aoie iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeiiino? uiaei aieeao ??aiy acioiiai
aeeaeaiiy ?ineei ia noai i?aiaioiiai aia?aoo aoee ia/eneaii?, ?, aei
iaaii? i??e, noia?a/eea?. Aeai? i?i aieea aeao?oeeoo acioiiai aeeaeaiiy
ia ie?ai? oi?ie oei?io?eo aoee i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?. E??i aeao?oeeoo
acioo, aaaeeeaei aoei aea/eoe iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? i?aiaioiiai
aia?aoo ?ineei i?e iaaeeeoeo acioiiai aeeaeaiiy, ine?eueee inoaii?e
oaeiae iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia noai ?ineei (Aiae?aaaa e ae?., 1972;
?iiaiiaa e ae?., 1987).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aiaio-a?eeiaeo eiiieaen?a (IAE) oei?iieano?a eoeo?oaece
c ??ciei ??aiai caaacia/aiiy ?ineei acioiei aeeaeaiiyi (ii?ia, aeao?oeeo
oa iaaeeeoie) aeyaeee nooo?a? ci?ie a ?o ni?aa?aeiioaii? o aa??aio? c
aeao?oeeoii acioiiai aeeaeaiiy. Aiie iieyaaee o ciaioaii? e?eueeino?
ie?aiia?ieo oi?i IAE ?aaeoe?eieo oeaio??a ON 1 CP1a, a oaeiae
na?oeicae?aeueieo eiiieaen?a ye a ie?aiia?i?e (LHCP1) oae ? iiiiia?i?e
(LHCP 3) oi?iao (oaae.1) . Oa?aeoa?iei aeyaii aeaeo?ioi?aa?ai
oei?iieano?a acio-aeao?oeeoieo ?ineei aoa aenieee i?ioeaio a?eueiiai
oei?io?eo. Iiyniaiiy oeueiai oaeoo ciaeaeaia o ii?ooaii? no?eeino? ?o
noi?aiieaeoey?ieo eiiieaen?a. A oe?eiio ae i?e ciaioaii? a?aeiinii?
e?eueeino? ?aaeoe?eieo oeaio??a ON 1 i?eaeecii ia 8 % na?oeicae?aeuei?
eiiieaene ciaiooaaeenue ia o?aoeio. Ia aeaeo?ioi?aa?aiao oei?iieano?a
?ineei, ae?iuaieo ia aenieiio (3N) ??ai? acioiiai aeeaeaiiy, a?eueo
oa?aeoa?iei aoei ca?eueoaiiy a?aeiinii? e?eueeino? ie?aiia?ieo oi?i IAE.

Oaaeeoey 1

A?aeiiniee ?iciiae?e oei?io?eo (%) a i?aiaio-a?eeiaeo eiiieaenao (IAE)
eenoe?a ?ineei eoeo?oaece, ae?iuaii? i?e ii?i? (1N), aeao?oeeo? (0,1 N)
oa iaaeeeoeo acioiiai aeeaeaiiy (5 N)

IAE Aeica acioo A?aeiioaiiy, %

5 1 0,1 5/1 0,1/1

CP1a 2,8±0,2 2,7±0,3 1,4±0,2 103,7±11,4* 51,8±8,0

CP1 18,1±0,9 18,2±1,7 18,0±1,3 99,4±16,0* 98,9±4,7*

LHC1 18,6±3,5 16,7±3,3 11,0±2,6 111,4±15,6* 65,9±11,7

LHC2+Cpa 8,7±2,0 8,1±1,2 6,7±1,4 107,4±16,4* 82,7±16,2*

LHC3 12,2±3,2 15,7±3,3 13,9±3,9 77,7±7,1 88,5±7,4*

F Chl 40,5±3,1 37,9±1,9 47,4±4,7 106,9±6,5* 125,1±9,0

LHC1+LHC3 30,7±0,8 32,2±1,0 24,9±3,2 95,3±4,7* 77,3±9,4

CP1+CP1a 20,0±1,7 20,9±1,5 19,2±1,4 95,7±8,8* 91,9±1,8*

* ??cieoey iaaeinoia??ia

Aiae?c oiiei? no?oeoo?e niaeo??a iiaeeiaiiy noniaic?e oei?iieano?a,
aeae?eaieo ?c eenoe?a eoeo?oaece ?c ??ciei caaacia/aiiyi ?ineei acioiei
aeeaeaiiyi, iieacaa a?aei?iiino? a i?aai?caoe?? i?aiaioiiai aia?aoo
oei?iieano?a i?e aeao?oeeo? oa iaaeeeoeo acioiiai aeeaeaiiy o ii??aiyii?
c oaeith o eiio?ieueieo ?ineei. Ia oii? cia/iiai (aei 80 %) ciaioaiiy
caaaeueiiai ai?noo oei?io?eo i?e aeao?oeeo? acioiiai aeeaeaiiy iaee
i?noea cia/i? ci?ie o ni?aa?aeiioaii? ie?aieo eiai oi?i. A?aeiinia
e?euee?noue oi?i oei?io?eo a c iaeneioiaie iiaeeiaiiy i?e 660, 666, 678,
680 oa 688 ii ciaiooaaeanue, oiae? ye oi?i oei?io?eo a c iaeneioiaie
iiaeeiaiiy i?e 668, 672 ii oa 674 ii c?inoaea (?en.1).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oiiei? no?oeoo?e niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy ethi?ianoeaioe??
i?e ?a?no?aoe?? ?? ia aeiaaioaeeueiaiio oa ei?ioeioaeeueiaiio noeeao
nioae ethi?ianoeaioe?? c iaeneioiii i?e 735 ii aeicaieeei aeyaeoe oi?ie
oei?io?eo a, ye? oi?iothoue aeaa ??ci? noiee aia?a?? o aeaeyae?
aeiaaioaeeueiaiai ethi?ianoeaioiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Ci?ie oiiei?
no?oeoo?e niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy F720, iaoiiaeai? aeao?oeeoii acioiiai
aeeaeaiiy, a?aeia?aaeaee aeyaeai? ca niaeo?aie iiaeeiaiiy oei?iieano?a
ci?ie i?aiaioiiai neeaaeo oioineioaoe/iiai aia?aoo. E??i ieo, aeyaeaii
oaeiae cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? eiiiiiaioo i?e 708 ii.

Oaeei /eiii , aeao?oeeo acioiiai aeeaeaiiy aieeaa? ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
i?ae ie?aieie oi?iaie oei?io?eo a, cie?aia, oeyoii ciaioaiiy e?eueeino?
aeiaaioaeeueiaeo, iaoiiaethth/e ci?ie oi?ie niaeo??a eenoe?a o aeaeei?e
iaeano?.

Aca?iica’ycie i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao iceii? ioaieoe?
?c ??ciei acioiei noaoonii. Ai?no oei?io?eo a eenoeao ?ineei ?c ??ciei
??aiai caaacia/aiiy acioiei aeeaeaiiyi o?nii ei?aethaaa ?c ai?noii
caaaeueiiai acioo a ieo. Eiao?oe??io i?yiie?i?eii? ei?aeyoe?? a iaai?
no?iee ?icaeoeo ?ineei aeinyaaa 0,98±0.03. I?e ?icaeyae? aeaieo,
io?eiaieo ca aanue ia??iae aaaaoaoe??, ei?aeyoe?y i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo
oa caaaeueiiai acioo ii?oooaaeanue. Iiyniaiiy oaei? neooaoe?? ciaeaeaii
i?e aeine?aeaeaii? aeeiai?ee ai?noo oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao ia
i?ioyc? aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei. Iieacaii, ui a ae?oao iieiaeio aaaaoaoe??
ciaioaiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo a eenoeao aiane?aeie ?o noa??iiy i?ioiaeeoue
neio?iiii ?c cieaeaiiyi ai?noo acioo a ieo. A ia?oo ae ?? iieiaeio
aeeiai?ea ai?noo acioo ? oei?io?eo, ye i?aaeei, ciaoiaeeoueny a
i?ioeoac?. Oi/a a iaaeao eiaeii? ie?aii? oace ?icaeoeo ?ineei a?eueo
aenieiio ai?noo acioo a eenoeao a?aeiia?aeaee aeu? cia/aiiy ai?noo
oei?io?eo. Aeinoia??ia ei?aeyoe?y i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a
eenoeao ?ineei iceii? ioaieoe? niinoa??aaeanue a iaaeao ie?aieo oac a
ia?oo iieiaeio aaaaoaoe?? ?, iacaeaaeii a?ae oace noeaeino? ca?ia, a
ia??iae caeaiiai eenoea o ae?oao iieiaeio aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei. C?iaeaiee
aeniiaie, ui aeey iienaiiy caeaaeiino? i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo
a eenoeao ?ineei ca aeiiiiiaith ??aiyiue ?aa?an?? inoaii? ne?ae
iaea?aeoaaoe aeey eiaeii? oace ie?aii a ia?oo iieiaeio aaaaoaoe?? ?
iacaeaaeii a?ae ieo o ae?oao iieiaeio aaaaoaoe??.

Aeai?eoie aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao iceii? ioaieoe?
ia i?ioyc? aaaaoaoe??

Iaea?aeai? ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? o aeaeyae? e?i?eieo ooieoe?e N=f(Oe) aeey
??cieo oac aaaaoaoe?? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue cia/aiiyie eiao?oe??ioa i?e
a?aoiaio? a ae?aiacii? 0,35-0,41 c iioeaeith aecia/aiiy 0,02-0,06 (?en.
2). Iaaeinoia??i?noue a?aei?iiinoae i?ae cia/aiiyie eiao?oe??io?a i?e
a?aoiaio? cana?ae/eea i?i oa, ui iniiai? a?aei?iiino? ??aiyiue ?aa?an?e,
ye? ca’ycothoue ai?no oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao, noinothoueny eeoa
a?eueiiai /eaia. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai iieiaeaiiy aeai?eoie aeey
aecia/aiiy ai?noo acioo a eenoeao ca ai?noii a ieo oei?io?eo ae?aaeai?
o aeaeyae? iaeiiai caaaeueiiai aeey an?o oac e?i?eiiai ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??
c ia?ai?iiei a?eueiei /eaiii, eiaeiee c yeeo a?aeiia?aea? iaai?e oac?
aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei.

Ca’ycie i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa caaaeueiiai acioo a eenoeao ??cieo
ni?o?a iceii? ioaieoe?.

C iaoith aea/aiiy aieeao ni?oiaeo iniaeeainoae ?ineei iceii? ioaieoe? ia
ca’ycie i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa caaaeueiiai acioo a eenoeao aoei
i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy 27-ie ni?o?a iceii? ioaieoe? a ??ci? oace
aaaaoaoe??. Iieacaii, ui a iaaeao eiaeii? oace a ia?oo iieiaeio
aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei oa iacaeaaeii a?ae oace ?icaeoeo o ae?oao ?? iieiaeio
i?ae ai?noii caaaeueiiai acioo oa oei?io?eo a eenoeao ?nio? o?nia
i?yiie?i?eia caeaaei?noue. Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae aeaieie
o?c?ieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie o oeaaiaeo eenoeao iceii? ioaieoe? ca ia??iae
a?ae iiei/ii? aei iiei/ii-aineiai? noeaeino? ca?ia, iaea?aeaiee ca
?acoeueoaoaie o?ueio??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, noaiiaea 0,94±0,05. Ia iniia?
oeeo ?acoeueoao?a c?iaeaiee aeniiaie i?i aeaeiao aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue
oa?aeoa?o caeaaeiino? i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao, ia yeo
ia aieeaa? ni?oiaa i?eiaeaaei?noue.

