I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Aeueiao?? Nai?? Aaaeoe?aoiai Naeao

OAeE: 678.643

?IC?IAEA OAOIIEIA?? IAeA?AEAIIss IAOOIIIE?IA?IEO

NIIE C A?Ae?IENEEUeIEIE A?OIAIE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.17.04 – Oaoiieia?y i?iaeoeo?a i?aai?/iiai neioaco

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee iaooe oa aaco
Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?aoe/ae Ieoaeei
Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? ia?a?iaee iaooe oa
aaco Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeoinueeee TH??e
A?nna??iiiae/, canooiiee aaia?aeueiiai aee?aeoi?a AAO
“AIEEOEIaooaoeiiai?oaeiaaiea”, i. Aieaia?aae;

– eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, Eiia/ Aaeeia ?aaai?aia, ?iaeaia?-o?i?e
aeine?aeiiai

aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ath?i AAO “Aaeeae”, i. Ai?eneaa.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y – Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 17 aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 1500 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.052.07 o aea?aeaaiiio Oi?aa?neoao?
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” ca aae?anith: 290646, i. Euea?a-13, ie. Na.
TH?a, 3/4 ei?i. 8, aoae. 339.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aea?aeaaiiai Oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” ca aae?anith:
Euea?a-13, aoe. I?ioani?nueea, 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 14 na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.052.07

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A.I. AEeciaanueeee

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. O?aeoe?y N9, eio?a ? iaeiei ?c iia?/ieo
i?iaeoeo?a i?ioeano i??ie?co aoaeaaiaeiaai? ne?iaeie, i?noeoue aaeeeo
e?euee?noue iaiane/aieo aeeai?ea?iiaoe/ieo aoaeaaiaei?a. Aiia
ciaoiaeeoue canoinoaaiiy ye ne?iaeia aeey iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo
niie (IIN). Oae? niiee ae?iaeythoue o i?iieneiaeo ianooaaao eiioea?iii
“I??aia” (i. Eaeoo ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaeano?) oa AI “E?IIN” (i.
Eene/ainuee Eoaainueei? iaeano?). Iaooiiie?ia?i? niiee, ui iaea?aeothoue
ia aeuaaeacaieo i?aei?e?inoaao, e??i iaiane/aieo iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a, ia
i?noyoue ?ioeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi, ui cia/ii ciaioo? iaeanoue ?o
iiaeaeueoiai i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy. O ca’yceo c oeei ia?niaeoeaiei ?
ae?iaieoeoai iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie ia iniia?
o?aeoe?? N9 i??ie?co aoaeaaiaei?a. C ?ioiai aieo, iaea?aeaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie – oea iaeei c aa??aio?a
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iia?/ieo i?iaeoeo?a, ui a iao /an aeoaea
aeooaeueii. Iaooiiie?ia?i? niiee c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie, neioaciaai?
c aeaoaai? oa aeinooiii? ne?iaeie, iiaeooue ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy ye
eiiiiiaioe iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e, ui oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny a
??ciiiai?oieo aaeocyo i?iieneiaino?.

Aeaia ?iaioa ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiaiai iai?yieo eaoaae?e
o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? ia?a?iaee iaooe oa aaco Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” “?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo iniia iaea?aeaiiy
aenieiieoaiiaeo eiiiiiaio?a iioi?ieo iaeea, iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei,
iiiiia??a c iaooiai? ? aaciai? ne?iaeie”. ?iaioa aeeth/aia a
iaoe?iiaeueio iaoeiai-oaoi?/io i?ia?aio “Iaooiia?a?iaea ? iaooio?i?y
1992-2010” (? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 01870095012).

Iaoa ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?th iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c
a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie ia iniia? o?aeoe?? N9 i??ieiiaeainaoo i??ie?co
aoaeaaiaeiaai? ne?iaeie a i?enooiino? Aciiaioaiieo, ye? iiaeia aoaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e noai?aii? eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ?
aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aeine?aeaeaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano
?i?oe?eiaaii? ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? iaiane/aieo niieoe, ui aoiaeyoue aei
neeaaeo aoaeaaiaeiaai? o?aeoe?? N9, o i?enooiino?
2,2′-aci-a?n-(5-a?ae?iene-2-iaoeeiaioaiii?o?eeo). Anoaiiaeaii
caeaaeiino? aeoiaeo e iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c
a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie a?ae oiia ?oiueiai iaea?aeaiiy. Aea/aii iniiai?
caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c
a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie, iiaeeo?eiaaieo iaea?iiaei aia?ae?eaeii, a
oaeiae i?ioeano ?i?oe?eiaaii? ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? o?aeoe?? N9 c?
noe?ieii. Ia i?aenoaa? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?iaaaeaii iaoaiaoe/ia
ii?aoethaaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeaaaeai? ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??, ui
iienothoue ci?ie aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia?aiao??a. ?ic?aoiaaii iioeiaeuei?
oiiae neioaco iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie.
Aeine?aeaeai? e?iaoe/i? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy
aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a ia iniia? io?eiaieo iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c
a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie oa aiieneaeiith niieith AAe-22. Anoaiiaeaii
iioeiaeuei? oiiae neioaco cacia/aieo aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a. Anoaiiaeaii
iniiai? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano no?oeoo?oaaiiy neioaciaaieo
aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a c aiieneaeiith niieith AAe-20 o i?enooiino?
iie?aoeeaiiie?ai?io. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue
?icoe?ththoue ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i iaooiiie?ia?i? niiee oa i?ioean
?oiueiai iaea?aeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th iaea?aeaiiy
iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie ia iniia? o?aeoe?? N9
i??ie?co aaiceio ? aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa o i?enooiino?
2,2′-aci-a?n-(5-a?ae?iene-2-iaoeeiaioaiii?o?eeo).

Neioaciaaii iaooiiie?ia?i? niiee c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie ia iniia?
o?aeoe?? N9, a oaeiae IINA, iiaeeo?eiaai? iaea?iiaei aia?ae?eaeii.
Anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e neioaco oaeeo i?iaeoeo?a.

Ia iniia? IINA oa i?iieneiai? aiieneaeii? niiee AAe-22 neioaciaai?
aeie-ni?aiie?ia?e, ui iiaeooue ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy aeey iaea?aeaiiy
caoenieo ? i?ioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoue ii iaoaeo.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a aeoeai?e o/ano? o iinoaiiaoe?
i?iaeaie, ?ic?iaoe? oa ii?aoethaaii? iaoiaeee aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ia?iaoe? iaea?aeaieo aeaieo oa oai?aoe/iiio
ia??oiooaaii? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Euea?anuee? o?i?/i? /eoaiiy” (i. Euea?a,
1997 ?.); ia eiioa?aioe?? “Advances in Plastics Technology” (i.
Eaoia?oea, Iieueua, 1997 ?.); ia V eiioa?aioe?? c aeei?enoaiiy
a?aeoiae?a (i. Etheaioe?y, Iieueua, 1998 ?.); ia I iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “Iinooi o iaooiaaciia?a?iai?e ? iaooio?i?/i?e
i?iieneiaino?” (i. Euea?a, 1998 ?.); ia 7-io neiiic?oi? c iie?ia?ieo
iaoa??ae?a (i. Uaoe?i, Iieueua, 1998 ?.); ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e
OOIA ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” (1997-1998 ?. ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a
11 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, ?c ieo 5 noaoae ? 6 oac ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
5 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (170
iaeiaioaaiue) ? aeiaeaoe?a. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? ia 147
noi??ieao, i?noyoue 22 ?enoiee ? 22 oaaeeoe?.

Ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue oa aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie,
aeeeaaeaia iaoa ?iaioe, ?? cia/ei?noue aeey iaoee ? oaoi?ee, nooue
aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo c
i?iaeai iaea?aeaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie (IIN).
?icaeyiooi iniiai? iaoiaee neioaco IIN, aeacaii ia ?oi? ia?aaaae oa
iaaeie?ee. Ia i?aenoaa? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ?icaeyiooi iniiai? iaoiaee
neioaco ie?aiia??a c e?ioeaaeie a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie, a oaeiae
niiniae ?oiueiai i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy. Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue
noai?aiiy i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie
a?oiaie. Noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo ne?iaeie, ?i?oe?aoi?a oa
?aaaaio?a, ye? canoiniaoaaeeny o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ne?iaeiith aeey iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie
a?oiaie aoei ia?aii o?aeoe?th N9 i??ieiiaeainaoo i??ie?co aaiceio (AO
“E?IIN”) oa aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa (onoaiiaea AI-250, eiioea?i “I??aia”).
Ai?no iaiane/aieo niieoe noaiiaeoue 50-65 % ian.

sse ?i?oe?aoi? i?ioeano ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? iaiane/aieo niieoe, ui
i?noyoueny o o?aeoe?? N9, canoiniaoaaee
2,2’-aci-a?n(5-a?ae?iene-2-iaoeeiaioaiii?o?ee) – (Aciiaioaiie) (ACI):

CI3 NI3

| |

II–(NI2)3–N–N=N–N–(NI2)3–II

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CN NN

Iaaaaeaii iaoiaeeee neioaco iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie
a?oiaie (IINA) oa iaoiaeeee aiae?c?a iaea?aeaieo i?iaeoeo?a.

IINA neioacoaaee i?e 333-363 E i?ioyaii 50 aiae. I?ioean aea/aee a
neeyieo oaiaoaeaaeo aiioeao, iii?uaieo o oa?iinoao. Iaea?aeaio IINA
aenaaeaeoaaee iao?ieaeiei ao??ii (o?aeoe?y 313-343 E) oa aenoooaaee i?e
353 E oa caeeoeiaiio oeneo 133-266 Ia.

Iienaii iaoiaeeee neioaco aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a ia iniia? IINA oa
aiieneaeii? niiee AAe-22. Io?eiaiiy aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a i?iaiaeeee o
o?eai?eiio ?aaeoi?? c iaoai?/iith i?oaeeith, oa?iiiao?ii, cai?ioiei
oieiaeeeueieeii. Caaaioaaeoaaee niiee AAe-22 oa IINA, ?ic/eiai? o
oieoie?. ?aaeoi? iii?uaee a oa?iinoao ? aeo?eioaaee i?e ia?ai?ooaaii?
i?e 343-353 E. sse eaoae?caoi? aeei?enoiaoaaee aiaeiee ?ic/ei AOAAO.
I?ioean neioaco o?eaa? 12 aiae. ?aaeoe?eio iano ia?aiineee a ae?eeeueio
e?eeo ? i?iieaaee iaaaeeeith e?euee?noth aeenoeeueiaaii? aiaee. I?iieoee
?ic/ei aaeooioaaee aei a?aeaiio acaio?iio oieoie-aiaea ? inaaeaeoaaee
?aaeoe?eio iano o iao?ieaeiiio ao???.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao
e?eueeino? ?i?oe?aoi?a (ACI) o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o?, a oaeiae oiia
iaea?aeaiiy IINA (oaiia?aoo?e oa /ano ie?aiia?ecaoe??).

sse iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue (?en. 1A), ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? ?i?oe?aoi?a o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? ni?e/eiy? c?inoaiiy aeoiaeo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo IINA. Aecia/aii, ui iaeneiaeueiee aeo?ae IINA
aeinyaa?oueny i?e 343 E. Oea iaoiiaeaii oei, ui ca iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?
oaeaee?noue ?iceeaaeaiiy ACI ? iaaenieith, a oie /an, ye i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao aeueo ca 343 E oaeaee?noue ?aeiia?iaoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo
?aaeeeae?a ca?eueoo?oueny, a oea ni?e/eiy? ciaioaiiy aeoiaeo IINA.

Ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo ACI o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? ni?e/eiy? c?inoaiiy
a?ae?ieneeueiiai /enea (?en. 1A) oa cieaeaiiy iieaeoey?ii? iane (?en.
1A) neioaciaaieo ie?aiia??a. ?acoeueoaoii c?inoaiiy e?eueeino?
aci?i?oe?aoi?a ? ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ia?aeiieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo
?aaeeeae?a o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o?, ui i?enei?th? ?oith ?aeiia?iaoe?th. Ca
oeeo oiia ooai?ththoueny i?iaeoeoe c iecueeith iieaeoey?iith ianith oa
aenieith ooieoe?iiaeuei?noth. I?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ni?e/eiy?
cieaeaiiy iieaeoey?ii? iane IINA, ui oaeiae ? iane?aeeii ca?eueoaiiy
eiia??iino? ?aeiia?iaoe?? ?aaeeeae?a c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie.
Iaeneiaeueia a?ae?ieneeueia /enei IINA aeinyaa?oueny i?e 343 E (?en.
1A). I?e ieae/eo oaiia?aoo?ao oaeaee?noue ?iciaaeo ACI aeinoaoiuei
iecueea. I?e oaiia?aoo?ao aeueo ca 343 E cia/ia e?euee?noue ooai?aieo
ia?aeiieo ?aaeeeae?a ?i?oe?aoi?a iae?aco anooiathoue o ?aaeoe?th
?aeiia?iaoe?? ? /a?ac oea ia i?noyoueny o neioaciaaieo IINA.