Aieea oiia ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei ia aca?iica’ycie i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo
oa acioo a eenoeao.

Aeia?a a?aeiii, ui ia iiaeeiaiiy acioo c a?oioo, eiai canai?iiy
, a oaeiae iaeiie/aiiy oei?io?eo a eenoeao aieeaathoue oiiae
ae?iuoaaiiy. Iaeiae aeai? uiaei aieeao iaoai?ieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao aoee
a?aenooi?. I?ae oei oea ieoaiiy ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy i?e aeei?enoaii?
aeai?eoi?a aecia/aiiy acioo /a?ac oei?io?e o ?ineei, ae?iuaieo a
??cieo oiiaao, cie?aia, oaiia?aoo?e, aieiaicaaacia/aiiy oa
ina?oeaiino?. A?ae oiai, iane?eueee no?eeei ? oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? i?ae
ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao ?ineei i?e aa??thaaii? oiia
ae?iuoaaiiy a cia/i?e i??? aoaea caeaaeaoe aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaeo
niaeo?iiao?e/ii? ioe?iee acioiiai noaoono ?ineei. C iaoith
aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao iaoai?ieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia aca?iica’ycie i?ae
ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao ?ineeie iceii? ioaieoe? ae?iuoaaee
a eiio?ieueiaaieo oiiaao oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio, aieiaicaaacia/aiiy oa
ina?oeaiiy.

Iieacaii, ui oaiia?aoo?a, aieiaicaaacia/aiiy oa ina?oeai?noue
aieeaathoue ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aaee/eiaie ai?noo oei?io?eo oa acioo
a eenoeao ?ineei a ??ci?e i???. I?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e a?ae 15° N aei
25° C i?aeoe/ii ia aeyaey?oueny ia ni?aa?aeiioaii? oei?io?e/acio
(Oaae.2). C oeueiai aeieeaa?, ui i?e aecia/aii? ai?noo acioo a eenoeao
ca ?o niaeo?aeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ae?y oaiia?aoo?iiai oaeoi?o i?e
aa??aoe?yo iiaiaei?o oiiaao a iaaeao iaei??? a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ii? ciie c
oi/i?noth aei 10-15% iiaea ia a?aoiaoaaoenue.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea ??cieo oaeoi??a ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oei?io?e/acio a eenoeao iceii?
ioaieoe? i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?? a oiiaao ??cieo eiia?iaoe?e oaiia?aoo?e,
aieiae oa ina?oeaiiy

Oiiae Aeaoa

ae?iuoaaiiy 10.05.93 18.05.93 02.06.93 08.06.93

Oe/acio i?e 25(N / Oe/acio i?e 15(N

110 Ao/i2 0,95±0,03 0,95±0,02 0,95±0,05* 1,00±0,02*

35 Ao/i2 0,85±0,15* 1,00±0,17* 1,23±0,06 1,00±0,07*

Oe/acio i?e 35 Ao/i2 / Oe/acio i?e 110 Ao/i2

15(N 0,78±0,08 0,64±0,02 0,42±0,03 0,40±0,02

25(N 0,71±0,10 0,67±0,01 0,53±0,04 0,40±0,01

Oe/acio i?e 40% aieia. / Oe/acio i?e 60% aieia

I?e?iae. ina?oeaiiy 1,15±0,12* 1,00±0,06* 0,90±0,15* 0,97±0,05*

Cao?iaiiy 1,26±0,15 1,12±0,09* 1,11±0,11* 1,09±0,06*

Oe/acio i?e cao?iaii? / Oe/acio i?e i?e?iaeiiio ina?oeaii?

40%-aa aieia?noue 0,84±0,13 0,80±0,03 0,90±0,06* 0,82±0,04

60%-aa aieia?noue 0,76±0,05 0,72±0,07 0,73±0,05 0,74±0,03

*A?aei?iiino? iaaeinoia??i?

Cieaeaiiy ina?oeaiino? a?ae 110 ao/i2 aei 35 ao/i2 aeeeeeaei ciaioaiiy
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oei?io?e/acio aei 60 %. Aa??aoe?? ina?oeaiino? a
ae?aiacii?, yeee a?aeiia?aeaa eieeaaiiyi ?? a niiy/iee oa oia?iee
aeaiue, ci?ithaaee ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oei?io?e/acio a na?aaeiueiio ia 16%
i?e aieiaino? a?oioo 40% ? ia 26% i?e aieiaino? 60%.

Aieea aieiaino? a?oioo, a naith /a?ao, caeaaeaa a?ae ??aiy ina?oeaiino?,
i?e ye?e ae?iuoaaeeny ?ineeie. I?e i?e?iaeiueiio ina?oeaii? a?aeiioaiiy
oei?io?e/acio i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ithaaeinue a ae?aiacii? ci?i aieiaino?
40%-60%. I?e cao?iaii? aiii aoei ieae/a aeey aa??aioo c a?eueoith
aieia?noth a?oioo i?eaeecii ia 16%.

Oaeei /eiii, iioeaea aecia/aiiy ai?noo acioo /a?ac oei?io?e i?e
eieeaaii? iiaiaei?o oiia a iaaeao iaei??? a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ii? ciie ia
aoaea ia?aaeuoaaoe 20%. Oaeo oi/i?noue iiaeia aaaaeaoe i?eeiyoiith aeey
iiae?aiiai ?iaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeey a?eueo oi/ii? ioe?iee
eiioeaio?aoe?? acioo a eenoeao ?ineei, ae?iuaieo a iaaieo oiiaao, ne?ae
ei?enooaaoeny ??aiyiiyie ?aa?an?e, iaea?aeaieie aeey eenoe?a ?ineei,
ye? ae?iuoaaeenue a iaeiaeiaeo c ieie oiiaao na?aaeiaeua.

Caeaaei?noue i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao iceii? ioaieoe?
i?e ae?? a?ioe/iiai no?ano. Aieea no?aniaiai /eiieea a?ioe/ii? i?e?iaee
ia ca’ycie i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa caaaeueiiai acioo a eenoeao
aeine?aeaeaiee ia i?eeeaae? o?aaeaiiy ?ineei ai?ioienoith ?inith.
Ca?aeii iaea?aeaiei ?acoeueoaoai ae?y aeaiiai no?ano i?iyaey?oueny o
cieaeaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?io?eo oa caaaeueiiai acioo aac ii?ooaiiy
i?ae ieie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, yea niinoa??aaeinue aeey caei?iaeo ?ineei.

Oaeei /eiii, ai?no oei?io?eo a eenoeao, o?aaeaieo ai?ioienoith ?inith,
a?aeia?aaea? ?aaeueiee ai?no acioo a eenoeao ?ineei, oa?aeoa?ecoth/e
eiai acioiee noaoon, yeee ia caaaeaee a?aeiia?aea? ??aith acioiiai
aeeaeaiiy a a?oio?. Oea iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e ciiaeoaaii? iin?a?a,
o?aaeaieo oai?iaaie, ui aeeeeeathoue ci?ie ai?noo oei?io?eo a ?ineeiao.

Ioe?iea iiaeeeaino? aeenoaioe?eiiai oanooaaiiy iaaeeeoeo acioiiai
aeeaeaiiy. I?e ae?aaiinoeoe? ??aiy caaacia/aiiy ?ineei acioiei
aeeaeaiiyi, e??i aeao?oeeoo acioo, aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? oanooaaiiy eiai
iaaeeeoeo, ine?eueee inoaii?e oaeiae iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia o?iaeae.
Cie?aia, i?e i?aeaeuaii? ??aiy acioiiai aeeaeaiiy aeua iioeiaeueiiai i?e
ae?iuoaaii? ca?iiaeo ?nio? ?ecee iia??oaiiy yeino? a?iaeath oa
ca?eueoaiiy eiai ao?ao i?e cae?aii? aiane?aeie aeeyaaiiy iin?a?a.
Aeooaeueiith ? oaeiae ae?aaiinoeea caa?oaeiaiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? oiene/ieie aeey ethaeae ? oaa?ei
i?o?aoaie.

Aecia/aiiy ai?noo caaaeueiiai acioo oa oei?io?eo a eenoeao ?ineei
eoeo?oaece, iceii? ioaieoe? oa ia??e?a o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii?
caaacia/aiiy ?ineei acioiei aeeaeaiiyi iieacaei, ui
i?yiii?iii?oe?iiaeueia caeaaei?noue i?ae aeaieie o?c?ieia?/ieie
ia?aiao?aie niinoa??aa?oueny eeoa aei iaaiiai ??aiy caaacia/aiiy ?ineei
acioiei aeeaeaiiyi. Iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy eiai ??aiy noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? caaaeueiiai acioo i?e a?aenooiino? c?inoaiiy
ai?noo oei?io?eo a eenoeao, aai, iaa?oue, i?e ciaioaii? inoaiiueiai. Ia
iniia? oeeo aeaieo c?iaeaiee aeniiaie i?i iaiiaeeea?noue oanooaaiiy
iaaeeeoeo acioiiai aeeaeaiiy eeoa ia iniia? aecia/aiiy iaeiiai o?eueee
ia?aiao?o — eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?io?eo a eenoeao. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeia
aeiaeaoeiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y. Iath iiaea aooe c??aeaeaiiy ?ineei ia oii?
aenieiai ai?noo oei?io?eo a eenoeao ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ?icaeoeo,
i?iaeiaaeaiiy o?eaaeino? aeeooy caeaieo eenoe?a aae aei no?ie?a ii/aoeo
cae?aiiy o?iaeath, a oaeiae aeeyaaiiy iin?a?a.

Ioe?iea iaeiie/aiiy ?ineeiaie caaaeueiiai acioo. Aeine?aee c ae?iuoaaiiy
iceii? ioaieoe? a ??cieo oiiaao oaiia?aoo?e, aieiaicaaacia/aiiy oa
?ioaineaiino? ina?oeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?ae eiioeaio?aoe??th caaaeueiiai
acioo a eenoeao ? ianith nooi? ?a/iaeie, na?aaeiueith eiioeaio?aoe??th
acioo a oe?e?e ?ineei? aai noia?iei ai?noii acioo a ?ineeiao, ye? ?inee
a eiio?anoieo oiiaao, ei?aeyoe?y a?aenooiy. I?eaeecii iaeiaeia?
eiioeaio?aoe?? acioo a eenoeao o ?ineei a oiiaao iiaiiai niiy/iiai
ina?oeaiiy oa aieiaino? a?oioo 60% (4,16% a?ae aaniethoii nooi?
?a/iaeie) oa ee?iaoe/ii? eaia?e i?e ooo/iiio ina?oeaii? 110 Ao/i2 ?
oaiia?aoo?? 15iN (4,21% a?ae aaniethoii nooi? ?a/iaeie) a?aeiia?aeaee
?ineeiai, ye? a?ae??ciyeenue ca iaeiie/aiiyi nooi? a?iiane a?eueo i?ae o
o?e ?ace (1,10 a oa 0,3 a, a?aeiia?aeii) (oaae.3).