Iaiane/ai?noue iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie
ciaioo?oueny c? ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo ?i?oe?aoi?a o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o?
(?en. 1A). Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ACI o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? ni?e/eiy?
eiia??i?noue ?aeiia?iaoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeeeae?a, ui ?inoooue. I?e
oeueiio ooai?th?oueny IINA c iecueeith iaiane/ai?noth. Ciaioaiiy ai?noo
ACI i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?eaaiiy eaioethaa, ia?aaaaeii /a?ac
aeeni?iii?oe?iioaaiiy aai ia?aoiaeo eaioethaa ia ?ic/eiiee. Oiio
iaiane/ai?noue ooieoe?iiaeueieo IIN ca?eueoo?oueny. Iaeneiaeueio
iaiane/ai?noue iathoue niiee, neioaciaai? i?e 343 E. Ca oe???
oaiia?aoo?e ia noaae?? ?inoo eaioethaa aeoeaio o/anoue aa?a
aeeoeeeeiiaioaae??i. Ca ieae/eo oaiia?aoo? ?aaao?, ia?aaaaeii, noe?ie.
I?e 353 E iaiane/ai?noue cieaeo?oueny ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino?
?aeiia?iaoe?? oa, iia’ycaiiai c oeei, ciaioaiiy e?eueeino?
aeeoeeeeiiaioaae??io, yeee aa?a o/anoue o ?aaeoe?? ?inoo eaioethaa.

?en. 1. Caeaaei?noue aeoiaeo (A), iaiane/aiino? (A), iieaeoey?ii? iane
(A) oa a?ae?ieneeueiiai /enea (A) IINA ia iniia? o?aeoe?? i??ie?co
aaiceio a?ae e?eueeino? ACI o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o?.

Ca?eueoaiiy o?eaaeino? ie?aiia?ecaoe?? ni?e/eiy? c?inoaiiy aeoiaeo IINA
(?en. 2A). Aiaeii/an ca?eueoo?oueny iieaeoey?ia iana iaea?aeaiiai
ie?aiia?o (?en. 2A), i?ioa eiai a?ae?ieneeueia /enei cieaeo?oueny (?en.
2A). Oea a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ?i?oe?aoi?a
(ACI) o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? c ieeiii /ano. I?e o?eaaeiio /an?
ie?aiia?ecaoe?? a noaae?? ?inoo eaioethaa aei eiai ia?eaaiiy anoeaa?
acyoe o/anoue a?eueoa e?euee?noue ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo iaiane/aieo
iiiiia??a, ye? i?noyoueny o o?aeoe?? N9. Ooai?ththoueny niiee c aenieith
iieaeoey?iith ianith oa iecueeith ooieoe?iiaeuei?noth. Aiaeii/an c?
ciaioaiiyi e?eueeino? ACI o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? i?ioyaii /ano
ie?aiia?ecaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny c?inoaiiy iaiane/aiino? neioaciaaieo IINA
(?en. 2A).

?en. 2. Caeaaei?noue aeoiaeo (A), iaiane/aiino? (A), iieaeoey?ii? iane
(A) oa a?ae?ieneeueiiai /enea (A) IINA a?ae o?eaaeino? ie?aiia?ecaoe??.

C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo IIN aea/aany i?ioean
?i?oe?eiaaii? ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? o?aeoe?? N9 i??ie?co aaiceio c?
noe?ieii. sse ?i?oe?aoi? aeei?enoiaoaaee ACI a e?eueeino? 5,0 ian. ia
ne?iaeio. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny i?e 333, 343, 353 E. Aeo?ae IINA
c?inoaa i?e ca?eueoaii? e?eueeino? noe?ieo o ne?iaei?. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue i?e 343 E iaaaaeaii o oaae. 1.

I?e ca?eueoaii? ai?noo noe?ieo o ne?iaei? iieaeoey?ia iana IINA c?inoa?,
a a?ae?ieneeueia /enei oa iaiane/ai?noue ciaioothoueny. Oea
a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie aeoea?caoe?? noaae?? ?inoo eaioethaa o
na?aaeiaeu? c aeuei ai?noii ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo iaiane/aieo niieoe.

C iaoith iaea?aeaiiy IINA, ye? e??i a?ae?ieneeueieo a?oi oa iaiane/aieo
iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a i?noeee a aia?ae?eaei? a?oie, aea/aeany iiaeeea?noue
iiaeeo?eaoe?? IINA iaea?iiaei aia?ae?eaeii (IA).

Oaaeeoey 1

Caeaaei?noue aeoiaeo oa iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee IINA,

iaea?aeaieo ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe??th o?aeoe?? N9 c? noe?ieii,

a?ae ai?noo noe?ieo oa o?eaaeino? ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? i?e 343 E

noe?ieo o noi?o?, % ian. ie?aiia?e-caoe??, aiae. IINA,

% ian. Ii A?ae?ieneeueia /enei, ia EII/a Iaiane/a-

i?noue, %

10,0 5 11,7 400 105 3,0

10 17,6 430 100 3,8

20 24,5 510 93 5,0

30 26,0 590 86 6,2

40 27,2 650 83 7,6

50 28,1 700 80 8,9

70 29,2 750 72 10,5

25,0 5 13,8 450 73 2,9

10 21,2 500 70 3,2

20 36,0 600 65 4,3

30 38,6 650 61 5,3

40 42,3 750 57 6,5

50 45,0 830 55 7,2

70 46,1 890 48 9,0

50,0 5 22,6 590 62 2,5

10 33,4 650 57 3,0

20 52,1 730 52 3,7

30 57,0 820 47 4,5

40 60,3 900 40 5,3

50 62,0 950 35 6,0

70 63,7 1080 28 7,5

I?ei?oea: e?euee?noue ACI o noi?o? – 5 % ian.;

ne?iaeia – o?. N9 i??ieiiaeainaoo i??ie?co aaiceio.

Aieea e?eueeino? IA ia oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeeo?eiaaieo IINA iieacaii ia
?en. 3. Ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo IA o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? ni?e/eiy? c?inoaiiy
eeneioiiai /enea oa iieaeoey?ii? iane IINA. A?ae?ieneeueia /enei oa
iaiane/ai?noue IINA i?e oeueiio ciaioothoueny.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao oaiia?aoo?e oa /ano ie?aiia?ecaoe?? ia
aeo?ae oa iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeeo?eiaaieo IINA iaaaaeaii o oaae.
2.