Ia a?aei?io a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? acioo a eenoeao, ai?no oei?io?eo a ieo
a?eueo o?nii iia’ycaiee c iaeiie/aiiyi nooi? iane oa caaaeueiiai acioo
?ineeiaie. Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae aaee/eiith noia?iiai ai?noo
oei?io?eo (oei?io?eueiei ?iaeaenii) oa a?iianith ?ineei noaiiaea
0,93±0,03. Oaeee aea o?niee ca’ycie niinoa??aaany i?ae ai?noii
oei?io?eo oa noia?iei ai?noii caaaeueiiai acioo a ?ineeiao
(r=0,95±0,03).

C iaea?aeaieo aeaieo aeieeaa?, ui ai?no oei?io?eo ? aoaeoeaiei
ae?aaiinoe/iei ia?aiao?ii aeey ioe?iee aeiino ?ineeiaie acioo c a?oioo.

EENOEIAA Ae?AAIINOEEA O CA’ssCEO C

I?IAIICOAAIIssI CA?IIAI? I?IAeOEOEAIINO?

Caeaaei?noue i?ae oei?io?eueieie ia?aiao?aie, a?iianith oa o?iaea?i
ca?ia iceii? ioaieoe? iaeiiai ni?oo.

Ca?aeii oai??? oioineioaoe/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?, ca aeaieie i?i ai?no
oei?io?eo a eenoeao oa oe?eeo ?ineeiao iiaeia ne?aeeoaaoe ca oiaeii
oi?ioaaiiy o?iaeath a iin?aao (Ie/eii?iae/,1988). I?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y
oaeiai i?aeoiaeo a nenoai? aeenoaioe?eiiai iii?oi?eiao iin?a?a aeiaaaea
ae??oaiiy oe?eiai ?yaeo ieoaiue, cie?aia aecia/aiiy ?ioi?iaoeaiino?
oei?io?eueieo ia?aiao??a aeey ioe?iee ca?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? a iin?aao
?ineei i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?o a ??cieo iiaiaei?o oiiaao, canoinoaaii? ??cieo
oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy, a oaeiae a caeaaeiino? a?ae ae?? a?ioe/ieo
no?aniaeo oaeoi??a oa aaiioeiieo iniaeeainoae.

Ca?iiaa i?iaeoeoeai?noue eieino iceii? ioaieoe?, yea aoea ae?iuaia ia
oiiao acioiiai aeeaeaiiy 0N, 0,5N, 0,75N, 1N oa 2N, o?nii ei?aethaaea ?c
eiioeaio?aoe??th oei?io?eo o oeaaiaeo eenoeao a oace eiein?iiy
(r=0,92±0,06) oa iiei/ii-aineiai? noeaeino? ca?ia (r=0,98±0,03). Oe?
aeai? cana?ae/eee i?i oa, ui eiioeaio?aoe?y oei?io?eo ? ?ioi?iaoeaiei
ia?aiao?ii ii a?aeiioaiith aei ca?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? iceii? ioaieoe?.

Oaaeeoey 3

A?io?i?/i? ia?aiao?e ie?aieo i?aai?a oa oe?eeo ?ineei iceii? ioaieoe?
i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?? a eiio?ieueiaaieo oiiaao ina?oeaiino?, oaiia?aoo?e
iia?o?y oa aieiaino? a?oioo (10.06.93)

Ai?no acioo, % a?ae aan. noo .iane Any ?ineeia

Oiiae ?inoo Ai?no oei?io?eo, ia/aei2 Oei?io?eueiee ?iaeaen, ia eenoee
noaaei ei??iue eiein Ai?no acioo,

% a?ae aan. noo. iane Nooa iana, a Ai?no acioo, ia

Niiy/ia nia?oeaiiy:

aieia?noue 40%

aieia?noue 60%

8,01±0,15 8,71±0,15

0,47±0,07 0,75±0,06

4,13±0,02 4,16±0,03

1,72±0,01 1,61±0,01

1,50±0,01 1,45±0,03

2,01±0,01 1,96±0,01

2,13±0,02 2,08±0,01

0,74±0,03 1,10±0,02

16±2 23±1

Cao?iaiiy:

aieia?noue40%

aieia?noue 60%

6,42±0,15 6,35±0,07

0,31±0,04 0,44±0,03

4,62±0,01 4,85±0,01

2,00±0,01 2,15±0,03

1,76±0,01 1,90±0,01

2,15±0,02 2,11±0,02

2,35±0,02 2,48±0,02

0,34±0,02 0,47±0,01

8±1 12±2

Ee?iaoe/i? eaia?e oaiia?aoo?a 15° N : ina?oeai?noue 110Ao/i2
ina?oeai?noue 35 Ao/i2

7,01±0,16 2,99±0,14

0,44±0,02 0,36±0,03

4,21±0,03 4,06±0,01*

2,25±0,01 —

1,97±0,03 2,61±0,01

2,06±0,02 —

2,77±0,01 3,77±0,02

0,38±0,02 0,22±0,01

10±1 8±1

Oaiia?aoo?a 25°N: ina?oeai?noue 110Ao/i2 ina?oeai?noue 35Ao/i2

6,34±0,06 2,47±0,03

0,36±0,05 0,28±0,05

4,18±0,01 4,59±0,02*

2,96±0,02 —

2,16±0,02 2,73±0,03

3,30±0,07 —

2,94±0,01 3,49±0,02

0,21±0,02 0,17±0,02

6±1 6±1

* Iaaiie oa eenoee

Aieea acioieo i?aeaeeaeaiue ?ineei a ??ci? oace aaaaoaoe?? ia
caeaaei?noue i?ae oei?io?eueieie ia?aiao?aie oa ca?iiaith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth iceii? ioaieoe?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoeaiino? oei?io?eueieo ia?aiao??a ii a?aeiioaiith
aei ca?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? o aeiaaeeao ?c ??ciith noaiith aianaiiy
acioieo aeia?ea iieacaei, ui a?aei?iiino? ia i?ioyc? aaaaoaoe?? o
caaacia/aii? ?ineei acioiei aeeaeaiiyi i?ecaiaeyoue aei iineaaeaiiy
ca’yceo i?ae aaniethoieie aaee/eiaie ai?noo oei?io?eo a oaco
iiei/ii-aineiai? noeaeino? ca?ia oa ca?iiaith i?iaeoeoeai?noth.
Iiyniaiiy oeueiio ciaeaeaia a oiio, ui aenie? ??ai? oei?io?eo i?ney
i?aeaeeaeaiiy ia a?aeia?aaeathoue oiiae oi?ioaaiiy o?iaeath a a?eueo
?aii? no?iee.

Aenieee eiao?oe??io e?i?eii? ei?aeyoe?? niinoa??aaany i?ae ca?iiaith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth oa aaee/eiith oei?io?eueiiai ?iaeaeno (noia?iei ai?noii
oei?io?eo a eenoeao) na?aaeiueith ca ia??iae a?ae aeoiaeo a o?oaeo aei
iiei/ii-aineiai? noeaeino? ca?ia (?en. 3).

Oaeei /eiii, i?e i?iaiicoaaii? o?iaeath ca aeaieie aei??thaaiiy
oei?io?eo iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino? aeiaeyaeo ca ?ineeiaie.
Ai?no oei?io?eo a eenoeao a oaco iiei/ii-aineiai? noeaeino? ? ei?eniei
?ioi?iaoeaiei iieacieeii i/?eoaaii? o?iaeaeiino? iceii? ioaieoe? ca
oiiae, eiee ?aeeiei ia?ai?iiei ia?aiao?ii aenooia? ??aaiue caaacia/aiiy
?ineei acioiei aeeaeaiiyi, aianaiei ca iaeiaeiaith noaiith a /an? ia
i?ioyc? aaaaoaoe??. O aeiaaeeo ae?iaiiai aianaiiy aeia?ea a?eueo
aoaeoeaieie aeey i?iaiico o?iaeath aoaeooue aeai? iii?oi?eiao
oei?io?eueiiai ?iaeaeno ia i?ioyc? anueiai ia??iaeo aaaaoaoe??.

Aieea ni?oiaeo iniaeeainoae iceii? ioaieoe? ia ca’ycie i?ae
oei?io?eueieie ia?aiao?aie oa ca?iiaith i?iaeoeoeai?noth.

Na?aae ni?o?a, ye? a?ae??ciyeenue ca ieiuath eenoeiai? iiaa?oi?, ca?iiaa
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei?aethaaea c aaee/eiith oei?io?eueiiai ?iaeaeno a
iaai? oace aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei i?e caaacia/aii? ?o acioiei aeeaeaiiyi ca
iaeiaeiaith noaiith aianaiiy acioieo aeia?ea. I?e ?icaeyae? ni?o?a ?c
??ciith o?eaae?noth aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo aac i?ea’ycee aei oace
?icaeoeo ?ineei, ca?iiaa i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei?aethaaea c aaee/eiith
oei?io?eueiiai iioaioe?aeo – noia?iei ai?noii oei?io?eo a ?ineeiao ca
ia??iae aaaaoaoe??- c eiao?oe??ioii ei?aeyoe?? 0,86±0,06 (?en. 4).

Ioaea, o aeiaaeeo ni?o?a ?c ??ciith o?eaae?noth aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo
a?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaiith ii a?aeiioaiith aei ca?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?
aaee/eia oei?io?eueiiai iioaioe?aeo. I?iaiic o?iaeath aoaea oei
oi/i?oei, /ei ca a?eueo o?eaaeee ia??iae aoaea ?ic?aoiaaia eiai aaee/eia
ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a iii?oi?eiao iin?a?a.

?IOI?IAOEAI? IIAEEEAINO? NIAEO??A EENOE?A ?INEEI C

AENIEEI NIAEO?AEUeIEI ?ICAe?EAIIssI

Aeine?aeaeaiiy niaeo??a a?aeaeooy eenoe?a ?c ??ciei ai?noii oei?io?eo
iieacaee, ui iaea?eueo /ooeeaeie aei eiai ci?i a eenoeao ? ae?eyiee
niaeo?aeueieo e?eaeo a caeai?e (500-550 ii) oa /a?aii?e (700-730 ii)
iaeanoyo. Aeey e?euee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee oi?ie niaeo?aeueieo e?eaeo o
aeaeei?e iaeano? aoee ?ic?iaeai? i?ea?iaeuei? niaeo?aeuei? ia?aiao?e —
?ioaa?aeueiee ia?aiao? EO oa aeeoa?aioe?aeueiee ia?aiao? I2/I1. Ia?oee
?c ieo ia/eneth?oueny ye a?aeiioaiiy ?ioaa?ae?a ooieoe?e niaeo?aeueieo
e?eaeo R(() a iaaiiio niaeo?aeueiiio ae?aiacii? ((1-(2):

Ae?oaee aecia/a?oueny ye a?aeiioaiiy aiie?ooae aeiaaioaeeueiaiai (I2) oa
ei?ioeioaeeueiaiai (I1) iaeneioi?a ia?oi? iio?aeii? a?ae niaeo?aeueii?
e?eai? a?aeaeooy a iaeano? 680-750 ii.

Iaeaeaa oeie niaeo?aeueieo ia?aiao??a o?nii ei?aethaaee ?c ai?noii
oei?io?eo a eenoeao ia i?ioyc? anueiai ia??iaeo aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei c
eiao?oe??ioaie ei?aeyoe?? 0,78-0,86. Iioeaee iaea?aeaieo e?i?eieo
??aiyiue ?aa?an??, ui iia’ycoaaee niaeo?aeuei? iieacieee ?c ai?noii
oei?io?eo, noaiiaeee 0,79 oa 0,71 ia/aei2 i?e aeei?enoaii? a yeino?
a?aoiaioa ?ioaa?aeueiiai (EO/) oa aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai (I2/I1)
ia?aiao??a, aecia/aieo aeey /a?aiii? iaeano? a?aeaeooy, a?aeiia?aeii.
Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo aeai?eoi?a aeey aacaeaa?aaeaoe?eiiai aecia/aiiy
ai?noo oei?io?eo oa caaaeueiiai acioo a eenoeao ca aeiiiiiaith
cai?iiiiiaaieo niaeo?aeueieo ia?aiao??a a?aeaeooy aeyaeei iaeiaeiai
oi?ioo ?o i?aoeacaeaoi?noue a ??ci? oace aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei.

Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c oa ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaeueieo aeine?ae?a ii aa??thaaiith
i?iaeoeaiiai iie?eooy i?e aei??thaaii? niaeo??a a?aeaeooy eenoe?a o
eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao aeyaeee aenieo /ooeea?noue ?ioaa?aeueiiai ia?aiao?a
oi?ie aei aaee/eie i?iaeoeaiiai iie?eooy, ? i?aeoe/io iacaeaaei?noue aei
eiai ci?i aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai o aeiaaeeo oaiii? i?aeeeaaeee (/a?iicai).
Ia na?oe?e i?aeeeaaeoe? (i?nie) i?e aaee/ei? i?iaeoeaiiai iie?eooy 0,25
a?aeiinia iioeaea aecia/aiiy oei?io?eo neeaaeaea 70 % i?e ioe?ioe? eiai
ca aeiiiiiaith EO ? ia a?eueoa 25 a?aenioe?a i?e aeei?enoaii?
aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai ia?aiao?a I2/I1 ( oaae. 4).

Oaaeeoey 4.

Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo ca aeaiia oeiaie
oa?aeoa?enoee oi?ie niaeo??a a?aeaeooy eenoe?a i?e ??ciiio i?iaeoeaiiio
iie?eoo?

, %

6,48 1,00 6,28 1,5* 6,01 7,2*

6,48 0,75 5,97 7,9* 4,80 25,9

6,48 0,50 5,16 20,4 2,72 58,0

6,48 0,25 4,98 22,0 0,79 87,8

4,76 1,00 4,71 1,0* 5,11 7,4*

4,76 0,75 4,98 4,6* 2,98 16,4

4,76 0,50 4,82 4,6* 1,69 64,5

4,76 0,25 4,06 14,7 0,61 87,2

2,29 1,00 2,65 15,7 2,06 22,6

2,29 0,75 2,76 20,5 2,19 4,4*

2,29 0,50 2,67 16,6 0,92 59,8

2,29 0,25 2,28 2,9* 0,67 70,7

* ??cieoey iaaeinoia??ia

Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i aeioe?euei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ioaa?aeueiiai ia?aiao?o EO aeey aeenoaioe?eiiai aecia/aiiy
ai?noo oei?io?eo eeoa o aeiaaeeao ?c c?ieiooeie iin?aaie, oiae? ye
aecia/aiiy aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai ia?aiao?a I2/I1 aoaea aoaeoeaiei a
iin?aao ye c iiaiei oae ? iaiiaiei i?iaeoeaiei iie?eooyi.

??cia /ooeea?noue aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai oa ?ioaa?aeueiiai ia?aiao??a aei
aaee/eie i?iaeoeaiiai iie?eooy aeei?enoaia i?e ?ic?iaoe? niiniao ioe?iee
inoaiiueiai oeyoii aeei?enoaiiyi caeaaeiino? i?ae ?ioaa?aeueiei
ia?aiao?ii oa aaee/eiith i?iaeoeaiiai iie?eooy, iaea?aeaii? aeey
?ineeiiino? c iaaiei ai?noii oei?io?eo, iiia?aaeiuei aecia/aiiio ca
aeiiiiiaith aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai ia?aiao?a.

Iniaeeaino? aca?iica’yceo i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao ia
i?ioyc? aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei aeeeooaaee ?ic?aooiie ??aiyiue ?aa?an?e aeey
aecia/aiiy ai?noo acioo a eenoeao ca aeiiiiiaith niaeo?aeueieo
ia?aiao??a a?aeaeooy ie?aii aeey eiaeii? oace. Iaea?aeai? e?i?ei?
??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? aeey ianea?a aeaieo n>50 aeey oac eou?iiy (N=3,38
I2/I1+2,10), aeoiaeo a o?oaeo (N=2,997 I2/I1 +1,35) oa ae?oao iieiaeio
aaaaoaoe?? (N=3,00 I2/I1+0,55) iaee eiao?oe??ioe i?e a?aoiaio? a
ae?aiacii? 2,997 — 3,377 i?e iioeaoe? ?o aecia/aiiy 0,40.
Iaaeinoia??i?noue ?o a?aei?iiinoae a?aeaeaa? iniaeeaino? ca’yceo i?ae
ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao a ??ci? oace aaaaoaoe??. Aeoiaey/e
c oeueiai, aeai?eoie aeey aecia/aiiy acioo ca aeiiiiiaith niaeo?aeueiiai
ia?aiao?a a eenoeao ?ineei a ??ci? oace aaaaoaoe?? i?aaenoaaeai? iaeiei
caaaeueiei ??aiyiiyi ?aa?an?? c ia?ai?iiei a?eueiei /eaiii:

N = 3,176 ·I2/I1+ B1-3,

aea N — ai?no acioo a eenoeao ?ineei a % a?ae aaniethoii nooi? iane;
3,176 eiao?oe??io i?e a?aoiaio?, I2/I1 — aeeoa?aioe?aeueiee
niaeo?aeueiee ia?aiao? a?aeaeooy; A- a?eueiee /eai ??aiyiiy, yeee
aei??aith? 2,1; 1,35 oa 0,55 aeey oac eou?iiy, aeoiaeo a o?oaeo oa
ae?oai? iieiaeie aaaaoaoe??, a?aeiia?aeii. ?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy ai?noo
acioo a eenoeao iceii? ioaieoe? a ??ci? oace aaaaoaoe?? iieacaee
caaeia?eueio oi/i?noue. A?aei?iiino? i?ae aaee/eiaie caaaeueiiai acioo,
aecia/aieie o?i?/iei niiniaii ca Ii/eieii oa ca aeiiiiiaith
niaeo?aeueiiai ia?aiao?o, ia ia?aaeuoaaee 0,5% a?ae aan. noo. ?a/iaeie).
Oaea oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy ? oe?eeii i?eeiyoiith aeey iiae?aiiai ?iaeo
ioe?iie .

I?iaeaia aieeao a?oioiai? i?aeeeaaeee ia niaeo?aeueiee neaiae a?aeiaaea?
o aeiaaeeo ?a?no?aoe?? ethi?ianoeaioiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ?ineei.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy niaeo??a /a?aiii? ethi?ianoeaioe?? eenoe?a, yea
iaoiiaeaia ai?noii a ieo oei?io?eo, aeicaieeei aeyaeoe caeaaei?noue i?ae
eiioeaio?aoe??th oei?io?eo a eenoeao oa aaee/eiith ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
?ioaineaiinoae nioa i?e 685 ii oa 735 ii (?en. 5). Oaea caeaaei?noue
aoea iienaia e?eaie?i?eiith ooieoe??th oeio F685/F735=0,58/Oe + 0,51 c
eiao?oe??ioii ei?aeyoe?eiiai a?aeiioaiiy -0,76±0,06. ?nioaaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueii? caeaaeiino? i?ae ethi?ianoeaioiei ia?aiao?ii F685/F735
oa ai?noii oei?io?eo a eenoeao aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe e?euee?nio
ioe?ieo a?io?i?/iiai iieacieea ca aeiiiiiaith ethi?ianoeaioiiai
ia?aiao?a. A e?oa?aoo?? ia ?ioi?iaoeai? iiaeeeaino? oeueiai
niaeo?aeueiiai ia?aiao?o ii a?aeiioaiith aei ai?noo oei?io?eo a eenoeao
aoea caa?iooa oaaaa aeaui i?ci?oa (Lichtenthaler,1987).

?icoe?aiiy ae?aiaciio ?a?no?aoe?? ethi?ianoeaioe?? eenoe?a a
neiuei-caeaio iaeanoue i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ?ineei c aeao?oeeoii acioiiai
aeeaeaiiy oa aieiaicaaacia/aiino? aeicaieeei aeyaeoe ye caaaeuei?
oae ? niaoeeo?/i?, aei ae?? eiaeiiai ?c oeeo no?an?a, ci?ie niaeo??a. Ia
iniia? oeeo ?acoeueoao?a c?iaeaiee aeniiaie i?i ?ioi?iaoeai?noue
ia?aiao??a ethi?ianoeaioe?? a ae?aiacii? 400-800 ii aeey ae?aaiinoeee
no?an?a oa ?o aeeoa?aioe?aoe??.

Oaeei /eiii, e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee oi?ie niaeo?aeueieo e?eaeo
eenoe?a a?aeaeooy oa ethi?ianoeaioe?? o caeai?e oa /a?aii?e iaeano? ?
?ioi?iaoeaieie ii a?aeiioaiith aei noaio ?ineei, cie?aia ai?noo a
eenoeao oei?io?eo , a oiio iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iaea?aeaiiy
aeai?eoi?a aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo oa acioo a ieo. Aeey
aeenoaioe?eii? ioe?iee a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a a?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei
aecia/aii aei??thaaiiy a?aeiinieo niaeo?aeueieo ia?aiao??a a?aeaeooy
I2/I1 oa ethi?ianoeaioe?? F685 /F735 . Aiie ia/ooeea? aei ci?i
niaeo?aeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee a?oioo oa aaee/eie i?iaeoeaiiai iie?eooy
a?oioo ?ineeii?noth, a oiio ?o aeei?enoaiiy aoaea aoaeoeaiei aeey
aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo oa acioo a ?ineeiao i?e aeenoaioe?eiiio
ciiaeoaaii? iin?a?a ye c iiaiei oae ? iaiiaiei i?iaeoeaiei iie?eooyi.