A i?ioean? neioaco IINA ie??i oe?eueiaiai i?iaeoeoo ooai?th?oueny aaeeea
e?euee?noue a?aeaiio (48,2-84,7 % ian. ia ne?iaeio). A eiai neeaae
aoiaeyoue aoaeaaiaei? o?aeoe?? N9, ye? ia acyee o/ano? o i?ioean?
?i?oe?eiaaii? ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe??.

?en. 3. Caeaaei?noue aeoiaeo (1), iieaeoey?ii? iane )2),
a?ae?ieneeueiiai /enea (3), iaiane/aiino? (4), eeneioiiai /enea (5)
iiaeeo?eiaaieo IINA a?ae ai?noo iaea?iiaiai aia?ae?eaeo o ?aaeoe?ei?e
noi?o?.

Oaaeeoey 2

Caeaaei?noue aeoiaeo oa oa?aeoa?enoeee IINA, iiaeeo?eiaaieo iaea?iiaei
aia?ae?eaeii, a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oa o?eaaeino? ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe??

Oaiia-

?aoo?a, E *an ie?ai-

ia?ecaoe??, aiae. Aeo?ae

IINA,

% ian. Oa?aeoa?enoeea IINA

Ii A?ae?ieneeueia /enei,

ia EII/a Eeneioia

/enei,

ia EII/a Iaiane- /ai?noue,

%

333 5 13,1 710 172 12,7 6,0

10 14,2 730 165 20,0 8,8

20 15,0 770 152 30,4 12,2

30 15,7 800 134 33,7 15,6

40 16,2 850 127 41,7 18,0

50 17,1 890 115 47,4 19,4

343 5 16,6 630 192 30,2 8,7

10 16,9 660 185 35,6 11,0

20 17,4 710 171 41,7 15,4

30 18,5 750 160 50,4 18,1

40 19,8 780 148 59,5 20,8

50 21,3 820 139 68,3 22,3

353 5 15,8 460 185 41,8 4,4

10 16,2 500 178 50,2 6,3

20 16,6 570 162 64,4 9,5

30 17,0 650 150 72,8 11,7

40 17,7 700 136 80,3 13,5

50 19,3 750 127 85,0 14,0

I?ei?oea: ne?iaeia – o?aeoe?y N9 i??ie?co aaiceio; ?i?oe?aoi? – ACI (5 %
ian. ia ne?iaeio); e?euee?noue IA – 1 % ian. ia ne?iaeio.

Iaea?aeai? a?aeaiie iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe ye ?ic/eiieee o eaeioa?aia?e
i?iieneiaino?, aeania ye cai?iieee iaooiaiai nieueaaioo. Ii??aiyeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea a?aeaii?a ie?aiia?ecaoe?? oa iaooiaiai nieueaaioo
iaaaaeaia o oaae. 3.

Oaaeeoey 3

Ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea a?aeaiio

ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? oa iaooiaiai nieueaaioo

Iieaciee Nieueaaio iaooiaee

(OO 3a.001196-79) A?aea?i ie?aiia?ecaoe??

Ciai?oi?e aeaeyae I?ici?a aacaa?aia aai na?oei-aeiaoa ??aeeia
Na?oei-aeiaoa

??aeeia

Aonoeia, ea/i3, ia iaioa 855 855…895

O?aeoe?eiee neeaae, E:

i.e., ia ieae/a

95 %, ia aeua

383

468

410

465

Aoaeaaiaeiaaee neeaae, %:

aaicie

oieoie

aoeeaaicie

eneeiee

noe?ie

a-iaoeenoe?ie

aeeoeeeeiiaioaae??i

?iaeai

a?iiaoe/i? N10 oa aeua

0,38

0,95

5,47

31,46

22,05

2,72

6,50

14,06

15,61

0,2…0,3

1,4…1,8

1,8…2,6

8,6…15,9

1,1…10,2

0,2…0,6

6,1…10,4

1,5…3,3

16,4

C iaoith ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaiane/aieo niieoe, ye? i?noyoueny
o a?aeaii?, aea/aii i?ioean ?o oa?i?/ii? iie?ia?ecaoe??. Iie?ia?ecaoe?th
i?iaiaeeee i?ioyaii 6 aiaeei i?e 523 E. Aeo?ae IIN noaiiaea 12,3 % ian.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano
iaea?aeaiiy aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a ia iniia? IINA oa aiieneaeii? niiee
AAe-22. Iaea?aeaiiy aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a aea/aeiny o i?enooiino?
/aoaa?oeiieo nieae aiii?th, aeania – aaiceeo?eaoeeaiii?th oei?enoiai
(AOAAO). ?acoeueoaoii aca?iiae?? a?ae?ieneeueieo a?oi c aiieneaeieie
a?oiaie AAe-22 ? ooai?aiiy e?i?eieo iieaeoe aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie iieacaii, ui iioeiaeueiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi IINA oa
AAe-22 o ia?a?aooieo ia ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?oie oeeo i?iaeoeo?a,
noaiiaeoue 1:1. Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? eaoae?caoi?o o ?aaeoe?ei?e
noi?o? ca?eueoo? uaeaee?noue ooai?aiiy aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a (?en. 4).
I?ioa e?euee?noue AOAAO aeua ca 20 % ia aiieneaei? a?oie aaea ia aea?
aaaeaiiai aoaeoo, oiaoi oaeaee?noue ooai?aiiy aeieni?aiie?ia??a iaeaea
ia ca?eueoo?oueny. I?e ai?no? AOAAO o ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? 40 % ian. oa
o?eaaeino? ie?aiia?ecaoe?? 75 oa. eiioeaio?aoe?y aiieneaeieo a?oi
i?aeoe/ii ioeueiaa. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iniiaia iana aiieneaeieo
a?oi niiee AAe-22 ae/a?iaeanue ia ?aaeoe?th c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie.
Iioeiaeueiith eiioeaio?aoe??th eaoae?caoi?o ? 30 %. Ie??i oeueiai, ca
oe??? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ioean neioaco aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a a?aeaoaa?oueny
aeineoue aoaeoeaii ? c aenieith oaeaee?noth.