AAeAIOAOe?ss ?IC?IAEAIEO IAOIAe?A AECIA*AIIss AI?NOO OEI?IO?EO OA ACIOO
AeI ?O AeENOAIOe?EII? ?AAE?CAOe?? CA AeIIIIIAITH IAeIII?IIAIAAI?
NIAEO?IIAO??? C AENIEEI NIAEO?AEUeIEI ?ICAe?EAIIssI

Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo niinia?a aacaeaa?aaeaoe?eiiai aecia/aiiy
oei?io?eo a nenoai? iii?oi?eiao iin?a?a aeiaaaei aaeaioaoe?? ?o aei
aeenoaioe?eieo oiia aei??thaaiiy. Aiia noinoaaeanue ye iaa?oiooaaiiy
i?aaii??iino? canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo aeai?eoi?a aei aeaieo
aeenoaioe?eieo niaeo?aeueieo aei??thaaiue oa o?aeoiaee ?acoeueoao?a
aecia/aiiy a?io?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a a iin?aao a ??ci? oace aaaaoaoe??
?ineei, oae ? ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a ia?iaee niaeo?aeueieo aeaieo, cie?aia,
aeeo/aiiy ?c ?iai/eo ae?eyiie niaeo??a caaaae, iaoiiaeaieo i?enooi?noth
a ieo nioa iiaeeiaiiy na?oea ia?aie aoiinoa?e, ye? ?a?no?othoueny
niaeo?i?aae?iiao?aie c aenieei niaeo?aeueiei ?icae?eaiiyi.

Ii??aiyiiy niaeo??a a?aeaeooy eenoe?a oa e?eaeo niaeo?aeueiiai
?iciiae?eo ?ioaineaiino? a?aeaeoiai a?ae iin?ao na?oeiaiai iioieo
aeyaeei iiae?ai?noue ?o oi?ie. Oea aoei iiyniaia oei, ui iniiaiee aeeaae
o oi?ioaaiiy niaeo?aeueiiai neaiaeo a?ae iin?ao aiinyoue eenoee. A oiio
?ic?iaeai? aeai?eoie aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo oa caaaeueiiai acioo
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ioe?iee oeeo a?io?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a ca
aeaieie aeenoaioe?eiiai ciiaeoaaiiy iin?a?a. Ieoaiiy o?aeoiaee
?acoeueoao?a aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo a iin?aao a ??ci? oace
?icaeoeo ?ineei aoee ae??oai? i?e ?icaeyae? iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy
niaeo?aeueiiai neaiaeo a?ae ?ineeiiiai iie?eao a ??ci? oace aaaaoaoe??.

I?iaeaia ca?eueiaiiy niaeo?aeueieo e?eaeo a?ae caaaae aoea ?ica’ycaia
oeyoii ?ic?iaee niaoe?aeueiiai aeai?eoio ei?aeoe?? niaeo?aeueieo e?eaeo
c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo /anoioii? o?eueo?aoe?? neaiaeo.

Aei?iaoaaiiy iaoiaeo aecia/aiiy oei?io?eo i?e iacaiiiio aeenoaioe?eiiio
niaeo?iiao?oaaii? iin?a?a ?c ??ciith aonoioith noiyiiy ?ineei, yeo
iiaeaethaaee i?i?eaeith ?ineei, iieacaei caaeia?eueio oi/i?noue eiai
aecia/aiiy o c??aeaeaieo iin?aao.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aa?iaeenoaioe?eieo aei??thaaiue ai?noo oei?io?eo a
iin?aao iceii? ioaieoe? a ??ci? oace aaaaoaoe?? (oaae. 5) iieacaa, ui ia
?aii?o oacao ?icaeoeo ?ineei aiie e?aua a?aeiia?aeaee cia/aiiyi ai?noo
oei?io?eo a eenoeao na?aaeiuei? i?iae noie an?o eenoe?a. A ianooii? oace
(aeo?ae a o?oaeo, eiein?iiy, oea?o?iiy, iiei/ia noeae?noue)
aeenoaioe?ei? aeai? aoee aeeae/? aei oaeeo o oeaaiaeo eenoeao. Ii i???
aeic??aaiiy ca?ia aaee/eie ai?noo oei?io?eo, aecia/ai? aeenoaioe?eii,
ciiao iaaeeaeaeeny aei cia/aiue na?aaeiueiai oei?io?eo.

Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui aeai? aeenoaioe?eieo aei??thaaiue
?ioaineaiinoae a?aeaeoeo a?ae iin?a?a na?oeiaeo iioie?a i?aaenoaaeythoue
niaith na?aaei? cia/aiiy a?ae noie oeo eenoe?a, a?aeaeooy na?oea a?ae
yeeo iiiaaea? a iiea ci?o niaeo?iiao?a. Ia ?aii?o oacao ?icaeoeo ?ineei,
eiee a?aenooi? cao?iaiiy eenoe?a ieaei?o y?on?a aa?oi?ie, i?aeoe/ii an?
eenoee i?eeiathoue o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? na?oeiaiai neaiaeo a?aeaeooy, a
oiio cia/aiiy oei?io?eo, aecia/aiiai aeenoaioe?eii, aeecuee? aei oaeeo
aeey na?aaeiuei? i?iae noie an?o eenoe?a. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi y?oniino? oa
cao?iaiiy eenoe?a ieaei?o eenoe?a aa?oi?ie a na?oeiaee neaiae, ui
?a?no?o?oueny, c?inoa? aeeaae inoaii?o, a oiio ?acoeueoao aecia/aiiy
oei?io?eo iaaeeaea?oueny aei aaee/ei ai?noo oei?io?eo, ye?
aecia/athoueny o?i?/ii o aa?oi?o eenoeao. O ae?oao iieiaeio aaaaoaoe??,
ii i??? noa??iiy eenoe?a, ca?eueoo?oueny aeeaae a?eueo noa?eo ieaei?o
eenoe?a.

C o?aooaaiiyi oeeo iniaeeainoae aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo a eenoeao
ca aeaieie aa?i- oa iacaiiiai aeenoaioe?eiiai ciiaeoaaiiy c
aeei?enoaiiyi ei?aeoe?? niaeo?aeueieo e?eaeo ii aeeo/aiith caaaae iaoiae
ioe?iee oei?io?eo ( oaae.5) oa caaaeueiiai acioo (oaae. 6) a eenoeao
?ineei ca aeiiiiiaith aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai niaeo?aeueiiai ia?aiao?o
a?aeaeooy a?ae iin?a?a iceii? ioaieoe? iiaeia aaaaeaoe aeineoue
aoaeoeaiei c oi/ee ci?o caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeii? oi/iino? oa
a?aeoai?thaaiino? ?acoeueoao?a aei??thaaiue ye a ae?eyii/ieo, oae ?
ae?iaie/eo iin?aao ?c ??ciei i?iaeoeaiei iie?eooyi.

Oaaeeoey 5

Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo aa?iaeenoaioe?eiei
iaoiaeii o ae?iaie/eo iin?aao ??cieo ni?o?a iceii? ioaieoe? oa o?i?/iei
a eenoeao (Ocei, Ee?anueea iaeanoue, 1992 ?.)

Ai?no oei?io?eo, ia/aei2 (Oe

? iiey Ni?o Eeno- Aeenoai- O?i?/ia aecia/aiiy

i/i

eiaee ?iaeaen oe?eia aecia/aiiy na?aaeiy i?iaa aa?oi?e eenoie na?aaeiy

i?iaa aa?oi?e

eenoie

eou?iiy

1. Aeiinueea i/e 1,42 4,72±0,21 4,92±0,04 4,35±0,22 -0,20* +0,37*

2. Ie?ii?anueea-61 1,02 4,80±0,13 4,85±0,11 4,57±0,17 -0,05* +0,23*

3. Ie?ii?anueea-61 0,99 4,47±0,25 4,59±0,20 4,25±0,08 -0,12* +0,22*

4. Eeyiea 1,45 4,65±0,29 5,02±0,25 4,88±0,13 -0,37* -0,23*

aeo?ae a o?oaeo

1. Aeiinueea i/e – 5,34±0,29 5,96±0,21 5,55±9,12 -0,62* -0,21*

2. Ie?ii?anueea-61 – 5,25±0,27 6,00±0,03 5,87±0,15 -0,75 -0,52*

3. Ie?ii?anueea-61 – 5,87±0,12 5,52±0,17 4,98±0,04 +0,89* +0,12*

4. Eeyiea – 5,43±0,17 5,96±0,11 5,75±9,14 -0,53* -0,32*

oea?o?iiy

1. Aeiinueea i/e 2,38 5,07±0,14 4,65±0,11 7,08±0,03 +0,42* -2,01

2. Ie?ii?anueea-61 2,50 5,13±0,22 4,71±0,14 6,49±0,35 +0,42* -1,36

3. Ie?ii?anueea-61 2,45 5,17±0,35 4,62±0,17 7,56±0,42 +0,56* -2,39

4. Eeyiea 3,23 5,10±0,20 4,59±0,15 7,59±0,05 +0,51* -2,49

iiei/ii-aineiaa noeae?noue ca?ia

1. Iie?nueea-87 – 3,58±0,18 3,34+0,16 3,95±0,14 +0,24* -0,37*

2. Ie?ii?anueea-61 – 3,84±0,35 3,65+0,19 4,15±0,01 +0,19* -0,31*

* ??cieoey iaaeinoia??ia

Oaaeeoey 6

Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a aecia/aiiy ai?noo caaaeueiiai acioo a ae?iaie/eo
iin?aao iceii? ioaieoe? aa?iaeenoaioe?eiei iaoiaeii oa o?i?/iei a
eenoeao a ??ci? oace aaaaoaoe??

(Ocei, Ee?anueea iaeanoue, 1990)

Acio, % a?ae aan. noo. iane

? iiey i/i Ni?o aeenoaioe?eia aecia/aiiy a iin?a? (?) eaai?aoi?ia
aecia/aiiy o oeaaiaeo eenoeao (??) ? – ??

Aeo?ae a o?oaeo (16.05.90)

1. A?eioea?e?anueea-47 3,69±0,04 4,30±0,03 -0,61*

2. Iie?nueea-87 3,87±0,23 4,95±0,02 -1,08

3. Eeyiea 3,90±0,05 4,04±0,02 -0,14*

4. Iie?nueea-87 3,93±0,02 4,54±0,01 -0,61*

5. Ie?ii?anueea-61 3,85±0,10 4,50±0,02 -0,65*

Oea?o?iiy (06.06.90)

1. A?eioea?e?anueea-47 2,87±0,18 3,71±0,03 -0,84

2. Iie?nueea-87 3,44±0,23 4,64±0,01 -1,20

3. Eeyiea 2,88±0,32 3,86±0,03 -0,98

4. Iie?nueea-87 3,29±0,27 4,48±0,01 -1,19

5. Ie?ii?anueea-61 3,23±0,18 4,48±0,03 -1,25

Ii/aoie iiei/ii-aineiai? noeaeino? (19.06.90)

1. A?eioea?e?anueea-47 2,91±0,29 3,69±0,03 -0,78

2. Iie?nueea-87 3,09±0,07 3,92±0,01 -0,83

3. Eeyiea 2,94±0,27 3,58±0,10 -0,64*

4. Aeiinueea iai?aea?. 3,28±0,04 3,72±0,04 -0,44*

5. Iie?nueea-87 2,69±0,03 3,28±0,04 -0,59*

6. Ie?ii?anueea-61 3,48±0,06 3,92±0,02 -0,44*

E?iaoeue iiei/ii-aineiai? noeaeino? (27.06.90)

1. A?eioea?e?anueea-47 2,00±0,03 2,20±0,03 -0,20*

2. Iie?nueea-87 2,64±0,03 3,23±0,02 -0,59*

3. Eeyiea 2,46±0,02 3,06±0,02 -0,60*

4. Iie?nueea-87 2,53±0,03 2,66±0,01 -0,13*

5. Ie?ii?anueea-61 3,11±0,03 3,24±0,02 -0,13*

* ??cieoey iaaeinoia??ia

AENIIAEE

Anoaiiaeai? e?euee?ni? aca?iica‘ycee i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa
caaaeueiiai acioo a eenoeao ?ineei iceii? ioaieoe? o aeaeyae? nenoaie
e?i?eieo ??aiyiue ?aa?an?e, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny a?eueieie /eaiaie a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oace ?icaeoeo ?ineei.

Cieaeaiiy ai?noo caaaeueiiai acioo a eenoeao ?ineei i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ci?ie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo oi?i oei?io?eo, cie?aia, ciaioaiiyi
e?eueeino? aeiaaioaeeueiaeo oi?i oei?io?eo a, ye? aecia/athoue oi?io
niaeo?aeueieo e?eaeo a?aeaeooy a iaeano? /a?aiiiai e?ath.

A?aeiaeaeaii iia? a?aeiini? ia?aiao?e a?aeaeooy (I2/I1) oa
ethi?ianoeaioe?? (F685/F735), /ooeea? aei ai?noo oei?io?eo a eenoeao
?ineei, ye? ? aoaeoeaieie aeey aeenoaioe?eiiai aecia/aiiy ai?noo
oei?io?eo oa acioo, iacaeaaeii a?ae aaee/eie i?iaeoeaiiai iie?eooy
iin?a?a.

Oei?io?eueiee iioaioe?ae ?ineei iceii? ioaieoe? ca iaaiee ia??iae
iioiaaiaco ? i?yiii?iii?oe?iiaeueiei aaee/ei? iaeiie/aiiai caaaeueiiai
acioo a ?ineeiao ca oeae ia??iae.

Oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy ai?noo acioo /a?ac oei?io?e ? i?aeoe/ii
iacaeaaeiith a?ae eieeaaiiy iiaiaei?o oiia ae?iuoaaiiy a iaaeao iaei???
a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ii? ciie ( a?aeiinia iioeaea ia a?eueoa 20% ).

Ca?iiaa i?iaeoeoeai?noue iceii? ioaieoe? ciaoiaeeoueny a e?i?ei?e
caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie oei?io?eueiiai ?iaeaeno ?ineei a oaco
iiei/ii-aineiai? noeaeino? ca?ia.

?a?no?aoe?y ethi?ianoeaioe?? ?ineei a ae?aiacii? 400-800 ii aeicaiey?
aeyaeoe aiaeiee oa acioiee no?ane ?ineei.

A?aeiaeaeaii niin?a ca?eueiaiiy aeenoaioe?eii aei??yieo e?eaeo
a?aeaeooy a?ae caaaae, iaoiiaeaieo iiaeeiaiiyi na?oea aacaie aoiinoa?e,
i?e aacaoaeiii?e iaeiii?iiaiaa?e niaeo?iiao??? c aenieei niaeo?aeueiei
?icae?eaiiyi.

Cae?eniaii ?ino?oiaioaeueio ?aae?caoe?th aeai?eoi?a aecia/aiiy ai?noo
oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao ?ineei o aeaeyae? ae?th/eo c?ace?a
i?eeaae?a. Iaoiaee ? aia?aoo?a i?ieoee oni?oia aei?iaoaaiiy i?e
aa?iaeenoaioe?eiiio ciiaeoaaii? ae?iaie/eo iin?a?a ainiiaea?noa
Ee?anueei?, *a?eanueei? iaeanoae (Oe?a?ia) oa E?aniiaea?nueeiai e?ath
(?in?y).

Aaaaoi??/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie i?iaeaie ca’yceo niaeo?aeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ?ineei c ia?aiao?aie ?o noaio a Oe?a?i? ?icaeiooee iiaee
iai?yiie o?c?ieia?/ii? iaoee — aeenoaioe?eia o?c?ieia?y ?ineei.

I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??

Aca?iica’ycie i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa caaaeueiiai acioo a eenoeao
?ineei ? iaoeiaith iniiaith ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a aeenoaioe?eiiai aecia/aiiy
acioiiai noaoono ?ineei ??cieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? oa
i?iaiicoaaiiy o?iaeath.

I?e aeenoaioe?eiiio ciiaeoaaii? iin?a?a iceii? ioaieoe? aac aecia/aiiy
oac aaaaoaoe?? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ca?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? aoaeoeaiei ?
ioe?iea oei?io?eueiiai iioaioe?aeo.

Aeey aeenoaioe?eii? ioe?iee aaee/eie i?iaeoeaiiai iie?eooy iin?a?a ?c
??ciei ai?noii oei?io?eo i?iiiio?oueny iiia?aaei? aecia/aiiy
inoaiiueiai ca aeiiiiiaith a?aeiiniiai niaeo?aeueiiai ia?aiao?a
a?aeaeooy I2/I1 c iine?aeoth/ei aeei?enoaiiyi caeaaeiino? i?ae
eiao?oe??ioaie niaeo?aeueii? yne?aaino? oa aaee/eiith i?iaeoeaiiai
iie?eooy aeey aecia/aiiai ai?noo oei?io?eo.

Iaoiaee ? aia?aoo?a aeey aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo oa acioo a eenoeao
?ineei ?aeiiaiaeothoueny aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? a nenoaiao iii?oi?eiao iin?a?a ??cieo ni?o?a iceii?
ioaieoe? c iaoith aeenoaioe?eii? aeni?an-ae?aaiinoeee caaacia/aiino?
?ineei acioiei aeeaeaiiyi a ??ci? oace aaaaoaoe?? a iin?aao ye c
iiaiei, oae ? iaiiaiei i?iaeoeaiei iie?eooyi oa i?iaiico o?iaeath, a
oaeiae a aeieia?? aeey oanooaaiiy ia iniia? o?oi?iaeeeaoe?? aeieia?/ii
iaaeaaiiieo/ieo neooaoe?e.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O CA ?ACOEUeOAOAIE AEEIIAIIss OAIE

Ei/oaae N.I., Eiaaoe I.E., Oaae/eia O.I. Niaeo?aeueiua naienoaa eenoueaa
eae iniiaa aeenoaioeeiiiie aeeaaiinoeee. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1990. —
132 n.

Ei/oaae N.I., Oaae/eia O.I., Eaiaaneee A.A., Oaa?aaa N.A. Eciaiaiey
io?aaeathuae niiniaiinoe eenoueaa ?anoaiee i?e iaaeinoaoi/iinoe acioiiai
ieoaiey // Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee. — 1984. — 16, N
3. — N.251-255.

Ei/oaae N.I., Oaae/eia O.I., Iaeeiieee I.N. I?iyaeaiea iaaeinoaoi/iinoe
acioiiai ieoaiey ?anoaiee ii niao?aeueiui oa?aeoa?enoeeai
oeoi?anoeaioeee eenoueaa //Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee. —
1986. — 18, N 1.- N.35-39.

Ei/oaae N.I., Oaae/eia O.I., Eiaaoe I.E., Aeieo?eaaa A.A. Naycue
niaeo?aeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoee io?aaeaiey eenoueaa n eo ninoiyieai //
Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee — 1986 -. 18, N 4. — N.
355-360.

Ei/oaae N.I., Eiaaoe I.E., Oaae/eia O.I. Oi?ia niaeo?ia io?aaeaiey
eenoueaa eae eioi?iaoeeiiiay iniiaa aeenoaioeeiiiiai aeeaaiinoe?iaaiey
ninoiyiey iinaaia // Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee. — 1987.
— 19, N 6. — N.539-544.

Ei/oaae N.I., Eiaaoe I.E., Oaae/eia O.I. Eiee/anoaaiiue aiaeec oi?iu
niaeo?aeueiuo e?eauo io?aaeaiey eenoueaa ?anoaiee eae niinia
oanoe?iaaiey eo ninoiyiey // Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee.
— 1988.- 20, N.6. — C. 535-539.

Ei/oaae N.I., Oaae/eia O.I., Eiaaoe I.E., Aeieo?eaaa A.A. Naycue
io?aaeaoaeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoee eenoueaa iceiie ioaieoeu n niaea?aeaieai a
ieo acioa e oei?ioeeea a oa/aiee aaaaoaoeee //Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey
eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee.- 1988. -20, N 6. -N.530-534.

Oaae/eia O.I., Aeieo?eaaa A.A., Ei/oaae N.I. Iaeiieaiea oei?ioeeea,
iauaai acioa e ieo?aoia a eenoueyo iao?oeia a caaeneiinoe io oneiaee
acioiiai ieoaiey e inaauaiiinoe //Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo
?anoaiee. — 1991. — 23, N 2. N.121-125.

Oaae/eia O.I., Eieeiueei I.A. Ioeaiea aeeyiey ii/au ia aaee/eio
iia?aoiinoe ii?aaeaeaiey oei?ioeeea a eenoueyo ?anoaiee i?e
eniieueciaaiee eiee/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee eo niaeo?ia io?aaeaiey //
Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee. — 1992. — 24, N1. —
N.96-100.

Oaae/eia O.I., Ei/oaae N.I. Ay?iaeenoaioeeiiiia ecia?aiea niaea?aeaiey
oei?ioeeea e acioa a iinaaao iceiie ioaieoeu // Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey
eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee. — 1992. — 24, N 2. — N.187 -191.

Oaae/eia O.I., Eieeiueei I.A. Eioi?iaoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeaoo
eiee/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia oi?iu niaeo?ia io?aaeaiey eenoueaa i?e
aeenoaioeeiiiuo enneaaeiaaieyo iinaaia //Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey
eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee. — 1993. — 25, N 2. — N. 200-204.

Shadchina T.M., Beloivan O.A. Effect of different nitrogen supply on
chloroplast pigment-protein complexes in maize //Photosynthetica. —
1993. — 28, N 3. — ?. 415-422.

Kanevski V.A., Ross J., Kochubey S.M., Shadchina T.M. Laser Remote
Sensing of Vegetation //Advances in Bioclimatology. — Berlin:
Springer-Verlag, 1994. — 3. — P. 90-124.

Oaae/eia O.I., Aeieo?eaaa A.A. Aeeyiea oneiaee au?aueaaiey iceiie
ioaieoeu ia acaeiinaycue niaea?aeaiey oei?ioeeea e iauaai acioa a
eenoueyo //Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee. — 1995. — 27, N
3. — N.146-151.

Shadchina T.M., Dmitrieva V.V. Leaf chlorophyll as a possible diagnostic
mean for the evaluation of plant nitrogen uptake from the soil //J.
Plant Nutr. — 1995. — 18, N7. — ?.1427 -1437.

Oaae/eia O.I., Eica A.E. Eneeth/aiea iiein iiaeiuaiey naaoa aacaie
aoiinoa?u ec niaeo?aeueiuo e?eauo io?aaeaiey ?anoeoaeueiinoe,
?aaeno?e?oaiuo n iiiiuueth iaeiieo/aauo niaeo?iiao?ia n aunieei
niaeo?aeueiui ?ac?aoaieai // Enneaaeiaaiea Caiee ec einiina. — 1997. —
N6. — N.11-19.