?en. 4. Caeaaei?noue ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? aiieneaeieo a?oi a?ae /ano (A)
oa e?iaoe/i? aiaii?oice (A) i?e aca?iiae?? IINA-III c aiieneaeii?
niieith AAe-22 i?e 343 E oa e?eueeino? eaoae?caoi?o: 10 (1), 20 (2), 30
(3) oa 40 (4) %.

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy –II : –NI–NI2 = 1:1

I

Aea/aii aieea oaiia?aoo?e ia i?ioean iaea?aeaiiy aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee i?e 333, 343, 353 E. sse aa/eii c ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue (?en. 5), ca?eueoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e i?enei?th? i?ioean
ooai?aiiy aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a. Iaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aeua ca 343
E aaea ? iaaoaeoeaia. Oiaoi, iioeiaeueia oaiia?aoo?a neioaco
aeie-ni?aiie?ia?o ia iniia? IINA oa AAe-22 ? 343 E.

I?ney aecia/aiiy an?o iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aoee neioaciaai?
aeie-ni?aiie?ia?e (AN-? – ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe??th o?aeoe?? N9 i??ie?co
aaiceio; AN-?? – ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe??th o?aeoe?? N9 c? noe?ieii; AN-??? –
IINA, iiaeeo?eiaai? IA).

Iaea?aeai? aeie-ni?aiie?ia?e i?iiiio?oueny canoiniaoaaoe ye eiiiiiaioe
iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e. Ia oe?e i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeoaaeeny eiiiiceoe??,
ye? i?noeee aeie-ni?aiie?ia? (AN-?, aai AN-??, aai AN-???) (25 % ian.),
aiieneaeio niieo AAe-20 (75 % ian.) oa iie?aoeeaiiie?ai?i ye
caoaa?aeithaa/. Ooai?ai? eiiiiceoe?? ? oaa?aeeie ?a/iaeiaie
aeiaoi-a?oiaoiiai eieuei?o. Aiie ooai?ththoue i?oei? ie?aee, ye? iathoue
i?aeaeuaio aaeaac?th aei iaoaeaaeo iiaa?oiiue oa neeo. Oa?aeoa?enoeee
oeeo eiiiiceoe?e iaaaaeaii o oaae. 3.

?en. 5. Caeaaei?noue ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? aiieneaeieo a?oi a?ae /ano (A)
oa e?iaoe/i? aiaii?oice (A) i?e aca?iiae?? IINA-III c AAe-22 i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 333 E (1), 343 E (2) oa 353 E (3). Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
IINA:AAe-22 – 1:1. E?euee?noue AOAAO – 30 %.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ia o?i?/io no?ee?noue (oaae. 4) aeiaaee, ui
an? eiiiiceoe?? aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a c aiieneaeiith niieith AAe-20 ?
aiaeino?eeeie, a oaeiae no?eeeie aei ae?? ?ic/ei?a eoa?a oa i?ia?aeueieo
eeneio. No?ee?noue o na?aaeiaeu? ?ic/ei?a i?aai?/ieo eeneio ?
iaiaaeaiith (eiiiiceoe?? ?icaooathoue, a?aeaoaa?oueny iia?e?iiy).

Oaaeeoey 3

Oa?aeoa?enoeea eiiiiceoe?e ia iniia? IINA oa AAe-20

Eiiiiceoe?y Oaa?ae?noue ca I-3,

a?aei. iae. Ai?no aaeue-o?aeoe??,

%

AN-I:AAe-20 0,89 88,2

AN-II:AAe-20 0,90 91,4

AN-III:AAe-20 0,92 95,6

Oaaeeoey 4

O?i?/ia no?ee?noue eiiiiceoe?e ia iniia? aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a oa AAe-20

Eiiiiceoe?y O?i?/ia no?ee?noue, aei?a

I2I 10% ?ic/ei

I2SO4 10% ?ic/ei

NaII 3% ?ic/ei

NI3NIII

AN-I:AAe-20 > 30 > 30 > 30 5, iia?e?iiy

AN-II:AAe-20 > 30 > 30 > 30 6, iia?e?iiy

AN-III:AAe-20 > 30 > 30 > 30 8, iia?e?iiy

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieythoue cai?iiiioaaoe canoinoaaiiy
iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e ia iniia? aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a oa aiieneaeii? niiee
AAe-22 ye caoeni? oa i?ioeei?ic?ei? iie?eooy.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iniiae oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
IINA (?en. 6).

Ne?iaeia (aoaeaaiaeiaaa o?aeoe?y N9 i??ieiiaeainaoo) iiiiith I1
iiaea?oueny aei ci?ooaa/a Ni1. Nthaee ae iiaea?oueny noe?ie iiiiith I2
aai iaea?iiaee aia?ae?eae. O ci?ooaa/? Ni1 a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ooaaiiy
ne?iaeie c? noe?ieii aai ?ic/eiaiiy IA o ne?iaei?. O aeiaaeeo
iaea?aeaiiy IINA ia iniia? o?aeoe?? N9 aac aeiaaaie, aeo?aeia ne?iaeia
iiiiith I1 iiaea?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei aei ?aaeoi?o ?1.

?i?oe?aoi? ACI caaaioaaeo?oueny a ci?ooaa/ Ni2. Nthaee ae ianinii I3
iiaea?oueny aoeaoii. O ci?ooaa/? Ni2 a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ic/eiaiiy ACI a
aoeaoii?.

I?aeaioiaeai? ne?iaeio oa ?ic/ei ?i?oe?aoi?a c Ni1 oa Ni2 iiiiaie,
a?aeiia?aeii I4 ? I5, iiaeathoueny aei ?aaeoi??a ?1 ? ?2. Ooo i?e
iino?eiiio ia?ai?ooaaii? ? iaa??aaii? a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean
?i?oe?eiaaii? ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe??, o ?acoeueoao? /iai ooai?th?oueny
iaooiiie?ia?ia niiea c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie. Ia?e aoeaoiio, ui
ooai?ththoueny i?e ?iai/?e oaiia?aoo?? o ?1, eiiaeainothoueny o
eiiaeainaoi??-oieiaeeeueieeo EO1, ? aoeaoii cae?a?oueny a ?ii?noue A1.
Iaaeae? aoeaoii iiaeia iai?aaeoe a Ni2 aeey i?eaiooaaiiy ?ic/eio
?i?oe?aoi?a.

I?ney cae?i/aiiy i?ioeano neioaco ?aaeoe?eio noi?o iiiiith I6 iiaeathoue
a inaaeaeoaa/ I1, iiia?aaeiuei ioieiaeeaoe o oieiaeeeueieeo O1. Nthaee
ae iiiiith I9 ?c ?iiino? A4 iiaeathoue ?ic/eiiee (iao?ieaeiee ao??
o?aeoe?? 313-343 E). Aieeathoue ia?ai?ooaaiiy ia 5-10 oa. Iio?i
a?aenoiththoue i?ioyaii 20-25 aiaeei.