Polischuk V.P., Schadchina T.M., Kompanetz T.I., Budzanivskaya I.G.,
Boyko A.L., Sozinov A.A. Changes in reflectance spectrum characteristic
of Nicotiana debneyi plant under the influence of viral infection
//Arch. Phytopath. Pflanz. — 1997. — 31. — P.115-119.

Shadchina T.M., Dvitrieva V.V., Morgoun V.V. The interrelation between
nitrogen status of the plants, leaf chlorophyll and yield in various
winter wheat cultivars // Acta Agronomica Hungarica. — 1998.- 46, N1. —
?. 25-34.

Oaae/eia O.I. Ia?niaeoeae aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo ?iaeaen?a a?aeaeooy na?oea
a?ae eenoe?a aeey aeenoaioe?eiiai aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo a ?ineeiao
// Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee. — 1998. — 30, N 6.-
N.427-435.

Oaae/eia O.I. E aii?ino eniieueciaaiey eenoiaie aeeaaiinoeee aeey
oanoe?iaaiey iaania/aiiinoe ?anoaiee iceiie ioaieoeu acioiui ieoaieai a
nayce n ca?iiaie i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth //Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo
?anoaiee. — 1998. — 30, N6. — N.458-464.

Oaae/eia O.I. Ethi?ianoeaioi? aeanoeaino? eenoe?a ? ia?niaeoeae ?o
aeei?enoaiiy aeey aeenoaioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee noaio ?ineei // Oeceieiaey
e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee. — 1999. -N2. -N.115-122 .

Oaae/eia O.I. I?aaiecaoeey ieaiaioiiai aiia?aoa eoeo?ocu, au?auaiiie a
oneiaeyo iaaeinoaoi/iinoe acioiiai ieoaiey //Oaeoi?u n?aaeu e
i?aaiecaoeey ia?ae/iiai i?ioeanna oioineioaca. — Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia
Einoeoooa oeceieiaee ?anoaiee. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea. — 1989. — C.33-37.

Oaae/eia O.I. I aiciiaeiinoyo e ia?niaeoeaao eniieueciaaiey
ethieianoeaioiuo oa?aeoa?enoee eenoueaa ?anoaiee aeey aeeaaiinoeee eo
ninoiyiey // I?eiaiaiea iaoiaeia aeenoaioeeiiiie aeeaaiinoeee a
naeueneii oicyenoaa. — Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia Einoeoooa oeceieiaee
?anoaiee. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea. — 1989. — C.93-94.

Ei/oaae N.I., Eiaaoe I.E., Oaae/eia O.I. Iiuo e ia?niaeoeau
eniieueciaaiey niaeo?aeueiuo e?eauo io?aaeaiey iinaaia aeey aeeaaiinoeee
?acee/iuo ia?aiao?ia eo ninoiyiey. — //I?eiaiaiea iaoiaeia
aeenoaioeeiiiie aeeaaiinoeee a naeueneii oicyenoaa. — E.: Iaoeiaa
aeoiea. — 1989. — N.41-47.

Oaae/eia O.I., Aaeieaai I.A. Oanoe?iaaiea no?annia ?anoaiee ii
niaeo?aeueiui ia?aiao?ai ethieianoeaioeee // ?aaoeyoi?iua iaoaieciu a
oeceieiaee ?anoaiee e aaiaoeea. — Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia Einoeoooa
oeceieiaee ?anoaiee. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1992. — N.9-12.

Iao. 10370 Oe?a?ia, IEE G01 N 21/35. Niin?a aeenoaioe?eiiai aecia/aiiy
ai?noo oei?io?eo o eenoeao iiiieoeueoo?e ?ineei /Ei/oaae N.I., Oaae/eia
O.I. (Oe?a?ia); N 94020449; Cayaeaii 08.06.93; Iioae. 25.12.96; Athe. 4.
— 8 c.

Iao. 10578 Oe?a?ia, IEE A01 G 7/00. Aei??thaa/ acioo iieueiaee aeey
aacaeaa?aaeaoe?eiiai aecia/aiiy ai?noo acioo a ?ineeiao /Ei/oaae N.I.,
Oaae/eia O.I., Eica A.E. (Oe?a?ia); N 93007277; Cayaeaii 30.09.93;
Iioae. 25.12.96; Athe. N 4. — 4 c.

A.n. 1172486, IEE A 01 G7/00. Niinia ii?aaeaeaiey iaaeinoaoi/iinoe
iniiaiuo yeaiaioia ieia?aeueiiai ieoaiey a ?anoaieyo /Ei/oaae N.I.,
A?iaeceineee Ae.I., Oaae/eia O.I., Neooae N.E. (NNN?). — N
3320553/30-15; Cayaeaii 16.07.81; Iioae. 15.08.85; Athe. N 30.- 4 c.

A.n 1542225, IEE Niinia aeenoaioeeiiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey niaea?aeaiey
oei?ioeeea a eenoueyo iinaaia iiiieoeueoo?u ?anoaiee, ia?acothueo
niieiooue iie?ia /Ei/oaae N.I., Oaae/eia O.I. Eiaaoe I.E. (NNN?) — N
4307312; Cayaeaii 16.09.87; Iioae. 08.10. 89.- Aeey neoaeaai.
iieuec.-N80.- 8 c.

A.c. 1832906, IEE G 01 J3/42. Niinia aacaeaa?aaeaoeeiiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey
acioa a eenoueyo /Oaae/eia O.I., Ei/oaae N.I. (NNN?). N 4760541/25;
Cayaeaii 22.11.89; Iioae. 13.10.92; Athe. N4. -6 c.

Ei/oaae N.I., Oaae/eia O.I. Aiciiaeiinoe aeenoaioeeiiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey
o?iaiy iaania/aiiinoe acioii iinaaia iceiie ioaieoeu //I?iaeoeoeeiiiue
i?ioeann, aai iiaeaee?iaaiea e iieaaie eiio?ieue. Nai?iee iao/ieo
o?oaeia. — Na?aoia: IEE n/o THai-Ainoiea . — 1990.- C. 99-105.

Ei/oaae N.I., Oaae/eia O.I., ss?ioaiei A.Ae., Neooae N.E., A?iaeceineee
Ae.I. Caaeneiinoue niaeo?ia oeoi?anoeaioeee eenoueaa io iaaeinoaoi/iinoe
yeaiaioia ieoaiey a ii/aa // Aaeaioeaiua ?aaeoeee a oi?ie?iaaiee e
aeoeaiinoe oioineioaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa. — Ioueii: IOeAE. — 1980. -N.27.

Oaae/eia O.I., Ei/oaae N.I. Ethieianoeaioiue iaoiae oanoe?iaaiey
iaania/aiiinoe ?anoaiee acioiui ieoaieai /Oacenu ananithci. iao/i.
niaauaiey “Ethieianoeaioiua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey a naeueeii oicyenoaa e
ia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe” — Ieine: AI ANN? . — 1985. — N. 38.

Ei/oaae N.I., Eiaaoe I.E., Oaae/eia O.I. Ioeaiea o?iaiy acioiiai ieoaiey
iinaaia iceiie ioaieoeu aeenoaioeeiiiui iaoiaeii //Oacenu aeieeaaeia ia
OO ananithci. eii?aeei.iao/ii-iaoiaee/. niaau. “Iioeiaeueiay
aeeaaiinoeea ieoaiey n/o eoeueoo? a eioaineaiuo nenoaiao caieaaeaeey”. —
I.: . — 1987. — C.32.

Oaae/eia O.I., Eiaaoeue I.E., Neiei A.I., Ei/oaae N.I. Aeeiaiiea
aeiaaioaeeueiaeo oi?i oei?ioieo a oei?iieanoao eoeo?oaece a i?ioeanni
aaaaoaoei? //Oace aeiiiaiaeae V oe?. aiioii. c’?caeo, /ano. 2. — E.: AI
O?N?. — 1987. — C.305-306.

Oaae/eia O.I. Yeieiae/aneea aniaeoe aeenoaioeeiiiiai oanoe?iaaiey o?iaiy
niaea?aeaiey acioa a iinaaao n/o eoeueoo? //Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-i?aeo.
eiioa?aioeee i?iaaaeaiiie AI ONN? e AA IAI NA “I?iaeaiu yeieiaee e iooe
eo ?aoaiey”. -K.: ecae. AA IAI NA. -1991.- N.82-83.

Ei/oaae O.I., Oaae/eia O.I. Iiaua iaoiaeu aeenoaioeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey
?anoeoaeueiinoe //Oacenu aeieeaaea i?e iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie aunoaaea “Iioe/aneia, niaeo?iiao?e/aneia e
?aaeeiiao?e/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea aeey yeieiae/aneiai iiieoi?eiaa”.
-Ieine: AI ANN?. — 1991 — N.45-46.

Oaae/eia O.I. I?iaeaie aeenoaioe?eiiai iii?oi?eiao ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? //
Oace aeiiiaiaeae 2-ai c’icaeo Oe?. oiaa?enoaa oiciieiaia ?ineei. — Oii
2. — E.: IAI Oe?a?ie . — 1993. — C.128-129.

Oaae/eia O.I. Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ieaiaioiiai
aiia?aoa oei?iieanoia eoeo?ocu a caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy acioiiai ieoaiey
?anoaiee //Oacenu aeieeaaeia 3 nuacaea Ana?inneeneiai iau. oeceieiaia
?anoaiee. — Tii 7. — N.-Iaoa?ao?a: EAO. — 1993. — N.766.

Oaae/eia O.I., Eica A.E., Ei/oaae N.I. Aeei?enoaiiy iaeiii?iiaiaaeo
niaeo?iiao??a aenieiai niaeo?aeueiiai ?icae?eaiiy aeey aeenoaioe?eiiai
aaecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo a eenoeao ?ineei ca ?o oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
a?aeaeooy //1-e c’?cae Oe?a?inueeiai a?io?ce/iiai oiaa?enoaa. — E.:
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O.Oaa/aiei. — 1994. — N.255.

Oaae/eia O.I. Aeenoaioe?eia aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo a eenoeao ?ineei
ca aeiiiiiaith ??cieo ?iaeaen?a a?aeaeooy na?oea o aeaeeiiio ae?aiacii?
// Oace II Oe?. c’?caeo a?io?c. oiaa?enoaa 29 /a?aiy — 3 eeiiy 1998. —
Oa?e?a: Oa?uee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao. — 1998. — N.228.

Shadchina T.M. To the question on remote sensing of nitrogen supply in
the plants//Oacenu 11-ai eiia?anna oaaea?aoeee aa?iiaeneeo iauanoa
oeceieiaia ?anoaiee. — Aa?ia (Aieaa?ey). — 1998. — N.334.

Shadchina T.M. Changes in the spectral characteristics of winter wheat
leaves influenced by biotic stress //Abstr. vol. of the XII-th Intern.
Congress on Photosynthesis. — Budapest (Hungary). — 1998. — P.80.

Oaae/eia O.I. ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iniia oa iaoiae?a aeenoaioe?eiiai
iii?oi?eiao noaio iin?a?a iceii? ioaieoe? ca aeiiiiiaith niaeo?iiao??? c
aenieei niaeo?aeueiei ?icae?eaiiyi.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.12-o?c?ieia?y ?ineei. ?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei
oa aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

?iaioa i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiaeo iniia oa iaoiae?a i?aeoe/ii?
?aae?caoe?? ae?aaiinoeee caaacia/aiino? ?ineei acioiei aeeaeaiiyi, a
oaeiae i?iaiicoaaiiy o?iaeath ia iniia? niaeo?iiao??? c aenieei
niaeo?aeueiei ?icae?eaiiyi o aeaeeiiio ae?aiacii?.

Anoaiiaeai? e?euee?ni? aca?iica’ycee i?ae ai?noii oei?io?eo oa acioo a
eenoeao ?ineei iceii? ioaieoe? ?c ??ciei caaacia/aiiyi acioiei
aeeaeaiiyi o ca’yceo ?c oacith ?icaeoeo ?ineei, ni?oiaeie
iniaeeainoyie, ae??th a?ioe/ieo oa aa?ioe/ieo no?aniaeo oaeoi??a.

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea acioiiai aeeaeaiiy ?ineei ia i?aai?caoe?th
i?aiaioii? nenoaie oei?iieano?a. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? ae?? acioiiai
aeao?oeeoo ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?aieo oi?i oei?io?eo a, ye? iiyniththoue
ci?ie oi?ie niaeo?aeueieo e?eaeo a?aeaeooy ?ineei a /a?aii?e iaeano?.

Aecia/ai? /ooeea? aei ai?noo oei?io?eo a eenoeao i?ea?iaeuei? a?aeiini?
niaeo?aeuei? ia?aiao?e, ui ? e?euee?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oi?ie
niaeo?aeueieo e?eaeo a?aeaeooy oa ethi?ianoeaioe?? .

Aeine?aeaeaia ?ioi?iaoeai?noue oei?io?eueieo ?iaeaen?a aeey
i?iaiicoaaiiy ca?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ??cieo ni?o?a iceii? ioaieoe? i?e
ae?iuoaaii? ?ineei a ??cieo oiiaao caaacia/aiiy acioiei aeeaeaiiyi .

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee oa aia?aoo?a aeey aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?io?eo oa
caaaeueiiai acioo a ?ineeiao ? cae?eniaia aaeaioaoe?y aei ?o
aeenoaioe?eii? ?aae?caoe??. I?iaaaeaii aei?iaoaaiiy iaoiae?a oa
aia?aoo?e a oiiaao aa?iaeenoaioe?eiiai ciiaeoaaiiy ae?iaie/eo iin?a?a
iceii? ioaieoe? a ??ci? oace aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iceia ioaieoey, eoeo?oaeca, acioia aeeaeaiiy, oei?io?e,
acio, no?ane, ca?iiaa i?iaeoeoeai?noue, niaeo?aeuei? aeanoeaino?,
aeaeeiee ae?aiacii, aeenoaioe?eia ae?aaiinoeea.

Oaae/eia O.I. ?ac?aaioea oai?aoe/aneeo iniia e iaoiaeia
aeenoaioeeiiiiai iiieoi?eiaa ninoiyiey iinaaia iceiie ioaieoeu n
iiiiuueth niaeo?iiao?ee n aunieei niaeo?aeueiui ?ac?aoaieai.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a aeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.12-oeceieiaey ?anoaiee. Einoeooo oeceieiaee
?anoaiee e aaiaoeee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

?aaioa iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea oai?aoe/aneeo iniia e iaoiaeia i?aeoe/aneie
?aaeecaoeee aeenoaioeeiiiie aeeaaiinoeee iaania/aiiinoe ?anoaiee iceiie
ioaieoeu acioiui ieoaieai e i?iaiice?iaaiey ca?iiaie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe n
iiiiuueth niaeo?iiao?ee n aunieei ?ac?aoaieai a aeaeeiie iaeanoe.

I?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey o?iaiy iaania/aiiinoe ?anoaiee acioiui
ieoaieai ia ea/anoaaiiua e eiee/anoaaiiua ia?aiao?u oioineioaoe/aneiai
aiia?aoa ?anoaiee iooai eco/aiey ieaiaio-aaeeiauo eiiieaenia
oei?iieanoia iinea eo yeaeo?ioi?aoe/aneiai ?acaeaeaiey, a oaeaea oiieie
no?oeoo?u niaeo?ia iiaeiuaiey, oeoi?anoeaioeee e niaeo?ia aicaoaeaeaiey
oeoi?anoeaioeee oei?iieanoia eoeo?ocu, iaia?oaeeaaaioth n iiiiuueth
iaoiaea aoi?ie i?iecaiaeiie. Iieacaii, /oi aeaoeoeeo acioiiai ieoaiey
i?eaiaeeo e nouanoaaiiiio eciaiaieth niioiioaiey ioaeaeueiuo oi?i
oei?ioeeea a, iaoneiaeeaay, oai naiui, eciaiaiey aiieeooaeiuo e
/anoioii-aiieeooaeiuo oa?aeoa?enoee niaeo?ia io?aaeaiey e
ethieianoeaioeee eenoueaa ?anoaiee n ?acee/iui acioiui noaoonii.

Auyaeaiu ooieoeeiiaeueiua acaeiinayce iaaeaeo niaea?aeaieai oei?ioeeea e
iauaai acioa a eenoueyo ?aciuo ni?oia iceiie ioaieoeu a oa/aiea
aaaaoaoeee e aeaia eiee/anoaaiiay ioeaiea aeeyiey ia ieo no?anniauo
oaeoi?ia aeioe/aneie e aaeioe/aneie i?e?iaeu.

Ianoaeaeathony aii?inu aiciiaeiinoe oanoe?iaaiey /a?ac oei?ioeee ecauoea
acioiiai ieoaiey ?anoaiee, a oaeaea iaeiieaiey eie acioa.

Enneaaeiaaia naycue ca?iiaie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe n ?acee/iuie
oei?ioeeeueiuie ia?aiao?aie ?anoaiee iceiie ioaieoeu a caaeneiinoe io
o?iaiy acioiiai ieoaiey, n?ieia aianaiey oaeia?aiee a oa/aiee
aaaaoaoeee, a oaeaea ni?oiauo iniaaiiinoae iceiie ioaieoeu.

Eco/aiu eioi?iaoeaiua aiciiaeiinoe niaeo?ia io?aaeaiey e
ethieianoeaioeee eenoueaa n aunieei niaeo?aeueiui ?ac?aoaieai e
i?aaeeiaeaiu i?eaeiaeueiua ioiineoaeueiua niaeo?aeueiua ia?aiao?u,
yaeythueany eiee/anoaaiiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oi?iu niaeo?aeueiuo e?eauo,
/oanoaeoaeueiua e niaea?aeaieth oei?ioeeea. Ia eo iniiaa iieo/aiu
aeai?eoiu ii?aaeaeaiey niaea?aeaiey oei?ioeeea e iauaai acioa a
eenoueyo.

Ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia oai?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca iaoaiaoe/aneeo
au?aaeaiee niaeo?aeueiuo ia?aiao?ia e iiaeaeueiuo iiuoia ii
aa?uee?iaaieth aaee/eiu i?iaeoeaiiai iie?uoey iiaenoeeathuae iiaa?oiinoe
eenoueyie ii?aaeaeaiu iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiua ec ieo aeey
aeenoaioeeiiiiai ecia?aiey oei?ioeeea e iauaai acioa a eenoueyo ?anoaiee
iceiie ioaieoeu i?e ciiaee?iaaiee iinaaia n ?acee/iui i?iaeoeaiui
iie?uoeai.

Iainiiaaia aiciiaeiinoue ioeaiee i?iaeoeaiiai iie?uoey ii/au
?anoeoaeueiinoueth n ?acee/iui niaea?aeaieai oei?ioeeea.

Inouanoaeaia aaeaioaoeey iaoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiey niaea?aeaiey oei?ioeeea e
acioa a eenoueyo e eo aeenoaioeeiiiie ?aaeecaoeee n iiiiuueth
iaeiieo/aaie aacyoaeiiiie niaeo?iiao?ee n aunieie niaeo?aeueiie
?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoueth. I?aaeeiaeai niinia inaiaiaeaeaiey
niaeo?aeueiuo e?eauo io?aaeaiey ?anoeoaeueiinoe io i?enoonoaothueo a
?aai/ae iaeanoe iiiao, iaoneiaeaiiuo iiaeiuaieai naaoa aiaeyiui ia?ii
aoiinoa?u. ?ac?aaioaia aiia?aoo?a aeey i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee
?ac?aaioaiiuo iaoiaeia ioeaiee niaea?aeaiey oei?ioeeea e iauaai acioa a
eenoueyo iceiie ioaieoeu. I?iaaaeaiu eniuoaiey iaoiaeia e aiia?aoo?u a
oneiaeyo ay?iaeenoaioeeiiiiai ciiaee?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iinaaia
iceiie ioaieoeu a ?aciua oacu aa aaaaoaoeee ia iieyo oicyenoa Eeaaneie,
*a?eanneie iaeanoae (Oe?aeia ) e E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay (?inney).
Aiia?aoo?a e iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey niaea?aeaiey oei?ioeeea e iauaai acioa
?aeiiaiaeiaaiu aeey i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey a nenoaiao
aeenoaioeeiiiiai iiieoi?eiaa iinaaia iceiie ioaieoeu aeey aeeaaiinoeee
acioiiai noaoona ?anoaiee e i?iaiice?iaaiey o?iaeaeiinoe, a oaeaea a
yeieiaee aeey oanoe?iaaiey ia iniiaa oeoieiaeeeaoeee iaaeaaii?eyoiuo
neooaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iceiay ioaieoea, eoeo?oca, acioiia ieoaiea, oei?ioeee,
acio, no?annu, ca?iiaay i?iaeoeoeaiinoue, niaeo?aeueiua naienoaa,
aeaeeiue aeeaiacii, aeenoaioeeiiiay aeeaaiinoeea

Shadchina T.M. Elaboration of theoretical bases and methods of the
remote sensing of winter wheat crops using the high resolution
spectrometry.-Manuscript.

Thesis for Dr.Sci (Biol.) by speciality 03.00.12-Plant
Physiology.-Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The work is devoted to the elaboration of theoretical bases and the
methods of practical realization of plant nitrogen status diagnostics
and yield prognosis on the base of high resolution spectrometry in the
visible region.

The guantitative interrelations between chlorophyll and nitrogen
contents in the winter wheat leaves with different nitrogen supply have
been determined in connection with the phase vegetation, varietal
peculiarities and also with the action of biotic and abiotic stresses.

The influence of different level of nitrogen supply on organization of
the chloroplast pigment system has been investigated. It has been shown
that nitrogen deficiency changes the ratio between definite forms of
chlorophyll a that causes variations of leaf reflectance curve shape in
the region of the red edge.

Original relative spectral parameters sensitive to leaf chlorophyll
content have been revealed. Basing on the parameters the distance
methods of chlorophyll and nitrogen estimation have been elaborated.
The questions of yield prognosis on the base of leaf diagnostics have
been investigated. The results of testing the above methods and devices
developed for their realization under conditions of aerodistance
measurements of industrial winter wheat crops have been presented.

Key words: Winter wheat, maize, nitrogen nutrition, chlorophyll,
nitrogen, stresses, grain yield, spectral property, visible region,
remote sensing.

PAGE 13

PAGE 32

Похожие записи