I?ney ia?ai?ooaaiiy ? a?aenoithaaiiy a I1 ieaei?e i?ioa?ie (?ic/ei IINA)
iiaea?oueny ia noo?iiy N1. Ooo aeia?iaothoueny ?ic/eiiee ? aoaeaaiaei?,
ui ia anooieee o ?aaeoe?th ie?aiia?ecaoe??. Aiie eiiaeainothoueny o
eiiaeainaoi??-oieiaeeeueieeo EO3 ? iaaeoiaeyoue o ?ii?noue A2.

Aa?oi?e i?ioa?ie c I1, ui i?noeoue iniiaio iano ?ic/eiieea ?
aoaeaaiaei?a, ui ia i?i?aaaoaaee, iaaeoiaeeoue o ?ii?noue
a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai ?ic/eiieea A2. A?aei?aoeueiaaiee ?ic/eiiee c A2
iiiiith I7 iiaea?oueny ia ?aaaia?aoe?th a eieiio E1, iiia?aaeiuei
iaa??aoenue o oaieiiai?iieeo O1. Cai?e ?c eieiie E1 aeoiaeyoue ia?e
?ic/eiieea. Aiie iaaeoiaeyoue o eiiaeainaoi?-oieiaeeeueiee EO2, ca?aeee
nea?iaothoueny a ?ii?noue A3. ?ic/eiiee c A3 iiiiith I8 iiaea?oueny ia
c?ioaiiy eieiie E1, a aaeainiaa e?euee?noue eiai ioieiaeaeo?oueny a
oieiaeeeueieeo O2 ? iiaea?oueny a ?ii?noue a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai ?ic/eiieea
A4. Nthaee ae iinooia? na?aeee ?ic/eiiee, ui iiiiaith? ao?aoe ?ic/eiieea
o nenoai?.

Cieco eieiie E1 aeoiaeeoue a?aea?i (noi?o aoaeaaiaei?a, ui ia anooieee a
i?ioean ?i?oe?eiaaii? ie?aiia?ecaoe??). A?aea?i ioieiaeaeo?oueny a
oaieiiai?iieeo O1, oieiaeeeueieeo O3 ? aeaiaeeoueny c onoaiiaee. Aeey
i?aeo?eiee oaiia?aoo?e niiaeo eieiie e ooai?aiiy aeno?aeiiai iioieo
ia??a, iaiao?aeieo aeey ?aeoeo?eaoe??, i?ecia/aiee aeia?iee O2.

A?ae?aaaia?iaaiee ?ic/eiiee ?c ?iiino? A4 iiiiith I9 iiaea?oueny ciiao
ia i?ioean inaaeaeaiiy a inaaeaeoaa/ I1.

Oaeei /eiii, ?ic/eiiee oee?eoeth? ca oaeith noaiith:
A4(I9(I1(A2(I7(O1(E1(EO2(A3(O2(A4.

Aeaia onoaiiaea aeoaea aio/ea, oiaoi aeey ia?aoiaeo a?ae aeioneo iaeiiai
aeaeo IINA aei ?ioiai ia iio??aii i?yeeo i?ii?aeieo i?aeaioia/eo
iia?aoe?e. Oiio aeione IINA a ani?oeiaio? iiaeia /?oei ?aaoethaaoe
caeaaeii a?ae iiieoo ia eiie?aoio i?iaeoeoe?th.

Oaaeeoey 5

Iaoa??aeueiee aaeain ae?iaieoeoaa IINA ia iniia?

o?aeoe?? N9 i??ieiiaeainaoo i??ie?co aaiceio

Ne?iaeia oa i?iaeoeoe E?euee?noue

% ian. ia ne?iaeio O/oeeee O/aiae.

Iaae?eoei:

Ne?iaeia

?ic/ei ?i?oe?aoi?a, a o. /.:

ACI

Aoeaoii

3. ?ic/eiiee (iao?ieaeiee ao??)

100,0

10,0

5,0

5,0

500,0

30,100

3,010

1,505

1,505

150,500

5000,0

500,0

250,0

250,0

25000,0

Anueiai: 610,0 183,610 30500,0

Iaea?aeaii:

?ic/ei IINA, a o. /.:

IINA

?ic/eiiee

A?aei?aoeueiaaiee ?ic/eiiee, a o. /.:

A?aeaii

?ic/eiiee

3. Aace

22,9

15,3

7,6

582,1

89,7

492,4

5,0

6,893

4,605

2,288

175,212

27,000

148,212

1,505

1145,0

765,0

380,0

29105,0

4485,0

24620,0

250,0

Anueiai: 610,0 183,610 30500,0

Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a aeey cai?iiiiiaaiiai
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa IINA oa aea?aii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? (5
oen. oiii/??e) ?ic?aoiaaii iaoa??aeueieo aaeain i?ioeano (oaae. 5).

AENIIAEE

1. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c
a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie ia iniia? o?aeoe?? N9 i??ie?co aoaeaaiaei?a c
aeei?enoaiiyi ye ?i?oe?aoi?a ?aaeeeaeueii? iie?ia?ecaoe??
2,2′-aci-a?n(5-a?ae?iene-2-iaoeeiaioaiii?o?eeo) (ACI). ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoaeooue aeei?enoai? eiioea?iii “I??aia” (i.
Eaeoo, ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iae.) oa IAI “Ea?ao” (i. Euea?a).

2. Aea/aii aieea iniiaieo /eiiee?a ia i?ioean ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe??
iaiane/aieo niieoe, ui i?noyoueny o o?aeoe?? N9. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
iioeiaeueieie oiiaaie neioaco iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie
a?oiaie IINA ?: oaiia?aoo?a 343 E, e?euee?noue aci?i?oe?aoi?a (ACI) 5 %
ian. a?ae aeo?aeii? o?aeoe?? N9 ? /an ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? 50 aiaeei.

3. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae iaea?aeaiiy IINA ?i?oe?eiaaiith
ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe??th o?aeoe?? N9 c? noe?ieii. Iieacaii, ui aeey
iaea?aeaiiy oaeeo iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie
iioeiaeueiee ai?no noe?ieo o ne?iaeii?e noi?o? noaiiaeoue 25 % ian.
Aaaaeaiiy o aeo?aeio o?aeoe?th N9 25 % ian. noe?ieo aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe
aeo?ae IINA aei 45 % ian., i?e oeueiio iieaeoey?ia iana IINA noaiiaeoue
830, a?ae?ieneeueia /enei – 55,0 ia EII/a oa iaiane/ai?noue – 9,0 %.

4. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae iaea?aeaiiy IINA iiaeeo?eiaaieo iaea?iiaei
aia?ae?eaeii. Iieacaii, ui i?e ai?no? IA o ne?iaeii?e noi?o? 1 % ian.
iiaeia iaea?aeoaaoe IINA c aeoiaeii 21,3 % ian., iieaeoey?iith ianith
820, iaiane/ai?noth 22,3 % ? a?ae?ieneeueiei /eneii 114 ia EII/a.

5. Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoaiaoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a
aeaaaeai? ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? aeey aeoiaeo e iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee IINA ?
anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e neioaco oaeeo niie.

6. Aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean iaea?aeaiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia?
neioaciaaieo IINA oa aiieneaeii? niiee AAe-22. Iieacaii, ui a
?acoeueoao? no?oeoo?oaaiiy oaeeo eiiiiceoe?e o i?enooiino? o?eaoeeai?io
i?e 343…383 E ooai?th?oueny e?i?eia no?oeoo?a.

7. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae iaea?aeaiiy aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a ia iniia?
iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c e?ioeaaeie a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie oa
aiieneaeiith niieith AAe-22 o i?enooiino? /aoaa?oeiieo nieae aiii?th.
Aea/aii e?iaoe/i? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy oaeeo
aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iioeiaeueieie oiiaaie neioaco
aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi IINA oa
AAe-22 – 1:1, oaiia?aoo?a – 343 E.

8. Anoaiiaeaii, ui eiiiiceoe?? ia iniia? neioaciaaieo aeie-ni?aiie?ia??a
oa aiieneaeii? niiee AAe-22 iiaeooue ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy ye caoeni? oa
i?ioeei?ic?ei? iie?eooy.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o ?iaioao:

A?eieoei I.A., Aeueiao?? Nai??, A?aoe/ae I.I. Ie?aiia?e c
a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie ia iniia? ??aeeeo i?iaeoeo?a i??ie?co
aoaeaaiaei?a. // A?niee AeO “EI”. O?i?y, oaoiieia?y ?a/iaei oa ?o
canoinoaaiiy. -? 333. -1997. -N. 151-154.

Nai?? Aeueiao??, Ieaa A?eieoei, Ieoaeei A?aoe/ae. Iaooiiie?ia?i? niiee c
a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie, iiaeeo?eiaai? noe?ieii. // A?niee AeO “EI”.
O?i?y, oaoiieia?y ?a/iaei oa ?o canoinoaaiiy. -? 342. -1998. -N. 93-96.

Aeueiao?? N., A?eieoei I.A., A?aoe/ae I.I.. Iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo
niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie oa iiaeeo?eaoe?y ?o noe?ieii. //
Oe?a?inueeee o?i?/iee aeo?iae. -1998. -O. 64. -? 10. -N. 139-143.

A?aoe/ae I.I., Aeueiao?? Nai??, A?eieoei I.A.. Iaea?aeaiiy ia iniia?
o?aeoe?? N9 i??ieiiaeainaoo i??ie?co aoaeaaiaei?a iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c
a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie. // Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?a?ie. -1998. -? 11. -N.
139-141.

A?aoe/ae I.I., Aeueiao?? Nai??, A?eieoei I.A. Iaooiiie?ia?i? niiee c
a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie ia iniia? ??aeeeo i?iaeoeo?a i??ie?co
aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa // Iaooiaa ? aaciaa i?iieneia?noue. –1999. -? 3. –N.
59-60.

Aeueiao?? Nai??, A?eieoei I.A., A?aoe/ae I.I.. Neioac iaooiiie?ia?ieo
niie c e?ioeaaeie a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie. // Oace aeiiia?ae?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Euea?anuee? o?i?/i? /eoaiiy”. -Euea?a,
EAeO. -1997. -N. 45.

Bratychak M.M., Grynyshyn O.B., Chaikivskiy O.V., Orynchak S.I., Mavere
S.A. New Petroleum Resins with Functional End-Groups // Advances in
Plastics Technology. Katowice, 9-11 December 1997, Poland.

Almauri Samir, Grynyszyn O.B., Bratyczak M.M.. Otrzymywanie zywic
petrochemicznych z koncowymi grupami hidroksylowymi z produktow
ubocznych pirilizy wenglowodorow. // IV Konferencja Technogie
Bezodpadowe I Zagospodarowanie Odpadow. -Lukecin, 18-21 maja 1998.
Poland. -S. 144.

Ieaa A?eieoei, Nai?? Aeueiao??, Inoai *aee?anueeee, Ieoaeei A?aoe/ae.
??aee? i?iaeoeoe i??ie?co aoaeaaiaei?a oa oeyoe ?o aeei?enoaiiy. // Oace
aeiiia?aeae ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Iinooi a iaooiia?a?iai?e ?
iaooio?i?/i?e i?iieneiaino?”. –Euea?a, 1998. -N. 42.

Nai?? Aeueiao??, Ieaa A?eieoei, Ieoaeei A?aoe/ae. Iiaeeo?eiaai? noe?ieii
iaooiiie?ia?i? niiee c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie. // Oace aeiiia?aeae ?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Iinooi a iaooiia?a?iai?e ? iaooio?i?/i?e
i?iieneiaino?”. –Euea?a, 1998. -N. 85.

Michael Bratychak, Oleg Grynyshyn, Ostap Chaikiwskiy, Samir Almauri.
Obtaining of Petroleum Resins with Terminal Functional Groups. // 7-th
European Polymer Federation Symposium on Polymeric Materials. -Szczecin,
Poland, 1998. -P. 76.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aeueiao?? Nai?? Aaaeoe?aoiai Naeao. ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy
iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie. –?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.17.04 – oaoiieia?y i?iaeoeo?a i?aai?/iiai
neioaco. Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, Euea?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeai? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iia?/ieo
i?iaeoeo?a i?ioeano i??ie?co, a naia aoaeaaiaeiaai? o?aeoe?? N9. Aia?oa
aeaoaeueii aea/aii i?ioean ?i?oe?eiaaii? ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? iaiane/aieo
niieoe, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo o?aeoe?? N9 i??ieiiaeainaoo, c iaoith
iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie (IINA). Oe?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ie?aiia?e iaea?aeoaaee a i?enooiino?
2,2’-aci-a?n-(5-a?ae?iene-2-iaoeeiaioaiii?o?eeo) (aciiaioaiieo). Aea/aii
aieea oiia i?ioeano ia aeo?ae oa iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee IINA.
Aeine?aeaeaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? neioaco IINA, iiaeeo?eiaaieo
iaea?iiaei aia?ae?eaeii. Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo IINA oa aiieneaeii? niiee
AAe-22 neioaciaaii aeie-ni?aiie?ia?e, ye? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny
aeey noai?aiiy caoenieo oa i?ioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a. ?ic?iaeaii iniiae
oaoiieia?? oa cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeeiiao noaio i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy
iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c a?ae?ieneeueieie a?oiaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?i?oe?aoi?, ie?aiia?ecaoe?y, iaooiiie?ia?ia niiea,
a?ae?ieneeueia a?oia, aeie-ni?aiie?ia?.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aeueiao?e Naie? Aaaeoe?aoiai Naeao. ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee iieo/aiey
iaooaiieeia?iuo niie n aeae?ieneeueiuie a?oiiaie. -?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.17.04 — oaoiieiaey i?iaeoeoia i?aaie/aneiai
neioaca. Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, Eueaia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey iiai/iuo
i?iaeoeoia i?ioeanna ie?ieeca, a eiaiii oaeaaiaeiie o?aeoeee N9. Aia?aua
aeaoaeueii eco/ai i?ioeann eieoeee?iaaiiie niieeaiia?ecaoeee
iaianuuaiiuo niaaeeiaiee, eioi?ua aoiaeyo a ninoaa o?aeoeee N9
ie?ieiiaeainaoa, n oeaeueth iieo/aiey iaooaiieeia?iuo niie n
aeae?ieneeueiuie a?oiiaie (IINA). Yoe ooieoeeiiaeueiua ieeaiia?u
iieo/aee a i?enoonoaee 2,2′-aci-aen-(5-aeae?iene-2-iaoeeiaioaiiieo?eea)
(aciiaioaiiea). Eco/aiu aeeyiea oneiaee i?ioeanna ia auoiae e iniiaiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee IINA. Enneaaeiaaiu iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe neioaca IINA,
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo iaeaeiiaui aiaeae?eaeii. Ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo IINA e
yiieneaeiie niieu YAe-22 neioace?iaaiu aeie-niiieeia?u, eioi?ua iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny aeey nicaeaiey caueoiuo e aioeei??iceiiiuo iie?uoee.
?ac?aaioaiu iniiau oaoiieiaee e i?aaeeiaeaia i?eioeeieaeueiay noaia
i?ioeanna iieo/aiey iaooaiieeia?iuo niie n aeae?ieneeueiuie a?oiiaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eieoeeaoi?, ieeaiia?ecaoeey, iaooaiieeia?iay niiea,
aeae?ieneeueiay a?oiia, aeie-niiieeia?.

SUMMARY

Almawere Samer Abdulrahman Saleh. Elaboration of technology of obtaining
the petroleum resins with hydroxyl groups. -Manuscript

A thesis for Ph.D. award on speciality 05.17.04 – technology of organic
products synthesis. Lvivska Polytechnica State University/

The thesis is concerned with the problem of pyrolysis by-products
(namely fraction C9) rational utilization.

A number of unsaturated compounds are contained in hydrocarbons C9,
which are able to interact into polymerization or oligomerization
process.

Petroleum resins with hydroxyl groups (PRH) have been synthesized by
initiated oligomerization of above-mentioned compounds in the presence
of 2,2’-azo-bis[5-hydroxy-2-methyl-pentanonitril] [Azopentanole].
Influence of the main factors upon yield and characteristics of PRH has
been studied. Synthesized petroleum resins with hydroxyl groups are
represented by themselves the light-brown solids with number average
molecular mass 290-780, hydroxyl number 24-212,5 mg KOH/g and
unsaturatity 4-56,2 %. The characteristic depends upon synthesis
conditions. Optimal content of Azopentanole in reactive mix was 5,0 %
mass. Yield of PRH attains up to 27,3 % mass. at oligomerization time 50
hours and temperature 343 K.

With the aim of increasing the yield and obtaining the qualitatively new
PRH, the oligomerization process of fraction C9 with styrene has been
studied. It has been drawn that styrene content in mixture equal to 25 %
permits top increase the yield of PRH up to 52 % mass.

The modification process of PRH with maleic anhydride was studied.
Cyclic anhydride groups are contained in molecule structure of modified
resins besides the hydroxyl groups. In this case we obtain PRH with new
valuable properties.

Synthesized petroleum resins with hydroxyl groups have been used for
formation of block-copolymers with industrial epoxy resin ED-22. The
optimal ratio of PRH:ED-22 is equal to 1:1. The obtaining of
block-copolymers has been carried out in the presence of catalyst,
namely benzene triethylammonium chloride (BTEACh) by quantity of 30 %
mass. per functional groups. Temperature 343 K and time 12 hours are
optimal conditions for the synthesis of such block-copolymers.
Synthesized block-copolymers are represented by themselves the dark
brown solids with number average molecular mass 3600-4340, unsaturatity
3,3-8,2 %, epoxy number 0,38-0,85 % and hydroxyl number 1,49-2,21 mg
KOH/g.

Block-copolymers on the basis of petroleum resins with hydroxyl groups
can be applied as components of protective coatings. It has been
determined that coatings on the basis of synthesized block-copolymers
are steadfast in the medium of non-organic acids and bases and also
temperately steady in the medium of organic acids.

Conclusions have been drawn on the basis of carried out investigations
and the main principles of technology of obtaining the petroleum resins
with hydroxyl groups have been elaborated. Principal technological
scheme of petroleum resins with hydroxyl groups has been proposed. The
material balance was calculated.

Key words: initiator, oligomerization, petroleum resin, hydroxyl group,
block-copolymer.

EO1 Aace EO2

IA ACI

A1 A3

a.i. Aoeaoii

Ni1 Ni2 ?1

?2 I1 E1 I8

Aiaea A?aeaii O1 O2

O3

I4 I5 O2 Na?aeee

?ic/eiiee

O?. N9 Noe?ie Aoeaoii O1

A2 A4

I1 I2 I3 I6 I9 IINA

I7 EO3

N1

?en. 6. I?eioeeiiaa oaoiieia?/ia noaia onoaiiaee ae?iaieoeoaa IINA.

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